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Verband der

Automobilindustrie

Quality management
in the automotive industry

QM system audit Part 1

Based on DIN EN ISO 9001 and DIN EN ISO 9004, Part 1

4th Revised Edition, 2nd Printing 2003

1
QM system audit

Based on DIN EN ISO 9001 and DIN EN ISO 9004, Part 1

4th Revised Edition, 2nd Printing 2003

Verband der Automobilindustrie e.V. (VDA)


Non-binding VDA Standard recommendation
The Association of the German Automotive Industry (VDA) recommends its
members to apply the following standard for the implementation and main-
tenance of quality management systems.

Exclusion of Liability

VDA volumes are recommendations available for general use. Anyone ap-
plying them is responsible for ensuring that they are used correctly in each
case.

This VDA volume takes into account state of the art technology, current at
the time of issue. Implementation of VDA recommendations relieves no one
of responsibility for their own actions. In this respect everyone acts at their
own risk. The VDA and those involved in VDA recommendations shall bear
no liability.

If during the use of VDA recommendations, errors or the possibility of mis-


interpretation are found, it is requested that these be notified to the VDA
immediately so that any possible faults can be corrected.

Referenced standards

The quotations from standards identified with their DIN number and issue
date are reproduced with the permission of the DIN Deutsches Institut für
Normung e.V.
The version with the latest issue date, available from the publishers Beuth
Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, is definitive for the use of the standard.

Copyright

This publication including all its parts is protected by copyright. Any use
outside the strict limits of copyright law, is not permissible without the con-
sent of VDA-QMC and is liable to prosecution. This applies in particular to
copying, translation, microfilming and the storing or processing in electronic
systems.

Translations

This publication will also be issued in other languages. The current status
must be requested from VDA-QMC.

3
ISSN 0943-9412

Copyright 2000 by

Verband der Automobilindustrie e. V. (VDA)


Quality Management Center (QMC)
D-61440 Oberursel, An den Drei Hasen 31

www.vda-qmc.de

Printed and published by:


Druckerei Henrich GmbH
D-60528 Frankfurt am Main, Schwanheimer Str. 110

Printed on chlorine-free bleached paper

4
Foreword to the 4th Edition

Quality assurance has a new dimension today - it covers and integrates all
divisions of the organization in its vertical and horizontal structures (cross-
sectional function).

Quality assurance has become an interdisciplinary key function (coopera-


tion of all involved divisions at the right time) and therefore has a decisive
influence on the organization's result.

Shorter model cycles and development times, greater international competi-


tion and increasing cost pressure, new organizational forms (just in time),
greater expectations placed on products and stricter product liability all de-
mand highly effective quality assurance systems (quality management sys-
tems) in all areas of the automotive industry among automotive manufac-
turers as well as their suppliers. In order to do justice to this development, a
working circle of the VDA/DGQ specialist group "Quality Control in the
Automotive Industry" has drawn up a questionnaire on quality management
system evaluation based on DIN EN ISO 9004 (Edition 5/90) which was
published with the first edition in 1991.

VDA Volume 6 very quickly received a good response both within and out-
side the automotive sector and on an international level. Practical experi-
ence has shown that this publication is not only suitable for the preparation
of internal audits, but also represents an excellent aid to preparation for cer-
tification.

The practical experience of auditors led to the volume being revised and
defined in more precise terms as a second edition (12/92). Thus, simplified
operation and a uniform assessment method were achieved.

The new edition of the standard series DIN EN ISO 9000 (Edition 8/94)
made revision of the second edition necessary.

The 3rd Edition also includes requirements from the guidelines EAQF/94
(France) and QS-9000/95 (America). This allows comparison of the audit
results. Furthermore, certification notes were incorporated.

5
In the 4th Edition further corrections and up-dates were included. Comments
from the users and the auditor’s symposia were considered (see Para. 12.1).

The element Z1, so far only required for organizations with international
business activities, now has to be considered generally during audits/certifi-
cation.

In order to make the decision on the issuance of a VDA 6.1 certificate sup-
plement even more definite certain questions which are particularly impor-
tant for product and process and for which noncompliance could lead to the
failure of the quality management system have been specially identified.
These questions lead to determined consequences during the overall
evaluation, see Para. 3.3.3. and 3.3.4.

DIN EN ISO 9001 (Edition 8/94) was used as the basis for the Quality man-
agement system audit which describes a comprehensive system of indus-
trial quality management with its elements. Questions were formulated from
the requirements profile of this standard relating to the explanation of a
quality management system, together with specific requirements from DIN
EN ISO 9004 (Edition 8/94) and supplemented with the practical experience
of the automotive industry. In contrast to the standard which treats the
same subject matter partially in various places and varying depth the ques-
tionnaire in this publication normally contains the subject matter only once
in order to, as far as possible, avoid the repetitions contained in the stan-
dard.

The 4th Edition 2003 is identical in content to the 2000 edition but with up-
dated references and terminology according to ISO9001:2000.

Quality and quality management problems are predominantly not of a


purely technical nature, but often related to management, organization and
structure. The questionnaire is therefore divided into the following two parts:

- M Management of the organization


- P Product and Process.

Since the organization management and the lower management levels


have a decisive influence on the definition, implementation and monitoring
of quality assurance, its incorporation is the fundamental requirement of the
standard. This is expressed in the structure of the questionnaire and is
taken into account in the questions accordingly. The questions are there-
fore to be answered by the person responsible for the particular division of
the organization.

6
This VDA Volume represents a supplement to those volumes already pub-
lished and serves the evaluation of quality management systems under
comparable conditions. It is intended to help identify weaknesses, to rem-
edy them through corrective actions and thereby continually improve the
organization's productivity.

The aim of this work is to unify the necessary audits in order to reduce the
workload for the auditor as well as for those to be audited. Vehicle manu-
facturers and suppliers agree to mutually recognize, as far as possible, au-
dits carried out on the basis of this uniform questionnaire and evaluation
system for rationalization reasons. Recognition of the system-related audit
allows concentration on more specific product- and process-related audits.

The Quality Standard of the German Automotive Industry encompasses fur-


ther types of audit, which are described in the following VDA volumes.

QUALITY STANDARD
OF THE GERMAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY (VDA 6)

VDA 6 VDA 6 QM system audit VDA 6 QM system audit


Part 1 Part 2 Services

Quality audit funda- VDA 6


mentals Part 3 Process audit

VDA 6 QM system audit


Part 4 Production equipment

Certification require- VDA 6


ments Part 5 Product audit

7
Our thanks go to the following companies, in particular to the employees in-
volved, for their participation in the preparation of this document:

- Audi AG, Ingolstadt


- Adam Opel AG, Rüsselsheim
- BMW AG, Munich
- BOGE GmbH, Eitorf
- Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart
- DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart
- DNV (Det Norske Veritas Zertifizierung GmbH, Essen
- DQS (Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Zertifizierung von Qualitätssi-
cherungssystemen mbH), Frankfurt, Berlin
- Edscha Gruppe, Remscheid
- FORD-Werke AG, Cologne
- General Motors Europe, Zurich
- GLYCO-Metall-Werke, GLYCO B.V. & Co. KG, Wiesbaden
- Happich Fahrzeug und Industrieteile GmbH, Wuppertal
- Hella KG, Hueck & Co., Lippstadt
- ITT Automotive Europe GmbH, Frankfurt
- Keiper Recaro GmbH & Co., Remscheid
- Lemförder AG & Co., Fahrwerktechnik Lemförde
- Mahle GmbH, Stuttgart
- Mannesmann Sachs AG, Schweinfurt
- Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Babenhausen
- Pierburg AG, Neuss
- Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Stuttgart
- Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Würzburg
- SKF GmbH, Schweinfurt
- Teroson GmbH, Heidelberg
- TRW Fahrwerkssysteme GmbH & Co. KG, Düsseldorf
- WABCO Standard GmbH, UB Fahrzeugbremsen, Hannover
- Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg
- YMOS AG, Obertshausen.

Thanks are also due to all who have provided suggestions for improvement
as well as those organizations represented in the editorial circle.

Frankfurt/Main, February 2003

VERBAND DER AUTOMOBILINDUSTRIE E. V. (VDA)

8
Contents Page

1 Introduction 13

2 Quality management system according to the


DIN EN ISO 9000 Series 15
2.1 Explanations to DIN EN ISO 9004 (Edition 8/94)
Quality Management and Quality System Elements,
Part 1: Guideline 15
2.2 Quality Assurance Model (according to the introduction to DIN
EN ISO 9001) 16

3 Quality Management System Audit 18


3.1 General 18
3.2 Selection of the Quality Elements and Relevant Questions 19
3.3 Evaluation and Rating 20
3.3.1 Individual Rating of Questions and Quality Elements 20
3.3.2 Overall Rating of Audit Result 22
3.3.3 Grading for Customer/Supplier Audits (2nd Party) 23
3.3.4 Awarding of the VDA 6.1 Certificate Supplement (3rd Party): 24
3.4 Summary of Results 25
3.5 Close out Meeting and Report 25
3.6 Corrective Actions 25
3.7 VDA 6.1 Certificate 25

4 Terms and Definitions 27


4.1 Terms relating to quality according to ISO 9000:2000 (extract) 27
#3.1.2 Requirement 27
4.2 Terms relating to management according to ISO 9000:2000
(extract) 27
#3.2.3 Quality management system 27
#3.2.4 Quality policy 27
#3.2.8 Quality management 28
4.3 Terms relating to organization according to ISO 9000:2000
(extract) 28
#3.3.1 Organization 28
#3.3.2 Organizational structure 28
#3.3.5 Customer 29
#3.3.6 Supplier 29

9
4.4 Terms relating to process and product according to ISO
9000:2000 (extract) 29
#3.4.1 Process 29
#3.4.2 Product 30
#3.4.5 Procedure 30
4.5 Terms relating to conformity according to ISO 9000:2000 (extract)
31
#3.6.5 Corrective action 31
4.6 Terms relating to documentation according to ISO 9000:2000
(extract) 31
#3.7.4 Quality manual 31
4.7 Terms relating to examination according to ISO 9000:2000
(extract) 31
#3.8.1 Objective evidence 31
#3.8.2 Inspection 32
#3.8.4 Verification 32
#3.8.5 Validation 32
4.8 Terms relating to audit according to ISO 9000:2000 (extract) 32
#3.9.1 Audit 32
#3.9.5 Audit findings 33
4.9 Additional Terms (Definitions for the present volume) 33
4.9.1 System 33
4.9.2 Method 33
4.9.3 Serial Production 33
4.9.4 Quality Management (QM) Procedures 33
4.9.5 Work Instructions (Test and Inspection Instructions) 34
4.9.6 Unit 34
4.9.7 Service 34

5 Cross-reference List of Paragraph Numbers for


Corresponding Subjects (according to DIN EN ISO 9000-1,
Appendix D, 1994-08), supplemented by ISO 9001:2000* 35

6 Structure and Number of Questions per Quality Element 37

10
7 Quality Management System Audit Questionnaire 39
01 Management Responsibility 40
02 Quality management system 48
03 Internal Quality Audits 58
04 Training 63
05 Financial Considerations regarding Quality Management
Systems 71
06 Product Safety 75
Z1 Corporate Strategy 81
07 Contract Review, Quality in Marketing 87
08 Design Control, (Product Design and Development) 93
09 Process Planning (Process Development) 101
10 Document and Data Control 111
11 Purchasing 117
12 Control of Customer-Supplied Product 125
13 Product Identification and Traceability
(Process Control, Inspection and Test Status) 129
14 Process Control 137
15 Inspection and Testing (Product Verification) 147
16 Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment 153
17 Control of Nonconforming Product 159
18 Corrective and Preventive Action 163
19 Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery 169
20 Control of Quality Records 175
21 Servicing, (After Sales, Post-production Activities) 181
22 Statistical Methods 187

8 Forms for the Quality Management System Audit


- tangible products - 191

9 Literature 199
9.1 VDA-Series "Quality Management in the Automotive Industry": 199

10 Agreement with Industrial Associations 203


10.1 Introduction 203
10.2 Summary of the National Associations 203
10.3 International Agreement on Mutual Recognition 204

11 Notes on a Certification according to VDA 6.1 206

11
12 Appendix 207
12.1 Changes of the 4th Edition compared to the 3rd Edition 207
12.2 Comparison Tables 210
12.2.1 Comparison Matrix VDA 6.1 / DIN EN ISO 9001 210
a) DIN EN ISO 9001:1994 210
b) ISO 9001:2000 214
12.2.2 Comparison Matrix DIN EN ISO 9004 / VDA 6.1 218
a) 9001:1994 218
b) DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 221

Other VDA-FORMS 224

12
1 Introduction

Quality management* is an interdisciplinary key function. The quality of pro-


ducts and services is always the combined result of activities in every
phase of the total business process. Effective quality management assigns
priority to planning and prevention activities for identification of interrela-
tions and interdependencies, as well as for appropriate measures to pre-
vent nonconformities occurring - in contrast to the previous practices of
identifying, analyzing and rectifying nonconformities which have already oc-
curred.

A well-functioning quality management system* described in a quality man-


ual,* is an essential requirement for every business in order to fulfil the de-
mands for quality deliveries and services in a proactive and economic way.
Quality management affects all areas of the business. It is therefore a pri-
mary function of business management.

Management must prove that due diligence has been shown in all areas of
the business, from planning to design, procurement, production, sales and
user information through to the observation of a product's market position.
This applies especially in the event of a claim for damages.

It is not only sensible, but essential that all quality management activities be
planned, implemented and combined in a quality management system.
Only a well planned and purposefully selected quality management system
gives business partners, authorities and, increasingly, insurers confidence
in the business's ability to comply with quality requirements.

The original understanding of quality, mainly shaped by the product, and


the associated duties of quality management have changed in recent years
and include new additional content and dimensions.

The main duties of management are, therefore:

- Definition of the quality policy, agreeing and monitoring quality


objectives
- Assuring cross-functional activities and interfaces during inter-
disciplinary co-operation

*
Note: The terms "Quality Management“, "Quality System" and "Quality Manual", according to
DIN EN ISO 8402 replace the earlier used terms "Quality Assurance“, "Quality Assur-
ance System" and "Quality Assurance Manual".

13
- Definition and monitoring of quality-related costs
- Consideration of product safety and product liability
- Involving all employees in the responsibility for quality

These duties are covered in part M of the questionnaire with respect to the
quality management system.

As operations and the interrelations of systems and processes become


more extensive and complex, cross-functional activities gain in importance.
Here, many resources are available, which have a great influence on pro-
ductivity, overall economic performance and quality.

The product- and process-related elements are covered in part P of the


questionnaire with respect to the quality management system.

Through the evaluation of the quality management system with the help of
the questionnaire, the customer is given a general view of the supplier's
ability to deliver products and services which meet his quality requirements.

The purpose of this volume is to define an agreed general procedure for the
uniform evaluation of a defined quality management system. In this way,
the workload required for further quality management system audits, for ex-
ample, by other customers, can be reduced.

The result of the evaluation shall show the audited organization where its
quality management system meets the requirements and in which elements
improvements are necessary.

The audit result is signed by the auditor and the audited organization. The
audited organization confirms with its signature that the identified result has
been discussed with him. He is free to provide his own response.
Information acquired during the performance of the audit is, other than for
the use of the audit itself, to be handled confidentially.
Following written release by the auditing organization, or respectively, the
certification body, in the appropriate field of the coversheet of the quality
management system audit, the audited organization is free to present the
audit result to other customers.
This VDA Volume 6, Part 1 is the basis for internal quality manage-
ment system audits (1st Party), customer/supplier audits (2nd Party)
and for audits with VDA 6.1 Certificate Supplement through VDA ap-
proved certification bodies (3rd Party).

14
2 Quality management system according to the
DIN EN ISO 9000 Series

The DIN EN ISO 9000 series is applied as a standard in the European Un-
ion (EU) and EFTA. The German edition is identical in Austria, Germany
and Switzerland.

When delivering in accordance with the regulations of the EU it is compul-


sory to comply with the contents of the EN standard in order to guarantee
free movement of goods under the same conditions. This also applies to
the contents of the European Standard on quality management. Their com-
pliance is therefore to be proven upon request.

2.1 Explanations to DIN EN ISO 9004 (Edition 8/94)


Quality Management and Quality System Elements,
Part 1: Guideline

This standard is an internationally agreed guideline in which the elements


of a quality management system (quality elements) are described. It repre-
sents a further development of formerly known national and branch-specific
regulations with the express objective of showing, descriptively and clearly,
which quality elements may nowadays be included in a quality manage-
ment system corresponding to the "State of the Art".

In addition, it describes the obligations of the business with respect to qual-


ity management, in fulfillment of which the critical preconditions for achiev-
ing quality capability within the organization should be created.

Users of this standard are enabled to select from the presented basis of
elements according to extent, depth and overall requirements of the busi-
ness in order to be able to completely fulfill the tasks of their own organiza-
tion-specific quality management system.

The scope of application is not limited. The standard is to be viewed as a


universal set of regulations for quality management to achieve the quality of
products and services. It can be assumed that branch-specific quality regu-
lations will thereby be replaced. In the meantime, this standard has gained
a fundamental significance.

15
2.2 Quality Assurance Model
(according to the introduction to DIN EN ISO 9001)

The scope and depth of the quality management system may depend on
the type of products to be supplied, the applied technology and the size of
the evaluated organization.

The following paragraphs are taken from the national foreword and the in-
troduction of DIN EN ISO 9001: 1994-08. There it is appropriately stated:

Gaining confidence in the supplier’s ability to fulfill the defined


minimum requirements on his quality system is nowadays be-
coming more and more a precondition throughout the world for
cooperation between the customer and his supplier. This con-
fidence can be built up by presenting the quality system to the
customer or an authorized body. All systematic and confidence-
building activities planned within the scope of this are designated
by DIN EN ISO 8402 as quality assurance or quality management
systems (or quality systems).
The standards DIN EN ISO 9001, DIN EN ISO 9002 and DIN EN
ISO 9003 each contain a quality assurance model. Only these
three standards of the DIN EN ISO 9000 series are intended for
demonstration purposes. They show a way to create confidence
in the capability of a supplier.
It has to be emphasized that the quality system requirements
specified in the International Standards ISO 9001, ISO 9002 and
ISO 9003 are a supplement (not an alternative) to the established
quality requirements (on products1)).
It is intended that these International Standards are applied in
their present form. However, occasionally they may need to be
tailored for special contractual situations by the addition or omis-
sion of certain requirements. ISO 9000-1 provides guidance on
such tailoring as well as on the selection of the appropriate
model, … namely ISO 9001, ISO 9002 or ISO 9003.

1)
According to DIN EN ISO 8402 1.4 (and ISO 9000:2000, 3.4.2), may include product as
well as services.

16
The following alternative models for quality assurance described in three in-
ternational standards represent three differing forms of "the functional or
organizational quality capability" which are suitable for use in contracts be-
tween two partners (see Chapter 5: Cross-Reference List of Clause Numbers)

ISO 9001 Quality systems -


Model for quality assurance in design2), development, production,
installation and servicing.
To be applied, when conformance with specified requirements is
to be ensured by the supplier/contractor during design, develop-
ment, production, installation and servicing.
ISO 9002 Quality systems -
Model for quality assurance in production, installation and ser-
vicing.
To be applied, when conformance with specified requirements is
to be ensured by the supplier/contractor during production, in-
stallation and servicing.
ISO 9003 Quality systems -
Model for quality assurance at final inspection and testing.
To be applied, when conformance to specified requirements is to
be ensured by the supplier/contractor only during final inspection
and testing.

2) DIN EN ISO 9001, 9002, 9003 (Edition 08/94) are equivalent to modules E, D and H ac-
cording to 93/465/EEC, see also Foreword and Clause 1.2 of DIN EN ISO 9001:2000

17
3 Quality Management System Audit

3.1 General

Evaluation of the quality management system is performed with the help of


a questionnaire. The questions of the present VDA 6.1 volume are pri-
marily applicable to the evaluation of organizations producing mate-
rial (or tangible) products (For non-material or non-tangible prod-
ucts/services - see VDA Volume 6, Part 2).

The evaluation of an organization is performed either as an internal audit by


the organization itself (1st Party), through a representative of the customer
(2nd Party) or through an accredited certification body (3rd Party). Auditors
must be competent in the elements which they have to evaluate, as well as
in the quality techniques used. They must be qualified to judge the suitabil-
ity of the implemented quality measures, taking into account the production
processes used, the technology and the required product quality.

The extensive commercial and technical evaluation of an organization in


line with this quality management system audit places considerable re-
quirements on the auditor. In addition to this, the auditor must possess,
among other things, relevant training and industrial experience, integrity
and the ability to deal with people.

Particularly the following quality elements:

- management responsibility
- quality management system
- internal quality audits
- training/personnel
- financial considerations regarding quality management sys-
tems
- product safety
- corporate strategy

demand special qualification requirements of the auditors, as they must be


competent to discuss the above topics with the organization’s management.

Department-specific questions are to be answered by the persons respon-


sible in the organization for marketing, design, procurement, production
planning, production or personnel and not by the Quality Manager. He, gen-
erally, only answers specific questions about quality function issues, e.g.
about testing and documentation.

18
If the quality management system of an organization, on the occasion of a
system audit, has been found to be satisfactory in accordance with Para-
graph 3.3, then a periodic quality management system audit is to be carried
out at appropriately defined intervals.

In the case of an unsatisfactory result during a quality management system


audit, corrective actions and a time schedule are to be established to im-
prove the system. The evaluation of their effectiveness is the subject of a
follow-up audit that examines the unsatisfactory areas.

3.2 Selection of the Quality Elements and Relevant Questions

The relevant elements and corresponding questions for the evaluation of


the quality management system of an organization are to be defined. The
elements 08, 12 and 21 can, under special circumstances, be completely/
partly omitted. Comments regarding this are given with the relevant ele-
ments.

During internal quality audits (1st Party) and customer audits (2nd Party) fur-
ther quality elements and questions may also be added. Furthermore, ele-
ments of a quality management system may be adapted, deleted (in excep-
tional cases) or extended to meet organization or product-specific needs.
Additional questions regarding the quality management system must be
communicated to the organization to be audited beforehand.

During certification audits (3rd Party) additional requirements can only be


added if they form part of the quality management system of the organiza-
tion to be audited. In this case, their compliance and effectiveness are to be
assessed. The points rating according to VDA 6 Part 1, Paragraph 3.3.1 is
not applicable.

Individual questions can only be omitted if they are unusual or not able to
be evaluated for the organization size or branch. In cases of doubt, clarifi-
cation with the customer is appropriate.

Questions that are not applicable and supplementary questions are to be


identified and justified in the audit report (identification for non-applicable
i.e. questions that will not be evaluated = na).

19
In the following questionnaire, elements of a quality management sys-
tem which have a particular influence on product and process or
which can lead to the failure of the quality management system are
identified by an asterisk (*). Non compliance with these requirements
has particular influence on the overall grade or awarding of a VDA 6.1
Certificate Supplement (see 3.3.3 and 3.3.4).

The "Requirements/Explanations" to the question are always to be


seen as an example and not as a complete checklist. The type of evi-
dence or records listed as examples do not have to be supplied if they
are not appropriate to the industry sector.

Some questions concerning the quality management system can only be


answered in conjunction with an evaluation of the product to be supplied
and/or the corresponding technology or process applied. This can make a
separate assessment (product / process audit) necessary.

3.3 Evaluation and Rating

3.3.1 Individual Rating of Questions and Quality Elements

The auditor evaluates the definition and effectiveness of the quality mana-
gement activities in complying with the respective requirements by initially
determining:

- Is the subject in question defined in writing in the quality man-


agement system, in operational procedures with relationships
and responsibilities? (e.g.: in the quality manual, in a docu-
mented procedure or work instruction)?

He must then further evaluate:

- Is the subject in question proven to be effective in practice?

20
According to the following table, answers to the questions lead to a rating
for each relevant question. This rating can result in 0, 4, 6, ,8 or 10 points
per question. The following point rating method is valid for each question:

Subject in question Evaluation of answer

Defined completely in the


yes no yes no yes/no
quality management system

Proven effective in practice yes yes mostly *) no

Point score 10 8 6 4 0

*) Under "mostly" it is understood that all applicable requirements are


proven effective in more than 3/4 of all relevant application cases and
that no particular risk exists.

Rating

10 points: completely defined in the quality management system and


proven to be effective

8 points: not completely defined in the quality management system


but proven to be effective

6 points: completely defined in the quality management system and


mostly proven to be effective

4 points: not completely defined in the quality management system


but mostly proven to be effective

0 points: not proven to be effective regardless of completeness of


definition in the quality management system

When compiling a summarized rating for a quality element, every question


is equally weighted. Questions which are not applicable are not considered
in the rating.

The element rating is expressed as a percentage which results from the to-
tal points assessed for all relevant questions related to the total points pos-
sible for all relevant questions.

21
If all relevant answers in an element achieve 10 points, then the level of
compliance CE is 100%.

Calculation of element ratings:

total points assessed for relevant questions


CE = ——————————————————— x 100 [%]
total possible points for relevant questions

3.3.2 Overall Rating of Audit Result

For the two parts of the audit, M (management) and P (product and pro-
cess), the individual levels of compliance CM and CP are calculated. They
are established by calculating the average value of the levels of compliance
for the relevant evaluated quality elements

sum of levels of compliance of all relevant elements


CM or CP = ——————————————————————— [%]
no. of relevant quality elements

The two levels of compliance CM and CP are combined to give an overall


rating, whereby the management-specific section is given one third weigh-
ting and the product-related and process-related section is given a two
thirds weighting:

CM + 2 * CP
CTOT = ——————— [%].
3

The rating system may also be applied if further elements or questions are
added or if elements or questions are omitted. If additional questions relate
to product, services or applied process technology, it may then be neces-
sary to adapt the point and rating system accordingly.

22
Note on the formula for CTOT*:
The formula arises from the following consideration:
On condition that the 7 quality elements concerning management and the 16 quality elements
concerning product and process (from Chapter 6) are equally weighted in CTOT
Then: 7 * CM + 16 * CP
CTOT = ———————— = 0,30 * CM + 0,70 * CP
23
should be calculated.
In order to retain a simple formula and also to give more weight to the Part M quality elements,
the committee defined the formula for CTOT as presented above (no mathematical background).
The elements of CM are therefore more heavily weighted by a factor of 0.33/0.30 = 1,1.
Thereby the elements of management, as an essential part of quality assurance, are treated
with more importance in the quality rating system.
• CTOT is referred to as EGES in the original German version

3.3.3 Grading for Customer/Supplier Audits (2nd Party)

Overall level of compliance Assessment of quality Designation of


in percent management system grading
90 to 100 full compliance A *)
80 to less than 90 mostly compliant AB *)
60 to less than 80 conditionally compliant B

less than 60 not compliant C

*) Notes
1. Organizations audited and having received an overall level of compli-
ance exceeding 90 % (or 80 % respectively), but which have a level of
compliance for one or more elements of less than 75 %, will have their
grading dropped from A to AB (or AB to B respectively).
2. If a question marked with * which has particular influence on product
and process or which can lead to a failure of the quality management
system is rated with less than 8 points, then the organization is to be
downgraded from A to AB or from AB to B respectively.
3. If a question not marked with * is rated with 0 points, then the audited
organization is to be downgraded from A to AB.
4. Downgrading according to notes 1, 2 or 3 above may be applied only once.
5. Downgrading is to be justified in a commentary sheet.

23
3.3.4 Awarding of the VDA 6.1 Certificate Supplement (3rd Party):

1. A VDA 6.1 Certificate Supplement to an ISO 9001/9002* certificate is


awarded at an overall level of compliance exceeding 90% (the level of
compliance [%] is not shown on the VDA 6.1 Certificate Supplement).

*) Note: as of 15 December 2003 only in connection with an ISO 9001:2000 certifi-


cate

Exception:

A VDA 6.1 Certificate Supplement will not be awarded, if

- one or more quality elements achieve a level of compliance below 75


%
or
- one or more questions marked with * are rated with less than 8 points
or
- one question not marked with * is rated with 0 points.

2. Follow-up /Re-audit

A follow-up audit is possible within 90 days after completion of the audit


under the following conditions (Status: Open):

a) a maximum of one question marked with * was rated with 0 points


and/or
b) one or more questions marked with * were rated with 4 or 6 points
and/or
c) one or more questions not marked with * were rated with 0 points
and/or
d) no element achieved a level of compliance below 75 %

A VDA 6.1 Certificate Supplement is awarded after a follow-up audit, if


all questions marked with * are rated with at least 8 points and all ques-
tions not marked with * are rated with at least 4 points.

A follow-up audit is not possible if more than one question marked with *
is rated with 0 points (Status: failed)

A re-audit is only possible at the earliest after 90 days. The same rules
apply as for a follow-up audit.

24
3.4 Summary of Results

The results of the quality management system audit of Part M (manage-


ment) and Part P (product and process) are to be presented as shown in
the sample forms (Chapter 8). The results of each element will be entered
on the sheet "Summary of Results".

3.5 Close out Meeting and Report

In the course of a close out meeting regarding the quality management sys-
tem audit, the auditor informs the audited organization's management
which nonconformances are present and to what extent corrective actions
are necessary. These will be presented in a summary sheet "Nonconfor-
mances/
Corrective Actions". After completion of the quality management system
audit, the auditor raises an audit report and establishes a time schedule
with the audited organization for the corrective actions (see sample forms
- Chapter 8). If necessary, a follow-up audit date is agreed.

3.6 Corrective Actions

The result of the quality management system audit, presented as shown in


the main paragraphs 3.4 and 3.5 above, serves the management of the au-
dited organization as a basis for corrective actions. It is the duty of the au-
dited organization to work out and implement an improvement program.
This has to be communicated to the lead auditor responsible for heading
the audit. The auditor decides on the basis of the presented improvement
program to what extent a follow-up audit is to be carried out.

3.7 VDA 6.1 Certificate

A VDA 6.1 certificate can only be awarded if the overall grade achieved is A
(see 3.3.3). A precondition for this is that the auditor is registered as a
Lead Auditor with the VDA. The representative of the certifying body ap-
plies to the VDA for the VDA 6.1 certificate at the request of the organiza-
tion being audited.

The awarding of a VDA 6.1 certificate may also be carried out under con-
sideration of existing certificates according to DIN EN ISO 9001/9002 or QS
9000 with supplementary auditing (see VDA Volume 6).

The certificate is valid for 3 years after the date of issue, however not
longer than the validity of the ISO certificate being supplemented.

25
VERBAND DER
VDA AUTOMOBILINDUSTRIE E. V.

VDA 6.1 CERTIFICATE


Organization:

Sub-organization:

Product group(s):

The organization has provided evidence of effective


implementation of a Quality Management System
according to VDA 6, Part 1 of the Quality Standard
of the German Automotive Industry, on the basis of
DIN EN ISO 9001 / 9004-1.

Audit with/without Product Design and Development.

Date of issue: valid until:

Audit performed by: VDA Registration No. _______

___________________________
Company / Signature of authorized person VDA-Stamp

Lead Auditor(s): __________________


_________________________________

Date: ___________________ Signature ______________________


_______________________________________________________________________________

26
4 Terms and Definitions

For each of the individual elements, definitions and explanations of terms


are given within the questionnaire. Generic terms are briefly summarized in
the following. (The numbering according to # corresponds to the ISO
9000:2000 Standard).

4.1 Terms relating to quality according to ISO 9000:2000 (extract)

#3.1.2 Requirement

Need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory.

Note 1: "Generally implied" means that it is custom or common practice for the oganization
(#3.3.1), its customers (#3.3.5) and other interested parties (#3.3.7), that the need
or expectation under consideration is implied.
Note 2: A qualifier can be used to denote a specific type of requirement, e.g. product re-
quirement, quality management requirement, customer requirement.
Note 3: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example, in a document (#3.7.2).
Note 4: Requirements can be generated by different interested parties.

4.2 Terms relating to management according to ISO 9000:2000


(extract)

#3.2.3 Quality management system

Management system (#3.2.2) to direct and control an organization (#3.3.1)


with regard to quality (#3.1.1).

#3.2.4 Quality policy

Overall intentions and direction of an organization (#3.3.1) related to quality


(#3.1.1) as formally expressed by top management.

Note: The quality policy is an element of the corporate policy and is approved by the
management.

27
#3.2.8 Quality management

Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization (#3.3.1) with re-


gard to quality (#3.1.1).

Note: Direction and control with regard to quality generally includes establishment of the
quality policy (#3.2.4) and quality objectives (#3.2.5), quality planning (#3.2.9),
quality control (3.2.10), quality assurance (3.2.11) and quality improvement
(3.2.12).

4.3 Terms relating to organization according to ISO 9000:2000


(extract)

#3.3.1 Organization

Group of people and facilities with an arrangement of responsibilities, au-


thorities and relationships.

Example: Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, institution, charity, sole trader, association,
or parts or combinations thereof.
Note 1: The arrangement is generally orderly.
Note 2: An organization can be public or private.
Note 3: This definition is valid for the purposes of quality management system (#3.2.3)
standards. The term "organization" is defined differently in ISO/IEC Guide 2.

#3.3.2 Organizational structure

Arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships between peo-


ple.

Note 1: The arrangement is generally orderly.


Note 2: A formal expression of the organizational structure is often provided in a quality
manual (#3.7.4) or a quality plan (#3.7.5) for a project (#3.4.3).
Note 3: The scope of an organizational structure can include relevant interfaces to external
organizations (#3.3.1).

28
#3.3.5 Customer

Organization (#3.3.1) or person that receives a product (#3.4.2).

Example: Consumer, client, end-user, retailer, beneficiary and purchaser.


Note: A customer can be internal or external to the organization.

#3.3.6 Supplier

Organization (#3.3.1) or person that provides a product (#3.4.2).

Example: Producer, distributor, retailer or vendor of a product, or provider of a service or in-


formation.
Note 1: A supplier can be internal or external to the organization.
Note 2: In a contractual situation a supplier is sometimes called "contractor".

4.4 Terms relating to process and product according to ISO


9000:2000 (extract)

#3.4.1 Process

Set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into out-


puts.

Note 1: Inputs to a process are generally outputs of other processes.


Note 2: Processes in an organization (#3.3.1) are generally planned and carried out under
controlled conditions to add value.
Note 3: A process where the conformity (#3.6.1) of the resulting product (#3.4.2) cannot be
readliy or economically verified is frequently referred to as a "special process".

29
#3.4.2 Product

Result of a process (#3.4.1).


Note 1: There are four generic product categories, as follows:
- services (e.g. transport);
- software (e.g. computer program, dictionary);
- hardware (e.g.engine mechanical part);
- processed materials (e.g. lubricant)
Many products comprise elements belonging to different generic product catego-
ries. Whether the product is then called service, software, hardware or processed
material depends on the dominant element. For example the offered product
"automobile" consists of hardware (e.g. tires), processed materials (e.g. fuel, cool-
ing liquid), software (e.g. engine control software, driver's manual), and service
(e.g. operating explanations given by the salesman).
Note 2: Service is the result of at least one activity necessarily performed at the interface
between the supplier (#3.3.6) and customer (#3.3.5) and is generally intangible.
Provision of a service can involve, for example, the following:
- an activity performed on a customer-supplied tangible product (e.g. auto-
mobile to be repaired);
- an activity performed on a customer-supplied intangible product (e.g. the
income statement needed to prepare a tax return);
- the delivery of an intangible product (e.g. the delivery of information in the
context of knowledge transmission);
- the creation of ambience for the customer (e.g. in hotels and restaurants).
Software consists of information and is generally intangible and can be in the form
of approaches, transactions, or procedures (#3.4.5).
Hardware is generally tangible and its amount is a countable characteristic
(#3.5.1). Processed materials are generally tangible and their amount is a continu-
ous characteristic. Hardware and processed materials are often referred to as
goods.
Note 3: Quality assurance (#3.2.11) is mainly focused on intended product.

#3.4.5 Procedure

Specified way to carry out an activity or a process (#3.4.1).

Note 1: Procedures can be documented or not.


Note 2: When a procedure is documented, the term "written procedure" or "documented
procedure" is frequently used. The document (#3.7.2) that contains a procedure
can be called a "procedure document".

30
4.5 Terms relating to conformity according to ISO 9000:2000 (ex-
tract)

#3.6.5 Corrective action

Action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity (#3.6.2) or other


undesirable situation.

Note 1: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.


Note 2: Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action (#3.6.4)
is taken to prevent occurrence.
Note 3: There is a distinction between correction (#3.6.6) and corrective action (#3.6.5).

4.6 Terms relating to documentation according to ISO 9000:2000


(extract)

#3.7.4 Quality manual

Document (#3.7.2) specifying the quality management system (#3.2.3) of


an organization (#3.3.1).

Note: Quality manuals can vary in detail and format to suit the size and complexity of an
individual organization.

4.7 Terms relating to examination according to ISO 9000:2000


(extract)

#3.8.1 Objective evidence

Data supporting the existence or verity (applicability) of something.

Note: Objective evidence may be obtained through observation, measurement, test


(#3.8.3) or other means

31
#3.8.2 Inspection

Conformity evaluation by observation and judgment accompanied by meas-


urement, testing or gauging.

#3.8.4 Verification

Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence (#3.8.1), that


specified requirements (#3.1.2) have been fulfilled.

Note 1: The term "verified" is used to designate the corresponding status.


Note 2: Confirmation can comprise activities such as:
- performing alternative calculations;
- comparing a new design specification (#3.7.3) with a similar proven design
specification;
- undertaking tests (#3.8.3) and demonstrations;
- reviewing documents prior to issue.

#3.8.5 Validation

Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence (#3.8.1), that the


requirements (#3.1.2) for a specific intended use or application have been
fulfilled.

Note 1: The term "validated" is used to designate the corresponding status.


Note 2: The use conditions for validation can be real or simulated.

4.8 Terms relating to audit according to ISO 9000:2000 (extract)∗

#3.9.1 Audit

Systematic, independent and documented process (#3.4.1) for obtaining


audit evidence (#3.9.4) and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent
to which audit criteria (#3.9.3) are fulfilled.

Note: Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits, are conducted by, or on behalf
of, the organization (#3.3.1) itself for internal purposes and can form the basis for
an organization's self-declaration of conformity (#3.6.1).


Owing to the more precise structure and revised allocation of the Terms
and Definitions in ISO 9000:2000, the previous sub-chapters 4.2, 4.3
and 4.4 have been removed.
32
#3.9.5 Audit findings

Results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence (#3.9.4) against


audit criteria (#3.9.3).

Note: Audit findings can indicate either conformity or nonconformity with audit criteria or
opportunities for improvement.

4.9 Additional Terms (Definitions for the present volume)

4.9.1 System

The structure of an organization (#3.3.1), in which responsibilities, authori-


ties and interrelationships, as well as procedures (#3.4.5) and processes
(#3.4.1) are defined together with the necessary resources for the realiza-
tion of an objective.

4.9.2 Method

A scheduled procedure (#3.4.5), to given means and a given purpose


which leads to the technical proficiency in the solution of theoretical and
practical tasks.

4.9.3 Serial Production

The fabrication of products (#3.4.2) of similar type and design, in recurrent


orders.

4.9.4 Quality Management (QM) Procedures

QM procedures are specific instructions that are required in order to fulfill a


defined quality-related activity. They come into effect when signed.

33
4.9.5 Work Instructions (Test and Inspection Instructions)

Detailed description of the working steps of an activity. Definition of indivi-


dual activities and detailed instructions, order-neutral, as well as order-re-
lated.

4.9.6 Unit

That which can be individually described and examined.

Note: A unit can be e.g.:


- an activity or a process (#3.4.1)
- a product (#3.4.2)
- an organization (#3.3.1), a system (4.9.1) or a person or any combination
thereof.

4.9.7 Service

see Product (#3.4.2), Note 2.

34
5 Cross-reference List of Paragraph Numbers for Corresponding
Subjects (according to DIN EN ISO 9000-1, Appendix D, 1994-
08), supplemented by ISO 9001:2000*

Cross-reference of the paragraph numbers for corresponding subjects of


the questionnaire of Chapter 7 to the paragraphs and subparagraphs of the
standards DIN EN ISO 9001, 9002, 9003 and 9004-1.

VDA- Paragraph Title Corresponding Corresponding paragraph or sub-


Ques- paragraph no. in the standard
tion- according to 9001 / (9004-1) clause in
naire ISO 9001:2000 DIN EN ISO
N°. (8/94)
9004-1 9001 9002 9003

01 Management responsibility 5; 6; 8.5.1 4, 5 4.1 z z 


02 QM system (quality management 4; 5.4.2; 7.1 5 4.2 z z 
system elements)
03 Internal quality audits (auditing the 8.2.2 5.4, 5.5 4.17 z z 
QM system)
04 Training (Personnel) 5.5.3; 6.2 18 4.18 z z 
05 Financial considerations regarding --- 6 − − − −
QM systems
06 Product safety --- 19 − − − −
Z1 Corporate strategy --- − − − − −
07 Contract review 5.2; 7.2 7 4.3 z z z
(Quality in marketing)
08 Design control - product design 7.1; 7.3 8 4.4 z − −
(Quality in specification and design)
09 Process planning - process design 7.1; 7.3, 7.5 (8) (4.4) − − −
10 Document and data control 4.2 17,17.3, 4.5 z z z
(Quality documents) 5,3
11 Purchasing (Quality in purchasing) 7.4; 7.5 9 4.6 z z −
12 Control of customer-supplied 7.5.4 − 4.7 z z z
product

35
VDA- Paragraph Title Corresponding Corresponding paragraph or sub-
Ques- paragraph no. in the standard
tion- according to 9001 / (9004-1) clause in
naire ISO 9001:2000 DIN EN ISO
N°. (8/94)
9004-1 9001 9002 9003

13 Product identification and traceabil- 7.5 11.2 4.8 z z 


ity (Material control, traceability and
identification)
(Process control) 7.5 11.4- 4.9 z z −
11.6
Insp. and test status 7.5 11.7 4.12 z z z
(control of insp. & test status)
14 Process control 7.5 10 4.9 z z −
(quality of processes)
15 Inspection and testing 7.1, 8.2.4 12 4.10 z z 
(Product verification)
16 Control of inspection, measuring 7.6 13 4.11 z z z
and test equipment
17 Control of nonconforming product 8.3 14 4.13 z z 
18 Corrective and preventive action 8.5 15 4.14 z z 
19 Handling, storage, packaging, 7.5.5 16.1, 4.15
preservation and delivery 16.2 z z z
(post-production activities) 10.4
20 Control of quality records 4.2.4 17, 17.2 4.16 z z 
(quality documents/records)
21 Servicing, 7.5; 8.4 16.4, 4.19 z z −
(post-production activities) 16.5,
16.6, 7.3
22 Statistical techniques 8 20 4.20 z z 

Italic: Elements which extend beyond the scope of the standard


* see also comparison tables in Chapter 12

Key: z full requirement


 less comprehensive than ISO 9001 and 9002
− quality element not present

36
6 Structure and Number of Questions per Quality Element

Page No. of
questions

M Management of the Organization

01 Management Responsibility 39 6
DIN EN ISO 9001, Clause 4.1
DIN EN ISO 9004-1, Chapter 4
02 Quality Management System 47 6
DIN EN ISO 9001 Clause 4.2
DIN EN ISO 9004-1, Chapter 5
03 Internal Audits 57 4
DIN EN ISO 9001, Clause 4.17
DIN EN ISO 9004-1, Chapter 5
04 Training, Personnel 63 7
DIN EN ISO 9001, Clause 4.18
DIN EN ISO 9004-1, Chapter 18
05 Financial Considerations regarding Quality 71 4
Management Systems
DIN EN ISO 9004-1, Chapter 6
06 Product Safety 75 4
DIN EN ISO 9004-1, Chapter 19
Z1 Corporate Strategy 81 5

Subtotal of questions in section M 36

37
Page No. of
questions

P Product and Process


07 Contract Review, Quality in Marketing 87 5
9001, Clause 4.3 / 9004-1, Chapter 7
08 Design Control (Product Design) 93 7
9001, Clause 4.4 / 9004-1, Chapter 8
09 Process Planning (Process Design) 101 7
9001, Clause 4.4 / 9004-1, Chapter 8
10 Document and Data Control 111 4
9001, Clause 4.5 / 9004-1, Chapter 17.3
11 Purchasing 117 7
9001, Clause 4.6 / 9004-1, Chapter 9
12 Control of Customer Supplied Product. 125 4
9001, Clause 4.
13 Product Identification and Traceability 129 7
(Process Control, Inspection and Test Status)
9001, Clause 4.8 (4.9, 4.11, 4.12) / 9004-1,
Chapter 11
14 Process Control 137 7
9001, Clause 4.9 / 9004-1, Chapter 10
15 Inspection and Testing (Product Verification) 147 6
9001, Clause 4.10 / 9004-1, Chapter 12
16 Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test 153 5
Equipment.
9001, Clause 4.11 / 9004-1, Chapter 13
17 Control of Nonconforming Product 159 4
9001, Clause 4.13 / 9004-1, Chapter 14
18 Corrective and Preventive Action 163 4
9001, Clause 4.14 / 9004-1, Chapter 15
19 Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation 169 6
and Delivery
9001, Clause 4.15 / 9004-1, Chapter 16
20 Control of Quality Records 175 4
9001, Clause 4.16 / 9004-1, Chapter 17.2
21 Servicing, (After Sales and Post-production Ac- 181 5
tivities) 9001, Clause 4.19 / 9004-1, Chapter 16
22 Statistical Techniques 187 6
9001, Clause 4.20 / 9004-1, Chapter 20
Sub-total of questions in section P 89
Total of all questions 125

38
7 Quality Management System Audit Questionnaire

For application in organizations which manufacture tangible products

STRUCTURE
For every quality element the general requirements are described in an in-
troduction, the subject in its context is briefly explained and the questions
are stated..
In addition, reference is made to other applicable VDA Volumes which are
to be considered during the realization of the quality management system.
Equivalent procedures and processes are permitted.
Questions on the quality management system which have a special influ-
ence on the product or process or may lead to the failure of the quality
management system are marked with an *.
Each question is structured as follows:
1. The Question
2. Definition
Where required, the terms used in the question are defined according to
the relevant standard and the standard or an extract thereof is cited. The
source is stated respectively.
Explanation of terms

Where required, the terms used in the question are explained, if no defini-
tion is given, to provide a better understanding.
3. Requirements/Explanations
In the section ‘Requirements/Explanations’, requirements on the quality
management system are defined and supplemented by explanations, if
necessary.

Note: For each applicable question, the auditor has to evaluate the definition and the ef-
fectiveness of the quality measures.

The requirements and explanations are partially described in an abreviated


form. Therefore, further VDA Volumes which are significant and which have
to be considered are referenced (see the note in the introduction to the
quality elements).
Usually there is a special note in the respective question.

39
Part M: Management of the organization

01 Management Responsibility
ISO 9001:2000, Clause 5; 6; 8.5.1
and ISO 9004:2000

The Management (e.g. Board of Management, Plant Manage-


ment, Section Management) develops the quality policy for the
organization, defines it and commits all areas and levels to it.
Hereby specific quality objectives and a quality management sys-
tem are to be agreed. Quality must be regarded as an overall
management task.

"Management" describes the organizational unit that is responsi-


ble for profit and loss.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
01.1 Has the quality policy been defined by mana-
* gement and has it been made known to all 5.1, 5.3, 5.4.1
levels?
01.2 Have quality objectives been defined within
* the scope of corporate planning and the qual- 5.1, 5.3, 5.4.1
ity policy and are the results monitored?
01.3 Is a continual improvement process part of the
5.1, 8.5.1
* quality policy?
01.4 Have the necessary resources been provided 5.1, 6.1, 6.2.1,
by the management of the organization? 6.3
01.5 Has a management representative been as-
* signed and are his duties, authorities and re- 5.5.2
sponsibilities defined?
01.6 Does management regularly evaluate the ef-
5.6.1, 5.6.2,
* fectiveness of the quality management sys-
5.6.3
tem?

40
01.1* Has the quality policy been defined by management and has
it been made known to all levels?

Definition:

Quality Policy (according to ISO 9000:2000/3.2.4):

The overall intentions and direction of an organization related to quality as


formally expressed by top management.

Note 1: Generally the quality policy is consistent with the overall policy of the organization
and provides a framework for the setting of quality objectives (#3.2.5).
Note 2: Quality management principles presented in this International Standard can form a
basis for the establishment of a quality policy.

Requirements/Explanation:

The quality policy must be formulated in such a way that it can be under-
stood, implemented and applied by employees at all levels The principles of
the quality policy are to be described in a quality manual or an equivalent
document (see Question 02.1).

The publication of the quality policy is achieved, for example, by

- notices
- memoranda
- organizational guidelines and instructions
- informative presentations about the quality policy.

The quality objectives of the organization follow the quality policy (see
Question 01.2), are decisive for the organization and incorporate the expec-
tations of the customer(s).

Evidence is given by, for example, a declaration of commitment from man-


agement within the scope of the quality policy, according to which all quality
requirements for activities, not only in production but in all organizational
units, are reliably fulfilled and the prevention of nonconformances has sig-
nificant priority over the detection of nonconformances (Zero Defect Strat-
egy).

41
01.2* Have quality objectives been defined within the scope of cor-
porate planning and the quality policy and are the results
monitored?

Explanation of terms:

"Quality objectives" are specifications for products, processes, operations


and services, that are defined for all levels. These objectives are derived
from customer requirements, the competitive situation, the legal environ-
ment and internal requirements, as well as adherence to the "zero defect
strategy.“

Requirements/Explanation:

Objectives for quality within the scope of the quality policy might be, for ex-
ample:

a) Corporate-wide objectives
• Fulfillment of the general organization requirements (laws, regulations,
directives)
• Improving market acceptance
• Making profit
• Ensuring the continued viability of the organization
• Continual quality improvement (see Question 01.3).

b) Product-related objectives
• Scrap-/ failure rates (%)
• Supplier delivery quality (ppm)
• Improving product quality
• Improving process capability (Cpk)
• Improving reliability
• Environmental tolerance.

c) Customer-related objectives
• Shortening of order processing time (inquiries, orders etc.)
(difference in days)
• Improving customer satisfaction (e.g. reducing the number of customer
complaints change %)
• Reduction in the reaction time when dealing with complaints
(difference in days)
• Improving delivery reliability (on-time performance).

42
d) Higher objectives
• Reducing costs but not to the detriment of quality
• Advance quality planning (see Question 02.5)
• Increasing improvement suggestion activities (methods, equipment,
operations etc.)
• Calculating and evaluating the costs assigned to all quality elements
in order to minimize any loss of quality
• Monitoring the effectiveness of corrective actions on the basis of audit
results
• Quality of the development of products and processes (time, imple-
menation, practicability, feasibility etc.)
• Quality management system upgrade from ISO 9001/2 to VDA 6.1.
Further development towards TQM, EQA etc.

Note: The demonstration of achieved quality in comparison to objectives


- see Question 04.7

The quality objectives to be agreed must be achievable and, if possible,


measurable, as well as periodically revised and presented in a suitable for-
mat, e.g. using data processing systems. The achievement of objectives
must be monitored thoroughly at all management levels (specified/actual
comparison).

The objectives must be practically, clearly and comprehensively explained


to the employees during informative discussions.

Without the definition of objectives, an efficient improvement in quality and


increase in productivity in all areas of the organization cannot be followed
or achieved.

43
01.3* Is a continual improvement process part of the quality policy?

Requirements/Explanation:

Improvement programs for the operating units and for the commercial and
technical functional units of the organization must be introduced and main-
tained. The methods cited elsewhere (see Questions 04.2 and 04.5) must
be used here.
Items for improvement include, for example:
- Reducing non-value-adding activities (e.g. rework, repairs)
- Simplification of processes/Optimization of production meth-
ods.
- Minimization of waste
- Reducing unplanned down-time of machines
- Shortening setting-up and tool change times
- Increasing service life/cycle times of products and equipment
- Improving the ease of repair of products and equipment
- Reducing water, air and energy expenditures
- Optimization of activity times
- Improved handling in all areas

Note: Connections to Question 01.2 are possible. The working methods applied can be
selected on an organization-specific basis.

In the continual improvement process, careful handling and economical use


of resources must also be taken into account. This includes, for example:
- the logistical chain
- the building / factory area
- the equipment
- environmental protection

The strategy of continual improvement applies to employees, all production


processes, services and business operations of the organization. It does
not replace necessary innovative improvements. Improvements refer to, for
example:
- Quality
- Price
- Service
- Delivery reliability.

44
01.4 Have the necessary resources been provided by the man-
agement of the organization?

Requirements/Explanation:

For the quality management system to operate effectively, the management


of the organization has the task of providing the financial and personnel re-
sources needed to fulfil the requirements in the quality elements. These in-
clude, for example:

- qualified staff with task-related capabilities for management,


implementation and inspection activities (including project
management)
- inspection and testing equipment for product development and
manufacture
- computer support, e.g. for data analysis, graphic displays, sta-
tistics, quality plans.

The effectiveness and efficiency of the quality management system de-


pends on the provision of the necessary resources for the realization of the
quality policy and the quality objectives.

Note: This question cannot be finally evaluated until the entire quality management sys-
tem has become transparent as a result of the audit and until it has been ascer-
tained that all necessary resources are available.

45
01.5* Has a management representative been assigned and are his
duties, authorities and responsibilities defined?

Explanation of terms:

The "Management representative" is the person who represents the inte-


rests of management regarding strategic quality management at all mana-
gement levels.

The representative must belong to the management team of the organiza-


tion, but does not have to be a member of the management. He/she always
reports to that level of management, which is responsible for profit and loss.

Requirements/Explanation:

Responsibilities and authorities of the representative include:

- Reporting on the quality situation


- Defining, realizing and maintaining the quality management
system in accordance with the requirements of this question-
naire, which includes branch-specific adjustments
- Monitoring the strategic quality objectives
- Controlling and coordinating quality activities using interdisci-
plinary cooperation
- Demonstrating the effectiveness of the quality management
system and determining possible improvements.

Note: The representative may at the same time be responsible for the organizational
functions "quality department", "quality assurance", "quality management" etc.

46
01.6* Does management regularly evaluate the effectiveness of the
quality management system?

Definition:

Review (in accordance with ISO 9000:2000/3.8.7):

Activity undertaken to detrminie the suitability, adequacy and effectiveness


(#3.2.14) of the subject matter to achieve established ojectives.

Note: Review can also include the detrmination of effieciency (#3.2.15).

Requirements/Explanation:

The Management of the organization must periodically (at least once each
year) assess and satisfy itself about the effectiveness of the established
quality management system. The aim of this assessment is to achieve a
continuous optimization and adaptation to changed conditions (market,
technology etc.). This can be done by collecting and evaluating the follow-
ing information, for example:

- Reports on the quality situation


- Regularly scheduled quality meetings
- Quality indices with respect to objectives (see Question 01.2)
- Internal quality audit reports with derived measures (see Ques-
tion 03.2 and 03.3)
- Status of the continual improvement process (see Question
01.3)
- Results of product and process analysis with corrective actions
- Reports on customer satisfaction (see question Z1.4).

The review is carried out by comparing the findings with the objecti-
ves of the quality policy and usually results in preventive and correc-
tive actions.

47
02 Quality management system
ISO 9001:2000, Clause 4; 5.4.2; 7.1

A quality management system consists of the organizational


structure, the responsibilities, procedures, processes and re-
sources for the implementation of quality management.

The quality management system is intended to promote continual


quality improvement.

The quality management system shall be defined and imple-


mented by management, preferably in a quality manual and in
supplementary documented procedures or equivalent documenta-
tion.

Note: VDA Volume 4.3 is an applicable reference.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
02.1 Is the quality management system described
4.1; 4.2.1;
* in a quality manual or an equivalent docu-
4.2.2
ment?
02.2 Does the quality management system en-
compass all areas, levels and employees of 4.2.1, 4.2.2
the organization?
02.3 Are there documented procedures defining
* duties, responsibilities and authority levels for 5.5.1
quality activities?
02.4 Is there a cross-functional project manage-
* ment established which includes the quality 7.3.1
planning process?
02.5 Is there a quality planning process for the
* necessary measures and procedures for 5.4.2; 7.1
fulfilling quality requirements?
02.6 Are there quality plans resulting from the qual-
5.4.2, 7.1
* ity planning process?

48
02.1* Is the quality management system described in a quality
manual or an equivalent document?

Definition:

Quality manual (according to ISO 9000:2000/3):

Document (#3.7.2) specifying the quality management system (#3.2.3) of


an organization (#3.3.1).

Note: Quality manuals can vary in detail and format to suit the size and complexity of an
individual organization.

Requirements/Explanation:

All quality elements necessary for conducting the business of the organiza-
tion must be described in the quality manual with reference to applicable in-
ternal and external instructions, standards, regulations etc.

The documentation covers:

- Organizational structure
- Names of responsible individuals
- Implementation process for all activities affecting quality in the
organization.

The manual must display the approval of the organization management, the
validity date and the revision status. Responsibility for its updating, revision
service and the distribution list must be defined. The main purpose of a
quality manual is to define the structure of the quality management system
and, at the same time, to serve as a permanent reference for the implemen-
tation and maintenance of this system.

In addition, special processes can be separately defined in documented


procedures, quality assurance plans etc. This also include instructions on
project management (see Question 02.4).

49
02.2 Does the quality management system encompass all areas,
levels and employees of the organization?

Definition:

Quality management system (according to ISO 9000:2000/3.2.3):

Management system (#3.2.2) to direct and control an organization (#3.3.1)


with regard to quality (#3.1.1).

Requirements/Explanation:

The quality management system extends to all phases of the life cycle of a
product (DIN EN ISO 9004-1 Paragraph 5.1) and all value-adding proc-
esses involved. Its interacting functions are a precondition for the continu-
ous compliance with the requirements of customers, legislators and society.

A universal understanding of quality and quality assurance should extend


as a "leading theme“ throughout the entire organization. The understanding
of quality management as a task of all employees can be demonstrated by,
for example:

- actions including various departments


- appropriate training, presentations, publications
- department-related objectives for quality improvement
- responsibilities matrices.

Job descriptions and organization charts serve, among other things, to en-
dorse employees, clarify relationships at interfaces and provide evidence of
relevant duties. They make the organization transparent, simplify personnel
qualification and assignment and promote motivation and enthusiasm for
decision-making.

50
02.3* Are there documented procedures defining duties, responsi-
bilities and authority levels for quality activities?

Explanation of terms:

"Activities affecting quality“ relate both preventatively and reactively to the


entire life history of a product.

"Quality Management procedures" are specific instructions that are required


in order to fulfill a defined quality-related activity. They come into effect
when signed.

Requirements/Explanation:

Duties, responsibilities and authorities are to be unambiguously and clearly


defined for those departments and employees which influence product and
process quality. Thereby, coordination and interfaces between various de-
partments and activities must be observed.

These definitions are best made, for example, in:

- Quality documented procedures


- Responsibility matrices
- Job descriptions,

which come into effect when signed. Hereby, it must be ensured that duties
are clearly defined with the necessary independence to fulfill stipulated re-
quirements. This requires a definition as to who, for example:

- can stop faulty products or processes


- is responsible for suggesting and monitoring problem solutions
- monitors conformity with quality requirements, particularly after
changes
- is responsible for quality-relevant documentation.

51
02.4* Is there a cross-functional project management established
which includes the quality planning process?

Explanation of terms:
"Project management“ is defined as the management of activities across
several departments within an organization, aimed at the realization of a
particular project (e.g. introduction of a new product [see Question 08.1], a
new process, start of a series [see Element 14]). This task begins as early
as possible and encompasses the concept/design phase, the manufactur-
ing process, through to product utilization and disposal. It includes, among
other things, quality planning (see Question 02.5) and the quality plan (see
Question 02.6).
Requirements/Explanation:
Project flow charts with the main details, among other things for the mana-
gement of a project, must be raised and developed at a very early stage.
Here, the joint activities include:
- raising the specification
- concept / design,
- development
- production
- utilization
- disposal
which must be outlined and explained in the context of simultaneous engi-
neering taking interface issues into account. Quality methods (such as
QFD, DFMEA, PFMEA, DOE,...) must be applied on a project-specific ba-
sis. Depending on the task, the project team should include staff from De-
velopment, Production Planning, Quality and Production departments etc.
The Purchasing department and suppliers must be included when neces-
sary.
The duties and responsibilities must, for example, be defined in project
plans or respectively, in product and process development plans. The ap-
pointment of a project representative (project manager) is advantageous for
all projects. In the case of new projects, it must be ensured that confidenti-
ality, protection and security of data is guaranteed through appropriate
procedures for those involved in the project. Suppliers, if necessary, are
also be included.
Note: The requirement for a "Configuration management" in the standard DIN EN -
ISO 9004-1, Chapter 5.2.6 and 8.10, is interpreted as "Project management" in this
questionnaire (also see DIN 69905[12.90] - Project implementation). See also
ISO 10006:1997, Quality management - Guidelines to quality in project manage-
ment.

52
02.5* Is there a quality planning process for the necessary measu-
res and procedures for fulfilling quality requirements?

Definition:

Quality planning (acc. to ISO 9000:2000/3.2.9):

Part of quality management (#3.2.8) focussed on setting quality objectives


(#3.2.5) and specifying necessary operational processes (#3.4.1) and re-
lated resources to fulfil the quality objectives.

Note: Establishing quality plans (#3.7.5) can be part of quality planning:

Requirements/Explanation:

Quality planning (also known as advanced quality planning) must be re-


garded as an interdisciplinary task which defines how the quality require-
ments should be fulfilled. It must be compatible with the quality elements of
the organization and match the size, structure and working methods used
(e.g. through reference to appropriate procedures/already existing planning
schedules or descriptions).

Quality planning must take into account the tasks and deadlines stipulated
by the customer and must contain specially defined methods.

Interdisciplinary teams must be used for the activities to be carried out (e.g.
Product Development, Process Planning, Quality, Marketing).

53
The quality planning phases for new products are:

• Planning and definition


- Determining the customer's requirements and expectations
- All activities must be carried out from the view of the customer
(end user, consumer).
- Input data and results can vary
- The stated input data and results represent recommendations.

• Product design and product development, including verification


- The quality planning team responsible for the product must
consider all development aspects in the planning process in
order to ensure that the end product meets the customer's ex-
pectations.
- If the design responsibility lies with the customer, design as-
pects must also be considered.

• Process design and process development, including verification


- Development of a process system with the quality plans to be
used
- The process system must ensure that the requirements, needs
and expectations of the customer are met.

• Process and product validation


- The production process must be validated by evaluating a trial
series.
- The quality planning team responsible for the product should
verify that the quality plan and the process plan are fulfilled
and that the products meet the customer's requirements.

• Feedback, evaluation and corrective measures


- The results of the trial series have to be evaluated to ensure
that the products meet the customer's requirements.
- The effectiveness of the product quality planning process must
be newly evaluated

54
Activities include, for example,:

- Definition and identification of significant characteristics (tai-


lored to the customer's stipulations)
- Development and review of risk analyses (e.g. FMEAs) and
the resulting measures.
- Development and review of quality plans (see Question 02.6)
- Determining the required resources (e.g. personnel, produc-
tion equipment, measuring systems)
- Clarification of acceptance criteria
- Examination of the realization of the process
- Determining manufacturing feasibility/practicality
(see Question 07.2)

02.6* Are there quality plans resulting form the quality planning
process?

Definition:

Quality plan (according to EN ISO 9000:2000/3.7.5):

Document (#3.7.2) specifying which procedures (#3.4.5) and associated


resources shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project (#3.4.3),
product (#3.4.2), process (#3.4.1) or contract.

Note 1: These procedures generally include those referring to quality management proc-
esses and to product realization processes.
Note 2: A quality plan often makes references to parts of the quality manual (#3.7.4) or to
procedure documents.
Note 3: A quality plan is generally one of the results of quality planning (#3.2.9).

Depending on the customer’s requirements and organizational practice, a


quality plan can be an independent document or the relevant stipulations
are incorporated into a different document, such as, for example, in a pro-
ject plan.

Requirements/Explanation:

Quality plans must include components, modules, subassemblies, parts


and materials and the production processes associated with the marketable
product.

55
The quality plan must normally be drawn up for the following 3 phases:

• Prototype phase
A description of the dimensional, material and functional inspec-
tions and tests which must be carried out during prototype con-
struction (when required by the customer).

• Pre-series phase
A description of the dimensional, material and functional inspec-
tions and tests which must be carried out after prototype construc-
tion and before series production.

• Series phase
Comprehensive documentation of the product and process char-
acteristics, the process control measures, the inspections and
tests and measuring systems which must be observed during se-
ries production.

When quality plans are drawn up, a distinction is made between various
versions. These are related to tangible products in

a) plans for a part manufacturing process with, for example, the follow-
ing content:
• Part name
• Process plan (manufacture / inspection / storage)
• Process stages (working steps)
• Work instructions
• Identification of the quality-relevant characteristics which have to
be monitored during production.
• Process monitoring
- Process description
- Monitoring methods (quality control charts, automatic recor-
dings etc.)
- Responsibilities (operator inspection, quality inspection etc.)
- Inspection instructions
• Inspection
- Parameters
- Geometric/material/functional characteristics
• Documentation,

56
b) plans for a finished product with, for example, the following content:
• Responsibilities (organizational units)
• Review of the customer requirements
• Contract review
• Design review
• Production
• Product inspection and testing

including

• Associated management plan


• Design and development plan
• Product quality plan for purchased products
• Manufacturing plan (provision of machines, tools, equipment, test-
ing and inspection equipment)
• Control plan (see Question 15.1)
• Service plan

If required, the quality plan must be agreed upon with the customer.

Quality plans are living documents and must be reviewed and updated if:

- the product has been modified


- the processes have been changed
- the processes are no longer stable or capable

57
03 Internal Quality Audits
ISO 9001:2000, Clause 8.2

No organizational measure, or quality management system pro-


cedure, works automatically when it is put into place. It requires
constant development and monitoring.
Internal quality audits carried out by trained and qualified staff
serve the purpose of systematic and continuous review as to
whether the activities defined in the quality management system
and their results:
- actually meet the requirements
- are suitable for achieving the objectives and
- demonstrate improvement possibilities
(CIP – continual improvement process)
All the elements, aspects and components of a quality manage-
ment system should be regularly subjected to internal reviews (in-
ternal quality audits). The audit results shall be presented to man-
agement for their review in documented form and, if necessary,
should lead to corrective actions being implemented.
Audit reports are quality records.
An internal audit encompasses all quality elements and thereby
provides the objective evidence about the necessity for the reduc-
tion, elimination and, most importantly, the prevention of noncon-
formities.
Note: VDA Volumes 6.3 and 6.5 are applicable references.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
03.1 Are the personnel (auditors) who perform in-
* ternal quality audits qualified and independent 8.2.2
of the areas being audited?
03.2 Are all elements of the quality management
* system regularly subjected to internal audits 8.2.2; 4.2.4
and evaluated according to an audit plan?
03.3 Do deviations lead to corrective actions and
* are these documented? 8.2.2; 8.5.2
03.4 Are the demands placed on products and
* processes audited and evaluated internally on 8.2.3; 8.2.4
the basis of an audit plan?

58
03.1 * Are the personnel (auditors) who perform internal quality au-
dits qualified and independent of the areas being audited?

Definition:
Auditor (according to ISO 9000:2000/3.9.9):
Person with the competence (#3.9.12) to conduct an audit (#3.9.1).
Explanation of terms:
"Quality auditors" (see DIN ISO 10011, Part 2) must be impartial and free
from any influences which might affect their objectivity.
Personnel tasked with carrying out audits must be independent of the areas
on which they are reporting. They must not come from the organizational
unit to be audited.
Requirements/Explanation:
Auditors must be qualified to manage and perform internal quality audits.
The required qualification profile must be defined. Depending on the type of
audit and size of the organization , the following aspects are particularly
relevant:
• Qualification in accordance with DIN ISO 10011-2 and training in
accordance with EOQ or equivalent guidelines. Evidence of train-
ing can also be supplied through internal training courses.
• Knowledge and understanding of the standards which might form
the basis for audits of quality management systems (DIN EN
ISO 9000 - 9004, VDA Volume 6, Part 1)
• Evidence about the methods of assessment through investigation,
interview, evaluation and reporting (e.g. auditor training in accor-
dance with VDA 6.1)
• Skills that are essential for the management of a quality audit,
such as planning, organization, communication and leadership
• Experience in quality management and quality techniques
• Personal characteristics, such as, e.g. integrity, good judgement,
analytical ability, open-mindedness
• Upholding of relevant qualifications with certificates.

The qualification profile must be appropriately demonstrated.


Note: For further information, see VDA 6, Chapter 6.

59
03.2* Are all elements of the quality management system regularly
subjected to internal audits and evaluated according to an
audit plan?

Explanation of terms:

The different types of audits with scheduled dates and the areas to be au-
dited have to be defined in an "audit plan“ (according to DIN ISO 10011-1).
This auditing is the systematic review of all quality elements with regard to
their effectiveness, compliance with the requirements and their topicality.

Requirements/Explanation:

System audits must be planned and carried out.

Audit plans tailored to the quality elements to be audited must be available


in the organizational units.

An audit plan must contain the following information:

- Reference documents (standards, quality manual, procedures,


etc.)
- Areas and quality elements to be audited
- Audit sequence
- Questionnaire / checklist
- Scheduled dates
- Auditors / audit team

After completion of an audit, an audit report with the nonconformances


found and suggested corrective actions is to be raised. It is to be distributed
to the organizational units involved in the audit and to the organization man-
agement. The effectiveness of the corrective actions is to be evaluated
within an appropriate period of time (see also Question 01.6).

Individual quality elements or parts thereof can also be inspected and eva-
luated at different times. All quality elements, in all areas, and at all sites of
the organization must be audited within 3 years.

60
03.3* Do deviations lead to corrective actions and are these docu-
mented?

Definition:

Corrective action (according to ISO 9000:2000/3.6.5)


Action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity (#3.6.2) or other
undesirable situation.

Note 1: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.


Note 2: Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action (#3.6.4)
is taken to prevent occurrence.
Note 3: There is a distinction between correction (#3.6.6) and corrective action (#3.6.5).

Requirements/Explanation

Detected deviations must lead to immediate corrective actions, i.e. remedy-


ing the cause of one or more nonconformances.

A plan of action must be presented within an agreed time regarding the de-
viations and proposed corrective actions. The action plan contains, for ex-
ample:

a) Deviations
- Non-compliance with a requirement of a standard
- Instructions are not suitable to achieve the objective
- Activity does not correspond to the instructions
- Instructions not actually implemented
b) Evaluating / weighting deviations with respect to
- Image
- Risk/product safety
- Economy
c) Remedial measures
d) Responsibilities/deadlines
e) Effectiveness check
f) Reporting
g) Adapting the documentation (including the quality management
system)

61
03.4* Are the demands placed on products and processes audited
and evaluated internally on the basis of an audit plan?

Explanation of terms:

A "product audit" serves to assess the compliance of the workmanship with


the defined quality requirements on the product after the final inspection.

A "process audit" serves to check whether the product complies with the
quality requirements and that the process is mastered and capable.

Requirements/Explanation

Product and process audits must be planned and carried out

Audit plans must be defined for products and processes and must include
the following information:

- Audit aim
- Reference documents
- Products/processes to be audited
- Audit sequence
- Questionnaire/checklist
- Deadlines
- Auditors
- Reporting with distribution list
- Pursuit of corrective measures

After completion of an audit, an audit report with the nonconformances


found and suggested corrective actions is to be raised and issued to the in-
volved parties. The effectiveness of the corrective actions is to be evaluated
within an appropriate period of time (see also Question 01.6).

The appropriateness of the working and ambient conditions should also be


examined during these audits (see Question 14.6).

62
04 Training
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 5.5.3; 6.2

The organization's employees are an essential factor contributing


to its quality capability. In order to achieve this, measures to train,
qualify and motivate employees should be planned and imple-
mented in all areas and at all levels of the organization.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
04.1 Are training requirements regularly deter-
mined on an individual and function-related
basis and is a differentiated training program 6.2.2
for all levels of the organization derived from
this?
04.2 Does the training program also include ac-
6.2.2
tions for further training in quality techniques?
04.3 Are top management and other management
staff included in the vocational training pro- 6.2.2
gram?
04.4 Are there introduction and instruction pro-
* grams for new and transferred employees and
6.2.2; 4.2.4
for the introduction of new or modified pro-
cesses, business procedures etc.?
04.5 Do employees possess the formal qualifica-
6.2.1; 6.2.2
* tion for their activities?
04.6 Are there measures for the motivation and
6.2.2
promotion of quality awareness?
04.7 Do clear and understandable representations
* of the achieved quality compared to the set 5.5.3
objectives exist in the organization?

63
04.1 Are training requirements regularly determined on an indivi-
dual and function-related basis and is a differentiated train-
ing program for all levels of the organization derived from
this?

Explanation of terms:

"Training program" means the determination of the entire training needs


and the derived measures in all areas of the organization.

Requirements/Explanation:

All employees at all levels who carry out activities which affect quality must
be included. Requirement profiles must be defined on a function-related
basis. The training and further training activities must be summarized on an
individual basis. The summary should clearly show completed and still-
open training measures, and the qualification status must be clearly recog-
nizable.

Evidence of training performed can be in the form of reports, certificates or


confirmation of participation.

One person is to be made responsible for the overall training program.

The further training of employees and maintenance of their qualifications is


the responsibility of the direct supervisor.

The training program encompasses all internal and external training activi-
ties and its effectiveness should be examined periodically.

64
04.2 Does the training program also include actions for further
training in quality techniques?

Requirements/Explanation:

The following topics are relevant, for example:

- risk analyses
- design of experiments
- test and measurement technology
- capability studies
- statistical process control
- quality control chart system
- system, process and product audit
- supplier evaluation
- problem solving techniques
- evaluation procedures.

The training program must be open to all employees.

65
04.3 Are top management and other management staff included in
the vocational training program?

Requirements/Explanation:

Training sessions must be held regularly to define and increase under-


standing of the elements of the quality management system.

These elements in particular include, for example:

- Quality objectives
- Quality management / TQM
- Quality development
- Quality related costs
- Quality information
- Tools and methods of quality assurance
- Product safety

The organizational management and other managers, for example from:

- Marketing and Sales


- Design
- Purchasing and Logistics
- Production scheduling and tooling
- Production
- Quality
- Customer Services
- Personnel

represent the circle of participants to be addressed.

Sufficient management understanding of the potential of quality techniques


forms the basis for their targeted application within the organization.

66
04.4* Are there introduction and instruction programs for new and
transferred employees and for the introduction of new or
modified processes, business procedures etc.?

Explanation of terms:

"Introductions and instructions" are individual training measures which en-


able employees to understand technical and commercial documents and
operational procedures, as well as the necessary techniques/methods re-
quired for their duties, and to use production equipment correctly.

Requirements/Explanation:

The supervisor (foreman, superintendent, group leader) must instruct his


employees on the appropriate use and operation of production tools and
equipment and regarding the correct interpretation of internal instructions.
The supervisor must satisfy himself as to the effectiveness of the instruc-
tion. Evidence of the instruction is shown by signature. These requirements
shall be applied accordingly to all organizational areas.

Introduction and instruction programs have to be developed and defined.

When selecting suitable employees, their personal characteristics and their


specialist knowledge / capabilities must be considered.

Special attention should be paid to the selection and training of new per-
sonnel, workers on temporary contracts, workers on loan and personnel en-
trusted with new duties.

Training and instruction involves employees in the responsibility for equip-


ment and production results. This inevitably leads to the strengthening of
the relationship between employee and supervisor.

Prior to the introduction of operators performing their own inspections, all


affected employees in production must be trained regarding their quality
management duties.

67
04.5* Do employees possess the formal qualification for their ac-
tivities?

Explanation of terms:

The "formal qualification" is the professional status given an employee


when he has demonstrated that he is suitable to perform the defined activi-
ties.

Requirements/Explanation:

Records of formal qualification are necessary when legal and/or contractual


issues must be taken into account. The following, for example, can be
classed as qualification records:

- materials inspector certificate


- welder certificate
- certificate for non-destructive materials testing
(e.g. radiographic testing)

Regular internal instruction (first and subsequent instruction) of employees


is also required, as well as a check as to whether the employees are suit-
able for their specific duties and that substitution of employees is controlled.

For auditors who carry out external quality audits, records for the following
are to be provided:

- Qualification in accordance with DIN ISO 10011-2 and training


in accordance with EOQ guidelines or equivalent training with
certificate.
- Knowledge and understanding of the standards which might
form the basis for audits of quality management systems
(DIN EN ISO 9000 - 9004, VDA Volume 6, Parts 1 to 6)
- Evidence about the methods of assessment through investiga-
tion, interview, evaluation and reporting (e.g. auditor training in
accordance with VDA 6.1)
- Skills that are essential for the management of a quality audit,
such as planning, organization, communication and leadership
- Experience in quality management and quality techniques
- Personal characteristics, such as, e.g. integrity, good judge-
ment, analytical ability, open-mindedness
- Upholding of relevant qualifications with certificates.

68
Evidence must be provided for development and testing activities, for ex-
ample:

- Quality Function Deployment (QFD)


- FMEA
- Design of Experiments (DOE)
- CAD/CAM
- Value analysis
- Simulation techniques

04.6 Are there measures for the motivation and promotion of qual-
ity awareness?

Explanation of terms:

"Motivation“ means the readiness of employees to perform well.

"Quality awareness“ is shown by the attitude of individual employees to


quality issues.

Requirements/Explanation:

The continual improvement of quality awareness in all organizational units


may be achieved, for example, through:

- Improvement suggestions
- Quality circles
- Zero defect programs
- Poster campaigns, competitions
- Training, information meetings
- Awards
- Workshops.

The quality and performance capabilities of the organization are not only
dependent on technical and organizational capabilities and business re-
sources, rather more on the qualification and readiness of employees to
perform well.

69
04.7* Do clear and understandable representations of the achieved
quality compared to the set objectives exist in the organiza-
tion?

Requirements/Explanation:

This is related to the named objectives, defined in Question 01.2 "Quality


objectives".

The current achieved quality levels is to be represented, for example, by


quality indices.

Periodic quality reports and general information with "specified/actual" com-


parisons, graphical representations and other methods of communication at
all levels, for example:

- Representation of quality related costs


- Representation of rework (amount/costs)
- Presentation of audit results
- Comparison of development objectives and development
status
- Representation of the satisfaction of internal and external cus-
tomers

are documents which give information about this.

This makes a comparison between set objectives and achievements possi-


ble. The representations must be easily comprehensible and interpretable
for the employees and must allow the comparison between the set ob-
jectives and achievements to be easily recognized.

70
05 Financial Considerations regarding Quality Management Sys-
tems

Financial considerations regarding quality management systems


are necessary because:

- quality, or respectively, "non-quality“ has a considerable effect


on the profit and loss situation of the organization.

- by improving effectiveness and efficiency of work, losses are


reduced and customer satisfaction raised.

- It is therefore important that the effectiveness of the quality


management system is measured in economic terms.

The collection of quality costs can be performed parallel to, or in


connection with, the classical industrial cost accounting system. It
must be clearly defined and enable long term comparisons/trends
to be identified.

Note: Characteristic figures and trends, but not absolute values/


amounts must be demonstrated to the external auditor.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
05.1 Is there a procedure for financial reporting of
the effectiveness of the quality management ---
system?
05.2 Does regular financial reporting and evalua-
5.6
* tion by the persons responsible take place?
05.3 Is there evidence about internal losses as a
* result of unacceptable quality (nonconfor- ---
mity)?
05.4 Is there evidence of external losses as a re-
---
* sults of unacceptable quality (nonconformity)?

71
05.1 Is there a procedure for financial reporting of the effective-
ness of the quality management system?

Requirements/Explanation:
There are various methods for collecting, analyzing and displaying financial
data about the quality elements.
The financial reporting methods used depend on the individual structure of
the organization, its activities and the maturity of its quality management
system.
Traditional methods do not exclude the use of others, or their adaptation
and/or combination.
The appropriate procedure, method and cost structure (see Questions 05.2
to 05.4) must be defined (e.g. with instructions, distribution list, cost center
and cost plan and a summary of all financial outlays for the organizational
management).
Methods of financial reporting on activities in the quality management sys-
tem include, for example:
• Quality-related costs
- Fault prevention
- Inspection and testing
- Internal and external faults

• or process-related costs (profit/cost ratio calculation) with


- conformity costs
- nonconformity costs

• or quality-related losses (calculating the quality loss) with


- internal and external material losses (non-fulfillment of quality
requirements).

Reports to management must be prepared concerning the extent, trend and


analysis of costs related to nonconformances and their causes.

Note: Detailed information is only the subject of internal audits. Only the existence of the
procedure must be proven to an external auditor.

The organization has the task of recording, analyzing and outlining on a


cause-related and time-related basis the financial figures which illustrate
the effectiveness of the quality management system. It must also introduce
and monitor the effectiveness of improvement and preventive measures.

72
05.2* Does regular financial reporting and evaluation by the per-
sons responsible take place?

Explanation of terms:
Financial reports on quality-related activities should be compiled and eva-
luated regularly by the persons responsible. Improvements and objectives
can be derived from this.
Requirements/Explanation:
The reports must relate clearly to business parameters, such as sales,
turnover or value-added figures, in order to provide a realistic view of the
organization. Characteristic parameters and measured values must be in
line with target values. Trends and potential areas for improvement must be
identifiable. Quality and cost targets and improvement measures must be
defined for the subsequent period.
05.3* Is there evidence about internal losses as a result of unac-
ceptable quality (nonconformity)?

Explanation of terms:
"Internal losses“ are losses before delivery as a result of unacceptable qua-
lity. They may arise from reduced work efficiency caused by rework, poor
ergonomics etc. They also include nonconformity costs resulting from the
non-fulfillment of quality requirements by a product prior to delivery (e.g. re-
peated performance of a service, renewed production, rework, re-inspec-
tion and testing, rejects).
Requirements/Explanation:
These costs/expenditures include, for example:
- Rejects
- Rework
- Quantity deviation
- Value reduction
- Unplanned sorting action
- Re-inspection and testing
- Investigation of the problem
- Down-time caused by failures
- Development targets not achieved.
Key cost items must be shown with their causes, in a time-, production- and
product-related manner.

73
05.4* Is there evidence about external losses as a result of unac-
ceptable quality (nonconformity)?

Explanation of terms:

"External losses“ are tangible and intangible losses which are identified as
resulting from unacceptable quality.

Tangible losses are nonconformity costs which result from the non-
fulfillment of quality requirements by a product after delivery (e.g. sorting,
rework and repair, warranty performances and return shipments, direct
costs and compensation, costs of product recalls, product liability costs).

Typical intangible losses include, for example, lost future sales as a result
of customer dissatisfaction.

Requirements/Explanation:

These costs include, for example:

- Warranty (on delivery/"0 km" and after use by the customer)


- Goodwill cases
- Investigation of the problem
- Recall action
- Product liability

also possible costs from

- Loss of image
- Loss of customers due to dissatisfaction.

Key cost items must be shown with their causes, in a time-, production- and
product-related manner.

74
06 Product Safety

The safety aspects of a product should be identified, with the aim


of enhancing product safety.

The quality management system must always be directed towards


the reliable prevention of nonconformities.

The employees of the organization, particularly executive/ man-


agement personnel, must, in accordance with their activities, be
appropriately informed of the effects of product nonconformities
and the consequences for the organization arising from product
liability.

Note: VDA Volume 1 is an applicable reference.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
06.1 Are the principles of product liability known
5.1
throughout the organization?
06.2 Is there a procedure to define and identify
products and special characteristics, for which 4.2.3; 4.2.4;
special documented evidence of the quality is 7.2.1
required?
06.3 Have procedures for identifying product risks
---
* been defined?
06.4 Do emergency plans and procedures for con-
5.6.2
taining nonconforming products exist?

75
06.1 Are the principles of product liability known throughout the
organization?

Definition:
Product liability (according to DIN EN ISO 8402/2.12):
A generic term used to describe the onus on a producer or others to make
restitution for loss related to personal injury, property damage or other harm
caused by a product.
Note: The legal and financial implications of product liability may vary from one jurisdic-
tion to another.

Requirements/Explanation:
Indications concerning the knowledge of the principles of product liability
can be, amongst others, evidence of:
- Instruction and qualification of responsible individuals
- Legal services (internal / external)
- Product liability insurance
- Observation of science and technology

Product safety deficiencies can lead to liability claims against the organiza-
tion. For this reason, the organization's employees, particularly the man-
agement personnel, in accordance with their activities, must have appropri-
ate knowledge of the principles of product liability.
Principles of product liability are (amongst others):
- Liability dependent on blame (characterized by the reversal of
the burden of proof. i.e. the burden of proof lies with the de-
fendant)
- Liability independent of blame (new product liability law), liabil-
ity for direct damages and consequential damages caused by
a defect
- It must be demonstrated that the manufacturing process (de-
sign, manufacturing and testing) is "state of the art" - simply
complying with the applicable standards is not sufficient
- Responsibilities must be defined in writing
- Inspection and testing documentation with archiving
- Traceability must be ensured (limitation of damages)
- Warning of possible risks when the product is put into action
by the user.

76
06.2 Is there a procedure to define and identify products and spe-
cial characteristics, for which special documented evidence
of the quality is required?

Explanation of terms:

Products and characteristics, which require the corresponding documen-


tation to be specially archived, have either special significance for functional
safety (operation and use) or are directly subject to requirements derived
from official specifications (see VDA, Volume 1). All products with at least
one such characteristic require documentation with special archiving.

Their special treatment is based on general and specific safety standards


related to the state of the art and customer requirements.

Requirements/Explanation:

The system should take into consideration, for example:

- Recognition of product risks (see question 06.3)


- Definition of the characteristics concerned
- Identification of these characteristics on all relevant documents
- Identification and handling of these products
- Documentation system with rules for retention periods and re-
sponsibilities.

The documentation includes, for example:

- Test results, test decisions, process parameters


- Records of the calibration of test equipment
- Records of the instruction, knowledge, competence and suit-
ability of personnel (e.g. medical examinations, such, as eye
tests)
- Special processes for products with characteristics subject to
documentation.

All documents which relate to such a characteristic must be specially identi-


fied. Departments involved must be informed about the need for special
handling of these documents.

77
A retention period of 15 years (differences specified by the customer must
be taken into account) is also valid after discontinuation of production (for
further instructions, see VDA Volume 1).

Proper documentation can contribute towards exoneration in warranty and


product liability cases.

The organization obligates itself with the order confirmation to follow the
appropriate procedure, if agreed.

06.3* Have procedures for identifying product risks been defined?

Explanation of terms:

"Product Risks" are safety risks that are involved in the product fulfilling its
own function. Furthermore, this also refers to the risks that a component
brings to a complete assembly.

Requirements/Explanation:

Product risks are identifiable through, for example:

- Risk analyses (FMEA, amongst others)


- Load-bearing tests
- Service life tests
- Crash tests
- Material testing
- Installation trials
- Environmental simulation tests
- Investigations of environmental compatibility and disposal

and the derived measures resulting from these.

The safety aspects are of predominant importance during these exami-


nations.

The applicable procedures serve to identify and estimate the potential dan-
gers, which arise from an incorrectly developed, manufactured and/or de-
scribed product. If necessary, they must lead to decisions regarding actions
to be taken.

This applies equally to product descriptions (e.g. manuals).

78
06.4 Do emergency plans and procedures for containing noncon-
forming products exist?

Explanation of terms:

"Procedures to contain nonconforming items" serve damage limitation.

They facilitate the traceability of products in a manufacturing operation back


to the material and processes used.

Requirements/Explanation:

Emergency plans for product recalls must be defined commensurate with


the product risks, which are derived from the safety relevance of a product
and possible risks in the entire process chain.

Procedures to contain nonconforming products (see also Questions 11.7


and 13.6), for example, can be:

- Identification on the part/product


- Lot/batch identification
- Product verification, documentation
- Product identification during transport and storage
- Following the "first-in/first-out" principle
- Stating and observing use-by dates

Recognized nonconformities which are relevant to safety can thereby be


limited (damage limitation) in the field (during use) and possibly remedied
by improvement or recall actions.

79
80
Z1 Corporate Strategy

Improved and constant quality, delivery reliability in the agreed


time frame and cost reductions on the one hand, plus more inten-
sive confidence-building customer/supplier relationships on the
other hand, in addition to stronger international business relation-
ships, today force many organizations to adapt their strategy to
these requirements. Management of the organization, including
immediately subordinate executive level, must therefore concern
itself with the following subjects, e.g.:

- Business plan - Comparison of internal and


- Business results external performance data
- Customer satisfaction - Employee satisfaction

Note: Characteristic figures and trends, but not absolute values/amounts,


must be proven to the external auditor.

Reference
SO 9001:2000
Z1.1 Is there a strategic business plan in the or-
ganization which contains aspects relating to ---
costs, sales, quality etc.?
Z1.2 Are there methods to measure business re-
sults and are they used regularly in order to 8.4; 8.5.1
introduce improvements?
Z1.3 Is organization-wide performance data com-
pared with results from benchmarking or simi-
---
lar methods and are improvement measures
derived from this, if necessary?
Z1.4 Is there a procedure which enables customer
* satisfaction to be measured and changes to 8.2.1; 8.4
be detected?
Z1.5 Is employee satisfaction in the organization
one of the principles of management and is it 6.2.2
maintained on a continuous basis?

81
Z1.1 Is there a strategic business plan in the organization which
contains aspects relating to costs, sales, quality etc.?

Definition of terms:

A "business plan" is a document with organization-specific strategic pro-


jects and targets which must be fulfilled or achieved in a defined period.

Requirements / explanation:

A business plan normally includes the following:

a) Cost aspects
- Finance and cost planning (investments, personnel and mate-
rial costs)
- Cost targets

b) Sales and marketing aspects


- Market data
- Turnover/sales targets
- Customer satisfaction criteria (see Question Z1.4)

c) Overall corporate aspects


- Growth projects
- Plant structure plans
- Personnel planning
- Comparison with other organizations (benchmarking)

d) Development aspects
- Development and trial projects
- Product analyses of competition results

e) Process and quality aspects


- Important characteristic data of process performances
- Important quality related figures (see Question 01.2)

82
All aspects should:

- have time details


- be based on project-related knowledge
- take into account present and future customer expectations
- be understandable and monitored, and adapted to any
changes
- serve the purpose of process and quality improvement

Business planning activities must be carried out on an interdisciplinary ba-


sis

Note: External auditors are to be provided with evidence of: characteristic figures, time
frame, tendencies, trend analyses but not absolute values/amounts and also not
for all aspects. Attention must be paid to organization-specific matters.

Z1.2 Are there methods to measure business results and are they
used regularly in order to introduce improvements?

Definition of terms:

The "business result" expresses what the organization achieves with re-
spect to its planned performance.

Requirements/Explanation:

Starting points for financial variables can be, for example:

- Profit − Capital
- Cash flow − Liquidity
- Turnover − Dividends
- Value added − Shareholder long-term
value

In practice, these values are shown partly as absolute values and partly as
ratios per capital unit or per employee.

Starting points for non-financial variables can be, for example:

- Market share − Variability of products


- Rejects achieved − Customer service level

83
Cycle times such as:
- Innovation time
- Time until the profit threshold is reached
- Stock turnover frequency

The measured variables are orientated towards the organizational strategy


and to the corporate aims and plans. They contain measured variables
which enable the internal economy and effectiveness to be recognized and
which are decisive for continued corporate success.
Note: Only the existing system is to be evaluated, not the absolute values / results.

Z1.3 Is organization-wide performance data compared with results


from benchmarking or similar methods and are improvement
measures derived from this, if necessary?

Requirements/Explanation:
The evaluation, analysis and use of organization-wide performance data in
comparison with the data of competitors or other organizations through
benchmarking must give information on, for example:
- Productivity
- Economy
- Quality situation
- Efficiency

Trends in the data and information should be compared with the progress
made towards the organization's overall targets and converted into useable
information for the purpose of:
- development of priorities for the rapid solving of customer-
related problems
- determining the important customer-related trends and inter-
relationships in order to make a review of the organization's
situation, decision-making policies and long-term planning
possible.

Note 1: Only the existing system is to be evaluated, not the absolute values/results.
Note 2: This question can be omitted for organizations (particularly small businesses)
which do not operate on international markets.

84
Z1.4* Is there a procedure which enables customer satisfaction to
be measured and changes to be detected?

Requirements/Explanation:

The procedure must consider the following criteria, e.g.:

- Method application
- Recognition frequency
- Data evaluation and representation
- Interpretation of trends
- Responsibility
- Distribution list

Measurable variables can be, amongst others:

- Flexibility regarding inquiries to new/changed products/


processes
- Achievement of targets
- Product quality at delivery
- Delivery reliability (see Question 19.6)
- Speed of reactions when quality problems occur

Comparisons with competitors and benchmarking methods are helpful. As


far as possible, not only the direct customer but also the end consumer
should be involved.

Measures which lead to greater customer satisfaction should be derived


from the knowledge gained.

Note: Only the existing system is to be evaluated, not the absolute values / results.

85
Z1.5 Is employee satisfaction in the organization one of the prin-
ciples of management and is it maintained on a continuous
basis?

Definition of terms:

"Employee satisfaction" is measured by the way the employees perceive


their organization. The needs and expectations of employees must be satis-
fied by a comprehensive quality approach, in order to advance the employ-
ees readiness to work well.

Requirements/Explanation:

Points which effect employee satisfaction are, e.g.:

- Working conditions, work location, environment, equipment


- Health and safety measures
- Communication on an individual and organization-wide level
- Employee performance evaluation, agreed goals, career plan-
ning
- Knowledge of work requirements
- Knowledge of quality policy and corporate strategy
- Involvement in quality matters
- System for recognizing and rewarding performance
- Management style
- Job security

Further indicators for employee satisfaction can be, for example:

- Results of employee surveys (questionnaire)


- Absenteeism and sickness quota
- Personnel turnover
- Ease in hiring recruits/trainees
- Use of organization facilities

Note: Only the existing system is to be evaluated, not the absolute values / results.

86
Part P: Product and Process

07 Contract Review, Quality in Marketing


ISO 9001:2000 Clause 5.2; 7.2

This quality element deals with the contract review, a marketing


duty. Marketing includes market research, marketing and sales.

The marketing function should take priority when defining the qua-
lity requirements of the product. They determine the requirements
for a product, the market demand and the customer requirements.

Before a quotation is submitted or a contract or order is accepted,


the requirements contained therein are to be checked for com-
pleteness, feasibility, ability to fulfill etc. (contract review). This
applies equally to contract changes.

The requirements of the customer should be documented in a


performance specification and should be clearly communicated.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
07.1 Has a function ‘marketing’ been incorporated
5.2; 7.2.1
into the process organization?
07.2 Are inquiries, quotations, contracts/orders
* checked for completeness and feasibility and 7.2.2
approved?
07.3 Are technical and commercial costs ascertai-
---
ned when preparing a quotation?
07.4 Are the customer's quality requirements on
the product and the quality management sys- 7.2.3
tem available?
07.5 Is a procedure available that ensures the early
and clear notification of all product specifica- 7.2.1; 7.2.2
tions to all areas involved?

87
07.1 Has a function ‘marketing’ been incorporated into the opera-
tional organization?

Definition:

The process organization determines the sequence of actions (control


mechanism) for dealing with a very specific process, for example, from the
market analysis through product development to the payment of invoices.

Requirements/Explanations:

The function ‘marketing’ and its tasks must be described.

Marketing must determine, define and document the quality requirements


and expectations for a product. To do this, a process organization has to be
established in which all involved functional or organizational units are inclu-
ded and their tasks defined. This can be part of the project management
(see Question 02.4).

Tasks are, for example:

- Projection of production numbers


- Providing information on prices and utilization deadlines
- Informing about specific customer requirements/expectations
and evaluating feasibility
- Guaranteeing internal acceptance for the manufacture of a
product with defined requirements
- Taking into account logistical concerns
- Providing for disposal.

88
07.2 * Are inquiries, quotations, contracts/orders checked for com-
pleteness and feasibility and approved?

Definition:
Contract Review (according to DIN EN ISO 8402/3.10):
Systematic activities carried out by the supplier prior to signing the contract
to ensure that the quality requirements are adequately defined, free from
ambiguities, documented and can be realized by the supplier.
Requirements/Explanations:
Prior to the submittal of a quotation or the acceptance of a contract/order
the contract documents (specifications, drawings, requirement specifica-
tions, standards, quality agreements, logistical stipulations etc.) must be
checked for completeness.
Hereby it must be ensured that, e.g.:
- requirements are complete, appropriate and documented
- agreement exist for verbally placed orders prior to acceptance
- ambiguities and deviations are clarified early.

For this a system must be in place in which all responsible functions of the
organization (e.g. sales, development, production, production preparation,
quality department and material management) confirm that they are able to
fulfill customer requirements. The interfaces to the customer are to be de-
fined.
The contract review includes, for example:
- a defined sequence of events in the quality manual/procedures
(flow chart)
- Approval ruling prior to submittal of quotation to the customer
(form with approval by the responsible organizational units)
- Review of contract documents, among others, for:
• clarity of the individual requirements
• inconsistency of individual requirements
• missing of individual requirements
• given deadlines.

When contradictions are detected and requirements are not able to be


maintained the customer (normally the responsible developer, purchaser)
must immediately be informed, i.e. even prior to the submittal of a quotation.
The same sequence of events also applies for contract changes.

89
07.3 Are technical and commercial costs ascertained when pre-
paring a quotation?

Definition:
In a quotation a customer (the market) is offered a product for purchase or
it is provided to him as property or for use.
Products can be tangible or non-tangible.
Requirements/Explanations:
For a quotation, all decisive cost elements must be established and taken
into consideration. The costs are compiled by the responsible divisions and
are incorporated into the overall calculation.
The individual cost elements contain, for example:
- development costs
- material costs
- investments (including hardware/software)
- costs for quality measures
- transportation costs
- packaging costs
- value-added portions/calculated profit
- overheads (administration and marketing cost)

Note: The procedures in practice must be proven to the auditor, rather than the absolute
values.

07.4 Are the customer’s quality requirements on the product and


the quality management system available?

Definition:
Requirements for quality management systems and requirements for prod-
ucts (see ISO 9000:2000/2.2).
Requirements/Explanations:
The quality requirements for a product must be documented, defined and
thereby the customer’s requirements completely taken into account. All
relevant functional/organizational units are to be included in these se-
quences.

90
The quality requirements (of the customer) are described, for example, in:

- Specifications
- Quality agreements
- Drawings
- Performance specifications
- Standards
- Purchasing conditions
- Order documents.

The definitions also include requirements based on, for example:

- Delivery call offs


- Delivery dates
- Prices
- Packaging/Identification
- Disposal.

Special requirements with regard to type, scope and structure of the quality
management system are to be agreed separately.

07.5 Is a procedure available that ensures the early and clear noti-
fication of all product specifications to all areas involved?

Definition:

Requirements Specification (according to DIN 69905):

The entirety of the customer requirements concerning the supplies and ser-
vices of the supplier.

According to VDI/VDE 3694:

In the requirements specification, all requirements from the user’s perspec-


tive, including all boundary conditions, are to be described. These should
be quantifiable and able to be verified.

The requirements specification defines what the task is and why it is to be


accomplished.

91
Performance Specification (according to DIN 69905):

All the realization requirements worked out by the supplier based on the
implementation of the requirements specification.

According to VDI/VDE 3694:

The performance specification contains the requirements specification. The


user requirements are detailed in the performance specification and de-
scribed in an expansion of the realization requirements under consideration
of concrete solutions.

The performance specification defines how and with what the require-
ments are to be realized.

Requirements/Explanations:

Evidence must be provided for a procedure which ensures the maintenance


and distribution of all relevant documents to the responsible organizational
units. Thereby, it must be ensured that the requirements are generally com-
prehensible, i.e. if necessary:

• are translated (e.g. translations of foreign language customer


standards, quality agreements, requirements specification etc.),
• are explained and clarified (e.g. explanation of customer-specific
abbreviations),
• the customer contacts for specific topics (development, purchas-
ing, quality assurance etc.) are known to those responsible
• product function and assembly status are known.

The entirety of the customer requirements on a product is to be regarded as


the product specifications. They are defined, for example, in the require-
ments specification and as realization requirements drawn up by the con-
tractor, for example in the performance specification. Apart from the perfor-
mance characteristics, they also contain assembly instructions, applicable
standards, quality assurance methods, packaging etc.

92
08 Design Control, (Product Design and Development)
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.1; 7.3

The quality element design control also called the quality at inter-
pretation and design describes the quality-ensuring tasks in the
area of product design and development. These should take care
of the transferal of the customer needs from the requirements
specification into a performance specification and technical speci-
fications for products and prepare for a timely realization in con-
formance with customer requirements. The provision of resources
for, e.g.: personnel, equipment, trials is a precondition for product
development.
Note 1: This element is to be evaluated except when design responsibilities
are contractually defined. It is not applicable when a completed
product design is adopted.
Note 2: VDA Volumes 2, 3, and 4 Parts 1, 2 and 3 are applicable references.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
08.1 Does an appropriate product development 7.1; 7.3.1;
* plan for a new product exist? 7.3.7
08.2 Is it ensured that all product requirements can
7.3.2; 7.3.7
be realized?
08.3 Are product trials planned during the develop- 7.3.3; 7.3.5;
ment and pre-series phase? 7.3.7
08.4 Are procedures and methods available to
* carry out a quality evaluation of designs, de- 7.3.4; 7.3.6;
sign models and pre-series products in accor- 7.3.7
dance with the particular project phase?
08.5 Are all responsible functions involved in the
7.3.4; 7.3.5;
release of the product design and its realiza-
7.3.6; 7.3.7
tion?
08.6 Is the result of the product design and devel-
7.3.3; 7.3.7
opment documented in specifications?
08.7 Are the experiences of product design and
development experiences of products docu- ---
mented and are they available to other areas?

93
08.1* Does an appropriate product development plan for a new
product exist?

Requirements/Explanations:

For the product development plan current milestone plans, network plans
etc. with detailed plans must be produced which show all activities from
placement (design and development) through to start of series. The syste-
matic processing of the planned tasks (project planning) must be guaran-
teed. A person responsible for the project and all involved areas with their
tasks must be name (see Question 02.4). Central monitoring of the project’s
progress must be guaranteed (specified/actual comparison). Monitoring
must cover the compliance with all given targets such as, e.g.:

- deadlines
- product qualifications
- costs.

Evidence must be furnished on the basis of examples, although not all


steps stated below must occur, depending on the organization and product
in question.

The plan for the development of a new product is normally characterized by


the following steps:

- Checking design requirements with regard to appropriateness


- Documenting design result
- Checking the design results with other competent organizatio-
nal units
- Verifying design (checking) as to whether the requirements of
the design tasks are fulfilled
- Validating the design (approving/enforcing) to determine
whether the customer’s requirements are met
- Identifying, documenting, checking and approving design
changes and modification according to Question 08.4 and 08.5
- Up-dating product development plan.

To limit costs it is appropriate to design inspection and testing tools and


equipment (including software) so that most of it can be reused for series
production.

94
08.2 Is it ensured that all product requirements can be realized?

Definition:

"Quality Requirements" (see also definition in Para. 4.1/ #3.1.2) are des-
cribed, e.g. in:
- laws, ordinances, etc.
- general standards, guidelines, specifications
- special standards or requirements specifications (these may
contain special inspection and test instructions also for hard-
ware and software).

Requirements/Explanations:

The quality requirements as, for example, described in the requirements


specification (compare Questions 07.4 and 07.5) must be checked for fea-
sibility within the scope of a design review (compare DIN EN ISO 9004,
Part 1/8.5.2).
The design requirements must consider the bases and results of the con-
tract review (compare Questions 07.2 to 07.4).
Points to be considered are, e.g.:
- producibility, testability, precision
- inspection and test set-up, inspection and test equipment,
computer support
- release criteria*3
- experience from production and use (compare Question 21.3)
- external or internal standards/specifications or instructions
- legal requirements (safety, environmental compatibility, dis-
posal).

Suppliers tasks are also to be included in the review. Overall responsibility


remains with the organization. In cases where fulfillment is not possible,
comprehensible measures are to be taken to fulfill the requirements. Un-
clear, contradictory requirements must be clarified with the person respon-
sible.

*3 Release criteria, in addition to other customer-defined criteria, concern


in particular special characteristics with regard to function, safety and
appeal.
95
If the development responsibility for a particular product lies, as agreed,
with the organization, then it should use computer-supported design and
engineering (CAD, CAM, CAQ), e.g., for FMEA, QFD and quality plans.
Thereby it has to be ensured that a problem-free data exchange with the
customer is guaranteed.

08.3 Are product trials planned during the development and pre-
series phase?

Requirements/Explanations:

Product trials must be considered in the project plan.

The trial conditions for the product are to be determined and agreed with
the customer.

The results of the product trials must be compared to the requirements.


When the requirements are not met the corrective actions must be compre-
hensible.

The product trials may also be performed by an external body (e.g. inde-
pendent inspection agencies, customers). The competence of external bod-
ies must be proven; if required, accredited bodies are to be used.

Product trials are, e.g.:

- assembly trials
- functional testing
- durability testing
- environmental simulation testing.

They may be documented in, e.g.:

- product life cycles


- test reports
- trial plans

96
08.4 * Are procedures and methods available to carry out a quality
evaluation of designs, design models and pre-series pro-
ducts in accordance with the particular project phase?

Requirements/Explanations:

The quality evaluations should include:

a) assessment of function, safety, reliability, maintainability under the anti-


cipated storage and usage conditions.
b) qualification tests to confirm that all individual requirements on the qual-
ity characteristics of the design are fulfilled and that all approved design
modifications are implemented and recorded.
c) timely identification of problem areas and shortcomings, as well as intro-
duction of corrective actions (compare Question 06.03 and VDA Volu-
me 4, Part 1, 2 and 3).
d) the result of the product design must be tailored to the possible pro-
cesses (operating means, equipment) (process capability).
e) practical preliminary planning for the quality of the series and purchasing
f) consideration of test results and field experiences.

A quality evaluation may be performed using various methods. In the ap-


propriate project phases (development progress) for products and proc-
esses these are, e.g.:

"Design" Phase

- Risk analyses (e.g. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, Fault


Tree Analysis) (compare VDA Volume 4, Part 1 and 2)
- Design of Experiments (statistical test methodology, e.g. accor-
ding to Taguchi, Shainin).

"Development sample/Prototype" phase:

- Risk analysis (e.g. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, Fault


Tree Analysis)
- Functional tests and release
- Reliability testing/durability testing
- QFD.

97
"Production prior to series start“ phase (see also Quality Element 09):

- Process analyses
- Process optimization
- Process review
- Compliance with specification limits.

Note: Procedure for release of series production see Question 14.2 (Product) and Ques-
tion 09.5 (Process).

08.5 Are all responsible functions involved in the release of the


product design and its realization?

Requirements/Explanations:

A procedure for the release to realization including responsibilities is to be


established.

The following, among others, must be defined for realization:

- Number, state, delivery date, packaging, delivery location of


development samples (prototypes) and initial samples
- Form and contents of the inspection reports in agreement with
the customer
- Release of samples
- Qualification and monitoring of product and cost trends, also at
suppliers involved. (List of approved suppliers compare Ques-
tion 11.2).

Release is based on the evaluation of the feasibility of the design by,


among others, development, sales, purchasing, production, quality assur-
ance, together with the customer (Project launch meeting). It represents the
approval that the design may be realized.

Note: VDA Volume 2 is an applicable reference.

98
08.6 Is the result of the product design and development docu-
mented in specifications?

Definition:

Specification (according to ISO 9000:2000 / 3.7.3):

A document (#3.7.2) stating requirements (#3.1.2).

Note: A specification can be related to activities (e.g. procedure document, process


specification and test specification) or products (#3.4.2) (e.g. product specification,
performance specification and drawing).

Requirements/Explanations:

The results of design and development must be appropriately documented


in the specifications (see Quality Element 10). These documents for the re-
alization of the quality requirements must be complete and unambiguous.

For products that are not clearly specified in the customer's drawings ("as
delivered", "as per manufacturer's choice", “without information on inspec-
tion and test instructions“ etc.), the corresponding information in the organi-
zation’s detailed drawings and the finished part drawings must be com-
pleted. Furthermore, the narrowing of tolerances on the customer's draw-
ings might be necessary. The organization's specifications must cover the
requirements specified by the customer.

99
08.7 Are the experiences of product design and development ex-
periences of products documented and are they available to
other areas?

Requirements/Explanations:

The experiences/results gained during development and trials which are,


e.g., applicable to other development plans must be evaluated, docu-
mented in writing or stored on a computer system.

This may be done, e.g., in:

- design manuals
- data bases for design FMEA
- product life cycles with, for example, product optimization/
improvements, adaptation through modified/improved produc-
tion procedures
- documentation of test results
- corresponding reports on materials and procedures.

It is an objective to have the development experiences in the organization


readily available independent of persons thereby avoiding repeated non-
conformities in design.

This information is to be made available to all relevant areas.

100
09 Process Planning (Process Development)
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.1; 7.3; 7.5

The planning and development of processes and procedures for


manufacturing products are an essential part of all activities prior
to the start of new/modified processes. They incorporate the plan-
ning of all necessary resources such as, e.g., equipment, plants,
technology, method, personnel and transports.
Within the scope of production preparation it also includes the
production organization, the planning of material and production
flow, the layout as well as measures for safeguarding production,
including tool management.
Process planning is performed at the earliest possible time paral-
lel to product development (design control), or is performed addi-
tionally after completion of product development timely prior to se-
rial production in order to realize production processes and proc-
ess sequences. (Activities prior to the initial start of series produc-
tion are discussed in the Quality Element 14 "Process Control").

Note: VDA Volumes 2 and 4, Parts 1, 2 and 3 are applicable references

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
09.1 Does an appropriate process development plan for 7.1; 7.3.1;
* new/modified products exist? 7.3.7
09.2 Are production, assembly and maintenance pro-
cesses and the material flow planned according to
7.5.1; 7.3.7
quality aspects and are process control require-
ments defined?
09.3 Is it ensured that all product requirements are met 7.3.2; 7.3.7;
by the process? 7.5.1
09.4 Are procedures and methods available to carry out
7.3.4; 7.3.5;
* a quality evaluation of processes and procedures
7.3.7; 7.5.2
in accordance with the respective project phases?
09.5 Are all responsible functions involved in the re-
7.3.7; 7.5.2
lease of processes and procedures?
09.6 Is the result of process planning/development
documented in process specifications/ proce- 7.3.3; 7.3.7
dures?
09.7 Are the experiences from process planning and
development documented and are they available 7.3.1; 7.3.3
to all relevant areas?

101
09.1 * Does an appropriate process development plan for new/
modified products exist?

Requirements/Explanations:

For the process development plan, current milestone plans, network plans
etc. with detailed plans must be produced which show all activities from
placement (development) to series start. The personnel and finance resour-
ces are also to be considered in the development plan. The systematic
processing of the planned tasks (project planning) must be guaranteed. A
project manager and all involved areas with their tasks must be named.
Central monitoring of the project’s progress must be ensured (specified/ ac-
tual comparison). Monitoring must cover compliance with all stated targets
such as, e.g.:

- Deadlines
- Process Qualifications
- Costs.

Evidence must be furnished on the basis of examples, although not all


steps stated below must occur, depending on the organization and product
in question.

The following (amongst others) applies to the development of processes for


manufacturing the new product:

- Production planning
- Equipment/tool design and construction
- Procurement (of products, materials, components) from sup-
pliers
- Operating equipment construction
- External developments
- Purchasing and the procurement of production and manufac-
turing equipment
- Updating the process development plan.

For this, suitable technical resources are to be used. To limit costs it is ap-
propriate to design testing tools and equipment (including software) so that
most of it can be reused for series production.

102
09.2 Are production, assembly and maintenance processes and
the material flow planned according to quality aspects and
are process control requirements defined?

Definition:

Process control

Process control is a quality control where the observed unit (tangible or


non-tangible object of an observation) is a process.

Requirements/Explanations:

Processes such as production, assembly and maintenance, as well as the


material flow which have a direct influence on the quality of the products to
be manufactured, are to be defined. It must be ensured that controlled con-
ditions are available. The conditions to be controlled include, for example,
the definition of:

- process sequences, process parameters


- machines, equipment, facilities, inspection, measuring and test
equipment (including identification)
- recording of process nonconformities and corrective measures
- working conditions (work plans, tooling plans)
- monitoring the compliance with given requirements
- approval procedures to be introduced
- standards and guidelines to be observed.

The documents (procedures/quality plan) to be produced by the supplier


must include not only individual work steps but also inspection and test
steps or references to inspection and test instructions. When an operator
inspection is carried out references must be available in the work instruc-
tion to a defined inspection and test responsibility.

These documents must be available at site, continuously updated and pro-


vided with a revision status. The relation to the revision status must be
comprehenisble.

103
To achieve and maintain controlled processes, it is also necessary to carry
out a systematic planning for, e.g.:

- material control
- release of equipment for production, assembly and mainte-
nance
- approval of procedures and work instructions
- quality plans
- computer software
- documentation requirements

as well as to describe and verify the requirements placed on the execution


of work, for example, through:

- examination, comparison and limit patterns


- photographs
- quality guidelines
- packing instructions.

They make the decision-making easier when carrying out activities in pro-
duction, especially where special visual requirements and damage risks ex-
ists.

Note: Packaging and storage, see Quality Element 19.

09.3 Is it ensured that all product requirements are met by the pro-
cess?

Definition:

"Quality Requirements" (see also definition in Para. 4.1/ #3.1.2) are des-
cribed, e.g. in:
- Laws, ordinances, etc.
- General standards, guidelines, specifications
- Special standards or requirements specifications (these may
contain special inspection and test instructions).

104
Requirements/Explanations:

The quality requirements (compare Question 07.4) as described in, for ex-
ample, the requirements specification must be checked for their ability to be
complied with within the scope of a process review (compare DIN EN
ISO 9004, Part 1/8.5.2).

Points to be considered are, e.g.:

- customer-specific requirements (including performance-related


and visual items)
- producibility, test capability, precision
- inspection and test arrangements, inspection and test equip-
ment, computer support
- release criteria*1
- experience from production and use (compare Question 21.3)
- external or internal standards/specifications or instructions
- legal requirements (safety, environmental compatibility, dis-
posal).

The compliance with legal requirements must be guaranteed in the proc-


ess. The inspections are based on the relevant national requirements.

A quality plan must be drawn up.

Tasks for suppliers are also to be included in the review. Overall responsi-
bility remains with the organization. In cases of noncompliance, compre-
hensive measures are to be taken.

The organization should use computer-supported design and engineering


(CAD, CAM, CAQ), e.g., for FMEA, QFD, quality plans to guarantee pro-
blem-free data exchange with the customer.

The process requirements must take into account the bases and results of
the contract review (compare Questions 07.2 to 07.4).

1
* see footnote to question 08.2
105
09.4 * Are procedures and methods available to carry out a quality
evaluation of processes and procedures in accordance with
the respective project phases?

Requirements/Explanations:

The method of quality evaluation for processes is applied to ensure that all
quality-relevant findings from the various phases of product development
can be realized.

In detail, the process shall :

• ensure that the best possible and most comprehensive picture of the
desired quality of the new product is produced by involving and system-
atically questionning all affected functional areas,
• identify potential weak spots early through the appropriately timed appli-
cation corresponding to each project phase and initiate the introduce of
corrective actions
• guarantee and clarify the implementation of corrective actions (e.g. re-
sults from FMEA, fatigue test, field trial and assembly test)
• document all important results of the quality assurance activities during
the development of a new process/procedure
• include the practical preliminary planning for the quality of the series and
purchasing.

A quality evaluation may be performed using various methods. In the rele-


vant project phases (development progress) these are, for example:

• “Design“ Phase:
- Risk analyses (e.g. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, Fault Tree
Analysis) (compare VDA Volume 4, Part 1 and 2)
- Design of Experiments (statistical test methodology, e.g. accord-
ing to Taguchi, Shainin)

106
• “Production prior to series start“ Phase:
- Process analyses
• Causes of dispersions
• Appropriate inspection and test methods, e.g. fault tree analy-
sis, test methodology, cause/effects diagram
- process optimization
- process review
- compliance with specification limits

Note: Procedure for release of series production, see Question 14.2.

09.5 Are all responsible functions involved in the release of pro-


cesses and procedures?

Requirements/Explanations:

A procedure with responsibilities (of the individual organizational units) is to


be established for the release to realization.

To be considered are, e.g.:

- number, state, delivery date, packaging, delivery location of


development samples (prototypes) and initial samples
- the form and contents of the inspection reports, in agreement
with the customer
- release of samples
- production and provision of production and inspection and test
equipment
- qualification and monitoring of process and cost trends at sup-
pliers involved.

The release is based on the evaluation of the producibility of the design


and, among others, through development, sales, purchasing, production,
quality assurance, together with the customer. It represents the approval
that the design may be realized.

Note: Procedure for release of serial production see Question 14.2.


Comment: Other valid document VDA volume 2.

107
09.6 Is the result of process planning/development documented in
process specifications/ procedures?

Definition:

Specification (according to ISO 9000:2000 / 3.7.3):

A document (#3.7.2) stating requirements (#3.1.2).

Note: A specification can be related to activities (e.g. procedure document, process


specification and test specification) or products (#3.4.2) (e.g. product specification,
performance specification and drawing).

Requirements/Explanations:

The results of the design work must be appropriately documented in speci-


fications or process descriptions/procedures (see Quality Element 10).

This includes, among others:

- description of process
- process parameters
- important product and process characteristics
- inspection and test plans and work plans/instructions

These documents for the realization of the quality requirements must be


complete and unambiguous.

108
09.7 Are the experiences from process planning and development
documented and are they available to all relevant areas?

Requirements/Explanations:

The experiences/results gained during the development and trial of new


processes which are, e.g., applicable to other requirements or production
processes are to be evaluated, put down in writing or stored in a computer
system.

This can be done, for example, in:

- processes, process data, feasibility studies


- data bases for process FMEA
- documentation of test results and process problems
- capability studies of machines, plants and processes
- plant life cycles with, for example, process optimization/
improvements, adaptation through modified/improved pro-
duction procedures.

It is an objective to have the development experiences in the organization


readily available independent of persons thereby avoiding repeated non-
conformities in design.

This information is to be made available to all relevant areas, especially in-


spection and test and production planning.

109
110
10 Document and Data Control
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 4.2

Quality management requires documents and data which de-


scribe

• the structure and processes of the quality elements, as well as


• the products to be manufactures.

Thereby, the identification, order, distribution, distribution, storage


and maintenance must be taken into account.

Documents and data may be available on media such as paper,


magnetic tapes or visual data carriers. The legibility is to be en-
sure within the scope of the archiving period.

Note: VDA Volume 1 is an applicable reference.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
10.1 Are the responsibilities and procedures for
* the identification, maintenance, review and 4.2.3
approval of the documents defined?
10.2 Is there a distribution and maintenance sys-
tem with revision service available for the 4.2.3
documents?
10.3 Is it defined, where, how and for how long the
4.2.3; 4.2.4
documents are to be archived?
10.4 Is the timely introduction and control of exter-
4.2.3
nal documents ensured?
10.5 Is it ensured that invalid documents are not
4.2.3
used?

111
10.1* Are the responsibilities and procedures for the identification,
maintenance, review and approval of the documents de-
fined?

Definition:
“Identification" serves the clear relation to events, processes or products.
"Maintenance" encompasses the revision service and archiving whereby
the ability to retrieve records must be guaranteed.
"Review" includes, among others, the comparison and translation between
internal and customer specifications, as well as the formal and contextual
review of documents.
"Release" is the approval given by the responsible departments.
Requirements/Explanations:
The processes are to be comprehensively laid out from the customer to the
organization integrating all relevant internal departments. For the following
documents, procedures and responsibilities are to be defined:
Affected are, for example:
- documents for contract review
- specifications
- drawings
- formulations
- standards, regulations, internal standards
- inspection and test instructions
- inspection and test plans, control plans, inspection and test in-
structions
- work instructions
- work procedures, measuring programs
- quality plans
- quality procedures
- quality manual
- procedures for quality verification
- reference samples
- trial procedures.

Documents must be available with the valid revision status to all involved
organizational units. Special identification instructions from customers are
to be followed
A clear presentation of all types of documents is advisable.

112
10.2 Is there a distribution and maintenance system with revision
service available for the documents?

Requirements/Explanations:

Processes and responsibilities must be defined, e.g., for:

- distribution, availability
- completeness (reference documents)
- safeguarding the latest revision status (current revision status)
- approval of changes
- method of identifying changes in the document
- invalidation.

The introduction and realization of changes must be documented, i.e. must


be provable and traceable (e.g. in the product life cycle). This includes:
withdrawal, invalidation, destruction of invalid documents, signature and
countersignature or similar).

Summary sheets are to be established for a complete presentation of all


changes. The responsibilities for this must be defined.

The system must exclude misuse.

The regulations relating to the approval and distribution system must des-
cribe a process which ensures that the correct documents are available at
the correct time, in the correct place and that a confusion with invalid docu-
ments is excluded.

Aprocedure must be available which monitors the validity of the documents


at regular intervals.

Note: Listing of quality relevant documents, see Question 10.1

113
10.3 Is it defined, where, how and for how long the documents are
to be archived?

Requirements/Explanations:

This requires stipulations on e.g.:

- retention period
- filing system
- filing location.

Thereby, the following must be considered, e.g.:

- protection against fire, water etc.


- storage media (files, microfilm, DP storage)
- if necessary, additional back-up files (e.g. double archiving,
back-up copy etc.).

The retention of documents - including outdated ones - has to be controlled,


in order to be able to prove also at a later stage that the quality manage-
ment system, process and the product fulfilled the quality requirements in a
particular time period.

The retention time (archiving) must also be in line with, amongst other
things, requirements of laws, general guidelines, customers and product li-
ability aspects (see VDA Volume 1).

Note: Listing of quality-relevant documents, see Question 10.1

114
10.4 Is the timely introduction and control of external documents
ensured?

Requirements/Explanations:

The organization must set up a procedure which ensures that all external
documents such as, e.g., standards, specifications, documented procedu-
res and their revisions are reviewed, distributed or introduced at the appro-
priate time. Records of this must be kept in the same way as for internal
documents. Summary of the external documents at a central location is
possible.

10.5 Is it ensured that invalid documents are not used?

Requirements/Explanations:

The exchange of documents at site must be regulated so that invalid docu-


ments can no longer be used.

Immediately after new documents are received, the invalid documents must
be recalled and destroyed by the person responsible.

Evidence of this must be provided for particularly important and identified


documents.

115
116
11 Purchasing
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.4; 7.5

The quality element describes the quality assurance measures


which must be implemented by the organization when purchasing
products from his suppliers.

These products purchased by suppliers (materials, components,


subassemblies, parts and services) form part of the customer’s
end product and thereby directly influence the quality of this prod-
uct.

Note 1: VDA Volumes 2 and 6 Parts 1, 3 and 4 are applicable references.


Note 2: This element may also be applied to internal customer/supplier
relationships.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
11.1 Are the quality requirements on the products
7.4.1; 7.4.2;
and services clearly and completely specified
7.4.3
in the order documents for suppliers?
11.2 Are the evaluation and selection of suppliers
7.4.1
* defined?
11.3 Are sample tests for purchased products de-
7.4.1
fined?
11.4 Does the organization provide procedures for
7.4.1
the regular evaluation of its suppliers?
11.5 Do agreements with the suppliers regarding
the method and responsibilities for quality in- 7.4.1; 7.4.3
spections exist?
11.6 Is the quality of delivered products and ser-
7.1; 7.4.1; 8.1
* vices ensured?
11.7 Is the traceability of delivered products to the
7.5.3
* suppliers ensured?

117
11.1 Are the quality requirements on the products and services
clearly and completely specified in the order documents for
suppliers?

Requirements/Explanations:

Specifications which are clearly defined and easily understood by the sup-
pliers must be an integral part of orders (drawings, standards, requirements
of test certificates, quality agreements, work and inspection and test
instructions, packaging and dispatch instructions, etc.).

The organization must agree these specifications with the supplier. Prior to
release of the order documents, these must be checked for clarity and com-
pleteness. Specifications passed on to suppliers may exceed the quality
requirements of the organization’s customers, but must at least contain all
these requirements on which the supplier has an influence or which affect
him.

This also includes visits of the organization’s customers at his suppliers, if


this is contractually agreed.

Processes and responsibilities must be defined.

Only an order or order confirmation which is completed with all details con-
tributes to the complete fulfillment of the purchasing and quality require-
ments. Hereby, a defined and continually updated revision status is impor-
tant.

When purchasing tools and capital goods the following must be considered
and defined, among others:

- interdisciplinary cooperation on placement and acceptance


through, for example: development, production, quality assur-
ance
- supervision during the design phase with progress reports
- computer-supported design and data processing.

118
11.2* Are the evaluation and selection of suppliers defined?

Requirements/Explanations:

Suppliers must be evaluated by the organization prior to their acceptance.


Therefore the requirements and assessment criteria, as well as the selec-
tion mode must be defined.

The suitability of a supplier may be demonstrated by means of:

a) Assessment of its quality management system through

- systems and process audits of the organization


- system audit results of other customers of the supplier
- certifications through accredited certification bodies.

(Such system audits also serve as a support for the supplier in setting
up its quality management system. They also serve the purpose of sys-
tem consultancy.)

b) Assessment of the product quality of all obtained product through

- product audits
- initial sample testing (compare Question 11.3)
- quality assessments of capital goods (compare Question 14.2)

A list of approved suppliers is to be maintained and to be taken into account


by the involved parties.

Special care is to be paid to the selection of suppliers for products with spe-
cial characteristics, the documentation of which requires special archiving.

An evaluation should be repeated in case of, e.g.:

- re-location of production at the supplier


- new products/ product group
- repeated occurrence of quality deficiencies.

119
11.3 Are sample tests for purchased products defined?

Definition:

Sample (according to DGQ 11-04/95):

Material unit which is subjected to a quality inspection for a particular rea-


son or which is required within the scope of a quality inspection.

Initial sample (according to VDA Volume 2):

Initial samples are products and materials which have been completely
manufactured with standard equipment under series conditions.

Requirements/Explanations:

For all products of a supplier a production process and product approval


(PPA) must be carried out (internal or external) for new or modified pro-
ducts/processes prior to serial use. The results of the initial sample inspec-
tion are to be documented in writing in the initial sample report with speci-
fied and actual values (VDA form). It must contain statements on:

- geometry
- material (special attention to hazardous material)
- function
- reliability.

For important characteristics, proof of capability is to be produced.

The scope and documentation of the initial sample inspection is to be coor-


dinated between the organization and the supplier based on existing ex-
perience.

Initial sampling provides evidence that the supplier is able to fulfil the re-
quired specifications with the applied procedures and equipment. The initial

120
samples give the organization important evidence on the quality of the se-
ries to be expected. A release of the initial samples by the inspector does
not relieve the supplier of the responsibility for the series of these products.

For the release procedure of series products see VDA Volume 2.

Note: Depending on the application purpose, there are various types of samples. In
many branches other designations are used instead of "initial sample" such as, for
example, "initial lot", "initial delivery". The above requirements apply in correspond-
ing form to all sample types.

11.4 Does the organization provide procedures for the regular


evaluation of its suppliers?

Definition:

A "regular evaluation" includes the periodic evaluation of the quality of the


delivered products and services and the assessment of the supplier's qual-
ity management system.

Requirements/Explanations:

The performance of a supplier should be reviewed with a frequency that is


suited to the complexity and technical requirements on the product and the
previous performance of the supplier and must be recorded in a list.

A quality history of the products delivered is to be provided, for example,


through:

- results of material receiving inspection


(compare Question 15.3)
- reject results
- delivery fulfillment (deadline/quantity)
- complaints
- warrant.

Note 1: The assessment of the supplier’s quality management system is performed by au-
dits (compare Question 11.2) and forms part of the overall assessment.
Note 2: The suppliers should be informed about their evaluation on a regular basis.

121
11.5 Do agreements with the suppliers regarding the method and
responsibilities for quality inspections exist?

Requirements/Explanations:

Where necessary, the organization has to set up clear agreements with its
suppliers, regarding e.g.:

- inspection and test procedures


- inspection and test equipment
- the scope of inspection and testing.

An agreement on the methods of quality inspections serves the comparabil-


ity of test results and is prerequisite for their acceptance, when they are
provided by the supplier.

11.6 * Is the quality of delivered products and services ensured?

Requirements/Explanations:

Appropriate measures must be taken to ensure that the received deliveries


are sufficiently monitored. A material receiving inspection must be perfor-
med according to the inspection and test plan and may be carried out as an
identification, random sample or 100% inspection (compare Question 22.3).

When the supplier provides quality records (e.g. test certificates according
to DIN EN 10204/3.1b), then control tests are to be performed periodically.
The characteristics to be shown on the quality records are to be agreed.
The certificate must be based on tests carried out on goods ready for deliv-
ery.

If it has been agreed with the supplier that product inspections are only car-
ried out at his premises, then the organization has to satisfy itself as to the
proper execution at the supplier. The visits shall be carried out depending
on the quality capability of the supplier and on the importance of the prod-
uct. The organization must demonstrate this by means of visit reports.

122
A clear identification of the identity of the delivery lots and a differentiation
of released and non-released lots is to be carried out. The material receiv-
ing system must bar goods that have not been released. In the event of use
of the delivered product prior to the completion of inspection, a procedure
(special concession) must be implemented (traceability).

A consequent management of suppliers contributes to the minimization of


complaints or to ensure a consistent quality level of the final product and
may eventually lead to the reduction of the material receiving inspection.

Note 1: The initial sample status must be known at material receiving.


Note 2: Acceptance conditions for services (non-tangible products) must also be defined.

11.7 * Is the traceability of delivered products to the suppliers en-


sured?

Definition:

Traceability (according to ISO 9000:2000 /3.5.4)

Ability to trace the history, application or location of that which is under con-
sideration

Note 1: When considering product (#3.4.2), traceability can relate to:


- the origin of materials and parts,
- the processing history, and
- the distribution and location of the product after delivery.
Note 2: In the field of metrology the definition in VIM:1993, 6.10, is the accepted definition.

Requirements/Explanations:

Corresponding to a risk assessment, a system for traceability must be es-


tablished. Traceability may be realized, e.g., via delivery number, batch
number or order number.

Ensuring traceability serves the localization of nonconforming products and


the limitation of damages in case of nonconformities.

This applies particularly to products and related characteristics where a


special archiving of the corresponding documents is to be provided (com-
pare VDA Volume 1).

123
124
12 Control of Customer-Supplied Product
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.5.4

"Customer-supplied products" are products which are the property


of the customer and are provided to the organization in fulfillment
of the contract requirements. This also includes, among others,
tools and packaging.

The customer has full quality responsibility for the products pro-
vided.

Products sold by the customer to the organization are not the sub-
ject of this quality element as the normal customer/supplier rela-
tionship applies.

The contractual aspects are to be considered in the Quality Ele-


ment 07 Contract Review.

Note: This element does not apply when no customer-supplied products, as


defined above, are present.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
12.1 Do agreements with the customer on quality
measures for customer-supplied products ex- 7.5.4
ist?
12.2 Is a definition available for the control, verifi-
* cation, storage and receipt of customer- 7.5.4
supplied products?
12.3 Is a procedure defined for reporting noncon-
formities or losses of customer-supplied prod- 7.5.4
ucts to the customer?
12.4 Does a documentation on the quality of
7.5.4
customer-supplied products exist?

125
12.1 Do agreements with the customer on quality measures for
customer-supplied products exist?

Definition:

"Customer-supplied products" are those provided to the customer, gener-


ally at no cost, for further processing.

Requirements/Explanations:

At contract finalization the required quality assurance activities on the cus-


tomer-supplied products to be carried out by the organization should be
agreed with the customer. These agreements control, for example:

- test certificates (documentation)


- inspections and tests (type and scope of material receiving in-
spection, identification check)
- identification
- traceability
- warranty.

Where no agreements exist, the organization can only take quality respon-
sibility for his value- added activities (compare Question 12.2).

12.2 * Is a definition available for the control, verification, storage


and receipt of customer-supplied products?

Requirements/Explanations:

In the event that no special agreements with the customer have been
made, a documented procedure must define responsibilities for at least the
following measures:

- Establishing the identity and quantity, according to delivery


papers
- Establishing the external condition and integrity (transport
damage)
- Correct identification
- Appropriate storage and maintenance of value (special atten-
tion on products with limited storage life).

126
12.3 Is a procedure defined for reporting nonconformities or
losses of customer-supplied products to the customer?

Requirements/Explanations:
When nonconforming products are delivered or when products are lost the
customer must be informed of the following, for example:
- Delivery condition/damage
- Incorrect delivery
- Quantity deviation/lost goods
- malfunction
- Deterioration of quality during processing
- Rework.

Process and responsibility are to be controlled.

12.4 Does a documentation on the quality of customer-supplied


products exist?

Definition:
The documentation describes the quality history of customer-supplied pro-
ducts. It provides a summary of the quality situation during a particular pe-
riod.
Requirements/Explanations:
The delivery quality of customer-supplied products can have a significant
influence on further processing. Deviations from defined quality characte-
ristics are, for example, to be:
- documented upon receipt
- recorded within the area of the production process
- recorded in the case of a product ready for dispatch
- assigned to the delivery lot
- stored for a defined period.

The recordings showing the type of deviation may be carried out, for exam-
ple, in:
- nonconformity tally cards
- quality control charts
- Statistics.

127
128
13 Product Identification and Traceability (Process Control, In-
spection and Test Status)
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.5

This quality element covers all activities which are necessary to


ensure the required production quality in series production. It in-
cludes the monitoring of processes, identification of materials and
products, traceability, inspection and test status and documen-
tation of results and measures.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
13.1 Is the identification of products for internal 7.5.3
processes defined?
13.2 Is the fulfillment of the quality requirements on 7.5.1
the product ensured through process control
measures?
13.3 Are process parameters recorded and devia- 7.5.2; 4.2.4
tions including corrective actions reported?
13.4 Are production as well as inspection, mea- 7.5.1; 7.5.4;
suring and test equipment appropriately 7.6
stored and protected during interruptions in
use?
13.5 Is it guaranteed that only products which fulfill 7.5.1; 7.5.2
* the quality requirements reach the next pro-
cess/process phase and dispatch?
13.6 Is the known product data traceable from dis- 7.5.3, 4.2.4
patch to material receiving?
13.7 Is there a procedure available for the re- 7.5.2
* release to serial production?

129
13.1 Is the identification of products for internal processes de-
fined?

Definition:

"Identification of products" means the clear and traceable identification


through subject number, part number or comparable and of the revision
status.

Requirements/Explanations:

The system shall ensure that products are unambiguously identified in


every stage of the material flow, also with regard to their operational state,
inspection and testing and modification status in order to avoid mix-ups. For
products with a limited storage life, the storage limitation must also be iden-
tified.

The identification of products must be effective in all production areas from


entry until its departure. This may be achieved by means of, e.g.:

- accompanying product documents


- tags
- markings, numberings
- bar codes
- stampings
- labels
- inspection and test reports.

The relation to the lot or batch must be traceable. The corresponding work
instructions must be available at site.

Products missing identification may lead to mix-ups and incorrect deliveries


and are to be regarded as barred until their identity is cleared.

Note 1: The identification system used by the organization must allow the clear relation to
the customer’s drawing with revision index at the interface to the customer (dis-
patch).
Note 2: Identification for traceability, see Question 13.6

130
13.2 Is the fulfillment of the quality requirements on the product
ensured through process control measures?

Definition:

“Process control measures“ include, among others, all inspections and


tests accompanying the process in the complete production sequence used
for controlling.

The inspection during production is a comparison between the requirement


(specification) and the actual result of each work sequence on the product.
It is carried out according to the stipulations of the inspection and test in-
struction.

Requirements/Explanations:

Inspections and tests accompanying the process must be carried out so


that timely detection of deviations is guaranteed. This allows the timely in-
troduction of corrective actions and prevents further processing of defective
materials.

The results of all planned inspections and tests are to be documented so


that trends can be identified and targeted corrective actions can be intro-
duced. Independent of the selected storage medium, the traceability of the
inspection and test results to the inspector is sensible.

The documentation must also contain the results from manual and/or auto-
matic 100 % inspections. In the case of an automated 100 % inspection, a
recording of inspected and rejected products must be carried out.

Processes, notes concerning measures and responsibilities must be de-


fined.

131
13.3 Are process parameters recorded and deviations including
corrective actions reported?

Definition:

"Process parameters" are process-influencing quantities that serve to con-


trol and regulate the process.

Requirements/Explanations:

Typical process parameters are, for example:

- Pressure
- Temperature
- Time
- Torque
- Distance
- Electric current
- Voltage
- Frequency
- Humidity
- Velocity.

Monitoring of the process parameters may be performed either automati-


cally or manually. For manual inspections and tests the results are to be
documented. In the case of automatic monitoring of the process parameter
the review by means of a process audit is sufficient.

Process parameters must always be specified with tolerances.

When deviations are found corrective actions must be recorded.

The monitoring or control elements are to be treated as inspection and test


equipment and must be monitored regularly.

Note: The control elements for process-influencing should be protected from unautho-
rized interference.

132
13.4 Are production as well as inspection, measuring and test
equipment appropriately stored and protected during inter-
ruptions in use?

Requirements/Explanations:
Production and inspection and test equipment must be appropriately stored
and protected from damage and dirt so that the performance capability is
not affected. This also applies to computers and data storage media.
Tools specifically linked to parts and inspection and test equipment must be
related to a defined release or revision status of the related product. The
revision status must be securely attached to the production mean or, e.g.,
must be included in the file for production means.
In the production means store, the tool crib etc. the difference between
tools ready for production and those still to be inspected and reconditioned
must be identifiable (release status).
Mix-ups lead to nonconforming production, complaints, rework costs, addi-
tional set-up costs etc. This can only be excluded through a clear process
organization.

13.5* Is it guaranteed that only products which fulfill the quality re-
quirements reach the next process/process phase and dis-
patch?

Requirements/Explanations:
Products must be given an inspection status after each process step (ex-
cept for interlacing) which shows whether the products have been in-
spected, which quality inspections have been carried out and whether or
not they meet the quality requirements (see Question 13.1). Hereby cus-
tomer requirements must be considered.
The sequence organization, with responsibilities, must be defined. This ap-
plies particularly where operator inspection is practiced.
This is intended to ensure that only those products which have been re-
leased in accordance with the work instructions and which are usable reach
the next operational stage or dispatch.
Where the identification of products is not possible or economically justifi-
able the type of identification must be agreed and proven.

133
13.6 Is the known product data traceable from dispatch to mate-
rial receiving?

Definition:

"Traceability of products" relates to

- the origin of the material and components (identification, date


of inspection)
- the processing history
- the distribution and positioning of the product following its de-
livery.

Requirements/Explanations:

Corresponding to a risk analysis a traceability system must be developed


and described. Exceptions are to be agreed with the customer and demon-
strated.

"First in – First out" (FIFO) and/or consequent separation of lots and


batches serve as supporting systems in order to prevent mixing of various
manufacturing periods. The FIFO principle shall prevent products with vari-
ous production dates or revision status being mixed.

Clearly separated production lots/batches facilitate the traceability when


probems occur. A transparent material flow is guaranteed and thus the ma-
terial disposition more accurate. The mixing of products with differing revi-
sion status is prevented.

Traceability is guaranteed through the connection of the known data of the


processed materials and products with the delivery goods.

Known product data is (among others):

- base data (parts number, revision status)


- lot/batch number
- production date
- production facility
- shift.

134
The FIFO principle must be followed in all production areas (material re-
ceiving, in-process, delivery and external stores) (for example through tran-
sient or electronically controlled stores with storage date as a sorting crite-
ria, etc.). Instructions must be available at the individual work stations. A
clear date identification on the material traveler cards is required, especially
for reserved and fixed storage areas and products with a expiration date.

The individual production lots and batches are to be identified and kept
sepaate. The identification applies to all areas of the organization (material
receiving, production, stores, etc.) up to the point of use. Identification is
placed directly on the parts and/or on the containers/ packaging (compare
Question 13.1).

13.7 * Is there a procedure available for the re-release to serial pro-


duction?

Definition:

"Re-release for serial production" is the order-related release for the re-
newed start of production. The release is required for product and process.

Requirements/Explanations:

The renewed release of the production start shall be carried out by an “au-
thorized“ employee who performs quality assurance functions in a res-
ponsible position. If a release cannot be given directly for time reasons,
then the products must definitely be clearly identified and barred until their
release is granted. The particular proceedings are to be collated in a pro-
cedure.

The performed release inspection is to be documented with its result.

The re-release of serial production (see definition, para. 4.9.3) includes,


among others:

- Documentation of the last series order (quality records, correc-


tive actions etc.)
- Documentation of the data of the last series order (quality re-
cords, corrective actions etc.)

135
- Completeness of equipment and documents for production
and inspection and testing
- Determination of responsibilities for release after set-up
- Determination of the treatment of lead products and set-up
scrap
- Proof of release at site
- Setting of process parameters

Note: The release of the serial production for products manufactured for the first time is
evaluated in Question 14.2.

136
14 Process Control
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.5

This quality element covers the planning and implementation of all


necessary activities as an interdisciplinary task of preparing pro-
duction, assembly and maintenance processes for the initial start
of series production.

Within the scope of production preparation it also covers produc-


tion organization, the planning of material and production flow, the
spatial structuring, as well as measures for ensuring production,
including tool management.

Note: VDA Volumes 2 and 4, Parts 1, 2 and 3 are applicable references.

Remark: Activities which are necessary for restart of series production are
treated under Question 13.7

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
14.1 Are capability studies carried out on new/over-
hauled machines (plants) and also on new/ 7.5.2; 8.2.3
modified products?
14.2 Are the conditions for a release to series pro-
* duction for new and modified products/proc-
7.5.2
esses regulated and are they agreed with the
customer)?
14.3 Is the monitoring and control (regulation) of
the relevant process parameters and product 7.5.2; 8.2.3
characteristics ensured?
14.4 Does a tool management and a planned
maintenance/servicing for equipment and 7.5.1; 6.3
tools exist?
14.5 Are the requirements on special processes
7.5.1
defined?
14.6 Are the environmental conditions which influ-
6.3; 6.4; 7.5.5
ence product and process controlled?
14.7 Is the effectiveness of production processes
7.5.2
evaluated with suitable methods?

137
14.1 Are capability studies carried out on new/overhauled ma-
chines (plants) and also on new/modified products?

Explanation of terms:

Machine Capability

"Machine capability" is given by the relationship between tolerance and pro-


duction distribution of a production facility. Determination and evidence is
normally established through mathematical-statistical methods whereby
only the short term distribution is considered largely excluding the process-
influencing but machine-independent factors (compare VDA Volume 4,
Part 1).

Process Capability

However, when looking at the long term distribution under consideration of


the process-influencing parameters then one uses the term “Process Capa-
bility“. A process is capable when the statistical parameters for distribution
and position in relation to the specified value and tolerance value meet the
requirements (at least Cpk = 1.33). If this is not the case, the process capa-
bility must be reached through process analysis and optimization.

Requirements/Explanations:

The characteristics and method for performing the capability study are to be
defined.

Machine Capability

The capability of newly aquired machinery including tools is to be demon-


strated either by the machine and tool manufacturer or recipient prior to ap-
plication.

138
Under specific conditions, capability studies must be repeated in coordi-
nation with the customer, e.g., for:

- new parts orders


- new tools/equipment
- narrowing of tolerances
- modification of production processes/original state
- following repair (with influence on the product)
- following relocation of machine
- following longer production stops.

Evidence of machine capability should be available for the assessment of


the process capability.

In capability studies the machine with tools and, if applicable, integrated


test and control equipment is to be treated as a unit. The short term distri-
bution must have a capability characteristic number of at least cmk 1.67. If
deviations occur corrective actions must be determined and a new capabil-
ity study is to be carried out after these actions have been implemented.

Process capability

Process capability is to be demonstrated for product characteristics and


process parameters which have a crucial influence on product quality
(compare VDA Volume 4, Part 1).

All characteristic values must generally lie within the tolerance range. The
characteristics important to product quality must be defined and agreed with
the customer. If process capability cannot be proven for important charac-
teristics measures must be defined. These can be, for example:

- 100% inspections of a production lot


- Constructive measures with, if necessary, tolerance modifi-
cations.

The results of a 100 % inspection must be recorded.

139
For cost and risk reasons, a 100% inspection requires process optimiza-
tion. In the case of non-capable processes, the 100% inspection is the only
procedure for sorting out defective products and introducing fault analysis
and corrective actions. Thereby, all actions should have the aim to conti-
nually improve the processes within the scope of a zero-failure strategy.

The capability characteristic number for the long-term distribution must be


at least Cpk = 1.33. When deviations occur corrective actions must be de-
fined. A new capability study must be carried out after these actions have
been implemented.

14.2 * Are the conditions for a release to series production for new
and modified products/processes regulated and are they
agreed with the customer)?

Requirements/Explanations:

For release to series production (see Definition, Section 4.5.3) all produc-
tion factors must be available. Only the consideration of all production fac-
tors ensures the problem-free start of series. When determining capacities
all production factors must be considered. Bottlenecks lead to quality im-
pairments and additionally to exceeding of costs and deadlines.

Production factors are, e.g.:

- Specifications, drawings, formulations, standards with latest revi-


sion status
- Quality plan (compare Question 02.6)
- Qualified personnel
- Site determination
- Defined production sequences, production plan, production envi-
ronment
- Released machines, equipment, operating material
- Maintenance instructions (compare Question 14.4)
- Required inspection and test equipment including capability evi-
dence (compare Question 16.4)
- Approved suppliers (compare Question 11.2)
- Approved materials/supplied products
- Inspection and work instructions
- Process capability (compare Question 14.1).
• provisional
• final

140
- Product qualification review
• Acceptance criteria
• Functional performance
- Initial sample with initial sample inspection report (VDA Volume 2)
• geometric
• material
• functional
• visual
- Production release
• provisional
• final

The selection and training of personnel, as well as the capability studies,


quality analysis (quality evaluation, FMEA, system optimization etc.), review
and correction of technical documents and specifications must be com-
pleted prior to start of series.

The conditions for a release and the type of documentation (e.g. checklist)
must be defined. It is advisable and in certain cases (e.g. modified / relo-
cated processes) it is necessary to agree the release conditions (series and
modifications) with the customer in advance. This includes, among other
things, the production process and product approval procedure (PPA)
(compare VDA Volume 2) and the procedures/methods prior to start of se-
ries (compare VDA Volume 4, Part 1, 2 and 3).

When changed or relocated processes are concerned the customer must


be informed and, if necessary, the PPA procedure has to be applied. In any
case, an internal new sampling is required.

141
14.3 Is the monitoring and control (regulation) of the relevant
process parameters and product characteristics ensured?

Requirements/Explanations:

The monitoring of the relevant process parameters and characteristics are


to be defined in the quality plan. The necessary activities in the event of de-
viations from the requirements must also be stated herein. Changed re-
quirements and agreements with the customer must be included in the
quality plan (compare Question 02.6).

As the compliance with the product characteristics (special customer re-


quirements are also to be considered) depends on various process pa-
rameters, their influence on product quality must be investigated prior to se-
ries start.

The parameters and monitoring frequency must be defined. In the event of


deviations from the specified value they must be (manually or automati-
cally) regulated again (e.g. SPC). The results of the monitoring must be
documented and cross-referenced to the product. Instructions and sequen-
ces must be available at the work stations as instructions (documented
procedures).

Documentation must also contain and justify every change to the defined
production parameters. A change to the production parameter may require
a new process capability study.

142
14.4 Does a tool management and a planned maintenance/ser-
vicing for equipment

Explanation of term:

“Tool management“ is a system in which tools, appliances, accessory in-


struments etc. are documented, monitored and controlled. Suppliers of
tools must also be included therein.

Definition:

Planned maintenance (according to VDI Guideline 2890):

A maintenance is scheduled when the servicing and inspection of a ma-


chine/plant is carried out to a defined scope and time interval. This also in-
cludes that necessary maintenance actions are planned ahead or, if neces-
sary, are performed on a preventive basis.

Note: This serves to ensure the continuing quality capability of the process and may also
include computer and software.

Requirements/Explanations:

Tool management includes, among other things:

- autonomous maintenance and repairs


- storage and overhauling of tools
- tool change program for wearing tools.

Scheduled/preventive maintenance refers to all servicing, inspection and


maintenance work performed on the production equipment in order to avoid
any unforeseen machine failure or a process deviation. The maintenance
plan covers all necessary activities relating to preventive actions in a time-
dependent or number-dependent definition and must be performed for all
machinery (including computers and software).

Maintenance is to be presented in a clear form with time structure (e.g.


blackboard, book, data file). All production equipment, including appliances
and tools, must be included. The completion of the work performed is to be
documented and work to be done must be sorted according to due date.
Maintenance work can be carried out by the machine operator or by main-
tenance personnel.

143
Based on a risk analysis a minimum amount of spare parts must be kept in
stock for bottleneck machines and equipment.

A history on the production equipment is to be kept to identify weak points.


Recording of wear are useful to prevent failures at an early stage.

Special attention must be given to the maintenance of equipment for "spe-


cial processes“ (compare Question 14.5)

Note: The evaluation results of measurements on product and process characteristics


have a significant influence on preventive maintenance.

14.5 Are the requirements on special processes defined?

Definition:

“Special processes“ are processes the results of which can only be verified
(checked) on the product at a later time or not at all.

Requirements/Explanations:

These processes must be qualified. To do this, qualification criteria must be


defined, such as, e.g.:

- Characteristics
- Parameters
- Sequences
- Targets.

The control and monitoring of the processes must correspond to the pro-
cess situation. Personnel assigned for these processes must be appropria-
tely qualified and trained. The unambiguous allocation of the documentation
for processes, equipment and personnel must be given.

144
14.6 Are the environmental conditions which influence product
and process controlled?

Requirements/Explanations:
The environmental conditions must be tailored to the work contents and
products in order to prevent contamination, damage and mix-ups. Products
with "special visual requirements" have to fulfill special requirements. Crite-
ria are, e.g.:
- definition of the responsibilities for order and cleanliness
- clean, intact transport and operating equipment
- clean, well-illuminated workplaces and inspection places
- clear identification systems (e.g. escape routes)
- clear, ordered, if possible synchronous material flow
- appropriate disposal containers
- appropriate room and storage conditions.

Order and cleanliness have a significant influence on the work result.


Where possible, descriptions of the standards should be available.

14.7 Is the effectiveness of production processes evaluated with


suitable methods?

Requirements/Explanations:
The production process must be continually monitored for deviations from
requirements and possible improvement potential.
Personnel active in the process must be involved in the evaluation so that
their experiences are taken into account. Recognized improvement possi-
bilities must be implemented without delay according to a plan to be de-
fined.
Potential methods are, e.g:
- process audit (compare Question 03.4)
- CIP (compare Question 01.3)
- Quality circle (compare Question 04.6)
The following must be evaluated, among others:
- production/work plan
- adapted automization
- ergonomic and human factors
- value-adding work
- inventory management system.

145
146
15 Inspection and Testing (Product Verification)
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.1; 8.2.4
DIN EN ISO 9004-1, Chapter 12

Quality inspections serve to ensure quality requirements are met


and provide evidence through records. Recording of evidence
should be carried out in all phases of production.

This evidence can be provided both through internal records


which directly or indirectly prove the quality of the product (prod-
uct or process data, as well as through certification about this for
the client (the customer).

Prevention of nonconformances has priority over detection of non-


conformances.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
15.1 Are all inspection activities covered by control
7.1
plans with inspection instructions?
15.2 Are the quality inspections in the process and
the appropriate methods/techniques defined 7.1; 8.1
in inspection instructions?
15.3 Are the defined quality records maintained for
7.4.3; 8.2.4
all incoming products?
15.4 Are the defined quality records maintained
7.1; 8.1; 8.2.4
during the processes/working stages?
15.5 Are the defined quality records maintained on
8.2.4; 7.5.3
* the end product?
15.6 Are there records about periodic inspections
8.2.4
and tests?

147
15.1 Are all inspection activities covered in control plans with in-
spection instructions?

Explanation of Terms:
The "control plan" is a product-related representation of all quality inspec-
tions, with reference to inspection instructions, from incoming goods
through to delivery.
Requirements/Explanation:
All inspections (including destructive testing) during the construction pro-
cess of a product must be recorded in control plans and these plans must
be kept available on site. The control plans must include, among other
things:
- specific parts data (part number, designation)
- quality characteristics at the relevant process stage
- reference to supplementary process descriptions
- reference to supplementary inspection descriptions/inspection
instructions
- references to decision possibilities (release, place on hold, re-
work).

If inspections are carried out externally, the same regulations apply. The
organization must regularly satisfy itself of the correctness of the operations
performed. When required by the customer, accredited laboratory facilities
are to be used.
A single inspection control plan can apply to a group or family of parts
which are manufactured using the same process and the same equipment.
When drawing up control plans, different information is used and obtained
from, e.g.:
- Process plan
- System-/Product-/Process-FMEA
- Special characteristics which were agreed upon
- Knowledge obtained from similar parts / processes
- Knowledge obtained from the development phases
- Other analytical techniques (optimization methods, QFD,
DOE).

The inspection control plan must be in line with the quality management
plan. It can also be included within the quality management plan.

148
15.2 Are the quality inspections in the process and the appropri-
ate methods/techniques defined in inspection instructions?

Requirements/Explanation:

The way in which a product is to be inspected and tested must be defined


in inspection instructions for every relevant inspection characteristic in the
production process, right through to delivery.

This includes, for example:

- inspection and test methods


- inspection and test equipment
- random sampling method
(acceptance number C=0 / "0" defects)
- evaluation methods
- quality control charts
- documentation types.

Inspection instructions are necessary for complex inspections. All quality


evidence which must be furnished is defined in them (see Questions 15.3 to
15.5). They represent a constantly available reference in the workplace and
support management when familiarizing/instructing new employees.

Inspection instructions are also necessary for repeat inspections (e.g. in-
spections following rework), or as a result of particular knowledge obtained
(e.g. from series production).

For visual inspection characteristics, limit patterns have to be defined and if


necessary agreed with the customer.

149
15.3 Are the defined quality records maintained for all incoming
products?

Requirements/Explanation:

The inspection results from material receiving inspections are to be com-


prehensively documented; the documentation, related to the subject num-
ber, must contain, for example:

- type and scope of inspections and tests


- information about when the goods were received
- quantity of received and inspected units/products
- scope of inspection
- inspection results and decisions for geometry, materials, func-
tion and reliability with the date and name of the inspector.

When material receiving inspections are reduced on the basis of previous


positive inspection results, then the lots not inspected must be documented
with date of receipt and quantity of delivered parts.

It has to be ensured, that only released products are submitted for further
processing.

Inspection documentation from suppliers (results from inspections on the


delivery or on the relevant units by the manufacturer) with details of the val-
ues determined for the specially required quality characteristics can also
serve as evidence. (see Question 11.6).

In order to fulfill the obligation to show due care and attention, periodic
cross-checks and repeated inspections and tests must be performed.

If rework has to be carried out on delivered products, it must be checked


and documented (repeat inspections).

150
15.4 Are the defined quality records maintained during the pro-
cesses/working stages?

Requirements/Explanation:

In all production areas, inspections must be carried out in accordance with


the inspection control plan/quality management plan and inspection instruc-
tions. The following, for example, must be documented here:

- Inspection scope (number of tested products and characteris-


tics)
- Inspection results (actually measured values, reject quantities,
types and numbers of nonconformances)
- Inspection decisions (release, concession, rework, reject, re-
turn shipment, construction deviation, special treatment)
- Results of repeat inspections, e.g. after rework

Inspection results showing unacceptable quality must also be documented


and evaluated; in this case the implementation of corrective actions must
be evident. (see Question 14.1).

Possible records are, among others;

- nonconformity tally charts


- dimensional reports
- quality control charts
- records of original values.

Quality evidence also includes, for example, results from

- series production/set-up inspection releases


- automatic inspection/process control
- process monitoring
- running tests
- batch inspections.

151
15.5* Are the defined quality records maintained on the end product?

Requirements/Explanation:
The inspections must be carried out in accordance with the inspection con-
trol plan and inspection instructions. Refer to Question 15.4 for further re-
quirements/explanation.
The defined evidence must be provided for repeat inspections (rework).
Quality evidence also includes, for example, results from
- final inspections and tests
- functional inspections (under conditions of use)
- acceptance tests
- product audits
- reliability testing.
Note: It must be guaranteed that all inspections and tests are carried out before the
goods are dispatched to the customer. Special agreements must be made, if this
does not apply.

15.6 Are there records about periodic inspections and tests?

Requirements/Explanation:
Periodic inspections and tests should also be defined in the control plan or
quality management plan; the results are to be documented.
These periodic inspections and tests should prove that all quality require-
ments of the product are fulfilled. The type and scope of these inspections
go beyond the normal inspections and tests during production.
They can be performed at different times for differing requirements.
"Periodic inspections" are inspections, for example, such as:
- long term tests (weathering, ozone, corrosion testing)
- re-qualification tests
- durability tests
Records about verification checks on products which are delivered with
quality evidence conforming to DIN EN 10204 are included in the periodic
inspections.
Repeated inspections, performed as and when required, can also become
necessary and be carried out for a limited period as a result of special find-
ings, e.g. from serial inspections.

152
16 Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.6

Prior to the use of inspection and test equipment (measuring and


testing equipment, including software and gauges), it has to be en-
sured that the equipment is suitable for the foreseen purpose, for
example, through equipment capability evidence and comparison
measurements.
The control of the inspection and test equipment in all areas is a ba-
sic requirement to ensure the necessary confidence in the accuracy
of measuring results and subsequent decisions made based on
those results.
Through control of the inspection, measuring and test equipment,
the regular calibration of the equipment and thereby the traceability
of measured results to national standards is guaranteed. This proce-
dure corresponds with "recognized rules of technology", as defined
and required in relevant national and international regulations, stan-
dards, official specifications and contractual agreements.
The accuracy of the results from a piece of equipment, evidenced in
its documentation, is of particular importance as inaccurate meas-
urements could lead not only to nonconformance of an "assured
characteristic", but could also present a risk when testing quality and
safety-relevant characteristics.
Reference
ISO 9001:2000
16.1 Is there a procedure for the approval, identifi-
* cation, calibration, control and maintenance of 7.6
inspection and test equipment?
16.2 Is the adherence (traceability) of inspection and
test equipment to the requirements of national 7.6
and international standards regulated?
16.3 Are only pieces of inspection and test equip-
ment used that have a sufficiently low meas- 7.6
urement uncertainty?
16.4 Is there a procedure defined to record the in-
7.6
spection and test equipment capability?
16.5 Are corrective actions defined following the de-
tection of defective and damaged inspection 7.6
and test equipment?

153
16.1* Is there a procedure for the approval, identification, calibration.
control and maintenance of inspection and test equipment?

Requirements/Explanation:
The control of all inspection and test equipment in all areas, e.g. in develop-
ment, tool making, maintenance, production, assembly, quality and custo-
mer services, must be guaranteed in order to provide confidence in deci-
sions and actions based on the measured results of tests and inspections.
Inspection and test equipment must be approved for use and calibrated
regularly in order to guarantee its accuracy throughout its entire service life.
The control must cover, among other things:
- standard inspection and test equipment of all kinds
- gauges
- measuring instruments
- sensors
- measurement recorders
- special test equipment and the corresponding software.
In addition, devices, inspection and test records, comparison references
and process monitoring instruments which might influence the quality of a
product or a process must be controlled in the same way.
The system for controlling equipment must be described in a documented
procedure or similar, including the following, for example:
- initial inspection and approval for use of new test equipment
- identification system
- recording of the equipment in a supply source record/approval list
- inspection instructions for the testing/calibration of inspection
and test equipment with defined inspection intervals and
documentation (see VDI / VDE / DGQ Guideline 2618 for "In-
spection instructions for the control of inspection and test
equipment")
- internal/external control body
- reference standards, master gauges
- control of test equipment used by customer services
- control of supplied inspection and test equipment with clear
regulation in the contract permitting its use
- definition of the testing/calibration intervals dependent on the
wear and tear and frequency of use
- examination of the equipment following changes, damage, and
suspicion of false indications
- maintenance of inspection, measuring and test equipment.

154
Gauges linked to specific parts must be able to be clearly cross-referenced
to the subject numbers of the parts, as well as their current revision status
in order to prevent confusion.

Appropriate equipping of the calibration room, the calibration processes


and the skills of the operating personnel must be guaranteed.

The test and calibration intervals depend on the frequency of use and must
be evident from the files or directly on the equipment itself. Actual calibra-
tion and measurement values are to be documented (including initial cali-
bration values prior to first use). The results provide additional information
about wear and tear and the likely time the inspection and test equipment
will become obsolete.

Access to technical data and records about inspection, measuring and test
equipment has to be provided, when required by the customer.

16.2 Is the adherence (traceability) of inspection and test equip-


ment to the requirements of national and international stan-
dards regulated?

Definition:

Calibration (according to DIN EN ISO 10012 Part 1):

The set of operations which establish, under specified conditions, the rela-
tionship between values indicated by a measuring device or system, or val-
ues represented by a material measure or a reference material on the one
hand, and the corresponding values of a quantity realized by a reference
standard on the other.

(Measurement) standard (according to DIN EN ISO 10012 Part 1):

A material measure, measuring instrument, reference material or system in-


tended to define, realize, conserve or reproduce a unit or one or more val-
ues of a quantity in order to transmit them to other measuring instruments
by comparison.

155
Examples: a) 1 kg mass standard; b) standard gauge block; c) 100 Ω
standard resistor; d) Weston standard cell; e) cesium atomic
frequency standard; f) solution of cortisol in human serum
as a standard of concentration.

Traceability according to DIN EN ISO 10012 Part 1:

The property of a result of a measurement whereby it can be related to ap-


propriate measurement standards, generally international or national stan-
dards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons.

Requirements/Explanation:

Complete evidence of the traceability to the next highest level of adherence


(e.g. Deutscher Kalibrierdienst [DKD], Physikalisch-Technische Bundesan-
stalt [PTB], equivalent national organization, research facilities or manufac-
turer’s standard) with validity certificates must be furnished.

Traceability forms part of ensuring the correctness and precision of mea-


surements and is legally regulated. In the case of measuring devices and
material measures, calibration is necessary. Calibration takes place against
a standard.

The uninterrupted chain goes in rising form (calibration hierarchy) from the
used standard, to the reference standard, via the national standard through
to the primary standard.

16.3 Are only pieces of inspection and test equipment used that
have a sufficiently low measurement uncertainty.

Definition:

Uncertainty of measurement (according to DIN EN ISO 10012 Part 1/3.b):

Result of the evaluation aimed at characterizing the range within which the
true value of a measure is estimated to lie, generally with a given likelihood.

Note: The measurement uncertainty is frequently incorrectly described, contrary to


the standard, as accuracy.

156
Requirements/Explanation:
Testing equipment must be selected so that the characteristics to be tested
can be measured with an acceptable level of uncertainty, which must be
known.
The highest permissible measuring uncertainty is dependent on the proc-
ess/product specification and the inspection instructions of the customer.
These factors and the corresponding surrounding conditions (e.g. tempera-
ture, humidity) must be taken into account when selecting the necessary in-
spection and test equipment.
16.4 Is there a procedure defined to record the inspection and test
equipment capability?

Explanation of Terms:
The "capability of inspection and test equipment" is determined from the
measurement uncertainty of the inspection and test equipment in relation to
the tolerance of the characteristic to be measured.
Requirements/Explanation:
The capability study of inspection and test equipment is to be proven on the
basis of the statistical evaluation of ranges of measurements. This may be
done by calculation or graphically (correlation diagram). Special customer
requirements must also be considered here, as far as possible and other
procedures are to be agreed, if necessary.
The inspection and test equipment capability is determined using the re-
peatability or comparability of measurements, with the help of the range
method or the mean value and range method under consideration of the
random variability (95% / 97,5% / 99%).
The result of the study is not only determined by the test equipment itself,
but also through other influences, for example:
- composition of the tested products
- operator
- measurement records
- holding devices
- surrounding conditions.

The necessity for evidence of the capability of inspection and test equip-
ment is dependent on:
- the measurement uncertainty of the inspection and test equip-
ment

157
- the complexity of the inspection and test equipment
- the use of interlocking inspection and test equipment/methods.

This applies especially to complex inspection and test equipment such as:
- measuring machines
- multi-point measuring devices
- measuring equipment for statistical recording
- test equipment for electrical quantities.

Note: When technical modifications are made to products, the inspection and test
equipment capability must, if necessary, be reassessed.

16.5 Are corrective actions defined following the detection of de-


fective and damaged inspection and test equipment?

Requirements/Explanation:

When it is determined that inspection and test processes are no longer con-
trolled or the inspection and test equipment can no longer maintain its high-
est permissible level of measurement uncertainty or is damaged, corrective
actions are required .
An evaluation is to be carried out to determine the effects on finished pro-
ducts, calculate the deviations and to initiate suitable measures, such as,
e.g.:
- rework,
- re-testing
- complete rejection
- informing the customer.

In order to prevent reoccurrence, an investigation of the cause is to be car-


ried out.
The responsibilities and procedures are to be defined for:
- reporting of nonconformities and/or damage
- actions on inspection and test equipment
- actions on products, if necessary, with notification to the cus-
tomer
- detection and elimination of cause(s)

These must also form part of the content of employee instructions.

158
17 Control of Nonconforming Product
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 8.3

A nonconformity according to ISO 9000:2000 / 3.6.2 is "the non-


fulfilment of a requirement"

Should, despite continual efforts to improve quality and to prevent


nonconformities, product nonconformities not be completely
avoidable, then procedures must be put into place which ensure
that nonconforming products at any phase of production are
quickly and accurately identified and excluded from further proc-
essing, delivery or use.

The quality control systems must initiate cause analyses and cor-
rective actions and prevent, on a long term basis, the recurrence
of identified nonconformities.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
17.1 Are there procedures for the handling of non-
8.3
* conforming units?
17.2 Is the agreement of the customer obtained,
prior to shipment of products which deviate 8.3
from the specification?
17.3 Is rework executed according to a plan and
8.3
documented?
17.4 Is there a procedure for the identification of
8.3
recurrent nonconformities?

159
17.1* Are there procedures for the handling of nonconforming
units?

Requirements/Explanation:

There must be a procedure that guarantees an unambiguous separation of


good and nonconforming products. The identification can be in the form of
tags, special containers or markings on the product, whereby tags and
markings must be protected from unintended removal.

The procedure must contain instructions for identification, segregation, cor-


rective actions and evidence of effectiveness, as well as responsibilities,
and must be known to all involved employees.

Decisions about the disposition of nonconforming products must be made


by competent persons on the basis of understandable criteria. They must
be documented. These decisions can be, for example:

- rework
- acceptance with or without repair on the basis of a concession
- downgrade for another use
- rejection
- scrap.

Nonconformities may be detected or suspected in retrospect, if, for exam-


ple, an inspection or work stage is left out, or deviations are subsequently
detected at calibration of inspection and test equipment or a corrective pro-
duction step has been forgotten. Nonconformities detected in retrospect, for
example, following prolonged functional or life testing or as a result of late
evaluation of control charts, must be communicated to the customer.

Should nonconformities be suspected on products already shipped, then


the customer must be informed immediately. Considerations about safety,
product liability and customer satisfaction can lead to a finished product be-
ing recalled.

The processes addressed here must describe all activities which are car-
ried out in conjunction with the control of nonconforming products in order
to remedy faults. This must also include units which are suspected of being
nonconforming. This can necessitate an inspection of other products which
have been developed and manufactured using the same process and/or of
preceding lots of the same product.

160
17.2 Is the agreement of the customer obtained, prior to shipment
of products which deviate from the specification?

Definition:

Concession (according to ISO9000:2000/ 3.6.11):

Permission to use or release a product (#3.4.2) that does not conform to


specified requirements (#3.1.2).

Note: A concession is generally limited to the delivery of a product that has noncon-
forming characteristics (#3.5.1) within specified limits for an agreed time or
quantity of that product

Requirements/Explanation:

The internal and external concession procedure until the agreed delivery to
the customer (internal/external) must be defined.

The deviation from the specification must be presented in detail to the cus-
tomer and documented. If necessary, the products must be identified and
the approved, as well as the dispatched quantity is to be recorded.

Products deviating from the specification - even where the deviation does
not appear critical to the organization - may only be shipped if the customer
has given his agreement. This procedure, if necessary including the validity
period of the concession, must be documented.

17.3 Is rework executed according to a plan and documented?

Explanation of Terms: Rework see ISO 9000:2000/3.6.7

Requirements/Explanation:

For any required rework, the working and inspection steps, together with
the associated production and testing equipment, must be defined. Quali-
fied staff must be used. The performance of the orderly work is to be moni-
tored and documented.

161
Documentation should include, for example:

- Rework inspection reports


- Product designations (e.g. rejections, scrapping)
- Concessions
- Construction deviations

Note: The responsibilities for the initiation and monitoring of corrective actions are evalu-
ated in Question 18.1.

17.4 Is there a procedure for the identification of recurrent non-


conformities?

Explanation of Terms:

"Recurrent nonconformities“ mean nonconformities which reoccur because


their actual cause was not correctly identified and remedied during previous
corrective actions.

Requirements/Explanation:

The procedure must describe the activities regarding further analyses and
corrective actions. The evaluation should consider internally and externally
encountered nonconformities, for example, by means of:

- continuous, systematic nonconformity evaluation


- evaluation of complaints
- rework evaluation.

To do this, it is helpful, for example, to create a nonconformities file.

Such a procedure must highlight problems with a similar nonconformity pro-


file, so that they can be distinguished from those which represent unique
occurrences.

Note: The procedure for the prevention of recurrent nonconformities is evaluated in


Question 18.4.

162
18 Corrective and Preventive Action
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 8.5

This quality element concerns corrective actions for the elimina-


tion of problem causes and for continual quality improvement. The
implementation of a corrective action begins with the detection of
a quality-related problem and includes the implementation of ac-
tions to eliminate or minimize the repetition of the problem.

Corrective actions in design documents, in the manufacturing pro-


cess, on the product itself and on quality management system
elements are to be differentiated.

The necessity for a corrective action to remedy a nonconformity


cause can, for example, be recognized through:

- Development evaluations
- Analyses of potential nonconformity possibilities
- Quality inspections and audits
- Reports on process nonconformities
- Feedback from the market
- Service reports
- Customer complaints
- Management reviews (see Question 01.6).

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
18.1 Are the responsibilities for the initiation and
* monitoring of corrective actions clearly de- 5.6.3; 8.5
fined?
18.2 Are there procedures to estimate potential
nonconformity risks and to implement corres- 8.5
ponding preventive actions?
18.3 Are there procedures for the analysis of non-
8.5
conformity causes?
18.4 Are there procedures to prevent recurrent
8.5
* nonconformities?

163
18.1* Are the responsibilities for the initiation and monitoring of
corrective actions clearly defined?

Definition:

Corrective action (according to ISO 9000:2000/3.6.5):

Action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity (#3.6.2) or other


undesirable situation.
Note 1: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.
Note 2: Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action (#3.6.4)
is taken to prevent occurrence.
Note 3: There is a distinction between correction (#3.6.6) and corrective action (#3.6.5).

Requirements/Explanation:

The correction of internally and externally encountered deviations must be


organized so that a prompt and effective elimination of the problem is guar-
anteed, for example, through:

- root cause analysis and identification


- determination of actions and responsibilities
- informing the affected and responsible departments
- determination of monitoring mechanisms.

The responsibility and authority for the initiation of corrective actions must
be defined. Responsible persons must be also defined for the coordination,
recording and monitoring of corrective actions. The monitoring activity inclu-
des both the performance of the remedial action and the check of its effec-
tiveness.

An appropriate operational organization must be defined in writing and, if


necessary, relevant instructions must be available at the relevant work-
places. The analysis and performance could involve a variety of functional
departments of the business, for example, Development, Procurement, Pro-
duction, Sales and Quality (see also the quality loop).

Through the management review (see Question 01.6), it must be ensured


that pertinent information concerning preventive and corrective actions (e.g.
changes to procedures and to the quality management system) is made
known to the organization management.

164
18.2 Are there procedures to estimate potential nonconformity
risks and to implement corresponding preventive actions?

Explanation of Terms:

The significance of a quality problem should be evaluated with regard to its


possible effect on:

- process costs
- quality-related costs,
- performance, functional capability and safety of the product,
- customer satisfaction.

Requirements/Explanation:

The significance, frequency of occurrence and detectability of the noncon-


formity must be considered in the procedure for estimating risks. The
following formalized methods, for example, offer assistance:

- System, Design and/or Process FMEA


- Fault tree analysis (FTA)
- Failure mode analysis
- Design of experiments.

Feedback of findings from nonconformities encountered where risk analy-


ses already exist (e.g. Design/Process FMEA) must take place, in order to
derive preventive measures from it.

With the classical method of eliminating a nonconformity after it has oc-


curred, technical systems with greater safety and reliability, high level of
quality, lower total costs and with ever shorter innovation times can no
longer be realized. Instead, preventive measures must be used so that po-
tential nonconformities are identified at an early stage and translated into
corrective actions, even before nonconformities arise.

Risk analyses, for example, form the basis for the optimization of and
changes to:

- specifications
- operations
- test and manufacturing equipment
- instructions.

165
18.3 Are there procedures for the analysis of nonconformity
causes?

Requirements/Explanation:

The following quality methods, for example, may be helpful:

- Fish bone diagrams (Ishikawa diagrams)


- Stratification (separating data and dividing it into categories)
- Pareto analyses (ABC analysis)
- Capability studies
- Histograms
- Correlation diagrams
- Failure mode analyses
- Probability charts
- Data collection
- Recording with corresponding graphic representations
- FMEA review.

Within the scope of preventing nonconformities, actions for elimination must


be derived from the results of the root cause analysis and their performance
evidenced.

When a quality problem occurs, the actual root cause must be determined
by analysis before corrective actions are planned. Often the root cause is
not obvious; which necessitates a thorough analysis of, for example,:

- product specifications (including materials etc.),


- all related processes/work stages (equipment, installations,
tools),
- quality records,
- customer service reports and customer complaints

As far as is appropriate, the supplier and/or customer must be involved in


the analysis of the root causes of the nonconformities.

166
18.4* Are there procedures to prevent recurrent nonconformities?

Explanation of Terms:

"Recurrent nonconformities" are those nonconformities which reoccur be-


cause their root cause was not correctly identified and remedied in previous
corrective actions.

Requirements/Explanation:

In order to prevent a problem reoccurring, special preventive actions must


be implemented. When measures to eliminate nonconformities have been
realized, their effectiveness must be monitored to ensure that the desired
objective is achieved. Changes and the experiences resulting from them
must be documented.

Indications of the effectiveness can also come from customer services/


service department.

Problem solving in teams:

0. Clarify the problem for yourself.


1. Work on the problem in a team.
2. Describe the problem.
3. Initiate temporary actions to limit damage and check their ef-
fectiveness.
4. Determine the root cause(s) and check that it is (they are)
really the root cause(s).
5. Define measures for the elimination of the problem and check
their effectiveness through experiments/trials.
6. Implement the measures for elimination and check their effec-
tiveness.
7. Define measures that will prevent a recurrence of the problem.
8. Praise the performance and success of the team.

Note: See also Question 17.4.

167
168
19 Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.5.5

Measures to prevent quality shortcomings arising from incorrect


handling, storage, packing, preservation and transport of the pro-
ducts are included in the terms stated in the heading. They en-
compass the entire logistical chain of product manufacturing from
beginning to end.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
19.1 Are there instructions for the handling of prod-
7.5.5
ucts?
19.2 Is the packing and identification process prior
7.5.5
to delivery defined and monitored?
19.3 Is it ensured that damage or deterioration in
quality during storage and transport is pre- 7.5.5
vented?
19.4 Is there a procedure to record, rectify and ini-
tiate corrective actions on packaging non- 7.5.5
conformities and transport related damage?
19.5 Is the identification of products during trans- 7.5.5
port and storage ensured?
19.6 Is there a procedure which documents deliv-
--
* ery reliability?

169
19.1 Are there instructions for the handling of products?

Explanation of Terms:

"Handling of products“ is viewed as all transport and handling methods and


operations in the complete logistical chain.

Requirements/Explanation:

The instructions must contain orderly planning and control for incoming ma-
terials, their further processing, and for end products up to the point of use
by the final customer. The methods and responsibilities must be defined for,
e.g.:

- handling, storage, internal and external transport


- planning and inspection of packaging
- storage of only clearly identified products
- appropriate storage conditions
- first in / first out (stock control system)
- monitoring of limited storage-life products
- shipping operations
- orderliness and cleanliness
- implementation of customer instructions
- cleaning and preservation
- informing the customer about handling
- disposal.

170
19.2 Is the packing and identification process prior to delivery de-
fined and monitored?

Requirements/Explanation:

Procedures/work instructions must describe all steps which guarantee ap-


propriate packing. The packing must ensure that products arrive at their
place of use complete and undamaged. Training and instructions are nec-
essary for this.

Adherence to requirements can be proven through dispatch audits.

Product packing includes the following:

- initial packing
- final packaging / repackaging for shipment container
- identification,

as well as the materials themselves which are necessary for this.

Customer requirements regarding packing must be observed and must be


accessible on site.

171
19.3 Is it ensured that damage or deterioration in quality during
storage and transport is prevented?

Requirements/Explanation:

In order to avoid damage or deterioration in quality (e.g. through dirt, corro-


sion, chemical reaction) written instructions for product handling are to be
raised (see Question 19.1).

Special attention should be paid to, for example:

- condition of containers
- cleaning and preservation
- filling of containers
- methods of transport (temperature, vibrations, etc.)
- protective measures for products and personnel
- effects of humidity
- padding
- secure fixing
- collective packaging
- instructions for handling (e.g. assembly, delivery).

Conformance to the requirements is to be ensured (e.g. by regular plant in-


spections, if necessary, in the context of audits).

19.4 Is there a procedure to record, rectify and initiate corrective


actions on packaging nonconformities and transport related
damage?

Requirements/Explanation:

Reporting routes and processing of incidents of both internal and external


transport-related damage are to be defined in writing and the responsible
circle of people informed. The responsibilities for corrective actions are to
be determined (if necessary, the customer must be involved).

The measures implemented are to be checked for their effectiveness.

172
19.5 Is the identification of products during transport and storage
ensured?

Requirements/Explanation:

It must be ensured that products are identifiable at all times during transport
and storage. Customer requirements must be taken into account.

The identification refers to e.g.:

- identification in accordance with specification requirements


- revision status
- clear and permanent referencing of identification and/or ac-
companying documents to the product (processing stage, in-
spection status)
- expiry date
- removal of invalid identification.

Note: The identification should be sufficient to allow for the identification of an individual
product, if a recall or a special inspection is necessary.

19.6* Is there a procedure which documents delivery reliability?

Explanation of Terms:

Under "delivery reliability“ one understands the adherence to promised de-


livery deadlines and delivery quantities for products within a defined deliv-
ery period. If deviations from the delivery obligations are recognized or re-
ported, corrective measures are to be introduced.

Requirements/Explanation:

The information system should continuously serve to:


- optimize the throughput time
- adjust the stock turnover to the needs of the customer
- minimize stock levels.

Furthermore, the system should be structured so that:


- the customer is informed in advance about delivery shipments
- an emergency strategy can be operated if a bottleneck in sup-
ply occurs.

173
174
20 Control of Quality Records
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 4.2.4

Quality management need records of quality-relevant data in or-


der to be able to demonstrate compliance with the defined quality
requirements and the effectiveness of the quality management
system. Their identification, collection, compilation, distribution,
archiving and updating must be ensured. The ability to retrieve
records and their hierarchical order must be guaranteed at all
times.

Quality records from suppliers must be taken into account in the


same manner.

All quality records must be legible and stored in facilities under


suitable conditions which avoid damage, deterioration or loss and
must be kept in order so that they are easily retrievable. The
same applies to records on electronic media.

Note: For this element VDA Volumes 1 and 7 are appllicable references.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
20.1 Are procedures and responsibilities defined
for the identification, review and approval of 4.2.4
quality records?
20.2 Are there procedures and responsibilities de-
fined for the evaluation and distribution of 4.2.4
quality records?
20.3 Is it defined where, how and for how long
4.2.4
quality records are retained?
20.4 Is the manner in which quality records are
made accessible to the customer defined, if ---
this has been contractually agreed?

175
20.1 Are procedures and responsibilities defined for the identifi-
cation, review and approval of quality records?

Explanation of Terms:

"Identification" serves the clear referencing to processes, operations or


products.

"Review" encompasses the plausibility check, as well as the formality and


correctness of the contents of the records.

"Approval" is the approval of the measures noted in the records.

Requirements/Explanation:

The operations are to be comprehensively structured from the customer


through to the organization under inclusion of all relevant departments. A
clear illustration of all types of quality records is advantageous.

Quality relevant records are, for example:

- evidence to contract review


- evidence of inspections, tests and experiments
- product/process approvals and releases
- capability records (quality capability of men and machines, in-
cluding tools/organizations)
- quality audits (system, process and product audits)
- materials tests
- calibrations
- quality control charts
- complaints
- evidence of implemented corrective actions
- evidence of quality related costs
- evidence of process related costs
- evidence of quality related losses
- documentation of preventive maintenance.

176
20.2 Are there procedures and responsibilities defined for the eva-
luation and distribution of quality records?

Explanation of Terms:

"Procedures" describe what, when and to what extent evaluations are to be


performed.

"Responsibilities" are those functions within the organization which evaluate


and distribute quality records.

Requirements/Explanation:

To control quality in the various areas of authority, meaningful evaluations


of quality data must be available to the responsible parties. This applies to
individual reports, periodic projections and status reports.

The quality records of the supplier and customer must be incorporated into
this process.

Processes and responsibilities for the evaluation and distribution must be


controlled.

Note: For a listing of quality records, see Question 20.1

177
20.3 Is it defined where, how and for how long quality records are
retained?

Explanation of Terms:

"Retained" refers to the filing and archiving of records, whereby it must be


guaranteed that all documents are retrievable.

Requirements/Explanation:

This requires instruction about e.g.:

- retention period
- filing system
- filing location.
Thereby the following, for example must be considered:

- protection against fire, water etc.


- storage media (files, microfilm, DP storage)
- if necessary, additional back-up files (e.g. double archiving,
security copy etc).
Retaining quality records is necessary in order to be able to prove, even at
a later date, that the quality management system, the process and the
product fulfilled all the quality requirements for that particular period.

The retention (or archiving) period must be defined, among other things, on
the basis of the requirements of legislation, general guidelines, customers
and product liability aspects (see VDA Volume 1).

Minimum requirements for the archiving period are:

- one year after product discontinuation: Product/ process re-


leases, Tool inspection reports, Purchase contracts and sup-
plements to them etc.
- two years: Records on quality performance (quality control
charts), Inspection results, ppm lists etc.
- three years: Reports for the (top) management, Records to in-
ternal quality audits, management reviews etc.
- longer: documents requiring special archiving (DWSpA) (see
VDA Volume 1)

178
The destruction of quality records after the defined archiving period must be
regulated.

Note 1: For a listing of quality records, see Question 20.1


Note 2: Copies of records concerning discontinued products which are required for ap-
proval of the new products must be archived referenced to these new products.
Note 3: See Question 06.2

20.4 Is the manner in which quality records are made accessible


to the customer defined, if this has been contractually
agreed?

Requirements/Explanation:

Quality records must be made accessible to the customer, in so far as this


is contractually agreed. The procedure for this must be defined.

Direct referencing and identification of the relevant records to the defined


products and associated processes must be defined as a procedure.

In many cases, certain product characteristics of the finished product can


no longer be inspected by the customer. Therefore it must be possible to
refer back to the supplier’s quality records for this purpose.

Note: For a listing of quality records, see Question 20.1

179
180
21 Servicing, (After Sales, Post-production Activities)
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 7.5; 8.4

This element summarizes all quality-relevant activities which are


necessary for observing a product in the utilization phase. The
knowledge gained from customer service and from maintenance
activities about weaknesses must be used to improve products
and processes.

Note: If only the Question 21.3 is relevant for the evaluation of this element,
then this question can also be considered and evaluated as an addi-
tional question 18.5 under Element 18. In this case the individual
evaluation of Element 21 is no longer applicable.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
21.1 Is the preparation of operation and assambly
instruction defined and are these clear and 7.5.1
understood?
21.2 Is there a procedure for product surveillance
and an early warning system for product fail- ---
ures in use?
21.3 Is there a procedure to analyze product non-
conformities during use, as well as to imple- 8.4; 8.5.2
ment and monitor corrective actions?
21.4 Is the customer service function included in
7.5.1
the information flow system?
21.5 Is there a procedure for maintenance activi-
7.5.1
ties, if these are agreed?

181
21.1 Is the preparation of operation and assembly instruction de-
fined and are these clear and understood?

Requirements/Explanation:

The preparation of operating and assembly instructions is necessary for


some products.

In this case, the following must be considered:

- responsibility for the preparation


- multilingual
- arrangements with respect to the range of users
- consideration of foreseeable misuse
- warnings concerning incorrect use (also during commission-
ing).

It must be noted that the operating and assembly instructions must be avail-
able and, if necessary, agreed with the customer in good time, that is, prior
to the introduction of the product.

Note: Regarding products within the automotive industry, this question applies primarily
to organizations active in the accessory business sector. The necessity of this
question is to be agreed upon in individual cases.

21.2 Is there a procedure for product surveillance and an early


warning system for product failures in use?

Requirements/Explanation:

The procedure for this must be defined and, if necessary, agreed with cus-
tomers that further process delivered products. Thereby, not only the war-
ranty period but also the entire utilization period should be taken into ac-
count (e.g. also long-term evaluations).

Every organization must be aware of how its products behave in use. The
activities undertaken by the organization, in order to obtain information
about the quality of its products in use, must be evidenced.

182
This includes for example:

- regular market observation


- evaluation of field returns / warranty cases
- customer surveys
- customer information/early warning system.

An early warning system must be agreed and built up between the organi-
zation and the customer. This should include, e.g.:

- an observation and information system


- an organizational system for actions when necessary
- the definition of the responsible person / contact person.

The information must be available to, among others, the following organi-
zational units:

- Development
- Work planning
- Production
- Quality management.

Note: It is especially important that systems suppliers and suppliers of complex products
establish a quick feedback system for the introduction of new products. See Ques-
tion 21.3 concerning the analysis and evaluation of nonconformities.

183
21.3 Is there a procedure to analyze product nonconformities dur-
ing use, as well as to implement and monitor corrective ac-
tions?

Requirements/Explanation:

For product nonconformities during use, or respectively for return ship-


ments from customers, a procedure must be defined for the analysis, im-
plementation and monitoring of corrective actions.

The following steps must, for example, be understandable and docu-


mented:

- Procurement of the nonconforming product


- Analysis of nonconforming production with regard to location,
type and cause of nonconformity
- Definition of corrective actions (short, medium and long term)
- Implementing corrective actions
- Monitoring of corrective actions
- Evidence of the effectiveness of actions carried out.

The results of the analysis of the nonconformity and the corrective actions
must be informed to the customer and, if necessary, to the development
department.

The aim is to avoid nonconformities, to exclude the possibility of a recur-


rence of the nonconformity and to implement continual improvements to the
process.

Note: The procedure for the above is to be defined with the customer.

184
21.4 Is the customer service function included in the information
flow system?

Explanation of Terms:

"Customer service“ is the care of the products at the customer (including in-
tangible products - see Definitions in Chapter 4).

Requirements/Explanation:

Customer service is recognizable through, for example:

- providing special tools and testing equipment for customer ser-


vices
- technical advice (liaison engineer, advice on processing and
use)
- requests for quality related information
- support for own sales offices
- information flow to and from the customer
- qualification measures in manufacturing plants
- timely availability of (modified) replacement parts
- recall of obsolete products and evidence about this.

Evidence of customer services can be, for example:

- identified responsibilities
- discussion notes
- check lists
- meeting reports
- travel reports.

The objective is to ensure the feedback of information from the customer to


the corresponding organizational departments.

185
21.5 Is there a procedure for maintenance activities, if these are
agreed?

Requirements/Explanation:

Where maintenance on delivered products is a requirement of the recipient,


the organization must define:

- what belongs to the scope of maintenance


- how it is to be reported on
- how the requirements are to be fulfilled.

The following must also be taken into account, among other things,

- special tools
- inspection measuring and testing equipment
- work instructions for commissioning
- administration of spare parts

The organizational procedures must be shown.

186
22 Statistical Methods
ISO 9001:2000 Clause 8

The use of statistical methods is an important quality element in


all areas of the quality loop. It is dependent on the product and on
the manufacturing processes implemented and encompasses the
planning, the performance, as well as the evaluation of results.
The use of statistical methods and procedures:
- in the design phase leads to the definition of realistic toler-
ances and functional values
- in experiments raises the meaningfulness and safety of state-
ments using low numbers of experiment samples
- in production, allows the evaluation of the quality of a quantity
of (untested) parts based on a sample of products.
Statistical methods are based on the laws of probability calcu-
lation. Their implementation allows, with economical expenditure,
correct statements to be made about quality levels and any
changes to these levels. All statistical statements are limited in
that they are only valid with a certain degree of probability. This
must be considered by the users of statistical methods.

Reference
ISO 9001:2000
22.1 Are the possibilities for using statistical meth-
8.1
ods determined and is their use planned?
22.2 Are statistical methods used for planning and
8.2.3; 8.2.4;
evaluating experiments and estimating prod-
8.4
uct risks during development?
22.3 Are statistical methods used for the evaluation 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
of quality inspections on deliveries? 8.4
22.4 Are statistical methods used for process opti- 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
mization and for process control? 8.4
22.5 Are statistical methods used for the evaluation 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
of quality test at final inspection? 8.4
22.6 Are statistical methods used for the evaluation 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
of product failures during use? 8.4

187
22.1 Are the possibilities for using statistical methods determined
and is their use planned?

Requirements/Explanation:
The need for statistical methods to determine, monitor and examine proc-
ess and product within the process chain must be defined.
It is to be defined, dependent on the results of the risk analysis (e.g.
FMEA), which processes and characteristics have to be tested and evalu-
ated and with which methods.
The appropriate method must be defined and used for the particular appli-
cation.
Statistical methods allow the user to assess processes taking into account
economic aspects within the process chain.
Statistical methods are planned within the framework of project planning in
the form of a advanced quality plan (quality planning).
The results of the statistical evaluation must be considered within the scope
of quality improvement programs.
Wherever possible and economically viable, the statistical evaluation of pro-
cess parameters must be given precedence over the evaluation of quality
results on products.

22.2 Are statistical methods used for planning and evaluating ex-
periments and estimating product risks during development?

Requirements/Explanation:
Typical methods are e.g.:
- Design of Experiments / analysis of influencing variables
- variance and regression analysis
- significance studies
- calculation of failure probability
- FMEA
- failure tree analysis
- system optimization.

Statistical methods must be used both for product and process develop-
ment in testing, design and model construction.

188
22.3 Are statistical methods used for the evaluation of quality in-
spections on deliveries?

Requirements/Explanation:

Typical methods are, e. g.:

- Random sampling techniques


- Nonconformity tally cards
- Pareto analysis.

The evaluation of quality evidence for deliveries also forms part of this.

These evaluations also serve supplier evaluations.

22.4 Are statistical methods used for process optimization and for
process control?

Requirements/Explanation:

Typical methods for process control and optimization, are e.g.:

- Quality control cards /SPC


- Random sampling techniques
- Nonconformity tally cards
- Pareto analysis
- Capability studies(Cmk, Ppk, Cpk)
- Design of Experiments
- Analysis of influencing variables
- Variance and regression analysis
- Significance studies

189
22.5 Are statistical methods used for the evaluation of quality test
at final inspection?

Requirements/Explanation:

Typical methods are e.g.:

- random sampling techniques


- nonconformity tally cards
- Pareto analysis.

Random sampling plans are to be defined from a statistical viewpoint. The


Zero-Defect-Strategy is to be considered. (i.e. Acceptance figure c=0).

22.6 Are statistical methods used for the evaluation of product


failures during use?

Requirements/Explanation:

Typical methods are e.g.:

- nonconformity tally cards


- Pareto analysis
- probability grids.

Keeping statistics related to a production period is in many cases of great


significance.

It finds application, for example, in customer services and handling of war-


ranty cases.

190
8 Forms for the Quality Management System Audit - tangible
products -

The use of forms to correctly carry out the quality management system au-
dit is advantageous because they enable the results to be gathered quickly,
rationally and clearly for all parties involved. The forms shown below show
examples of possibilities.

The set of forms: Quality management system audit for material products in
accordance with VDA 6.1 consisting of :

Questionnaire (questions only)


DIN A5, block of 10 sets, 12 pages each set.

Assessment documents
Overall evaluation of the quality management system
Overall compliance
Summary of results
Summary of evaluated questions
Corrective actions
Corrective actions - summary
DIN A4, block of 10 sets, 5 pages each set.

Both blocks belong together and are only available as a set in


German/English.
Order No. 1749

Reference sources:
Druckerei Henrich
D-60528 Frankfurt am Main, Schwanheimer Str. 110
(0 69)67 80 06-0
(0 69)67 80 06-30

191
VDA 6, Part 1- Quality Management System Audit
Overall Evaluation of the Quality management system
of the Organization

Customer/Certification body
Area / Plant Location
Auditor
Report No. of System Audit:
Audit period: starting ending

Audited/Certified Organization
Area / Plant Location
Audited Products / Product groups
Address
Contact person

Audit Result

Overall compliance CTOT % from CM % and CP %

Issue of audit certificate recommended


yes no

Comments of the audited / certified organization:


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................

Signature of audited/certified
organization/date Signature Auditor(s) / Date

................................................. .................................................

The customer/certification body agrees that the audited/certified organiza-


tion may communicate the audit results to other parties.

.................................................
Signature

192
VDA 6, Part 1- Quality Management System Overall Compliance
- only for Customer / Supplier Audits (2nd Party)

Customer: Supplier:
Report No. of System Audit: Date:

Grade:

Overall Compliance CTOT % from CM % and CP %

Auditor Grading (for downgrading acc. to. Para. 3.3.3 Notes 1


and 2)

Comments on Grading (Auditor):


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................

System evaluation:

Overall level of compli- Assessment of the QM Designation of


ance in percent system grading

90 to 100 fully compliant A *)

80 to less than 90 mostly compliant AB *)

60 to less than 80 conditionally compliant B

less than 60 not compliant C

*) see notes under Para. 3.3.3

193
VDA 6, Part 1 - Quality Management System Audit:
Summary of Results

Customer/Certification body: Organization:


Report N°. of System Audit: Date:
No. Of Compl. Compliance Pro-
Questions Score level file
VDA Element max. asses max. archie- %
No. poss sed poss ved CE % 20 40 60 80
. .
Part M: Management
01 Management Responsibility
02 Quality Management System
03 Internal Audits
04 Training, Personnel
05 Financial considerations reg. QMS
06 Product Safety
Z1 Corporate Strategy
CM X Compliance level 1 - Z1

Part P: Product and Process


07 Contract Review, Quality in Marketing
08 Design Control (Product design)
09 Process Planning, (Process dev.)
10 Document and Data Control
11 Purchasing
12 Control of customer supplied Prod.
13 Identification, Traceability, etc..
14 Process Control
15 Inspection + Test (for Products)
16 Control of Insp.+Test Equipment
17 Control of non-conforming Prod.
18 Corrective + Preventive Actions.
19 Handling., Storage, Pack., etc.
20 Control of Quality records
21 Servicing (Post-Production Activity)
22 Statistical Methods
CP X Compliance level 7 - 22

194
VDA 6, Part 1- Quality Management System Audit:
Summary of Evaluated questions
Customer / Audited/Certified
Certification body: organization:
Report N°. of System Audit: Date:
Certificate N°.: DIN EN ISO:
Valid to:

01.1 01.2 01.3 01.4 01.5 01.6


02.1 02.2 02.3 02.4 02.5 02.6
03.1 03.2 03.3 03.4
04.1 04.2 04.3 04.4 04.5 04.6 04.7
05.1 05.2 05.3 05.4
06.1 06.2 06.3 06.4
Z1.1 Z1.2 Z1.3 Z1.4 Z1.5
07.1 07.2 07.3 07.4 07.5
08.1 08.2 08.3 08.4 08.5 08.6 08.7
09.1 09.2 09.3 09.4 09.5 09.6 09.7
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7
15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6
16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5
17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4
18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4
19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6
20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4
21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5
22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6

Note: na = Question not evaluated, reasons to be given on a separate sheet.


= *Questions with particular relevance for product, process and QMS

195
VDA 6, Part 1- Quality Management System Audit:
Remarks on Status

Customer / Audited/Certified
Certification body: organization:

Report No. of System Audit: Date:

Ref. to Quality Element ________ / Question _______/Page N°.

196
VDA 6,Part 1- Quality Management System Audit:
Corrective Actions

Customer / Certification body: Audited/Certified organization:

Report N°. of System Audit: Date:

Q-Element Deviations, proposed correc- Response and actions of the au- Deadline
seq. No. tive actions dited / certified organization
.

197
VDA 6, Part 1- Quality Management System Audit:
Corrective action - Summary

Customer / Audited/Certified
Certification body: organization:

Report N°. of System Audit: Date:

further in-
VDA
Element J F M A M J J A S O D formation
No. on sheet
no.
Part M: Management
01 Management Responsibility
02 Quality Management System
03 Internal Audits
04 Training, Personnel
05 Financial considerations reg. QMS
06 Product Safety
Z1 Corporate Strategy
Part P: Product and Process
07 Contract Review, Quality in Market-
ing
08 Design Control (Product design)
09 Process Planning,(Process dev.)
10 Document and Data Control
11 Purchasing
12 Control of custom-supplied Prod.
13 Identification, Traceability, etc..
14 Process Control
15 Inspection + Test (Product testing)
16 Control of Insp.+Test Equipment
17 Control of non-conforming Prod.
18 Corrective + Preventive Actions.
19 Handling., Storage, Pack., etc.
20 Control of Quality records
21 Servicing (Post-Production Activity)
22 Statistical Methods

198
9 Literature

9.1 VDA-Series "Quality Management in the Automotive Industry":

Volume 1 Quality Evidence


– Guidelines for the Documentation and Archiving of
Quality Records –

Volume 2 Quality Assurance of Supplies


– Supplier Selection, Quality Agreements, Production
Process and Product Approval, Quality Performance
in Series Production –

Volume 3 Reliability Assurance for Vehicle Manufacturers and


Suppliers
Part 1: Reliability Management
Part 2: Reliability Tools and Methods

Volume 4Quality Assurance prior to Serial Application


Part 1: Partnerships, Processes, Methods
Part 2: System FMEA
Part 3: Project Planning

Volume 5 Measurement Systems Analysis

Volume 6 Quality Audit Fundamentals


Part 1: Quality Management System Audit
Part 2: QM System Audit – Services
Part 3: Process Audit
Part 4: QM System Audit – Production Equipment
Part 5: Product Audit

Volume 7 Processing of Quality Data


– Electronic Transfer with the QDX Standard –

Volume 8 Quality Assurance Guidelines for Trailer,


Superstructure and Container Manufacturers

199
Volume 9 Quality Assurance
Emissions and Consumption

Volume 10 Customer Satisfaction in the Supply Network

Volume 12 Process Orientation (incl. CD-ROM)

Volume 17 Logistics Analysis

Volume 18 From Quality Management to Business Excellence in


the German Automotive Industry
Part 1: The EFQM Excellence Model
Part 2: Implementing and Evaluating Excellence
Part 3: The 8 Cornerstones of Excellence
Part 4: Excellence in large Organizations
Part 6: Assessors' Evaluation Handbook

QMC Report

9.2 Masing, Walter (Hrsg.),


Handbuch des Qualitätsmanagement, 3. Auflage, 1994

9.3 DGQ-Schrift 11 - 04 (Stand 1995)


Begriffe zum Qualitätsmanagement

9.4 DGQ-Schrift 12 - 62 (Stand 1991)


Qualitätssicherungs-Handbuch und Verfahrensanweisung,
Leitfaden für die Erstellung

9.5 DGQ-Schrift 12 - 63 (Stand 1993)


Systemaudit

9.6 DIN EN ISO 8402 (1995)


Qualitätsmanagement und Qualitätssicherung – Begriffe

9.7 DIN EN ISO 9000, Teil 1 (08/94)


Qualitätsmanagement- und Qualitätssicherungsnormen; Leitfaden
zur Auswahl und Anwendung

9.8 DIN EN ISO 9000 Teil 2 (03/92)


Qualitätsmanagement- und Qualitätssicherungsnormen; Allgemei-
ner Leitfaden zur Anwend. von ISO 9001, ISO 9002 und ISO 9003

200
9.9 DIN EN ISO 9000 Teil 3 (06/92)
Qualitätsmanagement- und Qualitätssicherungsnormen; Leitfaden
für die Anwendung von ISO 9001 auf die Entwicklung, Lieferung
und Wartung von Software

9.10 DIN EN ISO 9000 Teil 4 (05/92)


Qualitätsmanagement- und Qualitätssicherungsnormen; Anwen-
dung auf das Zuverlässigkeitsmanagement

9.11 DIN EN ISO 9001 (08/94)


Qualitätssicherungssysteme; Modell zur Darlegung der Qualitäts-
sicherung in Design/Entwicklung, Produktion, Montage und Kun-
dendienst

9.12 DIN EN ISO 9002 (08/94)


Qualitätssicherungssysteme; Modell zur Darlegung der Qualitäts-
sicherung in Produktion und Montage

9.13 DIN EN ISO 9003 (08/94)


Qualitätssicherungssysteme; Modell zur Darlegung der Qualitäts-
sicherung bei der Endprüfung

9.14 DIN EN ISO 9004, Teil 1 (08/94)


Qualitätsmanagement und Elemente eines Qualitätssicherungs-
systems - Leitfaden

9.15 DIN EN ISO 9004, Teil 2 (08/94)


Qualitätsmanagement und Elemente eines Qualitätssicherungs-
systems - Leitfaden für Dienstleistungen

9.16 DIN EN ISO 9004 Teil 3 (08/94)


Qualitätsmanagement und Elemente eines Qualitätssicherungs-
systems - Leitfaden für verfahrenstechnische Produkte

9.17 DIN EN ISO 9004 Teil 4 (08/94)


Qualitätsmanagement und Elemente eines Qualitätssicherungs-
systems - Leitfaden für Qualitätsverbesserung

201
9.18 DIN ISO 10011 Teil 1 (06/92)
Leitfaden für das Audit von Qualitätssicherungssystemen; Audit-
durchführung

9.19 DIN ISO 10011 Teil 2 (06/92)


- Qualifikationskriterien für Auditoren

9.20 DIN ISO 10011 Teil 3 (06/92)


- Management von Auditprogrammen

9.21 DIN ISO 10012 Teil 1 (08/92)


Forderung an die Darlegung der Qualitätssicherung von Prüf-
mitteln - Management von Prüfmitteln

9.22 VDI-Richtlinie 2890 (1986)


Planmäßige Instandhaltung:
Anleitung zur Erstellung von Wartungs- und Inspektionsplänen

9.23 VDI/VDE/DGQ-Richtlinie 2618 (Teil 1 - 17):


Prüfanweisung zur Prüfmittelüberwachung

9.24 VDI/VDE/DGQ-Richtlinie 2619:


Prüfplanung

9.25 DGQ-Schrift 14-18 (1995)


Wirtschaftlichkeit durch Qualitätsmanagement

9.26 ISO 9000:2000, 9001:2000 + 9004:2000


Quality Management Systems – Terms and Definitions, Require-
ments

References

9.1 Verband der Automobilindustrie e. V. (VDA)


Qualitätsmanagement Center (QMC)
An den Drei Hasen 31, D-61440 Oberursel

9.2 Carl Hanser Verlag, Postfach 86 04 20, D-81631 München

9.3 - 26 Beuth-Verlag, Burggrafenstraße, D-10787 Berlin

202
10 Agreement with Industrial Associations

10.1 Introduction

The current publication on the auditing of quality management systems ac-


cording to DIN EN ISO 9004, Part 1 and DIN EN ISO 9001 has since the
publication of the 1st Edition in January 1991 received great attention even
beyond the sector of the automotive industry. This was the reason why
quality management working groups from several expert and industrial as-
sociations have discussed the content and formulation of this document.
Thereby, it was established that the questionnaire could be adapted apart
from some questions not pertinent to this industry sector. These questions
not pertinent to this industry sector should not be used in au-
dits/certification and evaluation. The final determination of the which
questions are or are not used in the audit/certification process is subject to
agreement between the organization to be audited and the customer or cer-
tification body under consideration of risk aspects. This may vary when
comparing different associations and suppliers.

10.2 Summary of the National Associations

• Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e. V. (DGM)


Oberursel/Ts. German Association for Material Science)

For the committees:


Strangpressen und Walzen von NE-Metallen
(Extrusion Molding and Rolling)

• Deutscher Schraubenverband e. V
Hagen (German Association of Fasteners)

• Verband der Chemischen Industrie e. V. (VCI)


Frankfurt/Main (Association of the Chemical Industry)

The VCI regards all questions as applicable, however, the production


processes in the chemical industry are partially structured different to
other industrial branches. Therefore, supplementing explanations for some
questions of the VDA questionnaire were established from a chemistry-
specific viewpoint.
The comparison and explanations are contained in a VCI brochure which
is available from the VCI.

203
• Verband der Deutschen Federnindustrie (VDFI)
Hagen (Association of the German Spring Industry)

For the member associations:

- VDFI Fahrzeugfedern e.V. - FF – (Vehicle Springs)

- VDFI Kaltgeformte Federn - KF – (Cold Formed Springs)

- Verein Deutscher Eisenhüttenleute e.V. (VDEH)


Düsseldorf (Association of German Iron Foundry Workers)

- Industrieverband Deutscher Schmieden e. V. (IDS)


Hagen (German Forging Industry Association)

• Wirtschaftsvereinigung Ziehereien und Kaltwalzwerke e. V.


Düsseldorf (Drawing and Cold Rolling Works Industrial Association)

For the member associations:

- Eisen- und Stahldrahtvereinigung e. V. (Steel Wire Organization)

- Fachvereinigung Kaltwalzwerke e. V. (Cold Rolling Works)


Kaltbund und Kaltprofile (Cold Strip and Cold Profile)

- Fachvereinigung Präzisionsrohrwerke e. V.
(Association of Precision Tube Works)

- Stabziehereien-Vereinigung e. V. (Bar Drawing Association)

10.3 International Agreement on Mutual Recognition

In March 1994, the agreement on the mutual recognition of results of quality


management system audits between the French and German Automotive
Industry was concluded. This was realized after an intensive comparison of
the two existing questionnaires and after a corresponding alignment of the
requirements, as well as after joint audits at German and French suppliers.
The wording of the agreement in the German language is printed on the fol-
lowing page.

204
AGREEMENT
on mutual recognition
PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault, FIEV and Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA)

The car manufacturers PSA PEU- ment of this procedure. It forms


GEOT CITROËN and RENAULT the basis for evaluating the quality
evaluate the quality capability of capability of their own suppliers.
their suppliers according to a pro-
The German car and component
cedure that is described in the
manufacturers, members of the
publication
VDA (Verband der Automobilindu-
„REFERENTIEL D’EVALUATION strie e.V. Association of the Ger-
D’APTITUDE QUALITÉ FOUR- man Automotive Industry) have
NISSEURS“ established an audit procedure for
the evaluation of the quality sys-
(Evaluation of the quality capability tems of their suppliers that is des-
of suppliers)
cribed in Volume 6 of the series
Edition 94, based on the standard
„QUALITÄTSMANAGEMENT IN
series EN29000.
DER AUTOMOBILINDUSTRIE –
The French component manufac- QUALIÄTSSICHERUNGSSYSTE
turers, members of the FIEV MAUDIT“
(Fédération des Industries des
and which is also based on the
Equipements pour Véhicules),
standard series EN 29000.
have participated in the develop-
In an effort to raise the efficiency when auditing quality systems and after
establishing the comparability of both evaluation procedures
• The car manufacturers PSA • The car and component manu-
PEUGEOT CITROËN and RE- facturers of the VDA on the
NAULT, as well as the compo- other side
nent manufacturers of the FIEV
on the one side and
have decided
TO MUTUALLY RECOGNIZE AUDITS WHICH HAVE BEEN CARRIED
OUT BY ONE OF THE CONTRACT PARTNERS FOLLOWING ONE OF
THE ABOVE PROCEDURES AND THEIR RESULTS.
This requires, that the audited organization provides the result and audit
report of a preceding audit. Specific elements of the respective partner may
be subject of a supplementing audit.
nine signatures
- End of the agreement –

205
11 Notes on a Certification according to VDA 6.1

Certification bodies, contractually accredited by VDA, may, upon request,


certify the quality management system of an organization on the basis of
VDA Volume 6, Part 1. This certification is based on a certificate according
to DIN EN ISO 9001 or 9002. It is supplemented by VDA 6.1-specific ele-
ments and questions whereby all appropriate questions of the VDA 6.1
questionnaire must be evaluated.

A certificate supplement VDA 6.1 (for the certificate according to DIN EN


ISO 9001/ 9002) may be issued by the certification body if an overall com-
pliance of at least 90% has been reached, no element lies below 75% com-
pliance, no question identified with a * is marked with less then eight points
and no question without marking reaches zero points (compare Para.
3.3.3).

When certifying according to VDA 6.1 an existing certificate according to


DIN EN ISO 9001 or 9002 may be taken into account so that the expendi-
ture for upgrading to VDA 6.1 is limited.

Certification audits must only be carried out by "certified VDA 6.1 auditors"
with the corresponding branch expertise.

More details are given in VDA Volume 6, Quality Audit Fundamentals


- Certification Requirements.

206
12 Appendix

12.1 Changes of the 4th Edition compared to the 3rd Edition

Further corrections and updating have been incorporated. The audited or-
ganization is from now on generally referred to as "the organization".
The factual content of the chapters, elements and questions has widely re-
mained unchanged. Changes have been made in:
Foreword
"Quality Standards of the German Automotive Industry" updated
3. Quality System Audit
Scope of application for all 3 audit types (1st-, 2nd– and 3rd-party)
determined.

3.2 Selection of the Quality elements and Relevant Questions


The possibility regarding the omission or addition of elements or
questions have been defined more precisely.
The definition of 41 questions as being of special influence to
product and process quality or the quality system (*-questions)
has been newly introduced.

3.3.1 Individual Rating of Questions and Quality Elements


The definition of "mainly" has been extended.

3.3.3 Grading for Customer/Supplier Audits (2nd Party)


The classification for customer/supplier audits (2nd –party) has
been revised taking into account the questions with special influ-
ence (*-questions).
An additional downgrading from A to AB has been introduced
when questions are marked with 0 points.

3.3.4 Awarding of the VDA 6.1 Certificate Supplement (3rd –party)


Rules for the issue of certificate, and for follow-up or re-audits
have been newly included.

207
3.7 VDA 6.1 Certificate

The text of the certificate has been changed. The statement of the
level of compliance has been dropped.
7 Questionnaire
Question 01.6: Management review "with all elements" dropped
Question 03.1: Qualification requirements for internal auditors up-
dated. External auditors now defined under 04.5.
Question 04.5 Qualification requirements for external auditors
newly included.
Question 06 The circle of persons to be informed has been
newly formulated.
Question 06.4 Definition for "Emergency Plans" revised.
Element Z1 Is now generally to be taken into account during
audits/certification.
Question Z1.3 Examples for data have been supplemented.
Question 07.5 Formulation: "early" has been added.
Question 09.4 Quality evaluation "at least three times" has been
dropped.
Element 10 VDA Volume 1 has been added as being applica-
ble.
Element 11 "Supplier" is generally used instead of "Subsup-
plier". The note was added that the element is
also applicable for internal customer/supplier rela-
tionships.
Question 11.6 "inspected“ and "not inspected" has been re-
placed by "released" and "not released".
Question 13.2 "Inspection and test plan" has been replaced by
"inspection and test instruction".
Question 13.3 Formulation: "Production parameters of the proc-
ess“ has been replaced with "process parame-
ters“.
Question 13.4 Formulation: "Manufacturing means" has been re-
placed by "production means".

208
Question 14.1 Explanation to "Process Capability" added.
Question 14.2 PPA Process according to VDA Volume 2 and
note on process changes added.
Question 14.7 Note on applicable methods added.
Question 15.1 "Destructive testing" added.
Question 15.2 Procedure for rework added.
Question 15.6 "Durability test" added, "Product audit" dropped
(compare 03.4).
Element 20 "Quality-relevant records" changed into "Quality
records". Note on VDA Volume 1 added.
Question 20.1 Formulation: "maintenance" has been dropped.
Question 20.3 Definition for DwSpA added (compare VDA 1).
Element 21 Note on procedure when only Question 21.3 is
relevant.

8 Forms

Generally, the term "supplier“ has been dropped.

In the form "Corrective actions" the word "deviations" has been added.

11 Notes on Certification

This section has been updated. VDA Volume 6, Basics for Quality Audits is
referenced.

12 Appendix

The notes on changes made from 2nd Edition to the 3rd Edition have been
dropped.

209
12.2 Comparison Tables

In the following, the comparison tables to DIN EN ISO 9001 are shown.

12.2.1 Comparison Matrix VDA 6.1 / DIN EN ISO 9001


a) DIN EN ISO 9001:1994
VDA 6 Subject of the Question DIN EN
ISO 9001
M Management of the Organization
01. Management Responsibility 4.1
01.1 Quality policy 4.1.1
01.2 Quality objectives 4.1.1
01.3 Continual improvement --
01.4 Quality management system, resources for personnel and material 4.1.2.2
costs
01.5 Management representative 4.1.2.1, 4.1.2.3
01.6 Management review 4.1.3
02. Quality Management System 4.2
02.1 Quality manual 4.2.1, 4.2.2
02.2 Scope of the quality management system 4.1.2
02.3 Responsibility and authority 4.1.2.1
02.5 Project management (4.4.3)
02.4 Quality planning 4.2.3
02.6 Quality plans 4.2.3
03. Internal Audits 4.17
03.1 Auditor qualification 4.17.2
03.2 Internal quality audits 4.17.1, 4.17.3
03.3 Corrective actions and their documentation --
03.4 Product and process audits --
04. Training 4.18
04.1 Training program 4.18
04.2 Further training in quality techniques 4.18
04.3 Further training - Executives 4.18, 4.1.2.2
04.4 New appointments, realization 4.18
04.5 Qualification 4.18
04.6 Promotion of quality awareness --
04.7 Presentation of the quality achieved --
05. Financial Considerations regarding Quality Management Systems
05.1 Methods of reporting --
05.2 Regularity of reporting (4.1.3)
05.3 Nonconformity costs internal --
05.4 Nonconformity costs external --
06. Product Safety
06.1 Product liability - Basics --
06.2 Products requiring documentation (4.2.3a, -g)
06.3 Identification of product risks --
06.4 Localization of nonconforming units (4.8)

210
VDA 6 Subject of the Question DIN EN
ISO 9001
Z1. Corporate Strategy
Z1.1 Business plan on costs, sales, quality etc. --
Z1.2 Measuring methods for business results and CIP use --
Z1.3 Performance data, organization-wide / comparison --
Z1.4 Customer satisfaction, measurement and modification --
Z1.5 Personnel satisfaction --
P Product and Process
07. Contract Review / Quality in Marketing 4.3
07.1 Marketing function --
07.2 Contract review 4.3.1, 4.3.2
07.3 Structure quotation --
07.4 Quality requirements of the customer 4.2.3, 4.3.2a,
07.5 Requirements and performance specification known 4.3.2c
08. Design Control 4.4
08.1 Product/process development plan 4.4.1, 4.4.2,
4.4.4, 4.4.5
08.2 Quality requirements fully considered 4.4.4, 4.3.2c
08.3 Product/process trial 4.4.7, 4.4.8
08.4 Management review 4.4.6
08.5 Design approval 4.4.8, 4.4.3,
4.4.5
08.6 Result of design work 4.4.5
08.7 Transfer of development experience 4.4.3, 4.4.5
09 Process Planning (Process Development) 4.4, (4.9)
09.1 Process development Plan for new/modified products 4.4.1, 4.4.2,
4.4.4, 4.4.5
09.2 Production plans, work instructions 4.9 Abs.1,
4.9a
09.3 Quality requirements fully considered 4.4.4, 4.3.2c
09.4 Management review of processes and procedures 4.4.6
09.5 Approval of processes and procedures 4.4.8, 4.4.3,
4.4.5
09.6 Result of process planning and development work 4.4.5
09.7 Transfer of experiences from process planning 4.4.3, 4.4.5
10. Document and Data Control 4.5,
10.1 Quality-relevant documents, responsibility, procedures, .. 4.5.1 to -3
10.2 Approval and revision 4.5.2, 4.5.3
10.3 Archiving 4.3.4
10.4 Appropriately times introduction of customer documents 4.5.2
10.5 Non-use of invalid documents 4.5.3
11. Purchasing 4.6
11.1 Order documents 4.6.2, 4.6.3,
4.6.4.2
11.2 Supplier selection 4.6.1, 4.6.2a
11.3 Sample test 4.6.1, 4.6.2b
11.4 Supplier quality performance 4.6.1, 4.6.2c

211
VDA 6 Subject of the Question DIN EN
ISO 9001
11.5 Agreements on quality inspections 4.6.2b, (4.6.4)
11.6 Material receiving inspection 4.6.4, 4.10.1
11.7 Traceability 4.8
12 Control of customer-supplied Products 4.7
12.1 Agreed quality measures 4.7
12.2 Minimum scope of inspection and testing 4.7
12.3 Reporting of nonconformities 4.7
12.4 Quality history 4.7
13. Process Control/Identification and Traceability/Inspection and Test 4.9, (4.8,
Status 4.11, 4.12,
4.19´6)
13.1 Product identification 4.8, 4.12
13.2 Process control measures 4.9d
13.3 Records of process parameters 4.9 (Para.4)
4.16
13.4 Production means – Storage 4.11.2h
13.5 Quality objective/subsequent process, dispatch 4.12
13.6 Traceability 4.8 (Para.2)
13.7 Release on restart 4.9e
14. Process Control 4.9
14.1 Machine/process capability tests 4.9b
14.2 Production release 4.9c, -d, -e
14.3 Control of relevant process parameters 4.9d, 4.9f
14.4 Maintenance, preventive servicing 4.9g
14.5 Special processes 4.9 Para. 2, 3
14.6 Environmental conditions specified/complied with 4.9b, 4.11.2g
14.7 Evaluation of the effectiveness of production processes --
15. Inspection and Testing 4.10, (4.2.3)
15.1 Inspection and test plans 4.2.3b,-c,-d,-e
15.2 Inspection and test plans and instructions 4.10.1
15.3 Quality evidence for external purchases 4.6.4.1,
4.10.1, 4.10.2
15.4 Quality evidence according to work steps 4.10.1,4.10.3,
4.12
15.5 Quality evidence on the final product 4.10.1, 4.10.4
15.6 Periodic inspections and tests (4.10.1)
16. Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment 4.11
16.1 Control and calibration system 4.11.1,4.11.2
b,-c,-d,-e,-g,-i
16.2 Connection to national/international standards 4.11.2b
16.3 Measurement uncertainty of inspection, measuring and test equip- 4.11.2a
ment
16.4 Inspection, measuring and test equipment capability (4.11.2a)
16.5 Measures to be taken in case of nonconforming inspection, 4.11.2f
measuring and test equipment

212
VDA 6 Subject of the Question DIN EN
ISO 9001
17. Control of Nonconforming Products 4.13
17.1 Treatment of nonconforming units 4.13.1, 4.13.2
17.2 Concessions 4.13.2
17.3 Carrying out of corrective actions 4.13.2
17.4 Identification of reoccurring nonconformities 4.14.2a
18. Corrective and Preventive Actions 4.14
18.1 Initiation of corrective actions 4.14.1, 4.14.2
18.2 Estimating the nonconformity risk 4.14.3
18.3 Analysis of the cause of nonconformities 4.14.2b
18.4 Prevention of nonconformity reoccurrence 4.14.2d
19. Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery 4.15
19.1 Product handling 4.15.1,4.15.2,
4.15.3
19.2 Packaging and identification process 4.15.4
19.3 Prevention of transport damage 4.15.4,4.15.5,
4.15.6
19.4 Correction of packaging errors 4.15.1 with
4.14.1
19.5 Product identification 4.15.4
19.6 Delivery reliability --
20. Control of Quality Records 4.16
20.1 Quality-relevant documents 4.16
20.2 Evaluation of quality records 4.16
20.3 Archiving 4.16, 4.3.4
20.4 Customer access to quality records 4.16
21 Quality in the application phase/Servicing/Customer Service (4.19)
21.1 Users manual and installation instructions (4.19)
21.2 Product observation/Field failure-early warning system --
21.3 Field failure analysis (4.14.2b)
21.4 Customer service information --
21.5 Servicing 4.19
22. Statistical Methods 4.20
22.1 Method planning 4.20.1
22.2 Development/Trial 4.20
22.3 External sources 4.20
22.4 Process development and control 4.20
22.5 Final inspection 4.20
22.6 Evaluation of field failures 4.20

213
b) ISO 9001:2000
VDA ISO
6.14 Subject of the Question 9001:2000
M Management of the Organization
01. Management Responsibility 5, 6, 8.5.1
01.1 Quality policy 5.1, 5.3, 5.4.1
01.2 Quality objectives 5.1, 5.3, 5.4.1
01.3 Continual improvement 5.1, 8.5.1
Quality management system, resources for personnel and material 5.1, 6.1, 6.2.1,
01.4
costs 6.3
01.5 Management representative 5.5.2
01.6 Management review 5.6.1, 5.6.2,
5.6.3
02. Quality Management System 4, 5.4.2, 7.1
02.1 Quality manual 4.1, 4.2.1,
4.2.2
02.2 Scope of the quality management system 4.2.1, 4.2.2
02.3 Responsibility and authority 5.5.1
02.5 Project management 7.3.1
02.4 Quality planning 5.4.2, 7.1
02.6 Quality plans 5.4.2, 7.1
03. Internal Audits 8.2
03.1 Auditor qualification 8.2.2
03.2 Internal quality audits 8.2.2, 8.2.4
03.3 Corrective actions and their documentation 8.2.2, 8.5.2
03.4 Product and process audits 8.2.3, 8.2.4
04. Training 5.5.3, 6.2
04.1 Training program 6.2.2
04.2 Further training in quality techniques 6.2.2
04.3 Further training - Executives 6.2.2
04.4 New appointments, realization 6.2.2, 4.2.4
04.5 Qualification 6.2.1, 6.2.2
04.6 Promotion of quality awareness 6.2.2
04.7 Presentation of the quality achieved 5.5.3
05. Financial Considerations regarding Quality Management Systems
05.1 Methods of reporting --
05.2 Regularity of reporting 5.6
05.3 Nonconformity costs internal --
05.4 Nonconformity costs external --
1)
VDA requirements concerning Process Audits extend beyond those of ISO (see VDA 6.3).
2)
Financial Considerations regarding Quality Management Systems are not seperately
treated in the ISO standard.

214
VDA ISO
Subject of the Question
6.14 9001:2000
06. Product Safety
06.1 Product liability - Basics 5.1
4.2.3, 4.2.4,
06.2 Products requiring documentation
7.2.1
06.3 Identification of product risks --
06.4 Localization of nonconforming units 5.6.2
Z1. Corporate Strategy
Z1.1 Business plan on costs, sales, quality etc. --
Z1.2 Measuring methods for business results and CIP use 8.4, 8.5.1
Z1.3 Performance data, organization-wide / comparison --
Z1.4 Customer satisfaction, measurement and modification 8.2.1, 8.4
Z1.5 Personnel satisfaction 6.2.2
P Product and Process
07. Contract Review / Quality in Marketing 5.2, 7.2
07.1 Marketing function 5.2, 7.2.1
07.2 Contract review 7.2.2
07.3 Structure quotation --
07.4 Quality requirements of the customer 7.2.3
07.5 Requirements and performance specification known 7.2.1, 7.2.2
08. Design Control 7.1, 7.3
7.1, 7.3.1,
08.1 Product/process development plan
7.3.7
08.2 Quality requirements fully considered 7.3.2, 7.3.7
7.3.3, 7.3.5,
08.3 Product/process trial
7.3.7
7.3.4, 7.3.6,
08.4 Management review
7.3.7
7.3.4, 7.3.5,
08.5 Design approval
7.3.6, 7.3.7
08.6 Result of design work 7.3.3, 7.3.7
08.7 Transfer of development experience --
09. Process Planning (Process Development) 7.1, 7.3, 7.,5
7.1, 7.3.1,
09.1 Process development Plan for new/modified products
7.3.7
09.2 Production plans, work instructions 7.5.1, 7.3.7
7.3.2, 7.3.7,
09.3 Quality requirements fully considered
7.5.1
7.3.4, 7.3.5,
09.4 Management review of processes and procedures
7.3.7, 7.5.2
09.5 Approval of processes and procedures 7.3.7, 7.5.2
09.6 Result of process planning and development work 7.3.3, 7.3.7
09.7 Transfer of experiences from process planning 7.3.1, 7.3.3,
3)
Business results are not seperately treated in the ISO standard.
4)
Special documentation requirements are not seperately treated in the ISO standard.
5)
The ISO standard contains only rudimentary treatment of Process Planning.

215
VDA ISO
Subject of the Question
6.14 9001:2000
10. Document and Data Control 4.2
10.1 Quality-relevant documents, responsibility, procedures, .. 4.2.3
10.2 Approval and revision 4.2.3
10.3 Archiving 4.2.3, 4.2.4
10.4 Appropriately times introduction of customer documents 4.2.3
10.5 Non-use of invalid documents 4.2.3
11. Purchasing 7.4, 7.5
Order documents 7.4.1, 7.4.2;
11.1
7.4.3
11.2 Supplier selection 7.4.1
11.3 Sample test 7.4.1
11.4 Supplier quality performance 7.4.1
11.5 Agreements on quality inspections 7.4.1, 7.4.3
11.6 Material receiving inspection 7.1, 7.4.1, 8.1
11.7 Traceability 7.5.3
12. Control of customer-supplied Products 7.5.4
12.1 Agreed quality measures 7.5.4
12.2 Minimum scope of inspection and testing 7.5.4
12.3 Reporting of nonconformities 7.5.4
12.4 Quality history 7.5.4
Process Control/Identification and Traceability/Inspection and Test
13. Status 7.5
13.1 Product identification 7.5.3
13.2 Process control measures 7.5.1
13.3 Records of process parameters 7.5.2, 4.2.4
Production means – Storage 7.5.1, 7.5.4,
13.4
7.6
13.5 Quality objective/subsequent process, dispatch 7.5.1, 7.5.2
13.6 Traceability 7.5.3, 4.2.4
13.7 Release on restart 7.5.2
14. Process Control 7.5
14.1 Machine/process capability tests 7.5.2, 8.2.3
14.2 Production release 7.5.2
14.3 Control of relevant process parameters 7.5.2, 8.2.3
14.4 Maintenance, preventive servicing 7.5.1, 6.3
14.5 Special processes 7.5.1
14.6 Environmental conditions specified/complied with 6.3, 6.4, 7.5.5
14.7 Evaluation of the effectiveness of production processes 7.5.2

216
VDA ISO
Subject of the Question
6.14 9001:2000
15. Inspection and Testing 7.1, 8.2.4
15.1 Inspection and test plans 7.1
15.2 Inspection and test plans and instructions 7.1; 8.1
15.3 Quality evidence for external purchases 7.4.3, 8.2.4
15.4 Quality evidence according to work steps 7.1, 8.1, 8.2.4
15.5 Quality evidence on the final product 8.2.4, 7.5.3
15.6 Periodic inspections and tests 8.2.4
16. Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment 7.6
16.1 Control and calibration system 7.6
16.2 Connection to national/international standards 7.6
Measurement uncertainty of inspection, measuring and test equip-
16.3 ment 7.6
16.4 Inspection, measuring and test equipment capability 7.6
Measures to be taken in case of nonconforming inspection, meas-
16.5 uring and test equipment 7.6
17. Control of Nonconforming Products 8.3
17.1 Treatment of nonconforming units 8.3
17.2 Concessions 8.3
17.3 Carrying out of corrective actions 8.3
17.4 Identification of reoccurring nonconformities 8.3
18. Corrective and Preventive Actions 8.5
18.1 Initiation of corrective actions 5.6.3, 8.5
18.2 Estimating the nonconformity risk 8.5
18.3 Analysis of the cause of nonconformities 8.5
18.4 Prevention of nonconformity reoccurrence 8.5
19. Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery 7.5.5
19.1 Product handling 7.5.5
19.2 Packaging and identification process 7.5.5
19.3 Prevention of transport damage 7.5.5
19.4 Correction of packaging errors 7.5.5
19.5 Product identification 7.5.5
19.6 Delivery reliability --
20. Control of Quality Records 4.2.4
20.1 Quality-relevant documents 4.2.4
20.2 Evaluation of quality records 4.2.4
20.3 Archiving 4.2.4
20.4 Customer access to quality records --

217
VDA ISO
Subject of the Question
6.14 9001:2000
21. Quality in the application phase/Servicing/Customer Service 7.5, 8.4
21.1 Users manual and installation instructions 7.5.1
21.2 Product observation/Field failure-early warning system --
21.3 Field failure analysis 8.4; 8.5.2
21.4 Customer service information 7.5.1
21.5 Servicing 7.5.1
22. Statistical Methods 8
22.1 Method planning 8.1
Development/Trial 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
22.2
8.4
External sources 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
22.3
8.4
Process development and control 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
22.4
8.4
Final inspection 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
22.5
8.4
Evaluation of field failures 8.2.3; 8.2.4;
22.6
8.4

12.2.2 Comparison Matrix DIN EN ISO 9004 / VDA 6.1

a) 9001:1994
DINEN Element according to DIN EN ISO 9001 VDA6
ISO9001
4.1 Management Responsibility 01
.1.1 Quality policy 01.1, 01.2
.2.1 Organization, responsibility and authority 01.5, 02.2,
02.3,
.2.2 Organization, resources 01.4, 02.2,
04.3
.2.3 Organization, management representative 01.5, 02.2,
.3 Management review 01.6, (05.2)
4.2 Quality Management System 02
.1 General 02.1, 02.2
.2 Documented quality procedures 02.1,
.3 Quality planning 02.5, 02.6,
07.4, [06.2, ],
15.1
4.3 Contract Review 07
.1 General 07.2
.2a Review, requirements documented and understood 07.2, 07.4
.2b P. nonconformities quotation/order 07.2
.2c Capability to meet the requirements 07.2, 07.5,
08.2, 09.3

218
DINEN Element according to DIN EN ISO 9001 VDA6
ISO9001
.3 Amendment See introductory
comment.
.4 Records 20.3, 09.3
4.4 Design Control 08, 09
.1 General 08.1, 09.1
.2 Design and development plan (04.5), 08.1,
09.1
.3 Organizational and technical interfaces (02.4), 08.5,
08.7, 09.5,
09.7
.4 Design input 08.1, 08.2,
09.1
.5 Design result 08.1, 08.5,
08.6, 08.7,
09.1, 09.5,
09.6, 09.7
.6 Design review 08.4, 09.4
.7 Design verification 08.3
.8 Design validation 08.3, 08.5,
[09.3], 09.5
.9 Design modifications [08.1 - 08.7,
09.1 - 09.7]
See introductory
comment.
4.5 Document and Data Control 10
.1 General 10.1
.2 Approval and issue of D. & D. 10.1, 10.2,
10.4
.3 Amendments to documents and data 10.2, [07.2 with
introductory
comment], 10.5
4.6 Purchasing 11
.1 General 11.2, 11.3,
11.4
.2a Evaluation of subcontractors 11.1, 11.2
Suitability: evaluate and select
.2b Monitoring: Capabilities and performance 11.3, 11.5
.2c Record corresponding data 11.4
.3 Purchasing information 11.1
.4.1 Inspection of purchased products (Supplier at the subcontractor). [11.5], 11.6
.4.2 Inspection of purchased products [11.1, 11.5],
(Inspection by the customer). 11.6
4.7 Control of Customer-supplied Products 12
4.8 Identification and Traceability of Products (06.3), 11.7,
13.1, 13.6
4.9 Process Control 9, 13, 14
Para.1 Planning of quality-influencing assembly and servicing 9.1, 13.2
a Documented procedures 9.2, 13.2

219
DINEN Element according to DIN EN ISO 9001 VDA6
ISO9001
b Suitable equipment and environmental conditions 9.4, 14.1,
14.6
c Compliance of standards, quality plans, documented procedure. 9.3, 9.5, 14.2
d Matching process parameters 9.5, 13.2,
14.2, 14.3,
(13.4)
e Approval of processes and equipment 9.4, 9.5, 13.7,
14.2,
f Criteria for work performance 9.2, 14.3
g Maintenance 14.4
e Release 9.5, 13.7,
14.2
Para.2,3 Special processes 9.4, 14.5
Para.4 Recordings of quality processes, equipment, personnel 9.6, 9.7, 13.3
4.10 Inspection and Testing 15
.1.1 General 11.6, 15.2,
15.3, 15.4,
15.5, (15.6)
.2.1 Receiving inspection and testing 15.3
.2.1 Application after verification 15.3
.2.2 Scope and type of receiving inspection 15.3,
.2.3 Pre-release and concession 15.3
.3 In-process inspection and testing 15.4
.4 Final inspection and testing 15.5
.5 Inspection and test records (Records al-
ways)
4.11 Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment 16
.1 General 16.1
.2a Determination of control procedure, inspection and testing and in- 14.2 with
spection, measuring and test equipment 16.3, (16.4)
.2b Determination and calibration of inspection, measuring and test 16.1, 16.2
equipment
.2c Determination of corresponding procedures 16.1
.2d Identification of calibration status 16.1, 16.4
.2e Archiving of records on calibration 16.1, 20.1
.2f Evaluation and recording of previous measurement results for non- 16.5
conformities on inspection, measuring and test equipment
.2g Environmental conditions for measurements 14.6, 16.1
.2h Handling, protection and storage of inspection, measuring and test 13.4
equipment
.2i Protection of the calibration status 16.1
4.12 Inspection and Test Status 13.1, 15.4
4.13 Control of Nonconforming Products 17
.1 General 17.1
.2 Evaluation and handling of nonconforming products 17.1, 17.2,
17.3

220
DINEN Element according to DIN EN ISO 9001 VDA6
ISO9001
4.14 Corrective and Preventive Action 18
.1 General 18.1, 19.4
.2a Corrective actions, effective treatment of nonconformities 17.4, 18.1
.2b Corrective action – cause of nonconformity in relation to production, 18.1, 18.3,
process, system (21.3)
.2c Corrective action – Determination of... 18.1
.2d Corrective action – Monitoring of their effectiveness 18.1, 18.4
.3 Preventive actions 18.2
4.15 Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery 19
.1 General 19.1, 19.4
.2 Handling 19.1
.3 Storage 19.1
.4 Packaging 19.2, 19.3,
19.4
.5 Preservation [07.5], 19.3
.6 Delivery [07.5], 19.3
4.16 Control of Quality Records 12.3, 20

4.17 Internal Quality Audits 03


Para.1 Documented procedure 03.2
Para.2 Planning of audits and auditors 03.1
Para.3 Recording and distribution of results 03.2
Para.4 Follow-up audits – corrective actions 03.3
4.18 Training 04

4.19 Servicing (21.1 to


21.4),21.5
4.20 Statistical Techniques 22
.1 Determination of demand 21.1, 21.2,
21.3, 21.4
.2 Procedure 21.1, 21.2,
21.3, 21.4

b) DIN EN ISO 9001:2000


ISO Element VDA 6.14
9001:2000
4 Quality Management System
4.1 General Requirements 02.1
4.2 Documentation Requirements
4.2.1 General 02.1, 02.2
4.2.2 Quality Manual 02.1, 02.2
4.2.3 Control of Documents 06.2, 10.1-10.5
4.2.4 Control of Records 03.2, 04.4, 06.2,
10.3, 13.3, 13.6,
20.1 – 20.4

221
ISO Element VDA 6.14
9001:2000
5 Management Responsibility
5.1 Management Commitment 01.1, 01.2, 01.3,
01.4, 06.1
5.2 Customer Focus Z1.4, 07.1
5.3 Quality Policy 01.1, 01.2
5.4 Planning
5.4.1 Quality Objectives 01.1, 01.2
5.4.2 Quality Mangement System Planing 02.5, 02.6,
5.5 Responsibility, Authority and Communication
5.5.1 Responsibility and Authority 02.3
5.5.2 Management Representative 01.5
5.5.3 Internal Communication 04.7
5.6 Management Review
5.6.1 General 01.6, 05.6
5.6.2 Review Input 01.6, 05.6
5.6.3 Review Output 01.6, 05.6, 18.1
6 Resource Management
6.1 Provision of Resources 01.4
6.2 Human Resources
6.2.1 General 01.4, 04.1
6.2.2 Competence, Awareness and Training 04.1 - 04.6, Z1.5
6.3 Infrastructure 01.4, 14.4, 14.6
6.4 Work Environment 14.6
7 Product Realization
7.1 Planning of Product Realization 02.5, 02.6, 08.1,
09.1, 11.6, 15.1,
15.2, 15.4
7.2 Customer-related Processes
7.2.1 Determination of Requirements related to the Product 06.2, 07.1, 07.5
7.2.2 Review of Requirements related to the Product 07.2, 07.5
7.2.3 Customer Communication 07.4
7.3 Design and Development
7.3.1 Design and Development Planning 02.4, 08.1, 09.1,
09.7
7.3.2 Design and Development Inputs 08.2, 09.3
7.3.3 Design and Development Outputs 08.3, 08.6, 09.6,
09.7
7.3.4 Design and Development Review 08.4, 08.5, 09.4
7.3.5 Design and Development Verification 08.3, 08.5, 09.4
7.3.6 Design and Development Validation 08.4, 08.5

222
ISO Element VDA 6.14
9001:2000
7.3.7 Control of Design and Development Changes 08.1 – 08.6, 09.1
– 09.6
7.4 Purchasing
7.4.1 Purchasing Process 11.1 - 11.6
7.4.2 Purchasing Information 11.1
7.4.3 Verification of Purchased Product 11.1, 11.5
7.5 Production and Service Provision
7.5.1 Control of Production and Service Provision 09.2, 09.3, 13.2,
13.4, 13.5, 14.4,
21.4, 21.5
7.5.2 Validation of Processes for Production and Service Provi- 09.4, 09.5, 13.3,
sion 13.5, 13.7, 14.1
–14.3, 14.7
7.5.3 Identification and Traceability 11.6, 13.1, 13.6,
15.5
7.5.4 Customer Property 12.1 –12.4, 13.4
7.5.5 Preservation of Product 14.6, 19.1 –19.5
7.6 Control of Measuring and Monitoring Devices 13.4, 16.1-16.5
8 Measurement, Analysis and Improvement
8.1 General 11.6, 15.2, 15.4,
22.1
8.2 Monitoring and Measurement
8.2.1 Customer Satisfaction Z1.4
8.2.2 Internal Audit 03.1, 03.2, 03.3
8.2.3 Monitoring and Measurement of Processes 03.4, 14.1, 14.3,
22.2-22.6
8.2.4 Monitoring and Measurement of Product 03.4, 15.3, 15.4
- 15.6, 22.2-22.6
8.3 Control of Nonconforming Product 17.1 – 17.4
8.4 Analysis of Data Z1.2, 21.3, 22.2
- 22.6
8.5 Improvement
8.5.1 Continual Improvement 01.3, Z1.2, 18.1
– 18.4
8.5.2 Corrective Action 18.1 - 18.4,
21.3
8.5.3 Preventive Action 18.1 - 18.4

223
Other VDA-FORMS

INITIAL SAMPLE TEST REPORT – new version

• Cover page, Order No. 2661


• Test results, Order No. 2662
• Multipart form set, 5 copies (packed of 50 sets)
Outline form for process capability verification, Order No. 2663
Pad of 50 sheets – Minimum order 1 pad

INITIAL SAMPLE TEST REPORT – previous version


Initial sample Test Report – Report result, Order No. 5331
Multipart form set, 7 copies (packed of 50 sets)
Initial sample Test Report – Test result, Order No. 5332
Pad of 100 sheets
SYSTEM - FMEA
- new version -
Order No. 7422, DIN A3 format, Pad of 50 sheets
FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA)
- old version -
Order No. 769, DIN A3 format, Pad of 50 sheets
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AUDIT (Material products)
Questionnaire (only questions)
DIN A5, Pad of 10 sets à 12 sheets
Evaluation documents
Overall evaluation of the quality management system
Overall compliance
Summary of results
Summary of evaluated questions
Corrective actions
Corrective actions - summary
DIN A4, Pad of 10 sets of 5 sheets
The two pads form a unit and are only offered as a set
Order No. 1749
Order:
DRUCKEREI HENRICH GMBH
Schwanheimer Straße 110, D-60528 Frankfurt
Telephone (069) 96766-158, Telefax (069) 96777-159.

224
Quality Management in the Automotive Industry

The current status of published VDA Volumes regarding quality manage-


ment in the automotive industry can be consulted on the internet under
http://www.vda-qmc.de.

Direct orders can also be made on this homepage.

225
Note regarding VDA Volume 6 Part 1, 4th Edition

Since the publication of the first edition in 1991, the current volume on audi-
ting/certification of quality management systems has attracted great attenti-
on beyond the automotive industry. This was also the reason why quality
work groups from various trade and industrial associations have tackled its
content and preparation. Thereby, it was found that the checklist contains
questions that are atypical for the industry and must not be used for audi-
ting/certification and evaluation. The following associations have prepared
appropriate interpretation guides agreed with the VDA:

Gesamtverband kunststoffverarbeitende Industrie e.V.


- Trade association for technical parts
Contact: Mr. Crößmann
Gesamtverband Deutscher Metallgießereien e.V.
Contact: Mr. Hinrichs
Deutscher Gießereiverband
Contact: Mr. Dr. Urbat
Wirtschaftsverband Stahlumformung e.V.
Contact for general inquiries: Mr. Dannert
- Deutscher Schraubenverband e.V.
Contact: Mr. Naumann
- Eisendraht- und Stahldraht-Vereinigung e.V.
Contact: Mr. Bieker
- Fachvereinigung Kaltwalzwerke e.V.
Contact: Dr. Neuhaus
- Fachvereinigung Präzisionsrohrwerke e.V.
Contact: Mr. Dr. Neuhaus
- Industrieverband Blechumformung e.V.
Contact: Mr. Dannert
- Stabziehereien-Vereinigung e.V.
Contact: Mr. Düppe
- Verband der deutschen Federnindustrie
• Vehicle springs
• Cold-coiled springs
Contact: Mr. Dannert

Wirtschaftsvereinigung Metalle e.V.


Contact: Mr. Lipps

226
Trough its training center estabished in 2001, the
Quality Managment Center (VDA-QMC) offers a
fund of knowledge covering the entire spectrum of
quality in the automobile industry.
The focus is on communicating this comprehensive
quality know-how to users.