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INFLUENCE LINES Responses due to a moving unit load -- Quantities of interest at a particular point

within a given structure, e.g. internal forces, support reactions, deformations, displacements

PRELIMINARIES and rotations, due to an applied moving unit load. The quantities are given in terms of

functions of a position of a moving unit load on the structure; these response functions are

termed as the influence functions and their graphical representations are known as the

Moving loads -- Loads applied to a structure with points of application (including their

influence lines.

magnitude) can vary as a function of positions on the structure. Examples of moving loads

include live load on buildings, traffic or vehicle loads on bridges, loads induced by wind and

earthquake, etc. In the analysis, the moving loads can be modeled as varying distributed

loads, a series of concentrated loads, or the combination of distributed loads and Application of the influence functions (lines)

concentrated loads.

Let fA be a quantity of interest at a point A within a given structure due to applied distributed

load q and a series of concentrated loads {P1, P2, …, PN} and fAI denote the influence

function of the corresponding quantity at point A. By a method of superposition, we obtain the

relation of fA and fAI as

N

fA ³ fAI q dx ¦ fAI (x i )Pi

i 1

(1)

where the integral is to be taken over the region on which load q is applied and xi indicates

the location on which the load Pi is applied. For instance, assume that the influence line of

the support reaction at point A (RAI) of the beam is given as shown in the Figure 3a. The

support reaction at point A (RA) due to applied loads as shown in Figure 3b can then be

Figure 1

obtained using Eqn. (1) as follow:

L/2

A moving unit load -- a concentrated load of unit magnitude with its point of application q dx R AI (L/4 )P R AI (3L/4 )2P

varies as a function of position on the structure.

RA ³R

0

AI

§ L/2 ·

q ¨¨ ³1 - x/L dx ¸¸ 3/4 P 1/4 2P 3qL/8 5P/4

©0 ¹

1 P 2P

q

1 x

A B

RAI RA

L L/4 L/4 L/4 L/4

3/4

Figure 2 1-x/L 1/2

Area = 3L/8 1/4

RAI x RAI x

Responses due to moving loads -- Quantities of interest that indicate the effect of the 0 L L

moving loads on a structure, e.g. internal forces, support reactions, displacements and

rotations, deformations, etc. Figure 3a Figure 3b

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 3 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 4

In addition, the influence lines can also be used to predict the load pattern that maximizes INFLUENCE LINES FOR DETERMINATE BEAMS

responses at a particular point of the structure. For instance, let consider a two-span

continuous beam subjected to both dead load (fixed load) and live load (varying load) as

shown in the figure below.

1

x VCI Deformed state

MCI

Live load A Undeformed state

B D

GBI C

Dead load RAI

TBI RDI

A B

To determine the maximum positive bending moment at points A, the maximum negative ¾ Support reactions (e.g. RAI, RDI)

moment B, and the maximum positive shear at point A due to these applied dead and live

loads, we construct first the influence lines MAI, MBI, and VAI as shown below. ¾ Bending moment at a particular section (e.g. MCI)

¾ Shear force at a particular section (e.g. VCI)

1

x

¾ Deflection at a particular point (e.g. GBI)

A B ¾ Rotation at a particular point (e.g. TBI)

¾ Treat a structure subjected to a moving unit load (as function of positions)

MAI x

¾ Influence functions are obtained by considering all possible load locations

¾ Support reactions

¾ Internal forces

-- Method of sections

It is evident from the influence lines that the maximum positive bending moment at point A -- Displacement and rotations are obtained from

occurs when the live load is placed only on the first span; the maximum negative moment at

point B occurs when the live load is placed on both spans; and the maximum positive shear 9 Direct integration method

occurs when the live load is placed on the first half of the first span and on the second span.

The maximum value of the responses can then be obtained using Eqn.(1) for each 9 Moment area and conjugate structure methods

corresponding loading pattern. It is noted that the dead load is fixed and therefore it is

applied to both spans of the beam for all cases. 9 Energy methods, etc.

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 5 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 6

Example1: Construct influence lines RAI, RBI, VCI, MCI, GCI, TCI of a simply supported beam Influence lines for shear and bending moment VCI, MCI

A C B

EI

1 1

L/3 2L/3 x L/3 x L/3 VCI

A B A C

C

Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below. RAI RBI RAI MCI

1

x

> 6FY 0 @ + R AI 1 VCI 0

A B

C

x

L/3 2L/3 VCI R AI 1

L

> 6M C 0 @ + (R AI )(L/3) (1)(L/3 - x) MCI 0

1

x

(R AI 1)L 2x

A B MCI x

3 3

RAI RBI

1

L- x x L/3 VCI

R AI

L A B A C

C

RAI RBI RAI MCI

RBI

L

x

VCI R AI 1

1 L

RAI

0 L

x > 6M C 0 @ + (R AI )(L/3) MCI 0

1

R AI L L§ x·

RBI

MCI ¨1 ¸

3 3© L¹

x

0 L

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 7 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 8

1

2/3 The deflection GCI for x L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual

RAI system I and the virtual system I; i.e.

x

0 L

L

2/3 MGM

VCI GCI ³

0

EI

dx

x

0 L/3 L

-1/3

1 § L x ·§ L · ª 2 2L º 1 § L ·§ L · ª§ 2 x · 2L º

¨ ¸¨ ¸ « » ¨ x ¸¨ x ¸ «¨ ¸ »

2L/9 2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ ¬ 3 9 ¼ 2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ ¬© 3 L ¹ 9 ¼

MCI

1 § 2x ·§ 2L · ª 2 2L º

x ¨ ¸¨ ¸

0 L/3 L 2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ «¬ 3 9 »¼

81EI

5L2 9x 2

1 1

x L/3 x L/3

C C B

A B A The deflection GCI for x L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual

RAI RBI RAI RBI system II and the virtual system I; i.e.

L/3-x/3 2x/3

2x/3 L

L/3-x/3 MGM

BMD x BMD x

GCI ³

0

EI

dx

M M

x-L/3

L/3-x

1 § L x ·§ L · ª 2 2L º 1 § L ·§ L · ª§ 7 x · 2L º

¨ ¸¨ ¸ « ¨ x ¸¨ x ¸ «¨ ¸

Actual System I Actual System II »

2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ ¬ 3 9 ¼ 2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ ¬© 6 2L ¹ 9 »¼

1 § 2x ·§ 2L · ª 2 2L º

¨ ¸¨ ¸

1 2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ «¬ 3 9 »¼

1

A B A B

C C x-L 2

2/3 1/3 1/L 1/L

162EI

L 18Lx 9x 2

2L/9

1/3

BMD x BMD x

GM GM 4L3/243EI

-2/3 GCI

x

Virtual System I 0 L/3 L

Virtual System II

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 9 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 10

The rotation TCI for x L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual Example2: Construct influence lines RAI, MAI, VBI, MBI, GBI, TBI of a cantilever beam

system I and the virtual system II; i.e.

A B

L

MGM EI

TCI ³ EI

dx

0 L/2 L/2

1 § L x ·§ L · ª 2 1 º 1 § L ·§ L · ª§ 2 x · 1 º

¨ ¸¨ ¸ « » ¨ x ¸¨ x ¸ «¨ ¸ » Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below.

2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ ¬ 3 3 ¼ 2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ ¬© 3 L ¹ 3 ¼

x 1

1 § 2x ·§ 2L · ª 2 2 º

¨ ¸¨ ¸

2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ «¬ 3 3 »¼ A B

EI

x

18EIL

L2 3x 2 L/2 L/2

The rotation TCI for x L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual 1

system II and the virtual system I; i.e. x

A B

MAI

L

MGM RAI

TCI ³

0

EI

dx

> 6M A 0 @ + M AI (1)(x) 0

1 § L x ·§ L · ª 2 1 º 1 § L ·§ L ·ª § 7 x · 2 º

¨ ¸¨ ¸ « ¨ x ¸¨ x ¸ « ¨ ¸

»

2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ ¬ 3 3 ¼ 2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ ¬ © 6 2L ¹ 3 »¼

M AI x

1 § 2x ·§ 2L · ª 2 2 º

¨ ¸¨ ¸

2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ «¬ 3 3 »¼

> 6FY 0 @ + R AI 1 0

L- x 2

18EIL

L 6Lx 3x 2

R AI 1

0 L

x

0 L/3 L MAI

x

TCI -L

2

-4L /162EI 1 1

RAI

x

0 L

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 11 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 12

MAI 0 x

-L/2

1 1

x L/2 1 MBI VBI RAI x

0 L

A B

MAI

B 1 1

RAI

VBI x

0 L/2 L

0 L/2 L x

MBI

> 6FY 0 @ + VBI 0

-L/2

VBI 0

x L/2 1 x L/2 1

> 6M B 0 @ + M BI 0 MAI A B

MAI A B

RAI RAI

L/2 L/2

M BI 0

BMD BMD

M x M x

-x -x

L/2-x

-L/2

x L/2 1

MBIVBI

A A Actual System I Actual System II

MAI MAI B

B

RAI RAI

1

1

A B A

-L/2 1

> 6FY 0 @ + R AI VBI 0 1 0

B

1 1

VBI R AI 1 BMD BMD

x x

GM GM

-L/2+x

> 6M B 0 @ + (R AI )(L/2) M AI M BI 0 -L/2

R AI L § L·

M BI M AI ¨ x ¸

2 © 2 ¹ Virtual System I Virtual System II

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 13 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 14

The deflection GBI for x L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual The rotation TBI for x L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual

system I and the virtual system I; i.e. system I and the virtual system II; i.e.

L L

MGM MGM

G BI ³

0

EI

dx TCI ³

0

EI

dx

1 § L ·§ L · ª 1 L º 1 § L ·ª 1 L º 1 § L ·§ L · 1 §L·

¨ ¸¨ ¸ - x ¨ ¸ « ¨ ¸¨ ¸>1@ - x ¨ ¸>1@

2EI © 2 ¹© 2 ¹ «¬ 3 2 »¼ EI »

© 2 ¹¬ 2 2 ¼ 2EI © 2 ¹© 2 ¹ EI ©2¹

1 § L ·§ L · ª § 1 2x · L º 1 § L ·§ L ·

¨ x ¸¨ x ¸ « ¨ ¸ » ¨ x ¸¨ x ¸>1@

2EI © 2 ¹© 2 ¹ ¬ © 3 3L ¹ 2 ¼ 2EI © 2 ¹© 2 ¹

x2 x2

3L 2x

2EI

12EI

The deflection GBI for x L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual The rotation TBI for x L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual

system II and the virtual system I; i.e. system II and the virtual system I; i.e.

L L

MGM MGM

GCI ³ EI

dx TCI ³

0

EI

dx

0

1 § L ·§ L · ª 1 L º 1 § L ·ª 1 L º 1 § L ·§ L · 1 §L·

¨ ¸¨ ¸ « » - x ¨ ¸ « » ¨ ¸¨ ¸>1@ - x ¨ ¸>1@

2EI © 2 ¹© 2 ¹ ¬ 3 2 ¼ EI © 2 ¹¬ 2 2 ¼ 2EI © 2 ¹© 2 ¹ EI ©2¹

L2 L

6x L L 4x

48EI 8EI

5L3/48EI

0 L/2 L x

GBI 3

L /24EI TBI

-L2/8EI

x

0 L/2 L

-3L2/8EI

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 15 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 16

Example3: Construct influence lines RAI, MAI, RBI, VCI, VBLI, MBLI, VBRI, MBRI, VDI, and MDI of a From FBD I, we obtain

beam shown below

A D C B

R AI 1 RBI 1

L/2 L/2 L L

> 6M A 0 @ + - M AI (RBI )(2L) (1)(x) 0

Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below.

M AI 2RBI L x -x

x 1

A D C B

VCI

A C B B

MAI

C

Influence lines for reactions RAI, MAI, RBI and shear force VCI RAI RBI RBI

xL

VCI

A C B B

MAI

RAI RBI

C

RBI

> 6MC 0 @ + (RBI )(L) (1)(x L) 0

x

FBD I FBD II RBI 1

L

> 6FY 0 @ + VCI RBI 1 0

VCI 1 RBI 2

L

RBI 0

From FBD III, we obtain

VCI RBI 0 x

R AI 1 RBI 2

L

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 17 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 18

M AI 2RBI L - x x 2L

xL 1

MBLI VBLI

A C B B

MAI

RAI RBI RBI

L

MAI 0 L 2L

x

3L

-L > 6FY 0 @ + VBLI RBI 0

VBLI -RBI

> 6M B 0 @ + M BLI 0

1 1

2L 3L M BLI 0

RAI x

0 L

-1

x 2L 1 1

2 MBLIVBLI

1 A C B B

MAI

RBI x RAI RBI RBI

0 L 2L 3L

1

VCI 2L 3L VBLI 1 RBI

x

0 L

-1

> 6M B 0 @ + M BLI (1)(x 2L) 0

M BLI 2L x

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 19 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 20

2

1

x 2L 1 1

RBI MBRIVBRI

x A C

0 L 2L 3L MAI B

RAI RBI

0 L 2L 3L

VBLI x

0 L 2L 3L

MBLI x VBRI 1

-L

> 6M B 0 @ + M BRI (1)(x 2L) 0

M BRI 2L x

Influence lines for shear and bending moment VBRI, MBRI

xL 1

MBRI VBRI

A C 1 1

MAI B

2L

VBRI 0 0 L 2L 3L

MBRI x

-L

> 6M B 0 @ + M BRI 0

M BRI 0

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 21 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 22

Influence lines for shear and bending moment VDI, MDI > 6M B 0 @ + M DI (1)(x L/2) (RBI )(3L/2) 0

M DI 3LRBI /2 L/2 x

x L/21

A D C B 2

MAI 1

RAI RBI RBI x

0 L 2L 3L

MDI VDI

C B 1 1

D

RBI 3L

VDI 0 x

L/2 L 2L

> 6FY 0 @ + VDI RBI 0 -1

L/2

VDI -RBI 0 L/2 L 2L

MDI x

3L

-L/2

> 6M B 0 @ + M DI (RBI )(3L/2) 0

M DI 3LRBI /2

Remarks

x L/2 1

A D C 1. The influences lines of support reactions and internal forces (shear force and

MAI B

bending moment) for statically determinate beams are piecewise linear; i.e.

RAI RBI they consists of only straight line segments.

1 2. The influence functions of the internal forces can be obtained in terms of the

MDI VDI

C B influence functions of the support reactions; therefore, the influence lines of

internal forces can be readily obtained from those for support reactions.

D

RBI

3. The influence lines of the deflection and rotation at any points of the statically

determinate beam generally consist of curve segments.

VBLI 1 RBI

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 23 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 24

1. Remove the shear constraint by introducing a shear release at point of

Actual Structure. Consider a statically determinate beam subjected to a moving unit load interest

as shown in the figure below. 2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely)

3. Introduce unit relative virtual displacement between the two ends of

1 the shear release with their slope remaining the same (provided that

x the moment constraint exists at that point)

4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development

of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam.

Virtual Displacement -- The fictitious and arbitrary displacement that is introduced to the Virtual System 2a

structure. For use further below, the following three types of virtual displacement for the

beam structure are considered:

RELEASE shear constraint

¾ Virtual displacement due to release of a support constraint.

1. Release a support constraint in the direction of interest

2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely) 1

3. Introduce unit virtual displacement (or unit virtual rotation if the

rotational constraint is released) in the direction that the support Virtual System 2b

constraint is released.

4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development

of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam RELEASE shear constraint

1. Remove the moment constraint by introducing a hinge at point of interest

2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely)

Virtual System 1a 3. Introduce unit relative virtual rotation at the hinge without separation

(provided that the shear constraint exists at that point).

4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development

RELEASE displacement constraint of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam.

1

1

Virtual System 1b Virtual System 3a

1

Virtual System 1c

Virtual System 3b

1

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 25 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 26

Principle of Virtual Work: Consider a system or structure subjected to external applied Muller-Breslau Principle: “The influence line of a particular support reaction has an

loads. The support reactions and internal forces at any locations within the structure are identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the support constraint

in equilibrium with the applied loads if and only if the external virtual work (work done by in the direction of the support reaction (under consideration) and introducing a rigid body

the external applied loads) is the same as the internal virtual work (work done by the motion with unit displacement/unit rotation in the direction of the released constraint.”

internal forces) for all admissible virtual displacements, i.e.

Influence Line for Shear Force. Let assume that the influence line of the shear force at

point C, VCI, is to be determined. By applying the principle of virtual work to the actual

system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as indicated in the virtual system

įWE įWI (2) 2a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body motion of the beam resulting

from the release of the shear constraint at C) , we obtain

It is important to note that the portion of the structure that undergoes virtual rigid body įWE 1 įv ( x ) įv ( x ) ; įWI VCI 1 VCI

motion (virtual displacement that produces no deformation) produces zero internal virtual

work. įWE įWI

Influence Line for Support Reactions. To clearly illustrate the strategy, let assume that

the influence line of the support reaction RAI is to be determined. By applying the principle VCI įv ( x ) (4)

of virtual work to the actual system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as

indicated in the virtual system 1a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body

motion of the beam resulting from the release of the displacement constraint at A) , we

obtain

įWE R AI 1 1 įv ( x ) R AI įv ( x ) ; įWI 0 x 1

VCI

A MCI B

įWE įWI MAI Actual system

RAI C

R AI įv ( x ) (3) RBI

1

Gv(x)

x 1 Virtual System 2a

A B

MAI Actual system RELEASE shear constraint

RAI

RBI

1 1

VCI x

Gv(x)

Virtual System 1a

RELEASE displacement constraint Muller-Breslau Principle: “The influence line of the shear force at a particular point has an

identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the shear constraint at

1 that point and introducing a rigid body motion with unit relative virtual displacement

between the two ends of the shear release with their slope remaining the same.”

RAI x

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 27 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 28

Influence Line for Bending Moment. Let assume that the influence line of the bending Example4: Use Muller-Breslau principle to construct influence lines RAI, RDI, RFI, VBI, VCLI,

at point C, MCI, is to be determined. By applying the principle of virtual work to the actual VCRI, VDLI, VDRI,VEI, MBI, MDI, and MEI of a statically determinate beam shown below

system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as indicated in the virtual system

3a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body motion of the beam resulting

from the release of the bending moment constraint at C) , we obtain C

A B D E F

L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

įWE įWI

Solution The influence line of the support reaction RDI is obtained as follow: 1) release the

MCI įv ( x ) (5) displacement constraint at point D, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit

displacement at point D, and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of RDI.

x 1

A B C E F

VCI

A MCI B D

MAI Actual system

RELEASE displacement

RAI C constraint

RBI

1 L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

Gv(x)

Virtual System 3a

h2=3/2

1

RELEASE moment constraint h1=3/4

h3=1/2

RDI x

1

The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,

MCI 1 for instance,

x

Muller-Breslau Principle: “The influence line of the shear force at a particular point has an

identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the shear constraint at h3 (1)(L/2 ) /(L) 1/2

that point and introducing a rigid body motion with unit relative virtual displacement

between the two ends of the shear release with their slope remaining the same.”

h1 (3/2 )(L/4 ) /(L/2 ) 3/4

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 29 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 30

The influence line of the shear force VEI is obtained as follow: 1) release the shear constraint The influence line of the bending moment MEI is obtained as follow: 1) release the bending

at point E, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit relative displacement at point E moment constraint at point E, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit relative rotation

and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of VEI. at point E without separation and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of

MEI.

1 1

B C E

A D F

A B C D E F

RELEASE shear

constraint RELEASE moment

constraint

L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

h2=1/2 h4=1/2

h1=1/4 h3=L/4

1 1

VEI x

MEI x

h3=-1/2 h1=-L/8

h2=-L/4

The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,

for instance, The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,

for instance,

h3 /(L / 2 ) h3 /(L / 2 ) 1 h3 L/4

h4 h3 1 h4 (h4 ) 2h4 1 h4 1/2

h2 (h3 )(L/2 ) /(L/2 ) L/4

h3 h4 1/2

h1 (h2 )(L/4 ) /(L/2 ) L/8

h2 (h3 )(L/2 ) /(L/2 ) 1/2

The rest of the influence lines can be determined in the same manner and results are given

h1 (h2 )(L/4 ) /(L/2 ) 1/4 below.

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 31 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 32

x 1

A B D E F Example5: Use Muller-Breslau principle to construct influence lines RAI, MAI, RDI, VBI, VCI,

VDI,VELI,VERI, MBI, MDI, and MEI of a statically determinate beam shown below.

C

A B D E F

1

1/2

L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

RAI x

1 Solution By Muller-Breslau principle, we obtain the influence lines as follow: 1) release the

1/2 constraint associated with the quantity of interest, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose

unit virtual displacement/rotation in the direction of released constraint, and 4) the resulting

RFI x virtual displacement is the influence line to be determined. It is noted that values at points on

1/4 the influence line can be readily determined from the geometry.

1/2

1/2 1

x

VBI x C

A B D E F

-1/2

-1/2 1 1 1

-1 1/2

VCRI x RAI x

-1/2 -1/2

-1 L/2

L/4 L/4

VDLI x

MAI x

-1/2

-L/4

-1 -1

3/2

1 1

1/2 1/2

1/4

VDRI x REI x

1 1

L/8 1/2

MBI x VBI x

1 -1/2

L/4 1/2

L/8

VCI x

MDI x

-1/2

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 33 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 34

Example6: Use Muller-Breslau principle to construct influence lines RAI, MAI, RDI, RFI, VBI,

1 VCI, VDLI, VDRI,VEI, MBI, and MDI of a statically determinate beam shown below.

x

A B C D E F

A B C D E F

L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

1/2

VDI x Solution By Muller-Breslau principle, we obtain the influence lines as follow: 1) release the

constraint associated with the quantity of interest, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose

-1/2 -1/2 unit virtual displacement/rotation in the direction of released constraint, and 4) the resulting

virtual displacement is the influence line to be determined. It is noted that values at points on

VELI x the influence line can be readily determined from the geometry.

-1/2

-1/2 x 1

-1

A B C D E F

1 1

VERI x

L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

1 1 1

L/8

MBI x RAI x

-L/8 L/2

-L/4 -1

L/4

L/4 MAI x

MDI x

-L/2

-L/4 2

1

REI

MEI x x

-L/2 1

REI

x

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 35

x 1

A B C D E F

1 1

VBI x

1

-1

VCI x

-1

VDLI x

-1 -1

1 1

VDRI x

1

VEI x

L/4

MBI x

-L/4

MBI

-L/2

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