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Virtue Ethics

❖ It is the ethical ❖ is currently one of three

framework major approaches in
that is ❖ It focuses on normative ethics. It may,
concerned the formation initially, be identified as
with of one’s the one that emphasizes
understanding character the virtues, or moral
character, in contrast to
the good as a brought about
the approach that
matter of by determining emphasizes duties or
developing the and doing rules (deontology) or
virtuous virtuous acts. that emphasizes the
character of a consequences of actions
person. (consequentialism).
He was born in Macedonia and
studied philosophy under Plato in Athens.
He founded his own school, Lyceum, where
he became a very productive intellectual,
having written numerous works.
Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics
is his major work in moral philosophy.
❖ It is the first comprehensive and
programmatic study of virtue ethics.
❖ It is a philosophical inquiry into the
nature of the good life for a human
❖ the real is found within our everyday
encounter with objects in the world.
The truth and the good cannot exist
apart from the object and are not
independent of our experience.
❖positive character traits that
regulate emotions and urges
❖It is just the right amount. The
sweet spot between the
extreme of EXCESS and the
extreme of DEFICIENCY.
Vices – are negative Virtue theory is the view that the
character traits that we
foundation of morality is the
develop in response to the
same emotions and urges development of good character traits, or

Character - A character refers to

Euidaimonia – A life well lived. Human
a set of morals and beliefs that
flourishing. It is a life of striving, pushing
defines how we treat or behave
with others and ourselves.
yourself to your limits, and finding
Aristotle is aware that
Aristotle begins his discussion of
one does an act not only to
ethics by showing that every act that a person
does is directed toward a particular purpose, achieve a particular purpose
aim, or what the Greeks called telos. There is a but also believes such purpose
purpose why one does something, and for can be utilized for a higher goal
Aristotle, a person's action manifests a good or activity, which the can be
that she aspires for. Every pursuit of a person used to achieve an even higher
hopes to achieve a good. Therefore, for purpose and so on. In other
Aristotle, the good is considered to be the words, the different goods that
telos or purpose for which all acts seek to one pursues form a hierarchy of
teloi (plural form of telos).
It is important for Aristotle that one
becomes clear of the hierarchy of goals that the
different acts produce in order for a person to
distinguish which actions are higher that the

With the condition that there is a

hierarchy of telos, Aristotle the asks about
highest purpose, which is the ultimate good of
a human being.
❖ First: The highest good of a person must be final.
As a final end, it is no longer utilized for the sake
of arriving at a much higher end.

❖ Second: the ultimate telos of a person must be

self-sufficient. Satisfaction in life is arrived at once
this highest good is attained. Nothing else is
sought after and desired, once this self-sufficient
goal is achieved, since this is already considered
as the best possible good in life.
For Aristotle, the question can only be adequately answered by older
individuals because they have gone through enormous and challenging life
experiences which helped them gain a weight of knowledge on what the
ultimate purpose of a person is. According to Aristotle, older individuals
would agree that the highest purpose and the ultimate good of a man is
happiness, or for the Greeks, eudaimonia.
❖ No amount of wealth or power can be more fulfilling than
having achieved the condition of happiness. The true
measure of well-being for Aristotle is not by means of
richness or fame but by the condition of having attained a
happy life.

❖ Aristotle shows that one can arrive at the ultimate good by

doing one's function well.
How does a person
arrive at her highest
For Aristotle, what defines human beings
is her function or activity of reasons. This
function makes her different from the rest of
A person's action to be considered as truly human must
be an act that is always in accordance to reason. The function of
a human being is to act following the dictates of her reason. Any
person for that matter utilizes her reason but Aristotle further
says that a person cannot only person her function but she can
perform it well.
The local saying "Madaling maging tao,
mahirap magpakatao" can be understood
in the light of Aristotle's thoughts on the
function of a good person.
❖ "For one swallow does not
❖Virtue or arete make a summer, nor does
- excellent way one day; and so too one
of doing things day, or a short time, does
not make a man blessed
and happy" -Aristotle
"That excellence is an activity of the
human soul and therefore, one needs to
understand very structure of a person's
soul which must be directed by her rational
activity in an excellent way."
❖ Vegetative Aspects - giving nutrition and
providing the activity of physical growth in
❖ Appetitive Aspects - desiring faculty of a man

❖ Moral- concerns the act

- the man
exercises of doing.
excellence in ❖ Intellectual- concerns the
act of knowing.
❖ attained through teaching

❖ one learns and gain wisdom

by being taught or by learning
Philosophy Practical
Wisdom Wisdom
It helps one Excellence in
understand in knowing in the
general the right conduct in
meaning of life. carrying out a
particular act.
Morally Virtuous Life: one needs the intellectual guide of
practical wisdom in steering the self toward the right
choices and actions

Morally Good Person: has to achieve the intellectual virtue

of practical wisdom to perform the task of being moral

Moral Goodness: knowing the good implies the ability to

perform morally virtuous acts
“Having intellectual
“Moral goodness is excellence does not
already within the real necessarily mean that
of intellectual one already has the
excellence” capacity to doing the
“Morally virtuous man
“Moral virtue is is someone who
attained by means of habitually determines
habit” the good and does the
right actions”
makes perfect
❖same with the
Morally Good: is a moral value
process of getting ❖being
used to doing the consistent
proper act ❖You can be
because of
your character
As stated by Aristotle, developing a practical
wisdom involves learning from experiences. In
attaining practical wisdom, he may initially make
mistakes on how reason is applied to a particular
moral choice of action.

Mesotes determines whether the

act applied is not excessive or
❖ Moral value is a state ❖ Aristotle clarifies further
of character that not all feelings,
concerned with ❖ The rational passions, and actions
choice, lying in a faculty that have a middle point.
mean, that is, the serves as a
mean is relative to us, guide for the
this being determined proper
by a rational identification ❖ One can always be
principle, by that of the middle excessive in her action
principle by which the is practical but an act that is
wisdom. virtuous cannot go
man of practical
beyond the middle.
wisdom would
determine it.
❖ Madrazo, Kiernel R.
❖ Rico, Sheena
❖ Defeo, Belle V.
❖ Ababon, Erica
❖ Villones, Coolene
❖ Arriane Orcullo
❖ Molina, Ronamae
❖ Alleje, Charlene
❖ Alano, Janelle
❖ Caibigan, Roselle