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Pilot’s Guide - Guide du Pilote

Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


REPAINTS WELCOME ABOARD ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Fred Goldman,
Victor Racz &Victor
Goldman Mike Hambly,
Peter EricKittisak
Balogh, Marciano,Rukkaew
Victor A. Installation
Racz B. Extra
C. Quick Start
Eric Marciano USER HANDBOOK: D. 2D & 3D Cockpits
Eric Marciano Eric Marciano, Eric Belvaux
Tamas Szabo
Rob Young
3D ARTISTS Chip Barber, Charlie, Les Dillon, W.
TUTORIAL FLIGHT ............................................ 5
3D Okan, Tamas Szabo David Scobie, Craig Smoothey, Neil
Tamas Szabo, Victor Racz, Vyacheslav Perrin INTRODUCTION .............................................. 10
& Victor Racz Mike Hambly,
A veryMarciano
special thanks to: SETUP ...................................................... 11
2D ARTISTS Marc Brodbeck
& Victor Racz
Balogh, Tamas Szabo FLY-BY-WIRE ................................................ 15
AUTOFLIGHT ................................................ 18
Peter Balogh, Tamas Szabo, Christophe Eric Marciano, Eric Belvaux
Modave, Victor Racz EFIS ....................................................... 34
World mapDYNAMICS:
on the Corporate Jetliner plasma
screens is provided by www.absolutezero.de SYSTEMS ................................................... 50
Rob Young

FMGC ...................................................... 69

APPENDICES ................................................ 100

By not making illegal copies and purchasing only original
WILCO PUBLISHING products, you will allow us to continue developing
and improving the quality of our software. Order your Airbus Series Volume 1 version !
THANK YOU. Complete your Airbus Series collection with the following elements :
- Airbus A318, A319, A320, A321,
The code used in Wilco Publishing products may under no circumstances be used for any other - Airbus Corporate Jetliner
purposes without the permission of Wilco Publishing and its developers. - 60 minutes of videos (Just Planes) featuring breathtaking
Microsoft and Windows are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the
take-offs & landings .
United States and/or other countries.
For more information, please visit www.wilcopub.com
Acrobat Reader is a registered trademark of Adobe.

2 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 3
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


A. INSTALLATION 3. Choose feelThere/Wilco Airbus Series F1View), also available from our website. This FLIGHT SETUP
Installation is automatic. Insert the CD (or Vol.2 utility is kindly offered by Flight 1. Cold & Dark
double-click on the downloaded file) and 4. Select the Aircraft Model of your choice. This module requires a wheel-mouse (a This tutorial is supposed to begin with a cold &
Autorun will take you to the start-up screen. 5. Select the livery of your choice center wheel that also acts as a center dark aircraft. In order to be in this situation,
If Autorun is disabled on your system, open mouse button). you can press the "Cold & Dark" button on the
Windows Explorer or My Computer, browse to The liveries are installed on your CD-Rom or Note that this utility is not needed under configuration window and place your aircraft
your CD Rom drive and double click available from Wilco Publishing website if you Flight Simulator X as you can access cabin at LFBO (Toulouse Blagnac) on a parking place.
“Wilco_Airbus2_x.exe” (where x is your bought the download version. view through a right-click sub-menu option. Batteries ON
version). Virtual Cockpit On the overhead panel press both battery
2. Engines Start Up • Wheel forward moves you forward and switches to turn on the batteries.
Once setup is running, follow the on-screen Use CTRL+E to start the engines. wheel backward moves you back. All Generators ON
prompts and ensure that the installation • CTRL+forward moves right and CTRL Even if engines are not running yet, turn the
points directly to the Microsoft Flight To start up engines from a 'Cold & Dark + backward moves left. generators on (they are in fault mode because
Simulator Cockpit', please refer to the next pages for • SHIFT+forward moves up and SHIFT the engines are not running).
folder (usually C:\Program Files\Microsoft complete procedures. + backward moves down. NAV Lights ON
Games\FlightSimulator...). • CTRL+SHIFT+forward zooms out As soon as the aircraft is energized, NAV light
D. 2D & 3D COCKPITS and CTRL+SHIFT+backward zooms in. should be turned on.
2D Panel Views Radio Management Panels ON
The following 2D panel views are available While in Pan Mode (mouse wheel pressed and On the pedestal, turn the Radios on using the
using the following key combinations : held down) inside the Virtual Cockpit : RMP master switch.
CHECK OUT • Mouse to the left rotates view to the left. External Power
WILCO PUBLISHING WEBSITE : SHIFT+1 = Main Panel Background • Mouse to the right rotates iew to the right. Check the overhead panel. If an external
SHIFT+2 = Main Panel • Moving the mouse forward, away from the power source (GPU) is available, press the EXT
http://www.wilcopub.com SHIFT+3 = Pedestal user, rotates the view up. PWR switch.
YOU WILL FIND INFORMATION, NEWS, AND SHIFT+4 = Overhead • Moving the mouse backward, towards the FMGC Initialization
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. SHIFT+5 = MCDU user, rotates the view down. If the MENU page is displayed, press the FMGC
SHIFT+6 = PFD 1L key or press the INIT key on the MCDU to
SHIFT+7 = ND Please refer to the manual for other features display the INIT A page.
SHIFT+8 = EWD list. Under Flight Simulator X, press SPACE to • FROM/TO : Enter the departure and arrival
SHIFT+9 = SD switch to pan mode. Wheel mouse serve as airports in the scratchpad and press
B. EXTRA (for CD-Rom version only) zoom in/out while in pan mode. 1R LFBO/LFPO > 1R
We have included a full set of files and videos 3D Virtual Cockpit Views • The route selection page appears. A route
on your CD-Rom. Use your Windows Explorer Display the different Cockpit views using the The Doors exists between LFBO and LFPO, named
to locate them into the EXTRA WILCO normal Flight Simulator keystroke, “S” under To open the external doors : LFBOLFPO1.
directory. FS 2004 and “A” under FS X. All controls found SHIFT + E for the passengers door. Let’s use it by pressing INSERT (6R)
on the main 2D panels are functional within SHIFT + E + 2 for the cargo door (from ext). • Align the IRS by pressing 3R
To fully enjoy the 3D Virtual Cockpit, the the virtual cockpit. Mouse clicking on the FMC • Enter the flight number in the scratchpad
Track IR lets you control your field of view in opens the 2D FMC in a separate window. To expand/retract the A330 MRTT refueling and press 3L
flight simulators by simply looking around by boom, it is necessary to assign the FS • Enter the cruise altitude in the scratchpad
few degrees. Mouse clicking on some specific screens open shortcut defined for Tailhook. and press 6L
Track IR is available from Wilco Publishing a 2D window : FMS, EADI... 33000 > 6L or 330 > 6L or FL330 > 6L
http://www.wilcopub.com. TUTORIAL FLIGHT Press NEXT PAGE to jump to the INIT B page.
C. QUICK START The Cabin This tutorial describes all the phases of a flight in the scratchpad and press 1R
1. To Pilot one of the Airbus Under Flight Simulator 2004, to move and from Toulouse Blagnac (home of the Airbus 25/59.1 > 1R or use assistance for this (in
1. Start Flight Simulator walk inside the cabin, we have included a aircrafts) to Paris Orly, from the cold & dark Beginner and Intermediate modes only) :
2. From the menus, select AIRCRAFT utility on the CD-Rom (directory : EXTRA / situation to the landing at destination. press 1R with empty scratchpad, the 1R

4 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 5
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


again to enter it in the FMGC. information is used as a reminder only for External Power speed managed, heading managed, and
• When ZFW is entered, the Block line the crew. If you are in Beginner or If external power was used, turn it off now by altitude managed with a target altitude
appears. Enter the block fuel and press 2R Intermediate mode, the information is pressing the EXT PWR switch. higher than the acceleration altitude.
(assistance is also available). also used by the system if you request APU Bleed ON
assistance for the reference speeds. Turn on the APU bleed by pressing the APU Check the FMA and make sure the CLB and NAV
Press the F-PLAN key on the MCDU to display Suggestion : Use Flap 1 configuration. BLEED switch on the overhead. modes are armed. If not, reset the FCU by
the F-PLN page. • Enter the FLEX TEMP and press 4R. This Beacon Lights ON turning the FD off then on again. CLB and NAV
• On the first line, the departure airport temperature will be used by the FADEC if As the engines will soon be started, the should appear in blue on the FMA.
(LFBO) is shown. Press 1L to display the you takeoff using FLEX thrust. beacon lights must be turned on now using the
Lateral Revision page for this airport. Suggestion : A value of 50° is an average switch on the overhead panel.
• On the LAT REV page, press 1L to display value that should work fine. Strobes AUTO or ON PUSHBACK
the DEPARTURE page. • Enter V1, VR and V2 in the 1L, 2L and 3L Strobe lights should be turned on as soon as Flaps
• Select the departure runway and the SID fields. These speeds are important for the the aircraft is moving. If you select AUTO, Set the flap configuration according to what
(or NO SID). SRS mode during takeoff. As soon as these they will automatically turn on as soon as the you have entered in the PERF TO page.
• Press INSERT (6R) to validate, the F-PLN speeds are entered, the red message ‘SPD aircraft is airborne. Spoilers ARMED
page appears again. SEL’ disappears from the PFD and the Signs Arm the ground spoilers in case of a rejected
• Resolve the discontinuity. reference speeds appear on the speed Turn Seat Belts and No Smoking signs on, or takeoff.
• Scroll down to the arrival airport (LFPO) or tape. set the auto position to have them automa- Autobrake MAX (or RTO on the A340-600)
press the AIRPORT key on the MCDU to Remember you can use the assistance if tically managed. The autobrake should be set to MAX/RTO in
jump directly to the arrival airport. you are not in Expert mode. Engine Start case of a rejected takeoff only (never use MAX
• Press the left button adjacent to the • Thrust reduction altitude and acceleration The APU is available and APU bleed is for landing).
arrival airport to display its Lateral altitude can be entered. By default, both engaged. The engines are now ready to start. Parking Brake RELEASED
Revision page. altitudes are set to 1500 feet above the • On the pedestal, set the ENG Mode switch Release the parking brake to get ready for
• Press 1R to display the ARRIVAL page. departure airport altitude. You can leave to the IGN/START position. pushback.
• Select arrival runway and STAR (or NO this value for the thrust reduction You can check on the E/WD that the FADEC Taxi Lights ON
STAR). altitude, but the acceleration should be have turned on because the amber Turn on the taxi light before taxiing.
If the arrival runway changes because of 1500 feet higher than the thrust reduction information is replaced by active displays. Cleared for pushback
the weather (especially because of wind altitude. • ENG 2 Master Switch ON. Ask the ATC for pushback clearance and press
direction or IFR conditions), you will be To leave the thrust reduction altitude Check the engine is correctly starting on the corresponding key (Shift-P by default) to
able to update it during the flight. unchanged and update the acceleration the E/WD and SD. Wait for the engine 2 to start the pushback.
• Press INSERT (6R) to validate, the F-PLN altitude to 3200 feet ; /3200 > 5L be started completely. If you have selected a PPU (option available in
page appears again. Press NEXT PHASE to display the other PERF • ENG 1 Master Switch ON. FS2004 only), you have to steer the aircraft
• Resolve the discontinuity. pages for climb, cruise, descent and approach Monitor the E/WD and SD. during the pushback.
At this time, with all the data entered in the (PERF CLB, CRZ, DES, APPR). Make sure all • When all engines are running, set the ENG Note : You can also change this sequence by
FMGC and no discontinuity in the flight plan, parameters are OK for you. You should mode switch back to the NORM position. starting the engines during the pushback, as it
the predictions are computed and displayed especially check the Cost Index, which • 2 minutes after engine start, the takeoff is often done on the real aircraft.
with the flight plan. determines the speed used for climb, cruise memo will appear on the E/WD.
If you wish, you can enter the Estimated Time and descent if you use managed speed. APU Stop TAXI
of Departure (ETD) by pressing the right key As both engines are started, check the Cleared to Taxi
adjacent to the departure airport. The ENGINE START generators are turned on. The APU is not When pushback is finished and the aircraft is
Vertical Revision page appears and you can APU Start necessary any more. properly positioned, you can ask the ATC for
enter the UTC CSTR by pressing 2R. Before being able to start the engines, the Press the APU BLEED switch to turn air bleed taxi clearance to the departure runway.
Now it is time to set the performance data. APU must be started. On the overhead, press off, and press the APU Master Switch to turn Thrust
Press the PERF key on the MCDU and the PERF the APU Master Switch ON. the APU off. During taxi, move the thrust lever in the
TO appears to set the takeoff performance. Then press the START button. FCU manual range. Around 40 % N1 should be
• Enter the takeoff flap configuration (1, 2 Monitor the APU start sequence of the SD and Check the “dash-ball-dash-ball-ball-dash” on enough to move the aircraft. Taxiing should be
or 3) and press 3R. In the real aircraft, this wait for the APU to be available. the FCU to make sure all the settings are OK : operated at 20 knots, with 10 knots during the

6 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 7
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


turns. As soon as the aircraft moves, idle IRS The takeoff can not be rejected so the ground select a lower altitude (you can select 3.000 feet)
thrust should be enough to keep it going. For your information, the IRS are spoilers can be disarmed. on the FCU and push the ALT knob (left mouse
Flight Controls CHECKED automatically aligned with the GPS position at click).
Move all the flight controls in all possible this time. If the IRS were not perfectly aligned CLIMB Deceleration
directions and check their movement on the before, you may see the alignment on the ND. Thrust Reduction Altitude As the aircraft descends, it will reach the
F/CTL SD page, which appears automatically FMA When the THR RED altitude is reached deceleration point, shown as a big D on the
when a flight control moves on the ground. As soon as the thrust levers are in the FLEX (1.800 feet in this example), a flashing ‘LVR ND. At this time, the approach phase
Takeoff Configuration TEST detent, check that the FMA displays : CLB’ message appears on the FMA (1st column). automatically engages and the target speed is
On the ECAM control panel (located on the • MAN FLEX 50 in the 1st column Move the thrust lever back to the CL detent. changed to the Vapp speed, which should be
pedestal), press the TO CONFIG key (or press • SRS in green in the 2nd column, in addition Note : As the thrust reduces when the levers around 140 knots in this case.
Shift-Control-T on your keyboard). This action to the blue CLB (armed mode) that was are moved back to the CL detent, the pilot Note that even if Vapp is shown as the target
simulates takeoff thrust power and checks all already displayed. should anticipate the pitch reduction caused speed, the actual target speed will be the
the important settings for takeoff. • RWY in green in addition to the NAV by this thrust reduction. maneuvering speed before flaps are fully
Landing Lights ON message already displayed in blue in the Acceleration Altitude deployed in landing configuration.
Turn the landing lights on to get ready for 3rd column. Check the CLB mode becomes active on the
takeoff. • A/THR in blue in the 4th column to indicate FMA (2nd column). If you decide to be guided by the Flight
Parking Brakes SET the autothrust is armed. The aircraft will now accelerate to the target Simulator ATC, it is highly probable that your
Before entering the runway for takeoff, set Stick Position speed of 250 knots. aircraft will never cross the D point. In this
the parking brakes. During the takeoff roll, the stick should be S Speed case, you have to manually set the approach
Takeoff Memo GREEN pushed half way forward until the speed As the aircraft accelerates, you must retract phase by pressing the ACTIVATE APPROACH
On the takeoff memo displayed on the E/WD, reaches 80 knots. This stick position can be the flaps and slats when the S speed is PHASE (6L) in one of the PERF pages.
make sure all the items are green and no blue monitored on the PFD. reached and let the aircraft accelerate to 250 ILS ON
item remains. Yaw Bar knots. As the approach phase is engaged, the ILS is
Cleared for takeoff As soon as the takeoff thrust is applied, and if 10.000 feet automatically tuned to the arrival runway ILS.
Ask the ATC for a takeoff clearance. the runway has an ILS, the yaw bar appears on At 10.000 feet, the 250 knots speed limit You can press the ILS button at this time to
the PFD to help you in guiding the aircraft disappears, so the aircraft accelerates to the have the ILS information displayed on the
ALIGN AND TAKEOFF along the runway centerline. target climb speed. If you did not change the PFD.
Parking Brakes RELEASED Stick Position default cost index of 50, the target speed is Flaps Extension
As soon as the takeoff clearance is received, When the speed is over 80 knots, the stick can 300 knots. As the aircraft descends, you can extend the
release the parking brakes to enter the be released to come back to the neutral Barometric Setting PULL flaps to help it decelerating and to keep good
runway. position. When the transition altitude is reached lift while the airspeed is decreasing.
Thrust Rotation (18.000 feet by default in Flight Simulator), Suggestion : Extend Flaps 1 at around 5.000
Like for taxiing, use around 40% N1 to taxi to When VR is reached (indicated with a blue the barometric setting flashes. Pull the feet.
line up on the runway. circle on the PFD speed tape), pull the stick barometric knob to set the STD value. As the aircraft keeps decelerating, you can
TCAS Mode ABV for the rotation. If the FD is not perfectly Cruise Altitude extend flaps as soon as the VFE NEXT speed is
On the pedestal, set the TCAS mode to ABV stable at this time, take a 15° pitch angle. As soon as the cruise altitude is reached, reached.
(above) to get ready for climb and watch for Landing Gear UP check the FMA displays ‘ALT CRZ’ in the 2nd Suggestion : Extend Flaps 2 and 3 as the
potential intruders 8000 feet above the As soon as positive climb is achieved, the column. speed decreases.
aircraft. landing gear can be retracted. Landing Configuration
Takeoff Thrust The autobrake will automatically turn off 10 DESCENT & APPROACH Keep following the flight plan (or the ATC
If you are cleared for takeoff, push the thrust seconds later. TCAS instructions if you are guided by ATC). It
levers to 60-70 % N1 and monitor the E/WD to Landing Light OFF Before engaging the descent, set the TCAS should align you with the runway.
make sure thrust is available. If everything is Even if the landing light is automatically mode to BLW (below) to monitor potential At around 2.000 feet, get ready for landing:
OK, you can push to the FLEX detent. You can turned off when the gear is retracted, it intruders below the aircraft during the • Extend the landing gear
use the TOGA detent for takeoff, but in this should be turned off using the overhead descent. • Extend full flaps
flight we decide to save some fuel and use switch. Engage Managed Descent • Set LOC mode on the FCU
FLEX thrust takeoff. Ground Spoilers DISARMED When the top of descent point (T/D) is reached, • Set Autobrake MED

8 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 9
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


• Ground Spoilers ARMED Last Turn button located on the sidestick in the real
Note that the landing memo appears when the Just before arriving at the gate, you should SETUP aircraft. This is why it should be assigned
aircraft reaches 1.500 feet in approach. start the APU to get ready to stop the engines. to one of your joystick button, if possible.
Glideslope capture • APU Master Switch ON FS SETUP • Autothrottle arming switch :
As soon as the localizer is captured (LOC* or • APU START Key Assignments This command is mapped to the “Shift-R”
LOC displayed on the FMA), you can set the At the Gate Some key assignments are suggested for key by default.
approach mode (APPR) on the FCU. When the aircraft is stopped at the gate, shut optimal use of the panel. Some of them are It simulates the thrust lever instinctive
If you want to make an autoland, you can it down : not defined by default in Flight Simulator, so pushbuttons located on the throttle levers
engage the second autopilot at this time. • Parking Brakes SET their definition is recommended if it has not in the real aircraft. For this reason, it
Landing Memo GREEN • ENG 1 Master Switch OFF been done already. should be assigned to a button on your
Make sure all the items on the landing memo • ENG 2 Master Switch OFF The key assignment is available in FS2004 throttle device, if possible.
are green. If not, take the corrective actions. (Remember that the right mouse button must through the pull-down menu Options > Control Sensitivities and Null Zones
Short Final be used to shut down the engines) Controls > Assignments... and in FSX through The sensitivities and null zones of the stick
Follow the localizer and glideslope, or let the External Power Options > Settings > Controls... controller (PC joystick or yoke) must be
autopilot do it in autoland if you wish. One minute after the aircraft has stopped and adjusted to have the fly-by-wire working as
As the aircraft gets closer to the ground, the the engines are shut down, the GPU becomes efficiently as possible. These settings are
LAND mode engages, then the FLARE mode. available. Press the EXT PWR switch on the described in detail in the section dedicated to
They are shown on the FMA. If you fly overhead to use it. the fly-by-wire system.
manually, just follow the flight director and it APU Shut Down Throttle Setup
will be fine. As soon as the external power source is In the real aircraft, the throttle levers have
Thrust RETARD available, you can save fuel and turn off the detents that correspond to specific throttle
At around 20 feet, an aural warning “Retard, APU by pressing the APU Master Switch. settings. This is detailed in the Autoflight
Retard” is heard. Pull the thrust levers back to section (“thrust levers” paragraph).
idle and let the aircraft gently touch the INTRODUCTION If you have a single or multiple throttle
ground. device, no specific setup is required. The
HOW TO READ THIS MANUAL ? throttle device is acquired to determine if the
This manual describes the panels and the throttle lever is in a specific detent or not.
LANDING aircraft systems. Reading this manual is very If you don’t have any throttle device and use
Reverse Thrust & Braking important to understand how the panels and the keyboard to control the engines,
As soon as the wheels have touched the the systems work, in order to use them everything works without needing any specific
ground, you can engage the thrust reversers if efficiently. setup, but the use of a throttle device is
you wish. Within this manual, you will find some notes highly recommended.
The autobrake makes the aircraft decelerate about the usage of these aircrafts in Flight
on the ground. You can take the control at any Simulator. They are written in italics. Each USER SETUP
time by using the brakes. Any action on the time you read a section in italics, remember The aircraft configuration window is
brakes automatically disconnects the it is something related to the implementation accessible through the Wilco Airbus
autobrake system. of a system in the Flight Simulator context. configuration software :
Exit Runway You will also find some advice provided by real The suggested key assignments as follows :
Exit runway when able. life pilots who fly real Airbus aircraft. This is • Standby frequency swap :
As soon as it is done, retract the flaps and very useful and aids understanding about how This commands swaps the active and
disarm the ground spoilers to retract them. some systems are used. For example, it will standby frequencies on the Radio
Taxi to the Gate help you to answer the question: “Why should I Management Panel (RMP). This device is
As you taxi to the arrival gate, you may notice use the TRK/FPA guidance mode instead of the described later in this documentation.
the FMGC resets 1 minute after the aircraft HDG/VS mode?” It may also let you know when • Autopilot arming switch :
has touched the ground. Its memory is cleared a system should be used, and when it This command is mapped to the ‘Z’ key by
to make it ready for the next flight. The FMA shouldn’t. default.
is also cleared. It simulates the autopilot disconnect

10 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 11
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


In FS2004 only, the configuration window is aircraft properly for take off and flight.
also accessible when the aircraft is loaded in
FS through a new menu that appears in the IRS Alignment Duration
“Aircraft” pull-down menu. By default, the IRS alignment time depends on
the level of realism, as shown in the table
In the real aircraft, the alignment time is
around 10 minutes. For easier use, you can
reduce this time and set the value you wish
using the slider.
The configuration window is accessible by Remember that if you change the level of
This cascade menu lets you configure the realism, the alignment time will be updated
pressing the top button labeled
aircraft with several options, described in the accordingly.
“Configuration”. The Load Manager, key Weight Unit
following paragraphs.
configurator and Fuel Planner will be You can select the unit used to display weights
In FSX MCDU Keyboard Input
described in other sections. (aircraft weight, fuel weight...) The possible
In FSX, the configuration window is accessible only You may want to use your PC keyboard to
choices are kilograms (KG) and pounds (LB).
through the Wilco Airbus configuration software. enter data into the MCDU. You can do this by
Note : Than when you configure the aircraft European pilots may prefer the metric system
selecting a key modifier or a key locker :
through this configuration tool, any change is (KG), while US pilots may prefer to use
• A key modifier is supposed to be used in
taken into account the next time the aircraft Imperial measures.
combination with the keyboard keys. For
is loaded into FS2004 or FSX. example, if you select Shift-Control as
Panel Sound Volume
In FS2004 the modifier, pressing Shift-Control-L will
The panel has its own sounds: warning sounds,
enter an ‘L’ character in the MCDU.
GPWS altitude callouts, etc. This slider lets
Beginner Intermediate Expert Note : A key combination may be in
you adjust the panel sound volume
Engine Start FS shortcut allowed Full startup sequence Full startup sequence independently from the other FS sound conflict with a FS command, such as Shift-
(Ctrl-E key operative) must be executed must be executed settings, such as engine sound volume, Control-L for the aircraft landing lights.
cockpit sound volume, etc. • The use of a key lock will intercept all
RWY Mode Available on any runway, Available only if the runway Available only if the runway
the keys to redirect them to the MCDU.
(runway lateral as long as the aircraft has a localizer and the has a localizer and the
mode) is aligned. departing runway has been departing runway has been User Experience (Realism) For example, if you select Scroll Lock as
entered in the MCDU entered in the MCDU This aircraft can be flown in different modes the key lock and press the Scroll Lock
depending on the level of realism you are key, the scroll lock LED lights up on your
Inertial Information Always available Available only when the IRS Available only when the IRS keyboard and any key typed on the
(aircraft heading/track are aligned are aligned expecting. Three realism levels are available:
beginner, intermediate and expert. To make it keyboard enters a new character into
and position)
simple, beginner users will not have to read the MCDU. For example, if you press the
Ref Speeds Automatically computed Automatically computed on Not automatically computed, ‘L’ key, an ‘L’ character is entered in the
quantities of documentation to start the
(V1, VR, V2) with average values request. A warning on the PFD the pilot has to enter them MCDU and the aircraft lights don’t
engines and fly the aircraft. Intermediate
no warning on the PFD if they are not entered in the MCDU. Otherwise, change. Pressing the Scroll Lock key
users will have more realism while enjoying
a warning appears on the PFD again turns the keyboard back in a
some FS “shortcuts”. Expert users will have to
Gross Weight (GW) Automatically computed Must be entered in the MCDU Must be entered in the MCDU follow carefully all the required procedures to normal state.
according to FS settings to compute the F, S, and Green to compute the F, S, and Green fly this aircraft.
Dot speed (available on request)Dot speed (available on request) The table explains in detail the differences Note 1 : Remember that when a locker
Default IRS Alignment 10 seconds 1 minute 10 minutes between the various levels of realism. key (such as Scroll Lock) is used, EVERY
duration In summary, if you set the realism to key stroke is redirected to the MCDU.
Wind indication on Always visible Not visible if speed is too low Not visible if speed is too low beginner, you will be able to start the Don’t be amazed if the ALT key doesn’t
the Navigation Display (unreliable inertial information)(unreliable inertial information) engine, take off and land without reading a display the FS menu any more. This is
single page of this manual. Otherwise, you because this key is also intercepted.
MCDU Assistance Available Available Not available
must read the documentation to set up the Press the locker key again for normal

12 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 13
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


keyboard behavior. FLY-BY-WIRE If, for any reason (emergency situation for
example), if the pilot wants to exceed the 33°
Note 2 : In FS2004, the ‘Scroll Lock’ key OVERVIEW limit, he must continue the stick input to
is defined as the default locker. In FSX, This aircraft is equipped with a fly-by-wire maintain bank angle. As soon as the stick is
this key is used to display/hide the ATC system managed by the Flight Augmentation returned to the lateral neutral position, the
window, which can also be Computer (FAC) and the Elevator and Aileron aircraft comes back to a bank angle of 33°. In
displayed/hidden using the ‘accent’ key. Computer (ELAC). It commands the flight any event, the aircraft cannot exceed a 67°
For this reason, you should clear the controls electrically from the input given by bank angle in clean confi-guration (45° with
Power Push Unit, designed to be attached on one of the
‘Scroll Lock’ assignment for the ATC the pilot through the sidestick. In normal law, flaps) to limit the structural acceleration of
window and make this function main landing gear. 2.5 g in (2.0 g with flaps).
this system provides:
accessible through the ‘accent’ key only. Auto-Pause
• Flight automation : bank angle and pitch is The flight directors automatically disappear
Checking this option automatically pauses FS maintained as soon as the stick is released when the bank angle reaches 45°.
Startup when the next waypoint is the computed top to the neutral position. The bank angle control is illustrated by the
Press the “cold & dark” button to reset the of descent point and the distance is less than • Flight envelope protection : the system figure below :
aircraft in a cold and dark situation, with all prevents the aircraft from entering into
20 NM. This is especially useful for long flights
the engines and devices turned off. dangerous situations, such as high bank
This feature is available only if the aircraft is during which you might not be in front of your
angle or stall.
parked on the ground. computer when the aircraft is about to begin
its descent. In direct law, the aircraft is controlled like
Pushback Type any standard aircraft : the elevator and
This aircraft allow you to choose the type of FLIGHT RESET aileron deflections are proportional to the
pushback you want to use. The standard side stick movements.
An option is available to let you reset the
pushback is the default pushback available in
Flight Simulator, triggered by the Shift-P key current flight. This operation consists of the
The aircraft automatically switches to direct
(by default) with the 1 and 2 keys to steer the following actions: law when it is lower than 50 feet above the Why do these limits exist ?
aircraft. • The flight phase is reset (the value is set ground (100 feet if autopilot is active). The aircraft is limited in terms of
The other pushback type simulates the use of according to the current aircraft The normal law protections are active only if acceleration, because of structural and
a Power Push Unit (PPU). Unlike the standard situation). Refer to the FMGC section to at least one FAC is operative. aerodynamic reasons. These limits are 2.5 g in
pushback, this device is not a pushback clean configuration and 2.0 g with flaps.
know more about the flight phase.
vehicle attached to the nose wheel with a tow USAGE If the aircraft wants to maintain a constant
bar. The PPU is a small remote controlled • The flight plan is reset, which means the altitude in turn, it has to increase the lift to
The pilot uses the sidestick to control the
vehicle attached to a main gear wheel that next waypoint is the first waypoint of the aircraft. The stick's side to side movements counter the bank angle, so it naturally
pushes the aircraft without steering it. When flight plan. command the bank angle. The stick's forward increases the load factor weight.
using a PPU, the pilot has to steer the aircraft • The recorded fuel used by each engine and backward movements command the
in the same way as taxiing. (displayed on the SD) is reset to 0. pitch, just like on any aircraft.
Bank Angle
In FS2004
PPU Simulation in FS : When the pilot wants to make the aircraft
To control the PPU, use the keys or the device (such A flight reset can be triggered via the Aircraft turn, he uses the sidestick to command a bank
as rudder pedals) that you usually use to turn the pull-down menu, or by pressing Ctrl-Shift-R (a angle. He doesn’t have to use the rudder
nose wheel. popup window confirms the reset operation). pedals as the FAC manages the auto-
Note that the PPU pushback type is not available in In FSX coordination automatically. In normal
FSX. Pressing Ctrl-Shift-R resets the current flight. conditions, the bank angle should never
exceed 33° (the autopilot always commands a
A popup window confirms the operation.
bank angle less or equal to 25°). When the With the help of some mathematics, we can
stick is returned to neutral position, the bank understand that the load factor depends on
angle is maintained until a new bank angle is the bank angle: the more it banks, the more
commanded through the stick. it has to increase lift, which means increasing

14 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 15
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the load factor. Increasing the load factor to

2.5 g corresponds to a 67° bank angle, and 2.0
g corresponds to 45°. This is the
Pitch Angle
When the pilot wants to command a climb or
descent, he pulls or pushes the stick. Instead
of commanding an elevator position, the pilot
commands a load factor change. As soon as
the stick is in vertical neutral position, the
current load factor is maintained in order to
maintain a constant pitch angle through the
auto-trim system.
The flight envelope protection system limits
the pitch angle to 30° in climb and 15° in
descent. The flight directors automatically
disappear when these limits are reached.
If the alpha protection triggers the alpha floor
mode (high incidence angle protection), the
alpha floor will automatically command a
nose down situation until the incidence angle
returns to a correct value.

Fly-by-Wire management in Flight Simulator : • Null zone : The fly-by-wire system comes into
The simulation of this system does not require any action when the joystick is in neutral position,
additional module in Flight Simulator. It works with in order to maintain the bank/pitch angle Real pilots suggest pushing the sensitivity to the
the standard installation of FS. Nevertheless, it only commanded by the pilot. If you find this feature maximum and reducing the null zone to the minimum.
works if a joystick is used to fly the aircraft. does not work properly, it may be because the If your hardware is good enough to support these
Keyboard contro is possible, but it is not totally null zone defined for the aileron or elevator axis settings (especially regarding the accuracy), you should
efficient. Any serious virtual pilot should not use the is too small. In this case, increase the null zone apply these settings.
keyboard to fly... so that the fly-by-wire system can identify the
The joystick sensitivities and null zones must be
null zone more easily. Note : The flight control system modeled in Flight
adjusted in order to make this system work
• Sensitivity : The pitch control works better if the Simulator is not designed for fly-by-wire systems. In the
efficiently in FS. These settings are found in the
elevator sensitivity is set to the maximum. It real aircraft, there is no direct link between the sidestick
FS2004 pull-down menu Options > Controls >
provides a better reactivity to the system. and the ailerons/elevators. The sidestick gives an order
Sensitivities... or in FSX through Options > Settings
to the computer, which computes an electronic order for
> Controls...
The following parameters provide good results : the ailerons and elevators. In FS, there is always a link
between the user joystick and the simulated aircraft
flight controls.
In order to get the best results from the fly-by-wire
system, move the joystick gently, and remember, this
aircraft is not designed for aerobatics, but for optimal
passenger comfort. If you feel uncomfortable with the
aircraft control, just release the stick and let the fly-by-
wire control the aircraft. Then you just have to adjust
the aircraft trajectory through small stick corrections.

16 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 17
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choose if the airspeed is displayed in knots speed, in knots or Mach. If the speed is
or in Mach. managed, it is dashed and the managed
• The HDG-V/S / TRK-FPA pushbutton selects speed light is on.
the display mode. If HDG-VS mode is • The heading window displays the target
selected, the heading and the vertical heading or track. If the lateral navigation
speed (in feet per minute) are shown. If the is managed, it is dashed and the managed
TRK-FPA mode is selected, the track and the heading light is on.
flight path angle (in degrees) are displayed. • The altitude window shows the target
• The METRIC ALT pushbutton triggers the altitude. It is never dashed. The light is on as
display of the altitude in meters on the soon as the altitude displayed is higher than
Primary Flight Display. the acceleration altitude entered in the
• The six engagement pushbuttons (AP1, MCDU (refer to the FMGC section for more
AP2, A/THR, EXPED, LOC, APPR) will be details).
described later in this chapter. • The vertical speed window shows the
The four rotating knobs are the following : vertical speed in feet per minute, or the
flight path angle in degrees.

AUTOFLIGHT which the knob moves : Selected Functions

• If you push a knob, it moves in the When airspeed, heading or vertical speed
AUTOFLIGHT COMPONENTS direction of the aircraft systems, which value is selected, it can be adjusted by
The pilot interacts with the autoflight means you give the control to the turning the corresponding knob until the
management system through the following machine. • The airspeed knob controls the airspeed, desired value is displayed in the FCU window.
components : • If you pull a knob, it moves in your in knots or in Mach depending on the mode In the example shown below, the speed,
• The Flight Control Unit (FCU) located on direction, which means the control is given selected with the SPD/MACH pushbutton. heading and vertical speed are selected, and
the glareshield to the pilot. It can be pushed to have the speed their values are 210 knots, 12° heading and a
• The Multifunction Control and Display Unit FCU knob usage in Flight Simulator : managed by the flight management 2100 feet per minutes to climb to the altitude
(MCDU) located on the pedestal The actions on the FCU knobs are simulated by system. of 25000 feet (FL250).
• The thrust levers mouse click actions. Pushing a knob is simulated • The heading knob allows the pilot to
• The sidesticks by a left mouse button click, and pulling a knob select the heading or track, depending on
The autoflight status can be monitored on the is simulated by a right mouse click. the mode selected with the HDG-V/S /
following components : The following table summarizes the FCU knob actions : TRK-FPA pushbutton. It can be pushed to
• The FCU have the lateral navigation managed by
• The Primary Flight Display (PFD), especially Real world action FS simulated action Function the flight management system.
the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) and the Knob push Left-button mouse click Managed • The altitude knob controls the target FCU knob rotation in Flight Simulator :
Flight Director. Knob pull Right-button mouse click Selected altitude. It can be pushed to have the The knob rotation is simulated by clicking on the
Flight Control Unit vertical navigation managed by the flight left/right of the knob to decrease/increase the
Selected and Managed functions FCU Layout management system. corresponding value. For the vertical speed knob, you
The Flight Control Unit (FCU) has four rotating The FCU is composed of four rotating knobs, • The vertical speed (V/S) knob controls the have to click above/below the V/S knob to
knobs. It is a feature of the FCU that these nine pushbuttons and four display windows. vertical speed in feet per minute or the increase/decrease the value.
knobs can also be pushed or pulled. The nine pushbuttons act as follows : flight path angle (FPA), depending on the As soon as you move the mouse in one of the sensitive
If a knob is pulled, it means the pilot takes the mode selected with the HDG-V/S / TRK- area used for rotation, the hand cursor appears with a
decision to control the knob's function. In this FPA pushbutton. The vertical speed can + (plus) or a – (minus) to indicate the possible
case, the function is selected. not be managed. If the knob is pushed, it variation. If you click the left mouse button, it
If it is pushed, the pilot transfers functional triggers a level off action. commands a normal value change. If you click the
control to the flight management system. The The FCU has four windows, corresponding to right mouse button, it makes a bigger incremental
function is managed. the four knobs: change.
To remember this, think of the direction in • The SPD-MACH pushbutton lets the pilot • The speed window displays the target

18 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 19
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result in an expedited climb or descent. 1 - Flight Director pushbutton : FD 6 - Expedite : EXPED

Managed Functions This button is used to engage the flight Pressing this button initiates an expedited
If a knob is pushed, the corresponding director. This is absolutely necessary before climb or descent. An expedited climb
function is managed by the Flight engaging the autopilot. Remember that the corresponds to an open climb at green dot
Management System. The corresponding FCU flight director determines how the aircraft speed. An expedited descent is an open
display is then dashed and the managed should be flown, and the autopilot just descent at the speed of 340 kts/M.0.80,
The value changes are summarized in the table
guidance light turns on. executes the orders coming from the flight regardless of any speed constraint.
below :
In this example, the speed, heading and director (the FD is “the brain” and the AP is 7 - Approach : APPR
vertical speeds are managed. “the muscle”). When the aircraft is on an ILS approach, press
Function Button mouse click Variation
2 - Localizer : LOC this button to engage the ILS approach mode.
Airspeed (knots) Left +/- 1 knot
Right +/- 10 knots This button is used to engage the localizer This will command the lateral and vertical
mode. When it is engaged, it commands the navigation to follow the localizer and glide
Airspeed (MACH) Left +/- .01
Right +/- .10 lateral navigation to follow the localizer slope. This mode has to be engaged to effect
Heading/Track Left +/- 1° which frequency is tuned on NAV1 (ILS). an autoland.
Right +/- 10° The LOC mode should be engaged before the If the LOC mode was previously engaged,
Altitude Left +/- 100 feet Notes : APPR mode. engaging the APPR mode will turn the LOC
Right +/- 1000 feet • The vertical speed/flight path angle knob 3-4 - Autopilot pushbuttons : AP1 and AP2 light off. Nevertheless, the APPR will guide
Vertical Speed Left +/- 100 ft/min can not be managed. Pushing this knob The pilot uses these buttons to engage the the aircraft on the localizer and the glide
Right +/- 1000 ft/min results in a level off action. autopilots. Two autopilots are provided for slope.
• Even if the vertical navigation is managed, redundancy. You can engage either AP1 or
Mouse wheel usage : the FCU altitude window is never dashed. AP2. However, AP1 and AP2 can be engaged Some Advice
When the mouse cursor is moved over a knob or over simultaneously only in approach mode, to LOC/APPR mode usage
a variation zone, you can use the mouse wheel to Reminder : increase the safety of an autoland. Real pilots say the LOC mode should ALWAYS
adjust the value. Turning the mouse wheel normally Before taking off, the speed, heading and These pushbuttons should not be used to be engaged before the APPR mode. Even if
commands a normal variation. Turning the mouse vertical speed are managed by default. To disengage the autopilots. If this is done, a engaging the APPR mode before the LOC mode
wheel while pressing one of the Shift keys make sure the FCU is correctly set for take continuous alarm will sound due to this is possible, it should never be done. This is
commands bigger variations. off, remember the words “dash, ball, dash, abnormal procedure. The autopilot should be because the airport approach guides you on a
ball, ball, dash”. It means speed display is disconnected using the sidestick red button lateral and vertical path that avoids the
dashed and speed light (ball) is on, heading is (or assigned key stroke, eg Z). When this is terrain. The terrain avoidance is totally
dashed and heading light is on, altitude light done, the warning sound is temporary. reliable only if you descnd on the glide slope
is on and vertical speed is dashed (as shown Sidestick button simulation in Flight Simulator : and when you are aligned with the runway, or
on the image above). In the FS Setup section (Key Assignments), the runway localizer.
This is especially important for the altitude assignment of the FS autopilot switch to a joystick Autoland
If you want to change the altitude selection, light, which is illuminated only if the selected button is recommended. If you can do so, it allows In case of lateral wind, the autopilot will have
you must first turn the altitude knob to altitude is higher than the acceleration you to simulate the real aircraft procedure that difficulties to follow the localizer. Real life
display the desired target altitude. Then you altitude. If it is lower, the initial climb will not consists in disconnecting the autopilot only through pilots say the autoland is NEVER used in case
can initiate the climb or descent by one of the be correct. the joystick button, and not through the AP1/AP2 of lateral wind. The human pilot is much
following actions : pushbuttons on the FCU. better than the autopilot to make small and
• Pull the altitude knob. This will make the Engagement Pushbuttons 5 - Autothtrust : A/THR accurate trajectory changes in order to fly a
altitude ‘selected’ and it will result in an Seven engagement buttons are located on the Pressing this button engages or disengages the good ILS approach. The autoland is perfect for
open climb or open descent. FCU. They illuminate when their autothrust system. This system can also be low visibility approaches, but not for windy
• Push the altitude knob. The altitude is corresponding mode is engaged. engaged or disengaged using the thrust levers ones.
now ‘managed’ and it will result in a (discussed later in this chapter). Autothrust usage
managed climb or descent. This button illuminates when the autothrust is Many pilots say you shouldn’t use the auto-
• Pull the V/S knob, and select a vertical armed or engaged. The only way to know the thrust when flying the aircraft manually. This
speed. exact status of the autothrust is by looking at is because it may amplify the trajectory
• Press the EXPED pushbutton, which will the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA). correction (especially in pitch) you make to

20 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 21
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


fly the aircraft along the glide slope. Other The levers can be moved in : FMA).
pilots think the auto-thrust is reactive enough Thrust Levers • the IDLE detent : the autothrust system is As soon as the levers are retarded into the
to be used even when the aircraft is flown The thrust system of this aircraft has four automatically disconnected and idle CL detent, the autothrust system is auto-
manually. You will make your own opinion. detents in which the levers can enter. When power is always applied, unless TOGA matically engaged : the A/THR message on
In case of strong wind, you may see the auto- the pilot moves the levers, he can feel “hard LOCK mode is engaged, the FMA appears in white.
thrust is constantly updating the thrust. This points” when they reach one of the detents. • the CL detent : the Full Authority Digital • During the whole flight, the levers should
may sound weird, but if you look carefully, The four detents correspond to four possible Engine Control (FADEC) commands climb remain in the CL detent, unless max power
this is the best way to have the aircraft speed thrust modes: power, is needed in case of an emergency.
conform to the FCU required selected or • IDLE • the FLX/MCT detent : FLX (flex) is used for
managed speed. In my opinion, the impact of • CL for Climb reduced thrust take off, and MCT (max On this aircraft, the throttle levers don’t
the wind on the airspeed in FS is not totally • FLX/MCT for Flex/Maximum Continuous continuous thrust) should be selected in move by themselves, even if thrust is
realistic, it is too strong. Thrust single engine operation, commanded by the FADEC. They are
Flying the aircraft manually • TOGA for Take off go-around • the TOGA detent : whatever happens, full supposed to stay in the CL detent when the
If you disconnect the auto-pilot to fly the The thrust levers have two red buttons on the engine power is applied (for take off or go- autothrust system is engaged. For this
aircraft manually, many pilots suggest the use side, called instinctive buttons. They are used around). reason, the pilots must be warned when idle
of TRK/FPA mode instead of HDG/V/S mode. to disarm the autothrust system. Standard Usage thrust is commanded. This is shown on the
In TRK-FPA, the green flight path vector The autothrust system should be used as often Engine/Warning Display (E/WD) with an IDLE
symbol, called the "bird", shows the aircraft as possible, even if some pilots say it message that flashes for a few seconds.
trajectory in a way that is easier to shouldn’t be used when the aircraft is flown Monitoring
understand by a human pilot : manually. It should be turned on just after The autothrust system can be monitored
• on the lateral plan, you can observe the take off and should remain on until the through several autoflight components:
impact of the lateral wind and see where aircraft has landed. • On the Engine/Warning Display (E/WD),
the aircraft is really heading, The standard usage of the throttle is the the engine power commanded by the
• on the vertical plan, you see the angle of following : autothrust system is shown with a blue arc
descent that allows you to easily fly an • The levers should be in the IDLE position on the N1 gauges.
approach visually. Simulation of the lever movement in Flight Simulator : when the engines are turned on. • On the E/WD, messages can be displayed
As your throttle control does not have detents, this • They can be moved in the manual range to indicate specific autothrust status (IDLE
Sidesticks and Rudder Pedals is simulated by a sound that is played each time a for taxi. Note that the aircraft can taxi or A.FLOOR).
In the real aircraft, the sidesticks are firmly lever enters or leaves a detent. When you move your with idle thrust, you just need a little • On the Flight Control Unit (FCU), the
held in their center position when an throttle, pay attention to this sound because it thrust to initiate the roll. A/THR pushbutton light shows if the
autopilot is engaged. A strong manual indicates when the levers have reached a detent. You • For take off, the pilot decides if flex or autothrust system is off (light off) or
movement of a sidestick or a rudder pedal can also see the thrust mode indication on the take off power should be applied. Use flex armed or engaged (light on).
input indicates that the pilot wants to take Engine/Warning Display (E/WD). power as often as possible to save the • On the Primary Flight Display (PFD), the
the control of the aircraft. It disconnects the The autothrust system works properly if you control engines. Maximum TOGA power should be first column shows the current autothrust
autopilot with an aural warning. This warning the throttle through the keyboard. Nevertheless, the used on short or wet runways or when the mode, and the 5th column shows the
indicates it is not the right way to disconnect use of a throttle device is highly recommended. weather conditions are bad (especially autothrust status (off, armed or engaged).
the autopilot. This warning can be stopped by Simulation of the instinctive pushbuttons in Flight windshears).
one of the following actions: Simulator : As soon as take off power (FLX or TOGA) is Autothrust modes
• re-engaging the autopilot through the FCU The instinctive pushbutton function is mapped on applied, the autothrust system The autothrust system has two kinds of
pushbutton, the FS auto-throttle system. You can map any key or automatically arms : the FCU A/THR light modes:
• pressing the sidestick button to confirm button to the “Autothrottle arming switch” turns on and A/THR appears in blue on the • The fixed thrust modes: a fixed thrust is
the Autopilot disconnection action. command and it will simulate the instinctive FMA (5th column). commanded and the airspeed is controlled
In Flight Simulator, this feature is simulated by a pushbuttons. • When airborne and the reduction altitude by adjusting the aircraft pitch.
strong movement of the joystick or rudder pedal. If When the thrust levers are in the manual is reached (usually 1.500 feet AGL), the • The variable thrust modes: the speed is
you move the joystick or rudder pedal to an extreme range (not in a detent), the levers command pilot is requested to engage the climb controlled by changing the thrust engine
position, it disconnects the autopilot like in the real the engines like any other aircraft : the mode by moving the levers into the CL power.
aircraft. engine power is relative to the lever angle. detent (flashing LVR CLB message on the

22 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 23
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Alpha Floor - Flight envelope protection illuminates when the autothrust is active. This message “THR IDLE” is displayed on the – The flight directors are turned off.
If the alpha protection system detects high is why the pilot must look at the FMA (column FMA when the fixed idle thrust is provided, • MACH
incidence angles, it engages the alpha floor 5) to determine if it is armed or active. and a flashing “IDLE” message is shown on It is the same as the SPEED mode. It is only
mode that automatically applies full TOGA the E/WD when the engine power is idle. available at high altitudes. The autothrust
engine power (even if the autothrust system is The aircraft speed is then controlled by system automatically switches from SPEED
not engaged and regardless of the thrust the pitch (used for open descent). to MACH and vice-versa at a
levers' position). At the same time, the Typical FMA display when take off power is applied. The autothrust mode is displayed on the FMA, predetermined altitude.
aircraft's pitch is decreased to reduce the The first column shows FLEX power is selected, column 1. When armed, the autothrust mode The autothrust system can be changed to
incidence. A message A.FLOOR is displayed on and column 5 shows the autothrust system is armed. is displayed in white inside a white bordered armed mode by moving the throttle levers
the FMA (1st column). box. forward into the FLX/MCT or TOGA detent.
When the incidence angle is correct again, the When the autothrust system is armed, only The autothrust is disarmed when the A/THR The autothrust is de-activated if the A/THR
alpha floor stops and the autothrust system the fixed thrust modes (constant thrust button is depressed on the FCU, or when the button is depressed on the FCU, or when the
locks the TOGA power. The TOGA LK message provided) are available : throttle levers are moved back to the IDLE throttle levers are moved back to the IDLE
is then displayed on the FMA (1st column). • TOGA - Take off / Go around : detent. detent. In this case, an “A/THR OFF” message
To unlock the TOGA LK mode, the pilot must This mode provides the maximum thrust, appears on the E/WD for a few seconds and a
follow the recommendations: “MAN TOGA” is displayed on the FMA Autothrust Active warning sound is heard.
1. Move the trust levers to the TOGA detent (column 1). If the autothrust system is armed, it becomes
to avoid a thrust difference when the • FLX – Flex : active when the throttle levers are moved Thrust Limitation
autothrust system is disengaged. It is used for reduced thrust take off. The into the CL detent. If it is off, it can be made During normal operations, the thrust levers
2. Disengage the autothrust system by provided thrust depends on the active by pressing the A/THR button on the should remain in the CL detent during the
pressing the A/THR button on the FCU or temperature that is entered in the MCDU FCU. whole flight. If the autothrust system is
by pressing an instinctive pushbutton. PERF page. If the aircraft is on the ground, When the autothrust system is active, the engaged and the levers are moved below the
3. Retard the levers to the CL detent. “MAN FLX” message is displayed on the A/THR light illuminates on the FCU panel, and CL detent (in the manual range), the thrust is
4. Re-engage the autothrust system by FMA (column 1) with the selected a white A/THR message appears on the FMA limited to the thrust lever position. If the
pressing the A/THR button on the FCU temperature in blue. (column 5). The thrust mode displayed in the thrust lever position is limiting the autothrust
again. If the flex mode is used for take off and no 1st column of the FMA appears in green. system, a master caution is generated and a
temperature has been entered in the When the autothrust is active, the fixed and message is displayed on the E/WD to indicate
MCDU, a message “FLX TEMP NOT SET” variable thrust modes are available. In this this. Repeated chime will sound until a
FLIGHT GUIDANCE appears on the E/WD. In this case, the mode only, the autothrust fully controls the corrective action if taken.
The flight guidance section covers all the take off should continue in TOGA mode by thrust to maintain selected or managed speed Thrust Lock
automatic flight modes : speed guidance, pushing the throttle levers into the TOGA in level flight or when the aircraft is following When the autothrust system is armed with the
lateral guidance and vertical guidance. detent. This removes the caution a specific vertical path (ILS approach for levers in the CL detent and the autothrust is
message. example). disengaged by pressing the FCU A/THR
Speed Guidance • MCT - Maximum continuous thrust : pushbutton, the engine thrust remains
It is mainly related to the autothrust system. It provides a fixed thrust that is the Variable thrust modes are : constant until the levers are moved out of the
maximum continuous thrust depending on • SPEED CL detent. This status is shown by a flashing
Autothrust arming the current conditions. This is the normal This mode is available only when the THR LK message on the FMA (1st column) and
If the autothrust system is off, it is armed lever position if an engine fails. autothrust system is active. A “SPEED” a message appears on the E/WD, asking the
when the throttle levers are moved to the • CL – Climb : message is displayed in green on the FMA pilot to move the thrust levers. Repeated
FLX/MCT or TOGA detent during take off, or Climb thrust is provided based on the (column 1) when this mode is engaged. chime will sound until a corrective action if
when the levers are moved in the TOGA current conditions. A message “THR CLB” The autothrust automatically switches to taken.
detent while the aircraft is in flight and the is displayed on the FMA when the fixed this mode when :
flaps are extended (go around). climb thrust is provided. The aircraft – the aircraft levels off from a climb or a Lateral Guidance
When the autothrust system is armed, the speed is then controlled by the pitch (used descent, The lateral guidance modes provide guidance
A/THR light illuminates on the FCU panel, and for climb). – a vertical guidance mode that commands along a lateral path according to the FCU
a blue A/THR message appears on the FMA. • IDLE : a specific vertical path (V/S or ILS mode) settings or to the flight plan stored in the
Note that the A/THR button light also This mode provides fixed idle thrust. A is engaged, FMGC.

24 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 25
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The pilot can control the lateral guidance on the FMA). It will automatically become manually through the FCU by doing the engines power will be set to IDLE.
through the FCU, in which case it is a selected active shortly after take off. following actions : If the EXPED mode is engaged when the open
lateral mode. Or he may let the FMGC manage • Select a new altitude on the FCU using the descent mode is active, the aircraft will
it, in which case it is a managed lateral mode. Vertical Guidance altitude knob, descend as quickly as possible, using the
The vertical modes provide guidance along • Then select a vertical mode using the maximum speed of 340 kts/ Mach .80 as the
Automatic Lateral Modes the vertical flight plan, according to the FMGC altitude knob, the V/S knob or the EXPED target speed (potentially limited by the VMAX
During take off (as soon as the throttle levers flight plan and pilot inputs via the FCU. button. This action will determine the speed).
are in the FLEX or TOGA detent), the lateral The pilot can control the vertical guidance vertical mode that will be used to fly the
RWY (runway) mode automatically engages. manually through the FCU (selected vertical aircraft : V/S, FPA, Open Climb or Open The open descent mode can be engaged only
This mode is designed to help the pilot in mode) or let the FMGC manage the vertical Descent. when the autopilot and autothrust systems
following the runway heading. In fact, it guidance (managed vertical mode). are active, by the following actions :
automatically sets the ILS frequency (if it The vertical modes are always on the 2nd Open Climb (OP CLB) 3. Select an altitude that is lower than the
exists) and the yaw bar is displayed on the column of the FMA. The active mode is This mode is used to climb at a selected altitude current altitude on the FCU,
PFD to help the runway tracking. If the displayed in green on the first line, and the without taking care of any altitude constraint. 4. Pull the altitude knob.
runway has no ILS, no yaw bar is shown. armed mode is shown on the second line in This mode is linked to the THR CLB autothrust Note : The open descent should not be used at
blue. mode (fixed thrust mode with N1 set according low altitudes.
to the CLB thrust setting). When this mode is
Automatic Vertical Modes active, the current selected or managed target Vertical Speed / Flight Path Angle (VS or FPA)
Typical FMA display when take off power is applied. During take off (as soon as the throttle levers speed is held and the pitch is adjusted These modes let the pilot control the climb or
Column 3 shows the runway mode is engaged (green are in the FLEX or TOGA detent), the lateral SRS consequently. This is why the V/S FCU display is descent through the vertical speed or the
RWY), and the NAV mode is armed (blue NAV). (speed reference system) mode automatically dashed. flight path angle (depending on the FCU
engages if some conditions are fulfilled : If the EXPED mode is engaged when the open mode, V/S – HDG or TRK – FPA). Consequently,
When the aircraft reaches the altitude of 30 • The flaps are extended, climb mode is active, the aircraft will climb as the FCU V/S or FPA display shows the selected
feet above the ground, the NAV mode • V2 was entered in the MCDU Take off PERF quickly as possible, using the green dot speed value.
automatically engages if a flight plan is page. as the target speed. These modes are linked to the Speed/Mach
defined. If no flight plan is defined, or if the This mode is designed to manage the initial autothrust mode (variable thrust mode that
flight plan leads to a discontinuity, the RWY climb, from the ground to the acceleration The open climb mode can be engaged only adjusts the engine power according to the
TRK (runway track) mode automatically altitude. It will make the aircraft climb at the when the autopilot and autothrust systems speed target).
engages to help the pilot in following the highest possible rate of climb, keeping V2+10 are active, by the following actions : The FMA displays the selected mode (V/S or
runway track after take off until another knots if all engines are running, otherwise V2. 1. Select an altitude that is higher than the FPA) with the current selected value in blue.
lateral mode is selected. This mode is very helpful, you just have to follow current altitude on the FCU, In V/S mode, the FMA and FCU may look like
the flight director after take off to make a 2. Pull the altitude knob. this :
Selected Lateral Mode perfect climb. Note : If the altitude change is less than 1.200
The pilot can control the lateral guidance feet, the vertical speed will be set auto-
manually through the FCU by pulling the HDG matically to 1.000 feet/min and the FMA
(or TRK) knob on the FCU to select the indications don’t change.
heading (or track). Depending on the FCU Typical FMA display when take off power is applied. In open climb, the FMA looks like this :
mode, the heading or the track is selected. Column 2 shows the speed reference system mode is engaged
(green SRS),and the managed climb mode is armed (blue
Managed Lateral Mode CLB).
The crew can push the HDG knob to set the
heading managed mode. The NAV mode then As soon as the acceleration altitude is Open Descent (OP DES) In FPA mode, they may look like this :
becomes active (shown in green on the FMA) reached, the vertical mode automatically This mode is similar to the open climb mode,
and the aircraft follows the flight plan switches to CLB mode. used for the descent. It allows the descent at
entered in the FMGC. a selected altitude without honoring any
If the heading is in managed mode on the Selected Vertical Modes altitude constraint. It is linked to the THR
ground, the NAV mode is armed (shown in blue The pilot can control the vertical guidance IDLE autothrust mode, which means the

26 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 27
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


(managed lateral mode). To engage the speed and altitude information relative to the descent.
managed descent, an altitude lower than the 1. The descent target speed is shown with a
current altitude must be selected on the FCU, magenta = sign.
and the ALT knob must be pushed. 2. The FMGC can adjust the speed up to the
maximum managed descent speed, which
When the managed descent is initiated, the is the target speed + 20 knots.
aircraft will try to descend using idle thrust as 3. If the aircraft has to slow down the
Managed Vertical Modes
long as possible to save fuel. It will also respect aircraft, it can adjust the speed down to
In Managed vertical mode, the FMGC deter-
the constraints, especially the speed limitation the minimum managed descent speed,
mines the best climb or descent profile.
below the limitation altitude (usually, the speed which is the target speed - 20 knots.
By default, the CLB mode (climb mode) is
limit is 250 kt below 10,000 ft). In fact, the FMGC 4. The descent path indicator (magenta
armed when the aircraft is on the ground. It is
computes a ideal descent path it will do circle) shows the vertical deviation with
shown in blue on the FMA. It means the climb The top of descent point, computed by the FMGC,
everything possible to maintain the aircraft on the computed descent profile.
mode will be automatically activated as soon is shown with a white down arrow (1)
this path. For any reason, you may initiate the descent On this example, the aircraft is above the
as the aircraft reaches the acceleration
altitude set in the MCDU (refer to the FMGC As soon as you initiate the descent, the FMA before or after the computed top of descent descent path (the magenta circle is below the
section to know more about the acceleration looks like this : point. In this case, the FMGC will do its best to altitude yellow line), which is why the FMGC
altitude). put the aircraft back on the computed descent commands a speed higher than the descent
Managed Climb profile. If you descend before, the FMGC will target speed (300 knots) in order to increase
The managed climb can be set at any time by command a slow descent (at 1.000 feet per the angle of descent while keeping idle
selecting a higher altitude on the FCU and The thrust is reduced to idle, and a magenta minute) until it intercepts the computed descent thrust. The managed descent speed will not
pushing the ALT knob. The managed climb can circle appears on the altitude tape. It path. If you descent after, the FMGC will initiate exceed 320 knots. If this speed is still too low
be activated only if the NAV mode is active represents the vertical deviation between the a idle descent with a high rate of descent while to intercept the descent path, you can extend
(lateral mode managed). current altitude and the computed descent keeping the airspeed within the possible range the speed brakes, but you should be aware
The managed climb is very similar to the open path. In managed descent mode, the FMGC (+/-20 knots around the descent target speed). If that it will result in a VERY high descent rate.
climb mode described earlier. The only will adjust the vertical speed to minimize the the aircraft is very high above the descent
difference is that the managed climb mode vertical deviation. This will be done by profile, the FMGC may be unable to intercept the During the managed descent, additional
respects the altitude constraints. If there is adjusting the descent speed by +/-20 knots path because it would need a descent speed information is computed by the FMGC and
no constraint, the open climb and managed around the managed descent speed. This higher than the maximum authorized speed. If displayed on the ND with the pseudo-
climb modes are just the same. interval is shown on the speed tape by 2 half this happens, the only solution is to extend the waypoints. These waypoints are computed by
If an altitude constraint is defined on the next triangles showing the minimum and maximum speed brakes so that the angle of descent the FMGC and added in the flight plan when
waypoint, the managed climb mode respects it by speed the aircraft can take to manage the increases with the same airspeed. all the necessary information is entered by
limiting the target altitude to the altitude descent. The example below shows a managed descent the crew.
constraint value. In other words, the target The best option is to initiate the descent where the aircraft is above the computed The pseudo-waypoints are the following:
altitude will be the altitude constraint, even if the when you reach the Top of Descent point, descent path : • Speed Limit :
altitude displayed on the FCU is higher. In this displayed on the Navigation Display, unless It is displayed as a magenta filled circle. It
situation, the target altitude symbol appears in the ATC commands you to descend at another shows where the aircraft will accelerate
magenta on the altitude tape, and the ALT time... or decelerate to reach a new target speed.
message is shown in magenta on the FMA to On this example, this waypoint is
indicate the presence of a constraint. As soon as positioned where the aircraft crosses
the constrained waypoint is passed, the target 10,000 feet and it will accelerate from 250
altitude becomes the FCU altitude, unless another to 300 knots.
constraint is defined.

Managed Descent
The managed descent should be used only
when the aircraft is at cruise altitude. It can
be engaged only if the NAV mode is activated During a managed descent, the PFD displays

28 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 29
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


airport and the ILS signal is received, the pilot

can initiated an ILS approach by engaging the
LOC and APPR mode to follow the localizer
and the glide slope. Remember that the
localizer should always be captured before
the APPR mode is armed for the glide slope
As soon as the APPR mode is engaged, you can
Applying the brakes manually disengages the
switch on both autopilots. This is the only
time you can turn them on simultaneously in
The pilot is free to engage the reverse thrust
order to provide redundancy for an autoland.
• Top of Climb (1) and Top of Descent (2) : Managed Descent with the FS ATC : if necessary (this action will never be
If both autopilots are engaged and the ILS is
They are shown with white arrows on the If you fly with the FS virtual ATC, there is a triggered by the autopilot). If the pilot makes
captured, you can just let the aircraft go and no action, the aircraft will come to a
flight plan. The top of climb is placed high probability that it asks you to initiate it will proceed to an automatic landing.
where the aircraft is supposed to reach your descent before the computed top of complete stop.
When the aircraft reaches 400 feet AGL, the If the pilot wants to take control of the
the cruise altitude, and the top of descent descent point. This is not a problem, you can
LAND mode activates, as shown on the FMA : aircraft, he must disengage the autopilot. It
is positioned where the crew should engage a managed descent. In this case, your
initiate the descent to follow the aircraft will be below the computed descent looks obvious, but pilots often forget this and
computed descent path as closely as path for a certain time (descent at 1000 feet don’t understand why they can’t control the
p o s s i b l e . per minute) and it will finally intercept the aircraft to leave the runway...
correct descent path.
As the aircraft comes closer to the ground, it
In addition, the ATC will probably ask you to
will automatically engage the flare, which is
turn to a certain heading before you reach the
also shown on the FMA :
deceleration point (D point). In this case, you
will have to select a heading manually, and
this will force you to leave the NAV mode
(managed lateral mode). Consequently, the
FMGC will not automatically switch to the During an autoland, the only action required
approach phase, you will have to do it of the pilot is to pull the thrust levers back to
manually through the PERF page. I suggest you the idle position when the "Retard, Retard"
do this when switching to the tower frequency call-out is heard 20 feet AGL.
• Deceleration point : to get the landing clearance.
It is displayed with a big ‘D’. It shows
where the aircraft will start Approach & Landing
decelerating for the approach. If the If the speed is managed when the approach When the aircraft touches the ground, the
aircraft is in managed descent and phase is active, the target speed will be: ROLL OUT mode engages to steer the aircraft
managed heading, the FMGC will • Green dot speed if the aircraft is in clean on the ground. If the auto-brake was engaged,
automatically switch to the approach configuration the aircraft automatically brakes to
phase. It means it will automatically • S speed if the slats are extended decelerate on the ground. This action is shown
decelerate to green dot speed in • F speed if the flaps are extended through the auto-brake pushbuttons with a
clean configuration, then to S, F and • Vapp if the flaps are in configuration 3 or “DECEL” signal:
Vapp speed according to the aircraft FULL
configuration. In addition, the ILS These speeds are computed by the FMGC. The
frequency of the arrival runway will Vapp speed is continuously updated to take
be tuned, if it is an ILS approach. the current wind into account and make sure
the aircraft can land in safe conditions.

When the aircraft is close to the arrival

30 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. 31
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2

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32 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 33
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


EFIS the top right corner of the overhead panel the possible space and hides the standby PFD – PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY
where a close icon appears allowing you to close instruments. The glareshield remains visible The PFD shows all the essential information
PANEL GENERAL USAGE the overhead window. to provide the pilot with access to the FCU, required to fly the aircraft.
The panel is composed of several windows EFIS CP,...
that can be popped-up using the auto-hidden Left/Right passenger views : these
icon bar or the following keys: icons let your passengers see from
• Shift-3 for the pedestal the left/right of the aircraft. These views are
• Shift-4 for the overhead panel very useful during replays.
• Shift-5 for the MCDU
The icon bar is located in the bottom left Show/hide the pedestal window EFIS USAGE
area (equivalent to Shift-3). Just like the
of the main panel, as shown here : overhead, the pedestal also has an auto-hidden All the EFIS (PFD, ND, E/WD and SD) are
close icon that appears only when the mouse is expandable (pop-up), detachable, resizable
moved over it. and their brightness is adjustable. PFD, aircraft stopped on the ground
When the mouse is over any EFIS central zone,
also called “active zone” (shown here in
magenta), you can :
• Pop-up the EFIS by clicking with the left
mouse button. When it is popped-up, you
can drag it by clicking in the outer zone
Show/hide the MCDU (similar to Shift- (shown in green) to move it around the
5). The MCDU also has an auto-hidden screen or on an additional monitor if you
The icons are invisible to avoid disturbing the close icon. have one. You can also resize it by
panel view. They become visible when the mouse dragging a border or a corner.
is moved over the icon bar, and the hovered icon • Adjust the brightness by turning the mouse PFD in flight
is highlighted in red. It is composed of 6 icons wheel. It is composed of several parts :
: • Reset the brightness by clicking the middle • Attitude indicator, also known as the
button (on many mice, this corresponds to artificial horizon (center)
This icon lets you show/hide the clicking the wheel itself). • Flight director
overhead panel (similar to Shift-4). When This icon shows/hides the zoomed panel • Speed indicator (left)
the overhead panel is visible, you can click this icon view. This view displays the 3 main EFIS • Altitude indicator (right)
again to hide it. You can also move the mouse over (PFD, ND, E/WD) in a large view that takes all • Heading/Track indicator (bottom part)
• Flight Mode Annunciator FMA (upper part)
• ILS guidance (localizer and glide slope)
• Radio-altitude
All these components will be described in this

You can also use the number keys combined If IRS is not aligned, some information is
with Shift to pop-up an EFIS, which is unavailable and can not be displayed on the
especially useful when the EFIS is not visible PFD, which shows as following :
on the screen (i.e. when an outside view is
• Shift-6 for the PFD
• Shift-7 for the ND
• Shift-8 for the E/WD
• Shift-9 for the SD.

34 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 35
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


guide the aircraft on the vertical and lateral path.

When the aircraft is on the ground with
engines started, the sidestick position is
shown on the attitude indicator :

Attitude Indicator 3. Bank angle reference : on the top of the

attitude indicator, ticks represent bank angles In TRK/FPA (track/flight path angle) mode, the flight
of 10, 20, 30 and 45°. director is displayed as a line with 2 triangles (1) and the
4. Bank angle indicator : this yellow index flight path vector, also called “the bird”, is shown as an
moves as the aircraft banks. It can be moved in 1. Maximum sidestick deviation box aircraft symbol (2). To follow the flight director in this
front of one of the tick to manage a turn with an 2. Sidestick position indicator mode, you should align the bird with the flight director
accurate bank angle. This is especially useful to symbol.
Flight Director
manage procedure turns when flying in manual The flight director shows the pilot what Some Advice
mode. directions must be taken to follow the aircraft Flight Director Usage
guidance calculated by the FMGC. When the When the aircraft is flown by the autopilot,
aircraft is flown manually, the pilot in command remember that the flight director is “the
is in charge of following the flight director in brain”, and the autopilot “the muscle”. The
1. Horizon line : representation of the FMGC and the flight director “think” and
order to fly the aircraft as required by the FCU
horizon on the attitude indicator. Ticks are calculate the right flight control movements
settings. When the autopilot is active, it will do
drawn every 10° to visualize the heading to guide the aircraft on the right trajectory.
exactly the same byl commanding the aircraft to
variation, especially useful during turns. The image shows a right turn with a The autopilot is in charge of moving the flight
follow the flight director. If you want to fly the
When the flight director is off, a vertical blue maintained bank angle of 25°. controls according to the orders given by the
aircraft manually without taking the FCU settings
line on the horizon shows the heading or track The yellow bank angle indicator is also a side flight director.
into account, you should disconnect the flight
selected on the FCU. This is very useful when slip indicator. The bottom part slides on the This means you can replace the autopilot and
landing manually with cross wind. left or right when the turn is not coordinated. fly the aircraft manually, following the
The fly-by-wire system automatically hides
This never happens in normal law because the the flight director bars when the bank angle directions provided by the flight director. Your
fly-by-wire system handles the auto- reaches preset limits. actions on the sidestick will merely replace
coordination. the actions taken by the autopilot.
5. Reference bars : two bars represent the The flight director has 2 different shapes, Many pilots say the flight director should be
aircraft wings. They are the pitch reference. accor-ding to the guidance mode selected on turned off when flying the aircraft manually.
6. Fly-by-wire limitations : the green lines the FCU : For example, imagine you plan to land on
show the limitations the fly-by-wire will runway 25 at Paris Orly (LFPO). At the very
respect. On the left and right of the attitude last moment, you change your mind (or ATC
indicator, the green lines show the bank angle asks you to do so) and you have to land on
limitation (67° or 45° in normal law). On the runway 26 instead. In this case, no time to re-
2. Pitch indicator : the pitch indicator, also pitch ladder, green lines show the +30°/-15° program the FMGC, you switch FD off and
called “pitch ladder”, shows the pitch angle, pitch angle limitation. In normal law, the fly-by- finish your approach on runway 26 manually,
in degrees, with a line every 2.5 degrees. The wire system will prevent the pilot from passing helped by the ILS.
top image shows a pitch of about 5°. these limits.
Resetting the FCU
The vertical and horizontal green lines are the When you switch the flight director off, it
flight director. It will be described later in this In HDG/VS (heading/vertical speed) mode, the flight clears the FCU memory. This is why many
section. director shows a horizontal and a vertical trend bars to pilots switch the FD off and on at the very

36 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 37
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


beginning of the flight, in order to reset the system limits the speed to VLS. The maneuvering speed is not a
FCU and make sure no mode remains engaged Standard Information Alpha Protection (2) minimal speed (you can fly the
because of the previous flight. 1. Scrolling speed tape. The minimum airspeed The alpha protection system will trigger aircraft below this speed), but it
registered here is 40 knots. when the airspeed reaches this value. It is the “standard” speed that
Choosing HDG/VS or TRK/FPA guidance mode 2. Target speed entered on the FCU (if is displayed as black and amber should be used for procedures
The choice between these two modes is a selected) or managed by the FMGC. The rectangles next to the speed tape. such as holding
matter of personal preference. Some pilots triangle index showing the target speed is Alpha max (3) patterns or final approach.
magenta if the speed is managed and blue This speed corresponds to the maximum If the speed is managed during
say that TRK/FPA mode should be used when
if the speed is selected. angle of attack. approach, the maneuvering speed will
flying the aircraft manually without using the
If the target speed value is not visible on It is shown as a red ribbon. be used as the target speed.
flight director. Note : If you fly the aircraft below the
My advice is that you should use your personal the speed tape, it is displayed above the • At high speeds, the maximum speeds are
speed tape if higher than the highest maneuvering speed, the autopilot
experience. In my opinion, the TRK/FPA mode displayed
displayed speed, and below if it is lower bank angle will be automatically
is very useful when you land manually with VMAX (1)
than the lowest displayed speed. Again, it limited to 15°, instead of 25° in
strong cross winds. You shouldn’t use the This is the maximum speed the normal conditions.
is displayed in magenta if managed and in aircraft can take, depending on its
auto-pilot and autoland is such situations. When the autopilot and autothrust are active,
blue if selected. configuration. It is shown by a red
Guiding the aircraft manually along its final the actual target speed will never be higher
3. Mach speed. It is shown only when mach scale on the speed tape :
approach trajectory is made easy by the use than the current maximum speed, and it will
speed is greater or equal to 0.50. • VMO/MMO in clean configu-
of the “bird” in TRK/FPA mode. First, set the never be lower than VLS.
4. Speed trend: shows the airspeed the ration
TRACK value to the runway orientation. Then For example, if you select a speed of 250
aircraft will achieve in 10 seconds. • VLE if landing gear is extended
use the ILS indication to put the aircraft on knots on the FCU when the landing gear is
• VFE is flaps/slats are exten-
the localizer and glide slope. When the ded (varies with the flap extended, a target speed of 210 knots (VLE)
Additional Information
aircraft is aligned with the ILS, you just have configuration) will be taken into account by the FCU.
The speed tape also shows additional
to keep the bird aligned with the heading Max speed = VMO + 6 knots (2)
vertical blue line (lateral guidance) and keep Speed at which the fly-by-wire Managed Descent Information
• VFE NEXT (1)
the bird at 3° on the pitch ladder (vertical This is the VFE (maximum speed system will take corrective In the managed descent mode, the PFD displays
guidance). Remember that the “bird” (flight actions to reduce speed. additional speed information. During a
with flaps extended) that
path vector) shows you where the aircraft is • During take off managed descent, the FMGC is allowed to
corresponds to the next flap/slat
actually going. This visual assistance helps V1 (1), speed at which takeoff adjust the target speed by +/-20 knots around
position. You should make sure the can not be aborted shown with
you in following the ILS indication very easily. actual airspeed is below VFE NEXT the target speed. This is shown on the speed
Try it, and you will appreciate it, even with a ‘1’ and a blue line
before extending more flaps. tape as follows :
VR (2), rotation speed shown as
strong cross winds. It is shown with an amber = sign. a blue circle
• Green dot speed (2) V2 (3), speed at which the
Speed Indicator It is shown with a green circle on the aircraft can climb safely shown
speed tape. It is the best lift over as a magenta triangle (target
drag speed. In clean configuration, it speed)
is the maneuvering speed. • In flight
It is used as the target speed during single Maneuvering speed
engine climb and during expedite This is the normal procedure
climb. speed that depends on the
• At low speeds, the minimum safe aircraft configuration:
speeds are displayed. • Green Dot speed in clean
VLS (1) 1. The target speed (300 knots in this
• S speed (1) if slats are
It is shown with an amber line example)
The current airspeed The current airspeed The current airspeed
deployed (flap handle in
next to the speed tape. It is the position 1) 2,3.The minimum and maximum speed the
is 276 knots is 296 knots is 298 knots
lowest selectable • F speed if flaps are deployed aircraft can take to stay on the computed
(Mach 0.56) and (Mach 0.59) and (Mach 0.6) and
the target speed is the target speed is the target speed is speed. If the pilot selects a (flaps in position 2, 3 or FULL) descent path.
290 knots (managed). 250 knots (selected) 310 knots (selected). speed below VLS, the autothrust 4. Vertical path indicator (refer to the

38 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 39
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


altitude tape section for more than the lowest displayed altitude, so it is indicator range, it is displayed on the left white if autothrust is engaged.
information) displayed below the tape altitude. As the or on the right (6).
aircraft is above the transition altitude, 4. Magenta cross showing the ILS course. The crew should always look at the FMA to
Refer to the Autoflight section for more the target altitude is displayed in flight 5. If the ILS course is out of the current know the autothrust status. The A/THR
information about the managed descent. level. heading range, it is displayed in magenta light on the glareshield turns on when the
in a window on the left or the right of the autothrust is armed or engaged. Only the
Altitude Indicator Vertical Speed indicator heading tape. FMA shows the true autothrust status.
The altitude tape displays the altitude just It is located on the right of the altitude
like the speed tape displays the speed. indicator. It shows the current vertical speed Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) A340-600 Tail strike Protection System
with a needle and a numerical value (in It is located in the top part of the PFD. It is The A340-600 is the longest aircraft in the
hundreds of feet per minute). the most important indicator showing in what world. For this reason, there is a potential risk
mode the aircraft is currently flying. of tail strike when the aircraft is close from
the ground, especially when the aircraft
rotates for take off.
This is why this aircraft is equipped with a tail
strike protection system. It shows an
It is composed of 5 columns. The first column additional symbol on the PFD when the
Altitude tape Altitude tape Altitude tape shows the speed guidance mode. The second aircraft is very close from the ground (during
when the aircraft (in flight) during take off and landing).
is on the showing the FCU descent.
and third columns show the vertical and
lateral guidance modes. Refer to the The tail strike protection symbol is framed in
ground. target altitude.
Autoflight section to know more about speed red on the following image:
1. Current altitude value shown in the
altitude window. The altitude is shown in guidance, vertical and lateral guidance.
green in normal conditions, in amber when The vertical speed indicator turns amber The fourth column shows the approach mode
the aircraft altitude is below the MDA when the vertical speed is too critical. The :
(Minimum Descent Altitude, entered in the maximum vertical speed depends on the • Line 1 : Category of the current ILS
MCDU). aircraft configuration. approach, if any. It is CAT 1 if the aircraft
The yellow frame flashes when the is flown manually or CAT 3 if the autopilot
aircraft is near the target altitude. It is Heading Indicator is engaged.
amber when the aircraft is too high or too • Line 2 : SINGLE or DUAL depending on the
low according to the FCU altitude mode. number of autopilots engaged during an
2. Red ribbon showing the ground altitude. ILS approach.
3. FCU target altitude: this symbol is shown • Line 3 : Decision height (DH) or the When rotating the aircraft, the pilot should
in blue, except when the target altitude is minimum descent altitude (MDA) entered make sure the tail strike symbols always
limited by an altitude constraint on the in the MCDU. If a value has been entered remains about the center of the PFD. In fact,
next waypoint. In this case, it is magenta. in the MCDU, it is displayed on the FMA it is easy and natural, but careful pilots should
When the target altitude is higher than when the aircraft is within 200 NM of the pay attention to this.
the 1. Heading reference line (yellow) shows the destination.
highest altitude displayed (or lower than current aircraft heading. ND – NAVIGATION DISPLAY
the lowest altitude displayed), the target 2. Track : the green diamond shows the The last column shows the automatic modes: The ND is designed to show the aircraft's
altitude is displayed numerically above (or current track, which is the direction in • Line 1 : Autopilot mode: AP1 for the first position as it flies along the programmed
below) the altitude tape. It is displayed in which the aircraft really flies. There is no autopilot, AP2, for the second autopilot, flight plan.
feet or as a flight level (FLxxx), depending difference between heading and track AP1+2 for both.
on the altimeter setting. when the wind is null. On this example, • Line 2 : Flight Directors: 1FD for the
4. During the descent, the magenta circle there is a light crosswind from the right. captain FD, FD2 for first officer FD, 1FD2
shows the deviation between the current 3. Triangle showing the FCU target heading. for both.
altitude and the computed descent path. It is hidden if the heading is managed. • Line 3 : Autothrust status: A/THR is
5. In this case, the target altitude is lower If the target heading is out of the heading displayed in blue if autothrust is armed, in

40 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 41
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


EFIS Control Panel knobs :

The ND can be used in different modes as 6. Mode selector : ILS, VOR, NAV, ARC or PLAN.
selected on the EFIS Control Panel located on It lets the crew select the ND mode,
the glareshield. explained later in this section.
This control panel is composed of 5 selection 7. Range selector (from 10 to 320 NM) : It
pushbuttons that are used when the ND is in lets you select the ND range.
NAV, ARC or PLAN mode to show/hide
elements in the aircraft’s vicinity : The EFIS control panel also selects the navaid
information displayed on the ND : NAV Mode : The flight plan entered in the FMGC
8. Left navaid selection: It can be set to ADF, is displayed in ROSE mode. The next waypoint
Typical ND in rose mode.
VOR or nothing. The left navaid name, bearing, distance and estimated time
information is displayed on the ND bottom of arrival (ETA) is displayed in the top right
left corner. corner. TCAS information is visible.
9. Right navaid selection: It can be set to
ADF, VOR or nothing. The right navaid
information is displayed on the ND bottom
right corner.

ND Modes
1. Constraint pushbutton (CSTR) : This
Tyypical ND in arc mode. button is used to show/hide constraints on
waypoints on the waypoints where a ARC Mode : The flight plan is displayed in ARC
If no IRS is aligned, the ND looks like this : constraint is defined. A waypoint that has mode. The next waypoint is displayed in the
a constraint is drawn with a magenta top right corner like on NAV mode. In this
circle. Its altitude and/or speed example, the surrounding waypoints are also
constraints are displayed with numbers. displayed (the WPT button is lit on the EFIS
2. Waypoint pushbutton (WPT) : Show/hide CP).
the intersections on the ND. The
intersections are represented as magenta ILS Mode : The ILS needle is displayed in
triangles. magenta with the course deviation indicator
3. VOR/DME pushbutton (VOR.D) : Show/hide and the glideslope indicator. The ILS name,
the VOR, DME or VOR-DME. course and frequency are displayed in the top
4. NDB pushbutton : Show/hide the NDB stations right corner. TCAS information is visible.
Rose mode. (non-directional beacons), represented as
magenta circles.
5. Airport pushbutton (ARPT) : Show/hide PLAN Mode : The flight plan is displayed. The
the airports, drawn with magenta stars. reference waypoint displayed in the center is
The departure/arrival airport is drawn as a the waypoint selected on the second line of
white star, until the departure/arrival the MCDU Flight Plan page. You can visualize
runway is defined. the entire flight plan by scrolling the waypoint
Only one pushbutton can be selected. When on the MCDU FPLN page.
the pilot presses one of them, the others are VOR Mode : The VOR1 needle is displayed in
deselected. If he presses a selected button, blue with the course deviation indicator. General Information
the function is turned off. The VOR1 name, course and frequency are The ND also shows permanent information
Arc mode. displayed in the top right corner. that appears in all modes except PLAN mode.
The EFIS control panel also has 2 rotating TCAS information is visible.

42 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 43
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


8. Lateral Deviation : If the aircraft is not on example, AGN is the auto-tuned VOR2 and
the programmed route, this number shows it is the next waypoint. This is why AGN is
the lateral deviation (in NM) between the drawn both in white and in blue.
aircraft and the route.
Flight Plan Information
Navigation Information Runways
The ND displays some navigation specific If the crew has not defined the departure/
information. arrival runways, the departure/arrival
airports are displayed as white stars. 3. A magenta point shows a speed limit
When the runway information is entered in waypoint where the aircraft will have to
the MCDU, the runways are represented on respect a speed limit. Usually, there is a
1. Ground Speed (GS) : This is the aircraft’s speed limit of 250 knots below 10.000
speed relative to the ground. This the flight plan display as a white rectangle.
The rectangle length and orientation feet.
information is visible only when at least 4. A magenta circled ‘D’ represents the
one of the IRS is aligned (if you are in represent the actual runway length and
deceleration waypoint. This is the
Beginner mode, the IRS are always orientation.
waypoint where the aircraft will
aligned). Waypoints
decelerate to the green dot speed and the
2. True Air Speed (TAS) : This is the real aircraft The flight plan waypoints are displayed as
approach phase will be activated.
airspeed. It is different from the Indicated Air green diamonds. The next waypoint of the
Speed (IAS) because the IAS varies with flight plan is shown in white and its
altitude (the air is thinner at high altitudes). If 1. The vertical yellow line shows the current information (name, distance, ETA) is shown in
there is no wind at all, the TAS is equal to the aircraft heading. the top right corner.
GS. Just like for the GS, the TAS is not 2. Autopilot heading : The blue triangle Constraints
accessible if no IRS is aligned, unless you are shows the target heading selected on the If a waypoint has a speed or altitude
in Beginner mode. FCU. If the heading is managed, this constraint, it is represented with a magenta
3. Wind Speed & Direction : This indicator triangle does not appear. circle (1). If the crew wants to have more
provides the wind speed (in knots) and the 3. The green diamond shows the current information about the constraints, the CSTR E/WD – ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY
heading from which it comes. It is track, which is the direction in which the button of the EFIS control panel can be This EFIS shows the important engine
displayed with numbers and with a aircraft is actually flying. In this example, pressed to activate the constraint display for information. It also displays warning and alert
rotating arrow that represents the wind as the wind comes from the right, the each constrained waypoint. The altitude messages.
direction. track is on the left of the heading. If there and/or speed constraint is then displayed in General Information
4. Left Navaid : The left navaid symbol, type, is no wind, the heading and the track are magenta (2). It can be presented with various layouts,
name/frequency and distance are shown. If the same. depending on the panel generation and on the
a navaid name is extracted from the signal If the heading is selected, a full green line engine type. The following table shows the
received on the corresponding frequency it is drawn from the aircraft position to the interchange between engine type (on all the
is displayed on the ND, otherwise the track diamond to visualize the aircraft Airbus Series aircrafts) and E/WD logic :
frequency is displayed. The navaid type trajectory.
(VOR, ADF or nothing) is selected on the 4. The flight plan entered in the FMGC is Aircraft Engine Type E/WD logic
EFIS control panel. drawn in green. If the heading is in A330-200/300 GE CF6-80C2 N1
5. Right Navaid : Same as above for the right managed mode, it is a solid green line. If RR Trent 700 EPR
navaid. the heading is selected, it is a dashed Pseudo-Waypoints A340-300 CFM56-5 N1
6. TCAS : The ND also shows TCAS informa- green line. The pseudo-waypoints are displayed with A340-600 RR Trent 500 EPR
tion. Refer to the TCAS section to know The flight plan waypoints are represented specific symbols:
more about this system. with green diamonds, except the next 1,2 A white arrow shows the computed top of According to the E/WD logic and panel
7. Aircraft Symbol : It represents the current posi- waypoint, which is drawn in white. climb (1) and top of descent (2). generation, the E/WD screen looks like the
tion of the aircraft. It is always used as the 5. Auto-tuned navaid: When the FMGC auto- following images :
center reference of the ND, except in PLAN tunes the VOR1 or VOR2 navaid, it is
mode. displayed in blue on the ND. In this

44 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 45
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


every case, the information that is used to active, the engine thrust will be
command the engine is displayed first. It commanded to maintain this value,
can be N1 or EPR. according to the thrust mode.
4. The Fuel on Board (FOB) quantity is
displayed here, in kg or in lbs (depending
on the setup). It is the total quantity of
fuel available in the aircraft. If the total
quantity of fuel is not usable, an amber
mark is displayed below the FOB (this can
happen if a fuel pump fails).
Typical E/WD layout on a twin-engine Airbus with N1 This example shows a CF6-80 engine E/WD, managed 5. The flaps (F) and slats (S) position is The takeoff checklist shows the autobrakes, the
logic (such as an A330 equipped with GE engines). by N1 : displayed graphically here : signs (seat belts/no smoking) and the flaps are
1. For each information, the current value is shown with correctly set for takeoff, but the spoilers should be
a needle and a numerical value. They are green if the armed and the takeoff config should be checked
prior to takeoff.
value is normal, amber if the value is too high. If
a value is not available, amber XX are displayed. 7. Status message area : Like for the warning/
2. The red zone shows the maximum value that alert messages, their color depends on the
should never be reached. If by any chance the message severity. The only exceptions are
value overpasses the maximum, a red bar shows 1. The current flap and slat position is displayed in the takeoff and landing inhibit messages,
the maximum value that was reached. It can be green. which are displayed in magenta. These
cleared only by maintenance on the ground. 2. The target flap and slat position is shown in blue messages indicate that low severity alerts
3. The yellow bar shows the maximum value you when the flaps or slats are moving. This depends are inhibited during takeoff and landing to
E/WD layout on an 4 engine aircraft with EPR logic can get if you push the thrust levers to the TOGA on the flap handle position. avoid catching the attention of the crew
(such as an A340-600 equipped with RR engines).
detent. It is computed by the FADEC (Full 3. The target position is shown with blue dots when during these critical flight phases.
Authority Digital Engine Control). the flaps or slats are moving, and in green when
E/WD layout on an new-generation panel with EPR
4. The blue ball shows the current position of the they don’t move. SD – SYSTEM DISPLAY
logic (such as an A330 equipped with Rolls-Royce
thrust levers. When they are in the manual range, 6. Warning/Alert area : It is dedicated to The content of this EFIS depends on the ECAM
their position determines the required thrust, warning and alert messages. Their color Control Panel located on the pedestal. If no
and the FADEC computes the corresponding N1 depends on the severity: green messages page is selected on the ECAM CP, the page
Whatever the layout, the E/WD shows the are for information, amber messages are
or EPR that corresponds to this request. displayed on the SD is automatically selected
important engine information and the warnings and red messages are serious
5,6.For each information, the name is indicated in white, according to the flight phase and possible
warning/alert messages. alerts. Please refer to the system section
and the unit is in blue. On this example, N1 is displa- alerts. The system automatically displays the
yed in % and EGT (Exhaust Gas Temperature) in °C. for more information about the messages
right page at the right time.
2. The current thrust mode is shown that can be displayed here.
underlined in blue. This display depends This area is also used to display the take
Whatever page is displayed, the SD also shows
on the position of the thrust levers. If they off and landing check-lists. They show a
list of item that must be checked before common information in the bottom part of the
are not in a detent, nothing is displayed
takeoff/ landing. Each item is shown in screen.
here, except if you set the FLEX
temperature when the aircraft is on the blue until the corresponding action is
ground. In this case, 'CL' is shown here to taken. They are shown in green if the item
indicate that climb thrust is set and status is correct.
aircraft speed is controlled by pitch. 1. TAT : Total Air Temperature, in °C
3. The thrust value that corresponds to the 2. SAT : Saturated Air Temperature, in °C
thrust mode is displayed here. It is a N1 3. Clock (UTC time)
value (in %) for the N1 driven engines, or 4. GW : Gross Weight, in kg or lbs (depending
an EPR value. It is regularly updated by on the unit system selected on the
1. This area is dedicated to the engine the FADEC because it depends on the configuration page). The gross weight is
information. It varies depending on the aircraft altitude and the external computed by the FMGC according to the
panel generation and the engine type. In temperature. If the autothrust system is data entered in the MCDU INIT pages. If no

46 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 47
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


data was entered, the FMGC is unable to

calculate the gross weight and amber XX is

For information, all the SD pages are shown

here. They are detailed in the aircraft system

Fuel Page Hydraulics Page

Air Conditioning Page APU Page

Wheel Page Flight Controls Page

Air Bleed Page Cabin Pressure Page

Door Page AC Electricity Page

DC Electricity Page Engine Page

48 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 49
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


SYSTEMS about the cabin pressurization system. batteries are on (default). The battery When the engines are stopped, the generators
5. EL/AC : The AC electricity page shows the voltage is displayed next to each switch. are in fault mode because no energy can be
AC electric circuit. 5. APU battery switch: Like the battery 1 and 2 provided. When the engines start, make sure
This section describes the aircraft systems.
6. EL/DC : The DC electricity page shows the switches, it is dark when the APU battery is on. the generators are turned on.
Most of them are controlled trough the
DC electric circuit. 6. Generator switches (1 for each engine).
overhead panel and can be monitored on the
7. HYD : This page displays the hydraulic They are dark when in use. They are in fault Ground Power Unit (GPU)
various SD pages.
system. when the corresponding engine is not When the aircraft is parked on the ground, a
You should always keep in mind that this
8. C/B : The circuit breaker page. running. An ‘OFF’ white light is visible if a ground power unit can be connected to the
aircraft is based on the “dark cockpit”
9. APU : This page shows information about generator is turned off. aircraft to provide electricity without needing
philosophy. It means that when no light is on,
the APU. 7 APU Generator. This switch controls the to burn any fuel.
everything is all right.
10. COND : Shows information about air electric power that comes from the APU. It This is simulated in this aircraft. When you are
conditioning. is on by default. parked on the ground, with parking brakes set
ECAM CONTROL PANEL 11. DOOR : This page shows the aircraft door and engines stopped, the ground power unit is
The SD EFIS is here to provide information 8. When an external power is available, a
status. green ‘AVAIL’ light turns on. Two ground available 1 minute after the engines have
about the aircraft systems. The SD page to
12. WHEEL : This page shows the wheel and power sources are available, EXT A and stopped. The external power (EXT PWR)
display is automatically selected when
brake status. EXT B.The crew can then press one of switch then shows the GPU is available.
needed. For example, when the crew starts
13. F/CTL : The flight control page shows the these buttons to use this electricity source
the APU, the APU page is automatically
position of all the flight controls and the and ‘ON’ appears in blue.
displayed during the starting sequence.
flight control computer status.
If the crew wants to display a page at any time, 14. Fuel : TThe fuel page shows the fuel
the ECAM control panel should be used. It is Batteries
information with all the aircraft fuel This aircraft is equipped with 3 batteries that
located on the upper part of the pedestal. It tanks. At this time, the crew can press the EXT PWR
provides one key for each page. If the pilot can provide electricity for a limited time. As
15. STS : The status page shows the current switch to use this energy source. A blue ‘ON’
presses a key, the associated light turns on and soon as an external source is provided, the
failure status. light then appears on the EXT PWR switch.
the corresponding page is displayed on the SD. batteries are charged if necessary.
To give the control back to the system, the Each battery voltage is displayed on the
ELECTRICITY overhead panel according to the voltage
pilot can press the same key again. The light The electricity circuit can be controlled from
then turns off, which means the system will display selector switch. When the aircraft is
the overhead ELEC section.
automatically select the appropriate page cold and dark, the batteries should be turned
when necessary. on first, even if a ground power unit is
As soon as the aircraft moves on the ground,
the external power becomes unavailable.
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) EL/AC Page
The APU is capable of providing electricity for The AC electric circuits can be monitored
the aircraft. A specific section is dedicated to through the EL/AC page.
A340: the APU later in this chapter.
When the aircraft is cold and dark and no
ground power unit is available, the APU should
1. TO CONFIG : This button is used to check be turned on as soon as possible because
the takeoff configuration prior to batteries can only provide electricity for a
departure. It checks some elements of the limited time.
aircraft configu-ration to make sure
everything is OK for takeoff. 1. Display selector: This switch determines the Generators
2. ENG : The engine page displays voltage value displayed. It can be battery 1, battery The generators provide electricity from the
information about the engines. 2 or APU battery. engine rotation. As soon as an engine is
3. BLEED : This page shows information 2 - Voltage display screen. started, its generator can be used to provide 1. Generators associated to the engines.
about the air bleed system. 3.4 Battery switches. They are dark when electricity to the aircraft and the APU and Each white box shows the generator load,
4. PRESS : This page displays information GPU can be turned off. the voltage and the frequency (amber XX

50 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 51
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


are shown if the corresponding engine is EL/DC Page Alerts & Warnings
stopped). The DC electric circuit can be monitored Message Color Reason
2. APU GEN : This box is visible as soon as the through the EL/DC page. Each DC bus is ELEC BAT 1 OFF Amber Battery 1 has been turned off.
APU is running and the APU GEN switch is on. energized through the corresponding AC bus ELEC BAT 2 OFF Amber Battery 2 has been turned off.
3.4.EXT PWR : A and B: These boxes are through transformers/rectifiers.
visible as soon as a GPU source is available HYDRAULICS
and provides electricity. The hydraulic system is controlled through the
‘HYD’ section of the overhead panel.
Possible Electric Configurations This aircraft has 3 independent hydraulic
All the electric sources are configured so that circuits for redundancy, designated Green, Blue
the AC ESS bus has AC electricity. The and Yellow.
generators provide energy with the highest A330:
priority. In flight, the standard configuration
is shown in the following image, with
batteries and generators on, APU and GPU off: 1. AC buses (2 on the A330, 4 on the
A340), which are the energy source for the
DC buses.
If 1 engine is off on the A330, or 2 engines are off 2. Transformers rectifiers that A340-300:
on the same side on the A340, the APU can transform AC electricity into DC.
provide energy to the corresponding AC bus, as 3. Batteries. These aircrafts have 3
shown here; batteries: battery 1, battery 2 and APU
As soon as the external power becomes available
and is selected by the crew as the energy source, Possible Electric Configurations A340-600:
In case of an engine failure, the associated it takes the priority over the APU. The APU The DC electric configuration directly
generator can not provide energy any more. The source is still available, but not used : depends on the AC configuration, described in
other engine provides AC current to the whole the previous section.
sytem: If the AC buses are properly energized, the DC
buses are energized accordingly:
1. An hydraulic pump is associated with each
engine. These switches allow the crew to
switch an engine pump off. If an engine is
stopped, the corresponding hydraulic
pump is in fault mode.
2. In addition, 3 electric pumps can be run to
provide hydraulic pressure even if all
engines are stopped. In standard
If the generators are off or the engines are Alerts & Warnings configuration,they are off and nothing is
stopped (when parked on ground for Message Color Reason lit, according to the dark cockpit
example), the external ELEC GEN 1 OFF Amber Generator 1 is off If not, the batteries philosophy. As soon as an electric pump is
power source (GPU) while engine 1 is running energize the DC buses: turned on, an 'ON' light appears in blue.
has the priority. If it is ELEC GEN 2 OFF Amber Generator 2 is off On the A330, the Blue electric pump is on by
while engine 2 is running default, and on 'OFF' white light appears if it
not available, it is
ELEC GEN 3 OFF Amber Generator 3 is off is switched off.
assumed the APU will while engine 3 is running
provide energy, as ELEC GEN 4 OFF Amber Generator 4 is off
shown here: while engine 4 is running

52 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 53
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


HYD Page 6. Right standby pump switch. that is when all the fuel pumps are on. 6 - Right main pump 2 status
The hydraulic system can be monitored on the 7. Wing cross-feed switch. 7 - Left standby pump status
HYD SD page. Fuel Pump Usage 8 - Right standby pump status
The fuel pumps should always be on. If a fuel 9, 10 - High pressure engine valves
tank becomes empty, the corresponding fuel 11 - Wing cross feed status
pump automatically stops. This is a normal 12, 13, 14, 15 - Wing tank fuel quantities
situation. 16, 17 - Center and trim tank quantities
If the crew turns the center pumps off, the fuel 18, 19 - Fuel used by each engine since
A340-300: from the center tank can not feed the engines startup
The A340-300 has 2 main pumps and 2 standby any more. However, if the crew turns the left or 20 - Total fuel used
pumps for each wings, in addition to the 2 right pumps off, the engines can still get fuel by 21 - Fuel tank temperature
main center pumps. gravity feed. 22 - Total Fuel on Board
1. Left main pump 1 switch.
1. The 3 hydraulic reservoirs, with an arrow 2. Left main pump 2 switch. Warning : If the engines are fed by gravity, A340-300
showing the level. 3. Left standby pump 1 switch. there is a high risk of engine failure at high
2. The 4 hydraulic pumps. Their status depends 4. Left standby pump 2 switch. altitudes. If the fuel is not pumped out of the
on the pump switches located on the overhead 5. Center pump 1 switch. tanks, the altitude increases the risk of
panel. 6. Center pump 2 switch. creating an emulsion that will damage the
3. Engine references, shown in amber if the 7. Right main pump 1 switch. engines.
corresponding engine is off. 8. Right main pump 2 switch.
4. The 3 engine pressures, displayed in pound 9. Right standby pump 1 switch. Manipulating the fuel pumps may be useful to
per square inch (PSI). It turns amber if the 10. Right standby pump 2 switch. reduce a fuel imbalance. If you have much
pressure is too low. more fuel in one wing than in the other, you
5. Electric pump status. The white triangle might want to shut off the fuel pumps to the
appears filled amber if this pump is turned less filled wing and pump fuel to the engines 1 - Left main pump 1 status
on through the overhead panel. from the other wing. On this aircraft, the 2 - Left standby pump 1 status
maximum fuel imbalance is around 400 kg. 3 - Left main pump 2 status
FUEL 4 - Left standby pump 2 status
The fuel system can be controlled through the FUEL Page 5 - Right main pump 1 status
FUEL overhead section. The SD FUEL page shows the current fuel 6 - Right standby pump 1 status
These aircraft have fuel tanks in the wings, in A340-600: configuration.It is different on each aircraft 7 - Right main pump 2 status
the center fuselage and in the tail. For each but shows the same kind of information. : 8 - Right standby pump 2 status
tank section, 2 fuel pumps are available. 1. Left main pump 1 switch A330 9 - Center pump 1 status
The fuel system manages the fuel 2. Left standby pump 1 switch 10 - Center pump 2 status
automatically. Fuel is pumped from the center 3. Left main pump 2 switch 11 - Fuel used by each engine
and tail tanks in priority, then inthe wing 4. Left standby pump 2 switch 12 - Total fuel used since startup
tanks. 5. Center pump 1 switch 13, 14 - Wing tank fuel quantities
6. Center pump 2 switch 15, 16 - Center and trim tank quantities
A330: 7. Right main pump 1 switch 17 - High pressure valve status
8. Right standby pump 1 switch 18 - Fuel tank temperature
9. Right main pump 2 switch 19 - Total fuel on board
10. Right standby pump 2 switch
11. Left trim pump switch
1. Left main pump 1 switch. 12. Right trim pump switch 1 - Left main pump 1 status.
2. Left main pump 2 switch. 2 - Left main pump 2 status.
3. Left standby pump switch. According to the dark cockpit philosophy, no 3 - Center main pump 1 status
4. Right main pump 1 switch. switch light is visible when everything is OK, 4 - Center main pump 2 status
5. Right main pump 2 switch. 5 - Right main pump 1 status

54 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 55
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


with gravity only COND Page

A340-600 CTR TK FEEDG Green Status message to indicate The COND page shows the temperature in
the fuel is pumped
from the center tank only
every part of the aircraft (the cockpit and the
3 cabin sections). If the hot air valve is closed,
AIR no more hot air will be provided to heat the
The air system is controlled through the AIR aircraft cabin.
COND overhead section.

It shows the status of the air bleed system.
1 - Left main pump 1 status
2 - Left standby pump 1 status 1. Pack outlet temperature
3 - Left main pump 2 status 2. Pack compressor outlet temperature
4 - Left standby pump 2 status 3. Pack flow pressure
5 - Right main pump 1 status A330
4. Precooler inlet pressure
6 - Right standby pump 1 status CAB PRESS Page 5. Precooler outlet temperature
7 - Right main pump 2 status The cabin pressure page shows the status of 6. Cross bleed valve. If the overhead is AUTO,
8 - Right standby pump 2 status the pressurization system. the cross bleed valve status is the same as
9 - Center pump 1 status the APU bleed valve. Otherwise, it is open
10 - Center pump 2 status or shut according to the XBLEED knob
11 - Fuel used by each engine A340-300/600
12 - Total fuel used since startup 7. APU bleed valve.
13, 14 - Wing tank fuel quantities 1. Pack Flow. It lets the crew select the low,
8. Engine high-pressure valves
15, 16 - Center and trim tank quantities normal or high pack flow.
9. Wing anti-ice air bleed (visible only if wing
17 - High pressure valve status 2.3 Temperature knobs that let the crew
anti-ice is turned on).
18 - Fuel tank temperature adjust the temperature in the cockpit, and
10. Engine bleed valves, controlled by the
19 - Total fuel on board the cabin.
ENG BLEED overhead switches.
20 - Left trim pump status 4. Hot air valve can be closed using this
21 - Right trim pump status switch.
1. LDG ELEV : This is the elevation of the
5. Pack switches.
arrival airport. It is dashed when the
Note : The fuel used is reset when the flight is 6. Engine bleed switches. The engine bleed
arrival airport is not defined.
reset through the ‘Reset Flight’ menu action. valves are opened in a standard configu-
2. DeltaP : This is the pressure difference
ration. Pressing these buttons close them.
between inside and outside the aircraft.
7. APU bleed switch. By default, it is closed.
Alerts & Warnings 3. Cabin V/S : This shows the vertical speed
The crew must press this button to let the
felt by the cabin (the internal cabin ANTI-ICE
APU provide bleed air (necessary for initial
Message Color Reason pressure variation). The anti-ice protection system is controlled
engine start).
FUEL L WING TK LO LVL Red Left wing fuel tank level 4. Cabin Altitude : This is the altitude that through the ANTI ICE overhead section.
8. Cross bleed (useful for restarting an
is too low corresponds to the current cabin pressure.
engine in flight, refer to the power plant
FUEL R WING TK LO LVL Red Right wing fuel tank level 5. Pack valves, controlled by the pack
is too low section for more information).
switches on the overhead panel.
FUEL L+R WING TK LO LVL Red Total wing fuel tank level 9. This knob lets the crew select the Crew
6.7.8. Inlet, extract and outflow valves. They
is too low Heater temperature (A340 only).
are automatically controlled.
FUEL CTR TK PUMPS OFF Amber Center tanks pumps are off
9. Safety valve. It automatically opens if the
while center tank is not empty The status of the air system can be monitored
delta P is too high, to prevent any aircraft 1. Wing anti-ice. Its status can be monitored
FUEL GRVTY FUEL FEEDING Red Wing fuel pumps are off on several SD pages.
so the engines are fed damage. on the BLEED page.
2. Engine anti-ice.

56 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 57
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


3. Probe and Window anti-ice. It is fully button. This launches the APU start sequence. 1. AVAIL message appears as soon as the APU
automatic. It provides low heating when The start sequence can be monitored on the start sequence is finished and the APU is
the aircraft is on the ground (to avoid APU page displayed on the SD. available.
having ground personnel burnt if they When the APU is started, a green 'AVAIL' light 2. FLAP OPEN message is displayed as soon as
touch the probe) and provides full heating replaces the blue 'ON' light on the START the APU system is turned on and the APU
as soon as the aircraft is airborne. switch. An 'AVAIL' message appears on the APU flap is opened to let air in.
You can initiate full heating by pressing this page and an ECAM message displays 'APU 3. This white box displays the APU electric
button. An 'ON' light then appears. AVAIL'. The APU is now ready to provide air information : load, voltage and frequency.
Alerts & Warnings and electricity. The box disappears if the APU is not
Status messages appear on the E/WD when available. The green arrow on top of the box On these examples, N1, EGT, N2 and EPR (for
engine and wing anti-ice are used. disappears if the APU GEN is turned off on EPR-driven engines) are displayed. In
the overhead. addition, FADEC information is displayed: the
Message Color Reason 4. This box shows the APU bleed information, mode, which depends on the thrust lever
ENG A. ICE Green Engine anti-ice is on with the air bleed pressure. Amber XX is detent, and the max N1 (or EPR) that depends
displayed if the air bleed is not available. on this mode.
WING A. ICE Green Wing anti-ice is on
5. Bleed air valve; controlled by the APU
BLEED switch on the overhead. In addition, engine information is displayed on
6. APU rotation speed.
It is managed through the APU section of the
The APU can be started at any altitude and at 7. APU Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT).
any airspeed.
The APU fuel consumption is around 100kg per Alerts & Warnings
hour. Status messages appear on the E/WD when
the APU is used.
APU Bleed
As soon as the APU is running, its air can be Message Color Reason
used to start the engines. To do this, the crew APU AVAIL Green The APU is up and running
must press the APU BLEED button in the AIR APU BLEED Green The APU is available and
COND overhead section (see the Air section the bleed valve is open
for more details). 1. Fuel used by each engine since last
APU Start & Stop Note : If you are in Beginner mode, the APU is
To turn the APU on, first press the master startup.
not necessary to start the engines. POWER PLANTS 2. Oil quantity, in quarts
switch. The APU system is activated ('ON' blue The engines are managed by the Full Authority
light appears on the master switch) and the 3. Oil pressure, in Pound per Square Inch (PSI)
APU Page Digital Engine Control (FADEC). This device
APU flap is opened to let the air enter into the 4. Oil temperature
The APU page appears automatically on the SD controls the engine during the start sequence
5. Vibration on the first compressor stage
APU ('FLAP OPEN' message displayed on the during the APU start sequence. The crew can and during the flight to provide optimal
6. Vibration on the second compressor stage
APU page). The APU page automatically also access this page by pressing the APU usage.
appears on the SD. button on the ECAM control panel. The engine page is automatically displayed
Engine Monitoring during engine start sequence. It can be
Engine status is monitored through the displayed at any time by pressing the ENG key
Engine/Warning Display (E/WD), which on the ECAM control panel.
displays essential engine and FADEC
information. Information is also available During the cruise, the CRUISE page is
through the Engine and Cruise page of the SD. automatically displayed on the SD. It shows
Depending on the engine type, the E/WD can important information about the engines and
have different layouts. Refer to the EFIS the cabin pressurization and temperature, as
section for more details. Anyway, the most shown on the ENG and PRESS pages :
If fuel is available, the START button can then important engine information is always
be pressed, an 'ON' light appears on the displayed on the E/WD.

58 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 59
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


become active). This switch position can also Engine Master Switch Usage in FS :
be used when the engines are running in case To move the engine master switches down The crew should remember that the IRS
of heavy rain. It provides continuous ignition, (engine off), you must use the right mouse alignment position taken into account when
and it reduces the risk of having an engine button and click the lower part of the switch. This aligning the IRS is the departure airport
stop. was done to prevent an unintentional engine stop reference location stored in the database.
with a mouse click. This is different from the actual aircraft
The engine master switches can then be used position. In practice, you don't need to adjust
to initiate the engine start sequence. The crew Restarting Engine in Flight the IRS position before aligning. This is
just has to move each engine master switch up If an engine must be restarted in flight, the because this aircraft is equipped with a GPS
1. Fuel Used by each engine, as shown on the
and the FADEC does the rest to start the crew can take advantage of the air bleed from system that will do this automatically when
engine page
corresponding engine. On the twin-engine the engine that is still running. To do this, the the takeoff thrust is applied. It means the
2. Oil quantity (in quarts), as shown on the
aircrafts, both engines can not be started cross bleed valve must be opened by setting crew should not use the navigation display
engine page
simultaneously because the APU does not the XBLEED switch on the OPEN position
3. Vibrations when taxiing because the IRS may not be
provide enough air for 2 engines. Usually, (overhead, AIR COND section).
4.5.6. Cabin DeltaP, vertical speed and altitude, perfectly aligned at this time.
as shown on the PRESS page engine 2 is started first. This is because it
7. Cabin and cockpit temperature, as shown provides hydraulic pressure to the Yellow IRS Unit
on the COND page. circuit, the one used by the brakes. If for any This device is located on the upper part of the
reason the pilot needs to use the brakes in an overhead panel.
Note that this page can not be selected emergency, having the Yellow circuit under
manually. It appears automatically on the SD pressure is safer.
Air bleed is then available and the pilot can
as soon as the aircraft is above the transition
altitude. Start engine 2 by using the left mouse button use the engine mode switch and engine
to move the ENG 2 master switch up. You can master switch to start the engine as explained
Engine Start & Stop on Ground monitor the start sequence via the E/WD and in the previous paragraph.
When the aircraft is parked on the ground and on the SD ENG page that automatically
engines have to be started, the APU must be appears. As soon as engine 2 has started, you INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (IRS)
started first in order to provide air bleed can start engine 1 by moving the ENG 1 master The Inertial Reference System (IRS) provides
necessary for the engine start sequence. switch up. When engine 1 is started, you should the aircraft position. To work properly, the
Refer to the APU section for more information return the engine mode switch to the NORM system must be aligned. The IRS measures the
1-2-3. Mode selector : For each IRS, a switch
about APU start and APU bleed. position. aircraft accelerations and updates the aircraft lets the crew select the mode used for
position, based on the original position used each IRS :
When the APU is started and APU bleed is on, The only difference on the A340 is the fact during alignment. • OFF : the IRS is turned off and requires a
the engine start is managed through the ENG that the APU is powerful enough to let you new alignment before being used again.
section located on the pedestal, just below start 2 engines at the same time. The IRS Alignment • NAV : all the IRS and air data information
the thrust levers : procedure consists in starting the 2 engines of The IRS are aligned through the INIT A page of are used for navigation.
the same side simultaneously. the MCDU (refer to the FMGC section for more • ATT : only the air data information is
Note : If you are in Beginner mode, you can information about this page). As soon as the used for navigation.
just press Ctrl-E to start the engines, without FROM/TO airports are entered in the MCDU, IRS usage with Flight Simulator :
needing to start the APU. This function is the IRS can be aligned with the departure 1. The IRS alignment time is configurable through
inhibited in Intermediate and Expert modes. airport as the original destination. the aircraft configuration window (refer to the
setup section for more information). In the real
1. Engine Master Switches To stop the engines, the pilot just has to move The IRS can detect if the departure airport aircraft, a full IRS alignment takes 10 minutes.
2. Engine mode switch. down each engine master switch. The crew position is significantly different from the
To start the engine, the engine mode switch should make sure the APU is running before actual aircraft location. This can happen if Alerts & Warning
must be placed on the IGN/START position. stopping all engines because generators will the crew makes an error when entering the While the IRS are aligning, a green
This operation turns on the engine igniters stop providing electric energy. FROM/TO airport information. In this case, an information message ‘IRS IN ALIGN’ appears
and the FADEC (the E/WD engine information error message is displayed on the MCDU. on the E/WD, indicating the remaining time

60 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 61
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


for alignment. Remember that the left RMP adjusts VOR1 5. Marker channel (inner, middle and outer Then any action on the keypad clears the
This message turns amber if the engines are and right RMP adjusts VOR2. markers) existing code to enter a new one. Pressing the
started to indicate that the aircraft should 9. ADF selection pushbutton. 6. ILS channel. Because of an FS limitation, CLR key erases the code being entered.
not move during the IRS alignment phase. 10. ADF frequency oscillator switch. ILS channel is linked to the VOR1 channel. The code entry is validated as soon as the 4
11. Radio master switch. 7. ADF channel. digits have been entered.
RADIO 12. Frequency/Course knob : The outside
Standard operation of the radio equipment knob sets the integer part and the inner TRANSPONDER & TCAS TCAS Usage
involves use of the MCDU for radio navigation knob sets the decimal part of the standby The transponder & TCAS device is located on The only important thing to think about is to
(in fact, the crew rarely interact with the frequency. In case of a course setting, the the pedestal. It allows the crew to enter the change the TCAS mode according to the flight
radio navigation settings because the FMGC is outer knob changes the course value by 10 transponder code required by the ATC to phase :
in charge of auto-tuning the VOR and ILS). The degrees and the inner knob by 1 degree. identify the aircraft and to configure the • ABV mode should be set prior to takeoff
radio management panels are used for voice TCAS. to monitor potential intruders above the
radio. Nevertheless, the Radio Management In order to use an RMP to set a VOR or ILS, the aircraft during the takeoff and climb
Panels can be used for radio-navigation NAV pushbutton must be pressed first to phases.
settings in case of an FMGC failure. activate the NAV pushbuttons (7, 8, 9, 10). As • BLW mode should be engaged just
soon as this is done, the FMGC can not be used before the descent is initiated to
Radio Management Panels (RMP) to set the radio any more. monitor the potential intruders below
Two Radio Management Panels are located on The crew can then set the VOR/ILS standby the aircraft.
the pedestal. One is available for the captain and frequency using the frequency/course knob 1. Transponder Mode
one for the first officer. The Captain's RMP can be (12). When the swap button is pressed to 2. Transponder Channel GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING
used to set VOR1 and the FO's RMP for the VOR2. swap the frequencies, the standby window 3. TCAS Master Switch SYSTEM (GPWS)
(2) changes and displays the VOR/ILS 4. Keypad for the transponder code entry The GPWS provides aural alerts to indicate
course, which can be changed at this time 5. TCAS Mode potential danger related to the ground
using the frequency/course knob. After a • THRT : Only the dangerous intruders are proximity, such as excessive descent rate or
few seconds, the display turns back to shown on the ND, within a +/- 2.700 ft bad aircraft configuration.
standby frequency. altitude range The GPWS is controlled through the switches
• ALL : Intruders located within +/- 2.700 located in the GPWS section of the overhead
RMP usage in Flight Simulator : ft are shown on the ND panel. These switches let you turn off all or
Remember that the VHF1 and VHF2 buttons of the • ABV : Intruders located within + 8.000 / some of the GPWS warnings.
1. Active frequency window shows the current RMP correspond to the COM1 and COM2 radio - 2.700 ft are shown on the ND
frequency used for the selected radio. channels of Flight Simulator. • BLW : Intruders located within - 8.000 /
2. Standby/Course window shows the standby Audio Management Panel (AMP) + 2.700 ft are shown on the ND
frequency for the selected radio. In case The audio management panel lets the crew 6. TCAS Advisory mode
of a VOR/ILS setting, this window is also select the radio channels heard on the cockpit • STDBY : The intruders are shown on the ND
used to set the VOR/ILS course. loud speakers. according to the TCAS mode, but no advisory. 1. TERR : The terrain proximity alerts are
3. Swap button is used to swap active and • TA : When an intruder is close to the inhibited.
standby frequencies. aircraft with a potential collision 2. SYS : The whole GPWS is turned off
4.5. Selection pushbuttons for the VHF radio trajectory, an aural warning 'TRAFFIC' is 3. G/S MODE : The glideslope alert is
channels. triggered. inhibited.
6. NAV pushbutton must be pressed if the • TA/RA : When an intruder is very close to 4. FLAP MODE : The landing aircraft configu-
crew wants to use the RMP for radio- the aircraft with a potential collision ration warning is inhibited.
navigation setting, which is not the trajectory, an aural warning and a Alerts & Warning
standard procedure. If this button is Each pushbutton lets the crew activate/ resolution advisory is provided. Message Color Reason
depressed, the RAD NAV page of the MCDU deactivate the audio for each radio channel : GPWS SYS MODE OFF Green The GPWS is totally off
is blocked (see the FMGC section for more 1.2. VHF1 and VHF2 channels (called COM1 Transponder Usage GPWS FLAP MODE OFF Green The flap mode is off
information). and COM2 in Flight Simulator) To enter a transponder code, the transponder GPWS G/S MODE OFF Green Glideslope mode is off
7.8. VOR and ILS selection pushbuttons. 3.4. OR1 and VOR2 channels should obviously be turned on.

62 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 63
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


FLIGHT CONTROLS parts. The speed brakes can be deployed in slats can have 6 positions, as shown in the This aircraft is equipped with an auto-trim
Sidesticks & Rudder Pedals flight, they use 4 of the 5 moving panels on following table : system managed by the fly-by-wire system. It
There is not much to say about flight controls the top of the wings and their movement is Flap/Handle Flap/Slat Usage A330 A340 A340 means the crew is not supposed to interact
as they were described in detail in the Fly-by- limited to approximately 50% of the maximum Position Position Max spd 300 600 with the elevator trim wheels located on the
Wire section. The only thing to keep in mind deployment. The role of the speed brakes is to 0 0 Flight Vmo left and right of the thrust levers, except in
is that a strong action on the stick or on the reduce the lift and increase the drag to 1 1 Approach 240 255 280 case of a failure.
rudder pedals disconnects the autopilot. As decelerate the aircraft in flight. If they are or Takeoff/ Note that any manual action on the elevator
1+F Landing 215 215 233
this is not the standard procedure, it triggers deployed, a green message 'SPPED BRK' is trim disconnects the AP with an alarm.
2 2 Takeoff/ 196 196 216
an alarm that can be stopped by pressing the displayed on the E/WD. Landing
A/P disconnection button. GEAR, WHEELS & BRAKES
3 3 Takeoff/ 186 186 206
The ground spoilers can be deployed on the Landing
Flight Control Computers ground only. They are used to reduce the Landing Gear
FULL FULL Landing 180 180 200
Five computers are in charge of the Fly-by- aircraft speed and to break the lift for optimal The landing gear is controlled through the
Wire system: 3 primaries and 2 secundaries. break efficiency. When they are activated, all gear lever located on the main panel.
The table also shows how the different
All these computers can be turned off using the 5 panels deploy at their maximum angle. If the aircraft gets close to the ground during
flap/slat configurations are to be used, and
the switches located in the 2 FLT CTL sections The ground spoilers can be armed to deploy descent and the gear is still retract, a alert
the maximum airspeed for each configuration.
automatically during takeoff in case of a 'L/G Gear Not Down' appears on the E/WD
of the overhead.
rejected takeoff or during approach to with an aural warning. In addition, a red
deploy when the aircraft touches the ground arrow light is illuminated adjacent to the gear
upon landing. When they are armed, a green lever.
message ‘GND SPOILERS ARMED’ is displayed The landing gear status can be monitored on
the SD (WHEEL page) and on the LDG GEAR
on the E/WD. When the ground spoilers have
section of the main panel.
automatically deployed, the action of
These switches are supposed to be used in disarming them will make them retract. The table shows 2 flap/slat positions
case of failure, to reset the flight control correspond to the same handle position. If the
computers by turning them off and back on. handle is moved to the 1 position, the
They are not designed to turn these flap/slat position is set according to the
computers off. following diagram : The lighted symbols indicate each landing
The primary computer are in charge of the gear status :
flight envelope protection, the auto-trim • Green Triangle : The landing gear is
system and the auto-coordination. If they are The upper and lower parts of the handle can down and locked
turned off, amber crosses appear on the PFD be clicked to move the handle up and down. • Red ‘UNLK’ : The landing gear is
to indicate there is no flight envelope Moving the handle higher than the RET currently unlocked (in transition)
protection: no bank angle limit and no pitch position (retracted) arms the ground spoilers. • Nothing : The landing gear is retracted.
angle limit. Moving the handle down deploys the speed
brakes progressively. The only difference on the A340 is the
Auto-coordination in Flight Simulator : additional indicator for the center landing
When you load this aircraft in Flight Simulator, the Speed Brake/Ground Spoiler control in Flight gear located under the aircraft belly.
FS auto-coordination is turned on according to the Simulator :
primaru computer status. When the aircraft is The standard FS keys can be used to arm/disarm the Autobrake system
unloaded from FS, the previous auto-coordination ground spoilers and extend/retract the speed brakes. By The autobrake system is dedicated to manage
status is restored. default, the ‘/’ key is used to extend/retract the speed The flap/slat position can be monitored on aircraft brakes automatically
brakes and Shift-/ is used to arm/disarm the spoilers. the E/WD. Refer to the EFIS section for more when the takeoff is rejected
Speed Brakes & Ground Spoilers information. or when the aircraft lands.
Speed brakes and ground spoilers are Flaps A330 and A340-3000
different, even if they are controlled through The flaps have specificity on this aircraft: the Trims
the same handle and use the same aircraft flap handle has 4 positions while the flaps and Elevator Trim

64 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 65
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


check is operated, an alert ‘HOT BRAKES’ is 300°C. A green arc appears over the hottest personnel to see the aircraft is cleared for
triggered. The crew must be aware that heat wheel when the brake temperature is taxi. It must be turned off when the
in the brakes makes them less efficient. between 100°C and 300°C. An amber arc landing gear is retracted, even if it is
appears over the hottest wheel when its brake automatically turned off if the gear is up.
The parking brake status appears on the E/WD temperature is above 300°C.
A330 and A340-300: : When the landing lights are on, a green
4. Brake status
The autobrake system has 3 positions : • PARK BRK appears in green when parking message ‘LDG LT’ appears on the E/WD.
5. Ground spoiler status : vertical arrows
• LOW / MED : Low/Medium braking brake is set. If strobe lights are off when the aircraft is
appear when they are deployed.
pressure, can be used for landing • PARK BRK turns to amber if the parking airborne, a warning message ‘STROBE LT OFF’
• MAX : Maximum braking pressure, to be brakes are set while engine power is appears on the E/WD.
used for takeoff only in case of RTO greater than idle.
(rejected takeoff). Panel Lighting
External Lights At night, the lighting equipment provides
The MAX position must be used for takeoff WHEEL Page
The aircraft lights are controlled through the panel lighting. The panel lighting is turned on
only. For landing, MED should be used if the The WHEEL page is automatically displayed
runway is short or wet, otherwise LOW should EXT LT section of the overhead panel. using the standard FS key for panel lights
be used. (Shift-L by default). Turning the panel lighting
on during the day has no visible effect.
When the autobrake is actually active to At night, the panel lighting looks as shown here:
decelerate the aircraft, a green light 'DECEL'
appears above the selected autobrake button.

The autobrake system is controlled through a 1. Strobe lights : They should be on when the
knob and a pushbutton. on the SD when the aircraft is on the ground aircraft is in flight. They can be turned on,
1 - The TO pushbutton is used for take off to with engines started. It can also be selected off or set in AUTO mode. If set to AUTO,
engage the RTO setting (Rejected Take Off) by pressing the WHEEL key on the ECAM they automatically turn on when the
that will give maximum braking power is the control panel. aircraft is airborne, and turn off when the In addition, the panel lighting provides flood
take off is aborted. aircraft is on the ground. lighting that can be activated using the FLOOD
2 - The knob lets you select the autobrake These images show the A330 and A340 wheel 2. Beacon lights : Red lights located above LT MAIN PNL knob on the pedestal.
setting for landing with more precision than pages. The only difference is the additional and below the aircraft. They should be
on the A330 and A340-300. You have 6 wheel of the A340, located under the belly of switched on as soon as the engines are
autobrake settings, from OFF (no autobrake) the aircraft. This additional wheel has no running or the aircraft moves.
to HI (maximum braking power for landing). brake. 3. Wing lights : These lights should be used
1. Nose, left, right and center wheel status to taxi to the gate. They can be turned off The Ctrl-Shift-F key can also be used to turn
If the autobrake is engaged, its status is These indicators show the gear status. The when the engines are stopped. flood lighting on/off.
displayed on the E/WD. lines represent the gear doors. They are green 4. Nav lights should be turned on as soon as With flood lighting, the main panel looks like
Pressing the button of the currently selected the aircraft is energized. this:
when the gear doors are closed, amber when
position disarms the autobrake. When 5. Runway turn off lights are designed to be
the doors are open or moving.
autobrake is switched off, a flashing message used with the taxi lights during taxi.
The triangles represent the landing gears.
‘AUTOBRK OFF’ appears for 10 seconds on the 6. Landing lights : These lights are big and can
They are green if the landing gears are down
WHEEL page. be retracted into the aircraft belly. They
and locked and red if the gears are in
should be turned on as soon as the aircraft
transition. No triangle is displayed if the gears
Brakes and Parking Brakes is cleared to align on the runway for takeoff
are retracted.
The brake status can be monitored on the and can be turned off when passing 10.000
2. Gear tire pressure, in PSI
ECAM Wheel page, detailed later in this feet. Keep in mind the EFIS brightness can be adjusted
section. The most important information is 3. Brakes temperatures: 7. Nose lights (or Taxi lights) must be turned using the mouse wheel when the mouse is in the
the brake temperature. If the brake The value is shown in green if the on just before the aircraft moves on the EFIS central zone. This is very useful at night.
temperature is too high when the takeoff temperature is normal. In turns amber over ground. This is the best way for ground

66 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 67
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


Seat Belts & No Smoking FMGC DONE When the flight is finished and
The Seat Belt & No Smoking signs are the aircraft has landed.
controlled with the switches located on the
SIGNS section of the overhead panel. The FMGC also divides the flight into several
The Flight Management System is composed of
the Flight Management and Guidance phases, used for the system internal use and
Computer (FMGC) and the Multifunction for the alert management:
Control and Display Unit (MCDU).
The MCDU is the device used by the pilot as an
Each switch has 3 positions : ON, OFF and AUTO.
interface between him and the FMGC. It
In AUTO mode, the seat belt sign turns on
computes all kind of data to fly the aircraft
when the aircraft moves and turns off when
safely along its trajectory.
the aircraft crosses 10.000 feet in climb. It
turns back on when the aircraft reaches
During cockpit preparation, the MCDU is used
10.000 feet in descent, and turns off again MCDU USAGE
to insert a route, from departure to
when the aircraft is landed and the engines The MCDU is composed of
destination. The FMGC computes vertical and
are stopped. - 12 line select keys, 6 one the left
speed profiles according to the ATC
In AUTO mode, the “no smoking” signs always (referenced 1L to 6L) and 6 on the right (1R to
constraints and the aircraft performance. The
turns on because all the flight today are non- 6R).
FMGC interacts with the flight directors, the
smoking flights. - The page keys that give direct access to
autopilots and the autothrust system to guide
the aircraft, taking account of any parameterf some predefined pages,
The status of the seat belt and no smoking - The alpha and numeric keypads to enter
signs is displayed in green on the E/WD. the pilot decides to manually select (speed,
V/S, heading, …). data into the MCDU
- The brightness control knob to modify the
During the flight, the MCDU displays data display brightness.
The cabin intercom lets the pilot interact with computed by the FMGC, such as Estimated
the cabin crew. The push button is located on the Time of Arrival (ETA), fuel predictions, To enter any data into the MCDU, you can use
bottom left part of the overhead panel, as shown constraint management... the keypads. All the characters typed in are
here: displayed on the bottom line of the screen,
Don't hesitate to call the cabin crew to make FMGC PHASES & FLIGHT PHASES called the scratchpad. When the data is
sure everything is fine in the cabin, or if you The FMGC manages several phases during the typed, you click the line select key to enter it
flight. They are described in the following where you require.
Some lines contain two values, separated by a
PREFLIGHT When the aircraft is on the ‘/’ (slash). In this case, you can enter the 2
ground, prior to take off power. values by separating them with a slash. If you
TAKE OFF When take off power is want to enter the first value only, enter it
applied (FLEX or TOGA) and the aircraft is directly. If you want to enter the second value
below 1500 feet AGL. only, precede it with a slash.
CLIMB From 1500 feet to the cruise
altitude The time information is displayed using a
CRUISE All along the cruise XXYY format, where XX are the hours and YY
DESCENT During the descent from the are the minutes. For example, 0120 means 1
cruise altitude hour 20 minutes. Entering time information
APPROACH Final part of the descent, into the MCDU must use the same convention,
want a coffee… close to the destination. where XX can be omitted if null.
GO AROUND If TOGA power is applied
before landing Keypad simulation in FS:

68 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 69
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


You can use the keypad by clicking any key in left corner shows that another page exists.
the keypad with the mouse. It may be painful Pressing the NEXT PAGE key shows the next For example, the pilot is supposed to enter
if you have a lot of data to enter. This is why page. the aircraft “Zero Fuel Weight” (ZFW) in the
you can also use your PC keyboard, using the 1R line of the INIT B page. If you don’t know
keys in combination with a modifier or a this value, make sure the scratchpad is empty
locker, to enter data in the MCDU scratchpad. and click the 1R button. The scratchpad is
Refer to the Setup section for more then filled with the ZFW value provided by FS.
information about the possible keyboard You just have to click on the 1R button again
configuration. to enter this value.
You can also use the function keys (F1 to F12)
to simulate the 12 line select keys (F1 to F6 ³ Note that the assistance is never available if
for 1L to 6L, F7 to F12 for 1R to 6R). A left arrow in the top right corner shows a you are in Expert mode.
The Scroll Lock key is the default locker, next page exist. Press NEXT PAGE to display it.
which means that if you press this key, any MCDU MENU PAGE
key typed on your keyboard will be directed CHARACTERS AND COLORS The MENU page is accessed by pressing the
to the MCDU. Refer to the Setup section for The colors and the type of characters used to MAIN MENU page key. It shows the various
more information. display information is important as they systems the pilot can access through the
When a locker key (such as Scroll Lock) is used respect a convention that helps the pilot in MCDU.
to enter data in the MCDU, the following keys understanding each information type.
simulate the page keys:
PC keyboard key MCDU page key Page title, comments, sratchpad
Ctrl-D DIR > White, normal characters
Ctrl-O PROG Modifiable / Selectable data > Blue
Ctrl-P PERF Mandatory data entry > Amber boxes
Ctrl-A DATA Optional data entry > Blue brackets
Ctrl-N F-PLAN Non modifiable data > Green
Ctrl-R RAD NAV Computed data > Small characters
Ctrl-U FUEL PRED Constraints > Magenta
Ctrl-M MCDU MENU Data that impacts the flight plan
Ctrl-Pg Down NEXT PAGE > Followed by a ‘*’ The screen shows the name of the selected
Ctrl-Up Arrow Up Arrow Primary flight plan > Green system in green, all others in white.
Ctrl-Down Arrow Down Arrow Next flight plan waypoint > White
Temporary flight plan > Yellow System simulation in FS:
Secondary flight plan > White Only the FMGC option is valid in FS. The ACARS
The MCDU displays information on pages. A vertical arrow in the bottom right corner Features that don’t exist in the real aircraft and AIDS are not implemented at this time.
When a page content can not be displayed on shows the page can be scrolled upward. (used for simulation only) > Grey
single page, the pilot has to use specific keys INIT A PAGE
to display the rest of the information: ASSISTANCE This page can be accessed by pressing the INIT
- If the page can not display the whole For some MCDU data, you may request page key or by clicking the 1L key of the MENU
information on the 6 select key lines, the pilot assistance. If you don’t know a value that page.
can scroll the page using the 2 vertical arrow should be entered in an MCDU field, you can It is accessible only during the PREFLIGHT
keys. On the bottom right corner, vertical ask FS to assist you, and if FS knows the value, phase.
arrow symbols show if the page can be it will be provided to you. To request
scrolled upward, downward, or both. assistance, just click on the select line with Note that a right arrow is visible in the top
- If the information is displayed on several an empty scratchpad, and FS will fill the right corner because the INIT B page can be
different pages, a horizontal arrow on the top scratchpad with the value it has, if available. accessed from this page by pressing the ‘NEXT

70 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 71
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PAGE’ key of the MCDU. unless a company route has been selected in latitude by pressing the MCDU vertical arrow 350 FL350
the route selection page. keys. You can press the 4R select key to move (35000 feet AMSL)
FROM/TO (1R) the arrows next to the longitude field, thus
When the MCDU is initialized, the field is letting you adjust the longitude with the You can also enter the cruise altitude
mandatory. If a company route is selected, MCDU arrow keys. temperature. If you enter both cruise altitude
this field is automatically filled with the When the LAT and LONG fields are defined or and temperature, you must use a ‘/’ as a
departure/arrival airport of the route. modified, you can press the 3R select key to separator. If you don’t enter the temperature,
If you enter a departure/arrival airport in this align the IRS according to this position. it is automatically calculated when the cruise
field, the ROUTE SELECTION page altitude is entered (in this case, it appears in
automatically appears to let you select a Note: When you enter the FROM/TO airports, small characters).
route between the departure and arrival the position is initialized with the position of Entering the cruise altitude is very important
points, if indeed any route exists. If you select the departure airport, which is not the exact for the performance calculations and for the
a route, it automatically fills the CO RTE field position of the aircraft. You don’t have to flight phase sequencing. If you forget to enter
INIT A page when no information has been (1L). If no route exists, it just displays "NONE". adjust the aircraft position accurately this data, some features of the FMGC may not
entered. As soon as the FROM/TO field is filled, the 4L because this aircraft is equipped with a GPS work properly.
and 4R select lines (LAT and LONG) are filled that will align the IRS accurately when take TROPO (6R)
with the departure airport coordinates. The off power will be applied. The crew can define the altitude of the
3R line (ALIGN IRS) becomes active to COST INDEX (5L) tropopause, which is 36090 feet by default.
establish an IRS alignment, based on these This value is very important for the
coordinates. performance and prediction calculations. It INIT B PAGE
ALTN RTE (2L) determines how you want to use the aircraft. This page is only accessible from the INIT A
This field is dedicated to the alternate route. You can decide to fly at low speed with low page by pressing the NEXT PAGE key. It is not
You can enter any data in this field. The fuel consumption, or to fly fast and burn more accessible if the engines are started. Pressing
alternate route is not implemented in this fuel. the NEXT PAGE key again brings back the INIT
version. Enter a cost index value of 0 corresponds to A page. If you start the engines while the INIT
ALTN (2R) the lowest possible fuel consumption at low B page is displayed, it jumps to the FUEL PRED
This field lets you enter the alternate speed (long range), and a higher value page.
INIT A page when all the necessary destination. It is not simulated in this version. corresponds to higher speed, with higher fuel Note that all the weights on this page are
information has been entered. FLT NBR (3L) consumption. The cost index can vary from 0 shown in tonnes or in 1000 LBS, depending on
The current flight number must be entered in to 999. the unit system that has been selected in the
CO RTE (1L) this mandatory field. Assistance is available WIND (5R) configuration window (metric or imperial
At the MCDU initialization, this field is shown for this value. This will bring the WIND page that lets the system).
with amber boxes, which means it is ALIGN IRS (3R) crew define the winds along the flight plan. It
mandatory. The pilot can enter a company As soon as a Lat/Long position is defined (4L will be described later.
route name in this field. If the route exists in and 4R), this field appears to let the crew CRZ FL/TEMP (6L)
the database, it is loaded in the FMGC. align the IRS (Inertial Reference System) The crew can define the cruise altitude in this
Note that a route is composed of a departure according to this position. If no position is field, and the temperature at the cruise
airport, an arrival airport and waypoints. It defined, this field is empty. altitude if you wish.
does not define the departure and arrival LAT and LONG (4L and 4R) The altitude can be entered in feet, or in
runways, or the departure and arrival These fields show the position (in flight level. If you want to enter an altitue in
procedures (SID/STAR). When a route is latitude/longitude), as soon as the departure flight level, you can enter it directly or enter
loaded, a discontinuity is created after the airport is defined. When the crew fills the it by preceding it with ‘FL’.
departure airport and before the arrival FROM/TO field (1R), the lat/long fields are
airport. automatically filled with the departure Value entered Cruise Altitude
If the pilot enters a departure and arrival airport position. 8000 8000 feet TAXI (1L)
airport in the FROM/TO field, the CO RTE At this time, you can see vertical arrows (next FL330 FL330 This field shows the fuel quantity for taxi. The
becomes optional (shown with blue brackets), to LAT), which means you can adjust the (33000 feet AMSL) default value (shown in small characters) is

72 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 73
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200 kg. you just have to press RETURN (6L) to there is a very high probability that you have
TRIP/TIME (2L) > Entering the ZFW and the Block Fuel is continue. the same winds if you fly back from Nice to
This field shows the trip fuel and the trip time very important to let the FMGC calculate the Paris one hour later.
that are calculated by the FMGC when the Gross Weight (GW). The GW is necessary to As soon as you modify or enter wind
predictions are available. It is not modifiable determine many data items by the FMGC, information, the HISTORY WIND page becomes
by the crew (green). including the predictions. If you forget to the WIND page.
RTE RSV/% (3L) enter this data, predictions are not available
This field displays the route reserve and the and some FMGC features may become
corresponding percentage of the trip fuel. By inoperative.
default, it represents 5% of the trip fuel. The
crew can modify one of the values, and the TOW (4R)
FMGC computes the other. This field displays the Take Off Weight (TOW),
ALTN/TIME (4L) which is calculated by the FMGC when the
This field shows the alternate trip fuel and ZFW and Block fuel fields are filled. It is not
time that are calculated when the predictions modifiable by the crew. A route exists between LFRS and LFPO. You
are available. It is not modifiable by the crew. LW (5R) can use it by pressing INSERT (6R), or ignore it
FINAL/TIME (5L) This is the predicted Landing Weight. It is by pressing RETURN (6L).
This field shows the fuel quantity and time to calculated by the FMGC when predictions are If a route is defined, you can press INSERT (6R)
fly to the alternate airport or to the available and is not modifiable by the crew. to use it. The History Wind page shows the winds that
destination airport if no alternate is defined. Note that a database route is supposed to be were recorded during the previous flight
The crew can modify one of the values, and ROUTE SELECTION PAGE used as a base for the flight plan, is not a (small characters). We can see that the
the FMGC computes the other. This page is only accessible when the complete flight plan itself. previous flight didn’t reach the FL330, which
FROM/TO field has been filled in the INIT A It is composed of a departure and an arrival is why the wind is not defined for the cruise
Note: The time is displayed and should be page. airport, and waypoints that define the route altitude.
inserted using a XXYY format, where XX are The route selection page displays all the using airways or direct. A database route does
the hours and YY are the minutes. For database routes that exist with the FROM/TO not contain the departure and arrival runway,
example, 0120 means 1 hour 20 minutes. airports that were defined in the INIT A page. and does not contain the departure and
If several routes exist, you can see them by arrival procedures (SID and STAR).
EXTRA/TIME (6L) pressing the ‘NEXT PAGE’ key of the MCDU. When a route is inserted to create a flight
This field shows the extra fuel quantity and If no route exists in the database for the plan, a flight plan discontinuity exists
the available time for holding over the departure and arrival airports that were between the departure airport and the first
destination or alternate airport. It is defined, “NONE” is displayed on the route waypoint, and another one between the last
calculated by the FMGC and is not modifiable selection page. waypoint and the arrival airport. Managing
by the crew. these discontinuities will be explained in the
ZFCG/ZFW (1R) flight plan section.
This field shows the Zero Fuel Center of
Gravity (ZFCG) and the Zero Fuel Weight WIND PAGE The wind has been defined for the FL330 (big
(ZFW). This entry is mandatory for the FMGC This page is accessible from the INIT A page by characters). Consequently, the page became
to compute the Gross Weight (GW), which is pressing the 5R select key. It lets the crew the Wind page.
necessary to determine reference speeds. define the winds at different altitudes.
i Assistance is available for this field. Wind Information (1L to 4L)
BLOCK (2R) When it is displayed for the first time, it You can enter wind information at any
This is the block fuel quantity (quantity of displays the history winds. These are the altitude by entering the wind direction and
fuel available on board when initializing the winds recorded by the FMGC during the the wind velocity (in knots), separated by a
FMGC). It is mandatory to compute the Gross previous flight. This is very useful if you fly ‘/’.
Weight (GW) and the fuel predictions. No route exists between LFRS and LFMN. The the same route back and forth. For example, INSERT (6R)
i Assistance is available for this field. route selection page displays “NONE”, and if you fly from Paris Orly to Nice Cote d’Azur, Pressing the 6R select key validates the wind

74 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 75
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information and enters it into the FMGC, following waypoint.

which will take this information into account If you scroll the flight plan, the BRG and TRK
for the future predictions. are always displayed between the first and
Note the ‘*’ characters, which means the wind second waypoint displayed on the page.
insertion may have an impact on the flight
plan. Right Column:
9 – Predicted speed (in knots or in Mach) or
FLIGHT PLAN PAGE speed constraint at each waypoint. In this
The flight plan page is accessible by pressing example, speed predictions are not available.
the F-PLAN key on the MCDU. Basically, the The speed prediction is displayed in green,
flight plan page displays the flight plan stored the constraints are in magenta.
in the FMGC memory. It also gives access to 10 – Altitude prediction/constraint.
the lateral and vertical revision pages. The altitude prediction is displayed in green,
the constraints are in magenta. LAT REV page at a normal waypoint.
1 – The flight number is displayed in the top 11 – The distance between two consecutive
right corner, if it was entered in the INIT A waypoints is displayed here.
Bottom Line:
Left Column: The bottom line shows all the information
2 – The FROM waypoint is the waypoint from about the destination.
where the aircraft comes. It is the origin 12 – Name of the destination airport.
waypoint of the active leg. 13 – Total flight time, if predictions are
3 – Name of the airway. In this example, the available. If an ETD is defined, the predicted
airway name is automatically generated with arrival time (UTC) is displayed.
the course to fly from the departure airport to 14 – Distance to destination.
Example of a flight plan where the predictions the initial waypoint computed by the FMGC. 15 – Estimated fuel on board (EFOB) at
have not been computed. 4 – NEXT Waypoint: This is the waypoint to destination. LAT REV page at the arrival airport.
which the aircraft is currently flying. It is
written with white characters. LATERAL REVISION PAGE DEPARTURE (1L)
5 – Overfly symbol: When this symbol is drawn It is accessible by pressing a MCDU button on This is available for the departure airport
near a waypoint, this waypoint will be the left of any waypoint displayed in the flight only. It brings the Departure page, which
overflown. If you want to have a waypoint plan list. Depending on the type of the allows the definition of the departing runway
overflown, press the OVFY key on the MCDU. waypoint, the LAT REV page has different and SID. It is described later in this section.
A white triangle then appears on the aspects. ARRIVAL (1R)
scratchpad and you can select a waypoint to This is available for the arrival airport only. It
make it overfly. brings the Arrival page, which allows the
definition of the arriving runway and STAR. It
Center Column: is described later in this section.
6 – TIME: This column indicates the time to fly HOLD (3L)
Example of a flight plan with predictions. to each waypoint. On this example, no time is Available for the standard waypoints only. It
displayed because the predictions are not brings the HOLD page that lets the crew
The layout of the flight plan page is explained available yet. If an Estimated Time of define a holding pattern at this waypoint.
here: Departure (ETD) is entered, the UTC time is VIA/GO TO (2R)
displayed instead of the time. Available for the standard waypoints only.
7 – Bearing to fly from the FROM to the NEXT Using this key lets the pilot use an airway to
waypoint. add waypoints in the flight plan. Refer to the
8 – Track to fly from the NEXT waypoint to the LAT REV page at the departure airport. Flight Plan Management section for more

76 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 77
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information about this.

This key lets the crew add a new waypoint
after the revised waypoint. The process of
adding a new waypoint in the flight plan is
detailed in the next section (Flight Plan
It allows the crew to define a new destination
from the revised waypoint. An airport name
must be provided here.
If you define a new destination airport, do not
forget that you will have to define the arrival The “ELMAA7” SID has been selected, and
runway also. no transition has been selected yet.
This page is accessible from the LAT REV page The SID selection page shows the Standard
of the departure airport. It is dedicated to the Instrument Departures on the left and the
definition of the departure runway and SID. transitions on the right. You can select a SID
by pressing its left adjacent key, and the
transition list is updated according to the SID
selection. You can then select a transition by
pressing its right adjacent key.
If you do not want to select a SID, you can
scroll the SID list to the end. The last SID
displayed is named “NO SID”. If you select this Just like on the departure page, the crew The title of the page is “COMPUTED HOLD”.
one, the transition selection automatically must first select the arrival runway. Then the The default holding pattern takes the heading
turns to “NO TRANS”, and a waypoint is STAR page is displayed, allowing the selection to the revised waypoint as the inbound
automatically created in the runway of the STAR and transition if needed. When course, turns on the right and the holding
alignment at 5 NM of the runway threshold. the STAR selection is validated, a course fix duration is 1 minute below 14000 feet, 1.5
After the SID and transition have been waypoint is automatically added before the above.
All the available runways of the departure selected, all the corresponding changes are arrival runway, in the runway alignment, at 10 You can change the holding pattern by using
airport are listed, with their length (in meters set out in a temporary flight plan drawn in NM of the runway threshold for the final 1L, 2L or 3L. As soon as a change is done, the
or in feet, depending on the selected unit yellow on the Navigation Display. You must approach. title changes to “HOLD” and the option
system), their orientation, and the ILS press INSERT (6R) to validate it or ERASE (6L) “REVERT TO COMPUTED” appears on 3R.
name/frequency, if any. You can select one of to abort. HOLD PAGE
the runways by pressing the left adjacent key. This page is dedicated to the definition of a INBOUND COURSE (1L)
As soon as a runway is selected, the SID ARRIVAL PAGE holding pattern at the revised waypoint, The crew can change the heading of the
selection page is displayed. This page is accessible from the LAT REV page which is called the hold fix. When you select holding pattern, which is the heading to the
If a runway has already been selected, it is of the arrival airport. It is very similar to the it, a default holding pattern is automatically revised waypoint by default.
shown without the arrow on the left to departure page. It lets the crew define the computed and presented on the HOLD page, TURN DIR (2L)
indicate the fact that it is already selected. In arrival runway and the STAR if needed. and it is added to the temporary flight plan This is the turning direction of the holding
addition, you can directly jump to the SID (displayed in yellow on the ND). pattern. It can be L for left or R for right.
selection page by pressing the NEXT PAGE key TIME/DIST (3L)
on the MCDU. The pilot can enter the time or distance in
this field. Entering one information computes
the other.
If you enter the time (in minutes), the

78 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 79
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distance is computed according to the QNH (4R) It works exactly like for the waypoints. All the
predicted speed for the holding. The This field appears on the arrival airport navaid’s relative information is displayed on
predicted speed is the speed constraint at the revision page only. It lets the crew define the the resulting page: identifier, class, position,
revised waypoint if it is defined, or green dot QNH at the arrival airport for better frequency, elevation, figure of merit (this is
speed. predictions. fake information not supported by the current
If you want to enter the distance (in NM), it database) and the magnetic variation at the
must be preceded by a ‘/’. The time is then DATA PAGE station location (station dec).
computed according to the predicted speed This page gives access to the FMGC navigation
also. database content.
Pressing this key brings back the default
holding pattern computed by the FMGC.
VERT REV page at the arrival airport.
It is accessible from the flight plan page by CLB SPD LIM or DES SPD LIM (2L)
pressing one of the right keys adjacent to a This field defines the speed limit below a
listed waypoint. Depending on the revised given altitude. By default, it is a 250 knots
waypoint type, the VERT REV page consists of speed limit below 10,000 feet. The crew can
different components. change these values. The climb speed limit is
shown only on the departure airport vertical
revision page. RUNWAYS (3L)
SPD CSTR (3L) This is a little different because the pilot is
This field appears on the standard waypoint requested to enter the airport ICAO name
revision page only. It lets the pilot define a followed by the runway name. For example,
speed constraint on the revised waypoint. for the runway 32L at Toulouse-Blagnac, enter
This field also appears only on the standard
waypoint revision page. It lets the pilot define WAYPOINTS (1L)
an altitude constraint on the revised Pressing this key gives access to the waypoints
waypoint. It must be preceded by a – (minus) stored in the database. The pilot is asked to
or a + (plus) to indicate if it is a minimum or enter a waypoint name whereupon the
VERT REV page at the departure airport. maximum altitude constraint. corresponding information is displayed:
WIND (5L) identifier and lat/lon coordinates.
This field lets the crew enter the wind
forecast at the revised waypoint, using the
direction (in magnetic degrees) and velocity
(in knots).
This field appears on the departure airport The runway identifier is displayed, followed
revision page only. It allows the pilot to define by its coordinates, the runway length (in
the Estimated Time of Departure (ETD). As meters or in feet, depending on the selected
soon as this information is entered, the time unit system), the runway course and the
predictions are shown in UTC time instead of associated ILS identifier, if any.
VERT REV page at a standard waypoint. The time must be entered in UTC, using the ROUTES (4L)
format XXYY, where XX are the hours and YY You can explore the routes stored in the
are the minutes (i.e. 1050 for 10h50). NAVAIDS (2L) database through this function. Pressing the

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4L key displays a page requesting the route version. If you want to add waypoints, navaids number (i.e. LFBOLFPO1 for a route that goes time to learn how to create and manage a
name (1L) or the from/to airports (1R). and runways, you can do it through the from Toulouse-Blagnac to Paris-Orly). If a flight plan.
If you enter a route name, the corresponding FeelThere database modification tool. route with the same departure/arrival
route is immediately displayed. If you enter airports already exists, the number is Flight Plan Creation
the from/to airports, all the existing routes STORED ROUTE (4R) automatically incremented to avoid erasing There are several ways of creating a flight
that correspond to these airports are This function allows you to store the existing any existing route. plan, they will be explained here.
displayed. The title indicates the number of route in the database. Pressing 4R brings a
routes available and you can display them by page that shows the stored routes: Important Note: Creating a flight plan from a route
pressing the NEXT PAGE key on the MCDU. When you save a route based on an existing When you enter the FROM/TO airports in the
flight plan, only the route information is INIT A page, the ROUTE SELECTION page
saved including the departure/arrival airports appears. If a route is available and you select
and all the waypoints and airways that it, the contents appear as a basis for the
composed the flight plan. If you re-use a route creation of the flight plan.
later, you will have to define the
departure/arrival runways and procedures
(SID/STAR) to have a complete flight plan.


You may notice this line is written in grey. It is
because it does not exist in the real aircraft.
The only action you need take at this stage is It lets you create a route from the Flight
to press NEW ROUTE (6R) to store a new route
A/C STATUS (5L) Simulator flight planner. You must open the FS
in the database. The NEW ROUTE page
This page shows the current aircraft status. flight planner, create an FS flight plan or add
appears and you are asked to enter
The title is the aircraft type. The engine type an existing one and press this key on the
information about the route to save:
and navigation database version are also MCDU to load it.
shown. As soon as this key is pressed, a temporary Enter FROM/TO in the INIT A page.
Note that the number displayed on 2R is the flight plan is created with the loaded flight
AIRAC cycle number of the FeelThere plan. You just have to validate it. Refer to the
database. It may be useful for you if you plan flight plan management section for more
to update it regularly. information.
The performance factor shown in 6R is not
simulated in this version.

You can enter the name of the route in the

scratchpad and press CO RTE (1L). This name A route exists, select it by pressing INSERT
will be used later to retrieve this route for a (6R).
future use.
You can press STORE ACTIVE F-PLN (2L) to
store the route that corresponds to the active
flight plan by giving it an automatic name. In FLIGHT PLAN MANAGEMENT
STORED WAYPOINTS, NAVAIDS, RUNWAYS this case, the name is composed of the Now that you know the meaning of all the
(1R, 2R, 3R) departure and arrival airports, followed by a pages involved in the flight plan creation and
These functions are not implemented in this update (F-PLN, LAT REV, VERT REV, …), it is

82 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 83
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It is now necessary to select a SID by clicking

one of the left buttons and a transition
(TRANS) by clicking one of the right buttons.
If you select NO SID, the TRANS selection is
not used. Whatever you select, a waypoint is
automatically created in the runway
alignment, at 5 NM of the runway threshold
with an altitude of 1500 feet above the
ground, named with the altitude value. This is
done to force the aircraft to follow the
runway direction after takeoff when the NAV
mode engages.
The route waypoints are added in the flight Lateral revision page at departure LFRS. To validate the selection, press INSERT (6R) or Press 2L to add a new waypoint after the
plan with discontinuities after departure and press ERASE (6L) to abort. waypoint ‘1573’.
before arrival. On the lateral revision page, pressing 1L
brings up the DEPARTURE page. It shows the Validating makes the flight plan page appears
When a route is used to create a flight plan, airport's available runways. Selecting a again, showing the waypoint created by the
you just have to define the departure and runway brings up the SID selection page. FMGC with the overfly triangle icon. This is
arrival runways, select the SID and STAR and the first waypoint of the flight plan.
clear the discontinuities. Click the CLR key
and then the LSK adjacent to the You can repeat this procedure to select the
discontinuity. runway and STAR at the arrival airport. A
waypoint point (course fix) will be created by
Creating a flight plan from scratch the FMGC, on the arrival runway alignment at
As soon as the departure and arrival airports 10 NM from the runway with an altitude
have been defined in the FROM/TO field of constraint of 2000 feet AGL
the INIT A page, the flight plan page appears It is now time to create the other waypoints Lateral Revision page allows you to add a new
with the departure and arrival airports of the flight plan. There are 2 ways of adding waypoint.
together with their elevations displayed in a waypoint: the immediate mode and the
magenta. temporary mode. Enter the name of the next waypoint and
LFRS has 2 runways: 21 and 03 with ILS NT.
Pressing the 1L key brings the departure press 3R (NEXT WPT) to define it as the next
lateral revision page. Temporary Mode: waypoint. A temporary flight plan is then
This is the standard way to add a waypoint. It created and displayed in yellow.
is called “temporary mode” because a
temporary flight plan is created.
Click the left button of the waypoint after
which you want to add a waypoint. The lateral
revision page appears for this waypoint.

Runway 03 has been selected, it has no SID.

F-PLN page with only departure and arrival
airports. ANG is entered in the scratchpad. Pressing 3R
defines it as the next waypoint.

84 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 85
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3R inserts it in immediate mode before CHW. After loading or creating an FS flight plan,
press DATA to display the data page and press

A temporary flight plan is displayed with ANG All the waypoints of the airway UN873 from
following ‘1573’. NAMAR has been added before CHW without ARDOD to SORAP are added in the flight plan.
the creation of a temporary flight plan. A
At this stage, you can: discontinuity is added between NAMAR and Importing a flight plan from Flight Simulator The FS flight plan is imported in a temporary
- abort the modification by pressing ERASE CHW. This operation can be done from the DATA flight plan with discontinuities after
page, which will be described later in this
(6L) departure and before arrival.
section. It is accessible by pressing the DATA
- confirm the modification and validate the Using Airways
key on the MCDU.
temporary flight plan by pressing INSERT (6R) In the process of creating a flight plan, you When the flight plan is imported, a temporary
In this page, an option that does not exist in
- continue modifying the temporary flight plan may want to use airways to avoid entering the flight plan is created (displayed in yellow) and
the real aircraft has been added. This is why
by adding or removing waypoints before waypoints one by one. This can be done from you can validate it (6R) or erase it (6L). All
it is written in grey. It is the IMPORT FS FPLN
validating it. the lateral revision page by entering the name you need do now is define the
(6R) function.
of the airway and the name of the last departure/arrival runway, the SID/STAR and
Immediate Mode: waypoint you want to fly to. All the waypoints then clear the discontinuities.
To add a waypoint in immediate mode, enter of the selected airway are then automatically
its name in the scratchpad and click the added to the flight plan. Flight Plan Modification
button on the left of the waypoint before To do this, use the VIA/GO TO (2R) key on the Deleting a Waypoint
which your waypoint will be inserted. This LAT REV page: A waypoint can be deleted when the flight
action immediately inserts the new waypoint plan page is displayed, even if a temporary
without needing any confirmation, but a flight flight plan is displayed. You just have to press
plan discontinuity appears after this the CLR key on the MCDU keypad (or press the
waypoint. If you want to fly direct, you must Backspace key on your keyboard if a locker is
clear the discontinuity. active) and a CLR message appears on the
Pressing this button immediately imports the Then you can select any waypoint displayed
FS flight plan loaded or created in the flight by pressing the button on its left and the
planner. If no flight plan exists in the flight waypoint is deleted from the flight plan.
planner, an error message “NO FS FPLN Note that the departure, arrival waypoints
LOADED” appears in the scratchpad. can not be deleted. If you are flying in NAV
mode, the NEXT waypoint can not be deleted
From ARDOD, you want to fly airway UN873 to either. You must first leave NAV mode (by
SORAP. Enter UN873/SORAP in the scratchpad selecting HDG mode for example), then you
and press 2R. can delete it.

Warning: The waypoint deletion is immediate

NAMAR is entered in the scratchpad, pressing and is not subject to any confirmation.

86 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 87
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Consequently, you should be careful when route is not a flight plan. If you save the different pages can be displayed, according to The page appears like this when no data has
using this function. route, the departure/arrival airports and all the following table: been entered. Some fields are filled with
the waypoints/airways used in the flight plan default values, others are mandatory.
Clearing a Discontinuity are saved. The departure/arrival runways, Flight Phase PERF Page
A discontinuity appears in the flight plan when procedures (SID/STAR) and flight plan related PREFLIGHT TAKE OFF
the FMGC does not know how you want to fly information (cruise altitude, cost index, …) TAKE OFF TAKE OFF
from one waypoint to another. If you want to are not saved. CLIMB CLB
fly direct, you have to clear the discontinuity The saved routes are accessible when the CRUISE CRZ
in the same way as you delete a waypoint: FROM/TO airports have been entered in the DESCENT DES
press the CLR key, then press the button on INIT A page (see the ROUTE SELECTION page). APPROACH APPR
the left of the discontinuity to clear. GO AROUND GO AROUND
Managing holding patterns This page is accessible by pressing the DIR key
The process of creating a hold pattern is on the MCDU. It allows the pilot to create a When a PERF page is displayed, you have the
described earlier in the HOLD Page section. As DIRECT. This operation consists in flying ability to display the page that corresponds to
soon as a hold is defined, it is integrated in directly to a waypoint instead of going the next phases, but you can not access the The same page with all the necessary data
the flight plan right after the hold fix (BELPA through all the waypoints of the flight plan. previous phase pages. entered.
in this example) with the predicted hold This operation is usually commanded by the When a PERF page is displayed, its title is
speed. air traffic controller if traffic conditions allow displayed in green if the corresponding phase V1, VR, V2 (1L, 2L, 3L)
the aircraft to fly its route as directly as is active, otherwise in white. The crew should enter the V1, VR and V2
possible. This saves time and fuel. speeds here. These speeds depend on the
When the flight is finished and the flight
aircraft gross weight, the flap configuration,
phase is DONE, pressing the PERF key resets
the weather (wind, rain on the runway,
the flight phase to PREFLIGHT.
pressure) and the runway length. In order to
enter these speeds, real pilots have sheets
PERF TAKE OFF PAGE that describe each airport runway and that
give these numbers in all the possible
As you may not have all this information, the
simulated FMGC can help you:
- If you are in Beginner mode, these fields are
If the holding pattern has to be modified, the already filled with average speed values that
crew can press the left key adjacent to the should work in all situations. Even if they are
hold fix (2L in this example). The LAT REV Pressing the DIR key brings up the DIR page, filled, you can change the values in these
page appears and pressing HOLD (3L) brings which displays all the flight plan waypoints fields as you wish.
the hold page which allows modification of from the NEXT to the arrival airport. The crew - If you are in Intermediate mode, assistance
the hold settings. can command a DIRECT to an existing is available to provide you average values if
To delete a holding pattern, the pilot can waypoint by pressing the left key adjacent to This page is displayed when the flight phase is you wish.
delete the hold fix or the holding pattern this waypoint. Making a DIRECT to another PREFLIGHT or TAKE OFF. It lets the pilot enter - If you are in Expert mode, no help is
itself (2L or 3L in this example). waypoint not listed in the flight plan is also all the necessary data for take off. available.
possible by entering its name in the
Saving a route scratchpad and pressing 1L. > In Beginner or Intermediate mode, the
After the flight plan is created, you may want assistance is available only if you have filled
to save it for future use. You can do this PERFORMANCE PAGES line 3R to let the FMGC know which flap
through the DATA page, which allows you to The performance pages are accessible by setting you want to use for takeoff.
save a route (refer to the DATA page section pressing the PERF key on the MCDU.
for more information). Remember that a Depending on the current flight phase, TRANS ALT (4L)

88 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 89
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This field displays the transition altitude, the Horizontal Stabilizer (THS) position chosen for
altitude at which you should change from take off.
altitude in feet to flight level by altering the
barometric setting from QNH to STD (1013 hPa In the real aircraft, this field is used as a
or 29.92 inHg). reminder for the crew, the FMGC does not use
By default, this altitude is set to 18000 feet it. If you are in Beginner or Intermediate
(written is small characters) because this is The FCU target altitude (2500) is lower than mode, the flap setting you enter here is
the acceleration altitude (3000), the LVL/CH
the value that is taken into account by FS. You important because it determines the V1, VR,
light is off. This is a wrong situation because
can change it as you wish, knowing that in real V2 values provided for you as an assistance.
the aircraft will tend to descend when the
life, each airport has its own transition
acceleration altitude is reached.
altitude. FLEX TO TEMP (4R)
If you enter a value here, it appears in big This field displays the temperature used for a
characters (entered by the crew). FLEX take off. It's used to determine the The ECON speed/Mach computed by the FMGC
temperature for a reduced-thrust take off, will be used as a speed target during the climb
THR RED/ACC (5L) when the aircraft is below the Maximum Take phase.
This field shows the altitude for throttle Off Weight (MTOW).
reduction and acceleration. By default, these In order to enter this temperature, real pilots
The FCU altitude (5000) is higher than the
values are set 1500 feet above the departure have sheets that describe each airport runway
acceleration altitude. This is perfect and safe.
airport altitude. You can alter these values and that give these numbers in all possible
When the acceleration altitude (3000) will be
(minimum value is 400 feet AGL), but reached, the aircraft will accelerate to 5000 conditions.
remember that acceleration altitude must be feet. ENG OUT ACC (5R)
equal or greater than the reduction altitude. This is the altitude at which you should
RWY (1R) accelerate if an engine is out.
The reduction altitude is the altitude at which This field displays the runway that has been NEXT PHASE (6R)
the pilot in command should switch the selected for take off. It is dashed if the Pressing 6R select key displays the climb
throttle levers from take off power (FLEX or runway has not yet been selected. It is not performance page.
TOGA) to the climb power (CLB). When the modifiable by the crew. F, S, O Speeds
aircraft reaches this altitude, a flashing ‘LVR In the center of the page, the F, S and Green The speed entered by the crew (290 kts) will
CLB’ message appears on the FMA (column 1) TO SHIFT (2R) Dot speeds are displayed. They can be be used as the speed target during the climb
to remind the pilot to pull the throttle levers This field contains the Take Off Shift, in calculated only when the Gross Weight (GW) is phase.
to the CLB detent. The climb then continues meters or in feet depending on the unit defined (INIT B page). They can not be
in SRS mode until the acceleration altitude is system. It is supposed to be used when the modified by the crew.
reached. aircraft does not take off from the beginning The F speed is the speed at which the flaps ACT MODE (1L)
of the runway. The FMGC takes the shift value can be retracted, displayed on the PFD when The value in this field depends on the other
On reaching the acceleration altitude the into account to manage the take off and the flap configuration is 2 or more. fields of the page.
aircraft begins to accelerate. The vertical initial climb. The S speed is the speed at which the slats This field displays the speed mode that is used
mode switches to CLB (climb mode). The This function is unnecesary on this aircraft can be retracted, displayed when the flap for the climb:
autopilot manages the pitch to accelerate to because the GPS provides a perfect IRS configuration is 1. - ECON: the ECON speed/Mach combination
initial climb target speed until the target alignment as soon as the take off power is The Green Dot speed is the best drag-to-lift displayed in the ECON field (3L) will be used.
altitude is reached. applied. Consequently, the FMGC knows speed, used for expedite climb or for holding - SPEED xxx: the speed entered by the crew in
exactly the aircraft position during take off patterns. It is displayed when the aircraft is in the SPD/MACH field (4L) will be used.
Note: The FCU target altitude should always without needing the TO shift. clean configuration. - MACH xxx: the Mach entered by the crew in
be higher than the acceleration altitude. If it the SPD/MACH field (4L) will be used.
is not the case, the FCU altitude LED is off. It FLAPS/THS (3R) PERF CLB PAGE - EXPEDITE: the expedite climb mode has
means you should always check this light is This field is only a reminder for the crew, it is This page can be accessed by pressing the been selected on the FCU. In this case, the
illuminated prior to take off. not used by the FMGC. The pilot can enter PERF key when the climb phase is active, or aircraft climbs as efficiently as possible, using
here the flap configuration and the Trimmable by pressing the 6R key in the PERF TO page. the green dot speed as the target speed.

90 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 91
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CI (2L) Consequently, the PERF APPR page is The speed management works exactly like for
This is the Cost Index used for the climb immediately displayed. the climb, with select keys 1L to 4L.
phase. As explained earlier (INIT A page), the If the climb phase is not active, the 6L select DES FORECAST (2R)
cost index determines if you want to fly slow line lets you display the PERF TAKE OFF page. Pressing the 2R select key brings the descent
and far (CI near 0) or fast and not far (CI near DEST EFOB (1R) forecast page. This page lets the crew enter
999). This field displays the Estimated Fuel On the wind information forecasted for the
On this page, the cost index value directly Board (EFOB) at the destination. It is not descent.
impacts the ECON speed/Mach computed by modifiable by the crew.
the FMGC. The higher it is, the higher the PRED TO XXX (2R) DES FORECAST PAGE
speed will be, but the fuel consumption will This field lets you define the altitude for This page can only be accessed from the PERF
also be higher. which the predictions will be computed on CRZ page, by pressing the 2R select key.
This field can be modified by the crew (blue) lines 3R, 4R and 5R. This altitude must be
only when the CLB phase is not active. lower than the cruise altitude. ACT MODE (1L)
Otherwise it is displayed in blue. Predictions (3R, 4R, 5R) The value in this field depends on the other
ECON (3L) These fields show the predicted time and fields of the page.
This field displays the ECON speed/Mach distance to reach the altitude entered in 2R, This field displays the speed mode that is used
computed by the FMGC according to the according respectively to the ECON for the descent:
cruise altitude and the cost index. It is not speed/Mach, the preselected speed/Mach and - ECON: the ECON speed/Mach combination
modifiable by the crew. the expedite mode. displayed in the ECON field (3L) will be used.
The aircraft will automatically switch from NEXT PHASE (6R) - AUTO SPEED xxx: the speed entered by the
airspeed to Mach when the crossover altitude Pressing 6R select key displays the cruise crew in the speed field (3L) will be used.
performance page. - AUTO MACH xxx: the Mach entered by the
is reached.
TIME or UTC crew in the speed field (3L) will be used.
If a ‘*’ character is displayed in this field, it
On the center of the page, the time or the - SPEED xxx: if the descent phase is active and
means this field is selectable. The pilot can
UTC to the destination is displayed, the speed is selected on the FCU, the target
press the 3L select key to revert to the ECON WIND/ALT (1L to 4L)
depending on the fact that the Estimated
speed mode. The crew can enter the wind forecast for the speed value is displayed here.
Departure Time (ETT) has been defined or
SPD/MACH (4L) descent. Each information line is composed of - MACH xxx: if the descent phase is active and
When the climb phase is not active, the crew the wind direction (in degrees), the wind the Mach is selected on the FCU, the target
can enter a preselected speed, mach, or both velocity (in knots) and the wind altitude (in Mach value is displayed here.
PERF CRZ PAGE - EXPEDITE: the expedite descent mode has
in this field to set the speed target the FMGC feet or in flight level). Don’t forget that if you
This page can be accessed by pressing the
will use during the climb. When a value is enter an altitude in flight level, it should been selected on the FCU. In this case, the
entered in this field, the ACT MODE begin with ‘FL’. aircraft descents as efficiently as possible,
automatically switches to SPEED xxx or MACH The wind information lines entered here are using the green dot speed as the target speed.
xxx. automatically sorted by altitude. CI (2L)
If a ‘*’ character is displayed in this field, the CAB RATE (2R) This is the Cost Index used for the descent
pilot can press the 4L select key to revert to This field displays the default cabin rate used phase. It impacts the ECON speed/Mach
the SPEED xxx or MACH xxx speed mode. for pressurization. It is modifiable by the computed on line 3L.
When the climb phase is active, this field is crew. Clearing this value reverts the default ECON / AUTO SPD / AUTO MACH (3L)
not editable. The crew may select a new value of -350 feet/minute. If the descent phase is not active, this field
speed on the FCU (by pulling the SPD/MACH title is ECON until the crew enters a value in
knob). In this case, the FCU selected speed is PERF DES PAGE this field. As soon as a value is entered, the
displayed in this field. This page can be accessed by pressing the title switches to AUTO SPD xxx or to AUTO
PREV PHASE or ACTIVATE APPR PHASE (6L) PERF key when the cruise phase is active, or PERF key when the descent phase is active, or MACH xxx, and the ACT MODE (1L) is modified
If the climb phase is active, the 6L select line by pressing the 6R key in the PERF CLB page. by pressing the 6R key in the PERF CRZ page. accordingly, as shown here.
shows ‘ACTIVATE APPR PHASE’. If you press 6L,
a confirmation is requested and the FMGC This page is very similar to the PERF CLB page.
switches directly to the approach phase.

92 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 93
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but if you have the information available, the is below this altitude. thrust reduction altitude.
FMGC will perform better predictions. LDG CONF (4R, 5R) ENG OUT ACC (5R)
TRANS ALT (4L) The pilot can choose the flap landing This is the altitude at which you should
This is the transition altitude used for the configuration here. By default, FULL is accelerate if an engine is out.
approach, which can be different from the selected (written in big characters) and CONF F, S, O Speeds
transition altitude used at departure. By 3 is selectable (shown with a *). In the center of the page, the F, S and Green
default, it is set to 18000 feet because it is This choice determines the content of the Dot speeds are displayed. They can be
the default transition altitude managed by landing check-list that will display the calculated only when the Gross Weight (GW) is
Flight Simulator (small characters). required flap configuration when the aircraft defined (INIT B page). They can not be
Clearing this line brings back the default is close to land. modified by the crew.
value. Note that if you select the CONF 3, you will
VAPP (5L) still have a GPWS warning “too low, flaps” FUEL PRED PAGE
A clearing action on this field reverts to the This is the approach speed. If it is drawn with when the aircraft gets close to the ground. To This page is accessible by pressing the FUEL
ECON speed/Mach and updates the ACT MODE small characters, the value displayed is the avoid this, press the GPWS flap button on the PRED key on the MCDU. It allows you to enter
accordingly. value computed by the FMGC, according to overhead (refer to the system section for flight information like on the INIT B page. It is
If the descent phase is active, this field can the aircraft gross weight and the current more information about the GPWS). especially useful if you forgot to enter data in
not be modified. wind. You can enter any other value in this NEXT PHASE (6R) the INIT B page and the engines are started
field. Clearing this line brings back the value Displays the PERF GO AROUND page. (the INIT B page is accessible only when the
PERF APPR PAGE computed by the FMGC. F, S, O Speeds engines are stopped).
This page is dedicated to the approach Vapp is the speed that will be used by the In the center of the page, the F, S and Green
settings. It can be accessed by pressing the FMGC if the FCU is in managed speed during Dot speeds are displayed. They can be
PERF key when the approach phase is active, the final approach, with landing flap calculated only when the Gross Weight (GW) is
or by pressing the 6R key in the PERF DES configuration. defined (INIT B page). They can not be
page. PREV PHASE (6L) modified by the crew.
You can click 6L to come back to the PERF DES
page, unless the approach phase is active. PERF GO AROUND PAGE
FINAL (1R) This page lets the crew set the aircraft ready
This is a reminder of the arrival runway. It is for a possible go around.
not modifiable.
MDA and DH (2R, 3R)
MDA is the minimum descent altitude, DH is
the decision height. Remember that MDA is an AT (1L)
altitude, which is measured from the seal This is a reminder of the destination airport.
level altitude, and DH is a height which is It is not modifiable by the crew.
measured from the ground. GW / CG (3L)
The MDA is the minimum altitude at which the This field contains the Gross Weight and the
QNH (1L) aircraft can descend safely, and the DH is the center of gravity. The gross weight
You can enter the QNH here in hecto-Pascals height at which the captain decides if the information is mandatory, so amber boxes
or in inches of mercury. It is mandatory aircraft lands or go around (especially appear here if this information is not
because it is used by the FMGC to perform the important with low visibility). available.
approach calculation. The MDA and the DH can not be defined RTE RSV / % (4L)
TEMP (2L) together, you must choose one or the other. As THR RED/ACC (5L) This field is exactly the same as the one
Enter the temperature forecasted at the soon as one is filled, the other is erased. If DH Like on the PERF TAKE OFF page, this field lets shown on the INIT B page.
arrival airport, in °C. is entered, an aural warning “minimums, the crew select the thrust reduction altitude FINAL / TIME (5L)
MAG WIND (3L) minimums” is heard when the DH is reached. and the acceleration altitude in case of a go This field is exactly the same as the one
Enter the forecasted wind (direction/velocity) If MDA is entered, the digits in the PFD around. Remember that the acceleration shown on the INIT B page.
at the arrival airport. This entry is optional, altitude window turn amber when the aircraft altitude must be equal or greater than the EXTRA / TIME (6L)

94 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 95
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


This field is exactly the same as the one cruise altitude during the flight (it is the only This information is visible during the descent As soon as an identifier or a frequency has
shown on the INIT B page. way to do this as the INIT page is not and approach phases only, if you are not in been entered, the VOR can not be autotuned
Refer to the INIT B page section for more accessible during the flight). NAV mode. It shows the direct distance to the by the FMGC until it is released. To do so,
information about these fields. This field is empty when the aircraft is in destination approach. It is very useful if the press the CLR key on the MCDU and press 1L or
EFOB (1R) descent or approach phase. ATC makes you leave your flight plan and 1R to release the VOR1 or VOR2. As soon as
This is the fuel prediction at destination. It is SEND POS (2L) guides you with heading, in which case you the VOR is released, the FMGC will take back
not modifiable by the crew. Pressing this key sends a position report. use the HDG mode. control and use it for autotune.
FOB (3R) UPDATE AT (3L) CRS (2L and 2R)
This field allows the crew to enter a FOB (Fuel This field allows the crew to update the IRS RAD NAV PAGE These fields let you enter the course for VOR1
On Board) quantity. You should be very position with a navaid position. This function This page is dedicated to the management of and VOR2.
cautious when enter a value here because it is not implemented in this aircraft because its the radio equipment. Remember that any ILS/FREQ (3L)
can make the fuel predictions wrong. It can be position is updated by the GPS. information written with small characters is Just like for VOR1 and VOR2, this field shows
used only when engines are stopped. As soon BRG/DIST (4L) generated by the FMGC, and big characters the ILS identifier and frequency. You can set
as engines are started, the FOB information is As soon as a navaid name is entered in the correspond to information entered by the the ILS identifier or frequency like for the
acquired from the fuel sensors again. “TO” field (4R), the bearing and distance to crew. VORs. If the ILS is released, the FMGC will
In addition, you have the ability to define how this navaid is displayed and updated in real automatically set the arrival runway ILS when
the FOB quantity is computed: time. the approach phase becomes active.
- FF + FQ: the fuel flow and the fuel quantity
sensors are used > Because of a limitation in Flight Simulator,
- FF: the fuel flow sensors are used only the VOR1 and the ILS are linked and share the
- FQ: the fuel quantity sensors are used only same frequency. Consequently, if you set the
CRZ TEMP/TROPO (4R) VOR1, the ILS setting is lost, and conversely.
This field displays the temperature at the This is why you should make sure VOR1 is
cruise altitude and the tropopause altitude. released if you want to have the ILS autotuned
Both values can be modified by the crew. on approach.


The PROG page is a multifunction page. VOR1/FREQ (1L) and FREQ/VOR2 (1R) This field lets you set the ILS course. If the ILS
These two fields are dedicated to VOR1 and is autotuned on approach, the ILS course is
OPT (1 Center) VOR2. They display the current VOR names automatically set by the FMGC.
This value shows the optimal cruise flight and frequencies. If you see the identifier and ADF1/FREQ (5R)
level computed by the FMGC, depending on the frequency both written is small This field lets you set the ADF in the same way
the gross weight and the cost index. characters, it means the FMGC has autotuned as the VORs.
REC MAX (1R) this VOR. ADF BFO (6R)
This is the maximum flight level, displayed in The crew can enter a VOR identifier or This activates or stops the frequency
magenta. frequency in these fields. oscillator. This feature is not used by Flight
VDEV (2R) If a name is entered, the VOR frequency is Simulator.
This field is visible during the descent and fetched in the database, displayed here, and
approach phases only. It shows the vertical set on the VOR receiver. In this case, the > The RAD NAV page is the standard way to set
deviation between the current aircraft identifier is written in big characters, and the radio equipment manually. You can also use
The title is composed of the current flight position and the computed flight plan. This frequency is in small characters. the left and right Radio Management Panels
phase (TO for takeoff, CLB, CRZ, DES or APPR) information is also shown on the PFD altitude If a frequency is entered, the FMGC will fetch (RMP) located on the pedestal to do this. In
and the flight number. tape (refer to the EFIS section for more the closest VOR that corresponds to this this case, the RAD NAV page becomes inactive
information). frequency. The found identifier is then as soon as you press the NAV page on any RMP
CRZ (1L) TO (4R) written is small characters (set by the FMGC) and it appears like this:
This field displays the current cruise altitude. This field lets the pilot enter a navaid name. and the frequency, entered by the crew, is in
The crew can modify this value to change the DIR DIST TO DEST (5R) big characters.

96 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 97
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plan and see the remaining distance to

destination, or the PROG page to monitor your
descent and your distance to destination if
not in NAV mode.

and create the flight plan as necessary (refer

Refer to the Systems section for more
to the flight plan management section for
information about the RMP usage.
more information).
Anyway, enter the DEPARTURE page through
PAGE SEQUENCING the lateral revision page of the departure
Now that you know the FMGC and all the
airport and define the departing runway and
MCDU pages, you may still be lost as to their SID. Do the same at the arrival airport to
use… There are so many pages and you may define arrival runway and STAR.
not know in which order you should use them. As soon as the gross weight is defined, the
So here is some further advice: flight plan is created and all the
discontinuities are cleared, the predictions
1 - Initialization are computed by the FMGC and appear on the
If the menu page appears, press FMGC (1L) to flight plan page.
bring the INIT A page. Otherwise, press the
INIT button. 3 – Performance Settings
Enter the FROM/TO airports. If a route exists Press the PERF button to access the
and you select it, it brings up the flight plan performance page. The PERF TO page
page with a temporary flight plan. Validate it appears. Set the FLEX temperature and V1, VR
and come back to the INIT A page. and V2 speeds for takeoff. Remember that if
Align the IRS if they are not already aligned. you have entered the takeoff flap
The alignment time will be useful to set the configuration and you are in Beginner or
flight plan and everything else. Intermediate mode, assistance is available for
Enter the flight number and the cruise these values.
altitude. Edit the cost index if the default You can navigate to the climb, cruise, and
value is not appropriate for your flight. descent performance pages to make sure the
speeds and modes are correct, according to
Then press NEXT PAGE to gain access to the the cost index.
INIT B page and have the gross weight
computed. If the engines are started, you can 4 – Done…
not access this page and you have to define The FMGC is now set for takeoff. Do not forget
the gross weight on the FUEL PRED page. to turn the flight director on. All the FCU
If INIT B is accessible, set the taxi fuel, route modes will engage to help you during the
reserve, final etc, … takeoff and climb phases.
During the flight, you may have to use some
2 – Flight Plan MCDU pages, such as RAD NAV to manually set
Press F-PLAN to access the flight plan page radio, flight plan to watch the flight along the

98 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 99
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


APPENDIX A have to move the mouse in the central zone of APPENDIX B

each EFIS and turn the mouse wheel to
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS increase the brightness, or press the mouse Acronyms Computer
middle button to reset the brightness. FO First Officer
Windows Vista crashes to desktop when I ABV Above (TCAS) FOB Fuel On Board
select one of the aircraft. I press the MCDU INIT button, and nothing A/C Aircraft FPA Flight Path Angle
Select the directory where your FS is (default : happens. AGL Above Ground Level F-PLAN Flight Plan (MCDU Page)
Program files\microsoft games\ ), right-click This is because the INIT A page is accessible A.FLOOR Alpha Floor FQ Fuel Quantity
and select the SECURITY tab. Click on your only when the engines are stopped. If you AMP Audio Management Panel GPU Ground Power Unit
username (not on Administrator) and then on press the INIT button with engines started, AMSL Above Mean Sea Level GPWS Ground Proximity Warning System
Edit. Allow full rights and click OK to exit. nothing happens. A/THR Autothrust GS Glide Slope
AC Air Conditioning GW Gross Weight
When I push the ALT button to engage a My flight plan is set up, all the associated data ADIRU Air Data Inertial Reference Unit HDG Heading
managed climb or descent, nothing happens. are entered, but the flight plan predictions are AIRAC Aeronautical Information Circular ILS Instrument Landing System
The lateral and vertical modes are not fully not available. ALT Altitude INIT Initiation (MCDU Page)
independent. The managed climb/descent is Make sure all the necessary data (cruise APPR Approach (Key on FCU) KG Kilogram
accessible only when the FCU is in NAV mode. altitude and gross weight) have been entered APU Auxiliary Power Unit IRS Inertial Reference System
For example, if you are in heading mode in the MCDU. Also make sure the flight plan ATC Air Traffic Control L/G Landing Gear
("HDG" displayed on the FMA), nothing happens contains no discontinuity. The predictions can BLW Below (TCAS) LK Lock
when you push the ALT button. Nevertheless, not be computed if any discontinuity is still in BRG Bearing LOC ILS Localizer
you can pull the ALT button to engage an open the flight plan. CL or CLB Climb LSK Line Select Key
climb/descent. CLR CLEAR (Key on MCDU Keyboard) MCDU Multifunction Control and Display
I have saved my flight in FS while the aircraft DES Descent Unit
I have engaged the V/S mode to climb, and the was in flight. When I tried to reload it, the DH Decision Height MDA Minimum Descent Altitude
FCU turns into Open Climb. FMGC status was inconsistent. DIR Direct MKR Marker
This is called "mode reversion". It is just This is normal. The MCDU & FMGC data is DME Distance Measuring Equipment N/W Nose Wheel
because you ask the aircraft to climb very persisted in a file that is independent from the ECAM Electronic Centralized Aircraft ND Navigation Display
steep. In this situation, if the airspeed file where the FS flight is saved. Consequently, Monitoring NDB(ADF) Nondirectional Beacon
becomes too low, the FCU automatically turns the FMGC data is retrieved correctly when the EFIS Electronic Flight Instrument (Automatic Direction Finder)
to Open Climb (OP CLB displayed on the FMA) flight is reloaded in the same conditions. System NM Nautical Miles
to prevent a low speed situation. When in EFOB Estimated Fuel On Board OVFY Overfly (Key on MCDU Keypad)
Open Climb, the aircraft will adjust the pitch Suggestion: ELAC Elevator and Aileron Computer PERF Performance (MCDU Page)
to maintain a correct and safe airspeed. In FS2004, a flight is automatically saved when ENG Engine PFD Primary Flight Display
you exit from FS (it is called 'Previous Flight'). ETD Estimated Time of Departure PPU Power Push Unit
When the aircraft was on the ground, I have You can configure FS2004 with this flight as the E/WD Engine/Warning Display PROG Progress (MCDU Page)
unintentionally pushed the thrust levers to default flight. Doing this, FS2004 always EXPED Expedite (FCU Key) QNH Barometric Pressure Reported By
the FLEX or TOGA detent, so the SRS and RWY restarts where it has previously stopped. In EXT PWR Enternal Power A Station
modes have engaged. How can I clear them? this case, the FMGC persistence works FAC Flight Augmentation Computer PSI Pounds Per Square Inch
You just have to pull the thrust levers back to perfectly. FADEC Full Authority Digital Engine PTU Power Transfer Unit
IDLE and reset the FCU by switching the FD off Control RAD/NV Radio/Navigation (MCDU Page)
and on. Real pilots often do this operation in I can not import the FS flight plan into the FCU Flight Control Unit RMP Radio Management Panel
the beginning of a flight to make sure no mode FMGC. FD Flight Director RTO Rejected Takeoff
is active. Make sure you have the FS flight plan loaded in FF Fuel Flow RWY Runway
memory. If it still doesn't work, look into your FL Flight Level SD System Display
All the systems are turned on, but the EFIS FS\Modules directory and check that FLX/MCT Flexible/Maximum Continuous SEC Spoiler and Elevator Computer
are still black. "gps_export.dll" (6144 bytes) is included. It is Thrust SID Standard Instrument Departure
This is just because the EFIS brightness is set to supplied by FS 2004 or X but some add-ons FMA Flight Mode Annunciator SRS System Reference System
0 (full dark) like when they are off. You just remove or replace it by an older one. FMGC Flight Management and Guidance STAR Standard Terminal Arrival

100 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. 101 Pour Flight Simulator uniquement. Ne peut être utilisé pour l'aviation réelle.
Airbus Series Vol.2 Airbus Series Vol.2


STDBY Standby (TCAS)

TA Traffic Advisory (TCAS)
TA/RA Traffic Advisory & Resolution
TAS True Airspeed
T/C Top of Climb
TCAS Traffic Alert and Collision
Avoidance System
T/D Top of Descent
TERR Terrain Proximity Alert (GPWS)
THR Thrust
THS Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer
TOGA Takeoff Go-Around
TOW Takeoff Weight
TRANS Transition
TRK Track
UTC Universal Coordinated Time
V1 Speed at which takeoff cannot be
V2 Minimum Takeoff Safety Speed
V/S Vertical Speed
Vfe Maximum Flap Extended Speed
VHF Very High Frequency
Vls Minimum Safe Speed
Vmax Maximum Operating Speed In
Current Conditions
Vmo/Mmo Maximum Operating Limit Speed
VOR Very High Frequency Omnirange
Vr Rotation Speed
XFR Transfer
ZFW Zero Fuel Weight
ZFWCG Zero Fuel Weight Centre of Gravity

102 For Microsoft Flight Simulator use only. Not for use in real aviation. (c) 2007 Wilco Publishing www.wilcopub.com - www.FeelThere.com 103