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# 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line

## Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 1 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 2

INFLUENCE LINES Responses due to a moving unit load -- Quantities of interest at a particular point
within a given structure, e.g. internal forces, support reactions, deformations, displacements
PRELIMINARIES and rotations, due to an applied moving unit load. The quantities are given in terms of
functions of a position of a moving unit load on the structure; these response functions are
termed as the influence functions and their graphical representations are known as the
Moving loads -- Loads applied to a structure with points of application (including their
influence lines.
magnitude) can vary as a function of positions on the structure. Examples of moving loads
earthquake, etc. In the analysis, the moving loads can be modeled as varying distributed
loads, a series of concentrated loads, or the combination of distributed loads and Application of the influence functions (lines)
Let fA be a quantity of interest at a point A within a given structure due to applied distributed
load q and a series of concentrated loads {P1, P2, …, PN} and fAI denote the influence
function of the corresponding quantity at point A. By a method of superposition, we obtain the
relation of fA and fAI as

N
fA ³ fAI q dx  ¦ fAI (x i )Pi
i 1
(1)

where the integral is to be taken over the region on which load q is applied and xi indicates
the location on which the load Pi is applied. For instance, assume that the influence line of
the support reaction at point A (RAI) of the beam is given as shown in the Figure 3a. The
support reaction at point A (RA) due to applied loads as shown in Figure 3b can then be
Figure 1
obtained using Eqn. (1) as follow:

L/2
A moving unit load -- a concentrated load of unit magnitude with its point of application q dx  R AI (L/4 )P  R AI (3L/4 )2P
varies as a function of position on the structure.
RA ³R
0
AI

§ L/2 ·
q ¨¨ ³1 - x/L dx ¸¸  3/4 P  1/4 2P 3qL/8  5P/4
1 P 2P
q
1 x
A B

RAI RA
L L/4 L/4 L/4 L/4

3/4
Figure 2 1-x/L 1/2
Area = 3L/8 1/4
RAI x RAI x
Responses due to moving loads -- Quantities of interest that indicate the effect of the 0 L L
moving loads on a structure, e.g. internal forces, support reactions, displacements and
rotations, deformations, etc. Figure 3a Figure 3b
2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 3 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 4

In addition, the influence lines can also be used to predict the load pattern that maximizes INFLUENCE LINES FOR DETERMINATE BEAMS
responses at a particular point of the structure. For instance, let consider a two-span
shown in the figure below.
1
x VCI Deformed state
MCI
B D
GBI C
TBI RDI
A B

To determine the maximum positive bending moment at points A, the maximum negative ¾ Support reactions (e.g. RAI, RDI)
moment B, and the maximum positive shear at point A due to these applied dead and live
loads, we construct first the influence lines MAI, MBI, and VAI as shown below. ¾ Bending moment at a particular section (e.g. MCI)
¾ Shear force at a particular section (e.g. VCI)
1
x
¾ Deflection at a particular point (e.g. GBI)
A B ¾ Rotation at a particular point (e.g. TBI)

## Direct Methods for Constructing Influence Lines

¾ Treat a structure subjected to a moving unit load (as function of positions)
MAI x
¾ Influence functions are obtained by considering all possible load locations

¾ Support reactions

## MBI x -- Equilibrium equations of the entire structure

¾ Internal forces

-- Method of sections

## -- Determining support reactions and internal forces from equilibrium

It is evident from the influence lines that the maximum positive bending moment at point A -- Displacement and rotations are obtained from
occurs when the live load is placed only on the first span; the maximum negative moment at
point B occurs when the live load is placed on both spans; and the maximum positive shear 9 Direct integration method
occurs when the live load is placed on the first half of the first span and on the second span.
The maximum value of the responses can then be obtained using Eqn.(1) for each 9 Moment area and conjugate structure methods
applied to both spans of the beam for all cases. 9 Energy methods, etc.
2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 5 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 6

Example1: Construct influence lines RAI, RBI, VCI, MCI, GCI, TCI of a simply supported beam Influence lines for shear and bending moment VCI, MCI

A C B
EI
1 1
L/3 2L/3 x  L/3 x  L/3 VCI
A B A C
C
Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below. RAI RBI RAI MCI

1
x
> 6FY 0 @ + R AI 1  VCI 0
A B
C
x
L/3 2L/3 VCI R AI 1 
L

## Influence lines for reactions RAI, RBI

> 6M C 0 @ +  (R AI )(L/3)  (1)(L/3 - x)  MCI 0
1
x
(R AI 1)L 2x
A B MCI x
3 3
RAI RBI

1
L- x x  L/3 VCI
R AI
L A B A C
C
RAI RBI RAI MCI

## x > 6FY 0 @ + R AI  VCI 0

RBI
L
x
VCI R AI 1
1 L

RAI

0 L
x > 6M C 0 @ +  (R AI )(L/3)  MCI 0
1
R AI L L§ x·
RBI
MCI ¨1  ¸
x
0 L
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1
2/3 The deflection GCI for x  L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
RAI system I and the virtual system I; i.e.
x
0 L
L
2/3 MGM
VCI GCI ³
0
EI
dx
x
0 L/3 L
-1/3
1 § L  x ·§ L · ª 2 2L º 1 § L ·§ L · ª§ 2 x · 2L º
¨ ¸¨ ¸ « »  ¨ x  ¸¨  x ¸ «¨  ¸ »
MCI
1 § 2x ·§ 2L · ª 2 2L º
x  ¨ ¸¨ ¸
0 L/3 L 2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ «¬ 3 9 »¼

## Influence lines for deflection and rotation GCI, TCI x

81EI

5L2  9x 2
1 1
x  L/3 x  L/3
C C B
A B A The deflection GCI for x  L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
RAI RBI RAI RBI system II and the virtual system I; i.e.

L/3-x/3 2x/3
2x/3 L
L/3-x/3 MGM
BMD x BMD x
GCI ³
0
EI
dx
M M
x-L/3
L/3-x
1 § L  x ·§ L · ª 2 2L º 1 § L ·§ L · ª§ 7 x · 2L º
¨ ¸¨ ¸ «  ¨  x ¸¨ x  ¸ «¨  ¸
Actual System I Actual System II »

1 § 2x ·§ 2L · ª 2 2L º
 ¨ ¸¨ ¸
1
A B A B
C C x-L 2
2/3 1/3 1/L 1/L
162EI

L 18Lx  9x 2
2L/9

1/3
BMD x BMD x
GM GM 4L3/243EI

-2/3 GCI
x
Virtual System I 0 L/3 L
Virtual System II
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Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 9 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 10

The rotation TCI for x  L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual Example2: Construct influence lines RAI, MAI, VBI, MBI, GBI, TBI of a cantilever beam
system I and the virtual system II; i.e.

A B
L
MGM EI
TCI ³ EI
dx
0 L/2 L/2

1 § L  x ·§ L · ª 2 1 º 1 § L ·§ L · ª§ 2 x · 1 º
¨ ¸¨ ¸ « »  ¨ x  ¸¨  x ¸ «¨  ¸ » Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below.

x 1
1 § 2x ·§ 2L · ª 2 2 º
 ¨ ¸¨ ¸ 
2EI © 3 ¹© 3 ¹ «¬ 3 3 »¼ A B
EI
x

18EIL

L2  3x 2 L/2 L/2

## Influence lines for reactions RAI, MAI

The rotation TCI for x  L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual 1
system II and the virtual system I; i.e. x
A B
MAI
L
MGM RAI
TCI ³
0
EI
dx

> 6M A 0 @ +  M AI  (1)(x) 0
1 § L  x ·§ L · ª 2 1 º 1 § L ·§ L ·ª § 7 x · 2 º
¨ ¸¨ ¸ «  ¨  x ¸¨ x  ¸ « ¨  ¸
»
M AI x
1 § 2x ·§ 2L · ª 2 2 º
 ¨ ¸¨ ¸ 
> 6FY 0 @ + R AI  1 0
L- x 2
18EIL

L  6Lx  3x 2
R AI 1

0 L
x
0 L/3 L MAI
x
TCI -L
2
-4L /162EI 1 1
RAI
x
0 L
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## Influence lines for shear and bending moment VCI, MCI L

MAI 0 x

-L/2

1 1
x  L/2 1 MBI VBI RAI x
0 L
A B
MAI
B 1 1
RAI
VBI x
0 L/2 L

0 L/2 L x
MBI
> 6FY 0 @ + VBI 0
-L/2

## Influence lines for deflection and rotation GBI, TBI

VBI 0

x  L/2 1 x  L/2 1
> 6M B 0 @ +  M BI 0 MAI A B
MAI A B
RAI RAI
L/2 L/2
M BI 0
BMD BMD
M x M x
-x -x
L/2-x
-L/2
x  L/2 1
MBIVBI
A A Actual System I Actual System II
MAI MAI B
B
RAI RAI
1
1
A B A
-L/2 1
> 6FY 0 @ + R AI  VBI 0 1 0
B

1 1
VBI R AI 1 BMD BMD
x x
GM GM
-L/2+x
> 6M B 0 @ +  (R AI )(L/2)  M AI  M BI 0 -L/2

R AI L § L·
M BI  M AI ¨ x  ¸
2 © 2 ¹ Virtual System I Virtual System II
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The deflection GBI for x  L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual The rotation TBI for x  L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system I and the virtual system I; i.e. system I and the virtual system II; i.e.

L L
MGM MGM
G BI ³
0
EI
dx TCI ³
0
EI
dx

1 § L ·§ L · ª 1 L º 1 § L ·ª 1 L º 1 § L ·§ L · 1 §L·
¨ ¸¨ ¸   - x ¨ ¸ « ¨ ¸¨ ¸>1@  - x ¨ ¸>1@
2EI © 2 ¹© 2 ¹ «¬ 3 2 »¼ EI »

1 § L ·§ L · ª § 1 2x · L º 1 § L ·§ L ·
 ¨   x ¸¨  x ¸ « ¨  ¸ »  ¨   x ¸¨  x ¸>1@

x2 x2
3L  2x 
2EI
12EI

The deflection GBI for x  L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual The rotation TBI for x  L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system II and the virtual system I; i.e. system II and the virtual system I; i.e.

L L
MGM MGM
GCI ³ EI
dx TCI ³
0
EI
dx
0

1 § L ·§ L · ª 1 L º 1 § L ·ª 1 L º 1 § L ·§ L · 1 §L·
¨ ¸¨ ¸ « »  - x ¨ ¸ « » ¨ ¸¨ ¸>1@  - x ¨ ¸>1@

L2 L
6x  L L  4x
48EI 8EI

5L3/48EI
0 L/2 L x

GBI 3
L /24EI TBI
-L2/8EI
x
0 L/2 L
-3L2/8EI
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Example3: Construct influence lines RAI, MAI, RBI, VCI, VBLI, MBLI, VBRI, MBRI, VDI, and MDI of a From FBD I, we obtain
beam shown below

## > 6FY 0 @ + R AI  RBI 1 0

A D C B
R AI 1  RBI 1
L/2 L/2 L L
> 6M A 0 @ + - M AI  (RBI )(2L)  (1)(x) 0
Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below.
M AI 2RBI L  x -x

x 1
A D C B

## L/2 L/2 L L xL 1 1

VCI
A C B B
MAI
C
Influence lines for reactions RAI, MAI, RBI and shear force VCI RAI RBI RBI

## 1 From FBD IV, we obtain

xL
VCI
A C B B
MAI
RAI RBI
C
RBI
> 6MC 0 @ + (RBI )(L)  (1)(x  L) 0

x
FBD I FBD II RBI 1
L

## From FBD II, we obtain

> 6FY 0 @ + VCI  RBI 1 0

## > 6MC 0 @ + (RBI )(L) 0 x

VCI 1  RBI 2
L
RBI 0
From FBD III, we obtain

## > 6FY 0 @ + VCI  RBI 0 > 6FY 0 @ + R AI  RBI 1 0

VCI RBI 0 x
R AI 1  RBI 2
L
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## > 6M A 0 @ + - M AI  (RBI )(2L)  (1)(x) 0

M AI 2RBI L - x x  2L
xL 1
MBLI VBLI
A C B B
MAI
RAI RBI RBI

L
MAI 0 L 2L
x
3L
-L > 6FY 0 @ + VBLI  RBI 0

VBLI -RBI

> 6M B 0 @ +  M BLI 0
1 1
2L 3L M BLI 0
RAI x
0 L
-1

x  2L 1 1
2 MBLIVBLI
1 A C B B
MAI
RBI x RAI RBI RBI
0 L 2L 3L

## > 6FY 0 @ + VBLI  RBI  1 0

1
VCI 2L 3L VBLI 1  RBI
x
0 L
-1
> 6M B 0 @ +  M BLI  (1)(x  2L) 0

M BLI 2L  x
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2
1
x  2L 1 1
RBI MBRIVBRI
x A C
0 L 2L 3L MAI B

RAI RBI

0 L 2L 3L
VBLI x

## -1 -1 > 6FY 0 @ + VBRI 1 0

0 L 2L 3L
MBLI x VBRI 1
-L
> 6M B 0 @ +  M BRI  (1)(x  2L) 0

M BRI 2L  x
Influence lines for shear and bending moment VBRI, MBRI

xL 1
MBRI VBRI
A C 1 1
MAI B

2L

## > 6FY 0 @ + VBRI 0

VBRI 0 0 L 2L 3L
MBRI x

-L
> 6M B 0 @ +  M BRI 0

M BRI 0
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Influence lines for shear and bending moment VDI, MDI > 6M B 0 @ +  M DI  (1)(x  L/2)  (RBI )(3L/2) 0

M DI 3LRBI /2  L/2  x

x  L/21
A D C B 2
MAI 1
RAI RBI RBI x
0 L 2L 3L
MDI VDI
C B 1 1
D
RBI 3L
VDI 0 x
L/2 L 2L
> 6FY 0 @ + VDI  RBI 0 -1

L/2
VDI -RBI 0 L/2 L 2L
MDI x
3L
-L/2
> 6M B 0 @ +  M DI  (RBI )(3L/2) 0

M DI 3LRBI /2

Remarks
x  L/2 1
A D C 1. The influences lines of support reactions and internal forces (shear force and
MAI B
bending moment) for statically determinate beams are piecewise linear; i.e.
RAI RBI they consists of only straight line segments.

1 2. The influence functions of the internal forces can be obtained in terms of the
MDI VDI
C B influence functions of the support reactions; therefore, the influence lines of
internal forces can be readily obtained from those for support reactions.
D
RBI
3. The influence lines of the deflection and rotation at any points of the statically
determinate beam generally consist of curve segments.

## > 6FY 0 @ + VDI  RBI 1 0

VBLI 1  RBI
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Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 23 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 24

## Muller-Breslau Principle ¾ Virtual displacement due to release of shear constraint.

1. Remove the shear constraint by introducing a shear release at point of
Actual Structure. Consider a statically determinate beam subjected to a moving unit load interest
as shown in the figure below. 2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely)
3. Introduce unit relative virtual displacement between the two ends of
1 the shear release with their slope remaining the same (provided that
x the moment constraint exists at that point)
4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development
of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam.

Virtual Displacement -- The fictitious and arbitrary displacement that is introduced to the Virtual System 2a
structure. For use further below, the following three types of virtual displacement for the
beam structure are considered:
RELEASE shear constraint
¾ Virtual displacement due to release of a support constraint.
1. Release a support constraint in the direction of interest
2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely) 1
3. Introduce unit virtual displacement (or unit virtual rotation if the
rotational constraint is released) in the direction that the support Virtual System 2b
constraint is released.
4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development
of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam RELEASE shear constraint

## 1 ¾ Virtual displacement due to release of bending moment constraint.

1. Remove the moment constraint by introducing a hinge at point of interest
2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely)
Virtual System 1a 3. Introduce unit relative virtual rotation at the hinge without separation
(provided that the shear constraint exists at that point).
4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development
RELEASE displacement constraint of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam.

1
1
Virtual System 1b Virtual System 3a

## RELEASE rotational constraint RELEASE moment constraint

1

Virtual System 1c
Virtual System 3b
1

## RELEASE displacement constraint RELEASE moment constraint

2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 25 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 26

Principle of Virtual Work: Consider a system or structure subjected to external applied Muller-Breslau Principle: “The influence line of a particular support reaction has an
loads. The support reactions and internal forces at any locations within the structure are identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the support constraint
in equilibrium with the applied loads if and only if the external virtual work (work done by in the direction of the support reaction (under consideration) and introducing a rigid body
the external applied loads) is the same as the internal virtual work (work done by the motion with unit displacement/unit rotation in the direction of the released constraint.”
internal forces) for all admissible virtual displacements, i.e.
Influence Line for Shear Force. Let assume that the influence line of the shear force at
point C, VCI, is to be determined. By applying the principle of virtual work to the actual
system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as indicated in the virtual system
įWE įWI (2) 2a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body motion of the beam resulting
from the release of the shear constraint at C) , we obtain

It is important to note that the portion of the structure that undergoes virtual rigid body įWE 1  įv ( x ) įv ( x ) ; įWI VCI 1 VCI
motion (virtual displacement that produces no deformation) produces zero internal virtual
work. įWE įWI
Influence Line for Support Reactions. To clearly illustrate the strategy, let assume that
the influence line of the support reaction RAI is to be determined. By applying the principle  VCI įv ( x ) (4)
of virtual work to the actual system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as
indicated in the virtual system 1a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body
motion of the beam resulting from the release of the displacement constraint at A) , we
obtain

įWE R AI 1  1  įv ( x ) R AI  įv ( x ) ; įWI 0 x 1
VCI
A MCI B
įWE įWI MAI Actual system
RAI C
 R AI įv ( x ) (3) RBI

1
Gv(x)
x 1 Virtual System 2a

A B
MAI Actual system RELEASE shear constraint
RAI
RBI
1 1
VCI x
Gv(x)
Virtual System 1a

RELEASE displacement constraint Muller-Breslau Principle: “The influence line of the shear force at a particular point has an
identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the shear constraint at
1 that point and introducing a rigid body motion with unit relative virtual displacement
between the two ends of the shear release with their slope remaining the same.”
RAI x
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Influence Line for Bending Moment. Let assume that the influence line of the bending Example4: Use Muller-Breslau principle to construct influence lines RAI, RDI, RFI, VBI, VCLI,
at point C, MCI, is to be determined. By applying the principle of virtual work to the actual VCRI, VDLI, VDRI,VEI, MBI, MDI, and MEI of a statically determinate beam shown below
system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as indicated in the virtual system
3a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body motion of the beam resulting
from the release of the bending moment constraint at C) , we obtain C
A B D E F

## įWE 1  įv ( x ) įv ( x ) ; įWI MCI 1 MCI

L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2
įWE įWI
Solution The influence line of the support reaction RDI is obtained as follow: 1) release the
 MCI įv ( x ) (5) displacement constraint at point D, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit
displacement at point D, and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of RDI.

x 1
A B C E F
VCI
A MCI B D
MAI Actual system
RELEASE displacement
RAI C constraint
RBI
1 L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2
Gv(x)
Virtual System 3a
h2=3/2
1
RELEASE moment constraint h1=3/4
h3=1/2
RDI x

1
The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,
MCI 1 for instance,
x

## h2 (1)(3L/2 ) /(L) 3/2

Muller-Breslau Principle: “The influence line of the shear force at a particular point has an
identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the shear constraint at h3 (1)(L/2 ) /(L) 1/2
that point and introducing a rigid body motion with unit relative virtual displacement
between the two ends of the shear release with their slope remaining the same.”
h1 (3/2 )(L/4 ) /(L/2 ) 3/4
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The influence line of the shear force VEI is obtained as follow: 1) release the shear constraint The influence line of the bending moment MEI is obtained as follow: 1) release the bending
at point E, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit relative displacement at point E moment constraint at point E, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit relative rotation
and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of VEI. at point E without separation and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of
MEI.

1 1
B C E
A D F
A B C D E F

RELEASE shear
constraint RELEASE moment
constraint
L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2
L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

h2=1/2 h4=1/2
h1=1/4 h3=L/4
1 1
VEI x
MEI x
h3=-1/2 h1=-L/8
h2=-L/4

The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,
for instance, The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,
for instance,

##  h3 /(L / 2 ) h4 /(L / 2 )  h3 h4

h3 /(L / 2 )  h3 /(L / 2 ) 1  h3 L/4
h4  h3 1  h4  (h4 ) 2h4 1  h4 1/2
h2 (h3 )(L/2 ) /(L/2 ) L/4
h3 h4 1/2
h1 (h2 )(L/4 ) /(L/2 ) L/8
h2 (h3 )(L/2 ) /(L/2 ) 1/2
The rest of the influence lines can be determined in the same manner and results are given
h1 (h2 )(L/4 ) /(L/2 ) 1/4 below.
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x 1
A B D E F Example5: Use Muller-Breslau principle to construct influence lines RAI, MAI, RDI, VBI, VCI,
VDI,VELI,VERI, MBI, MDI, and MEI of a statically determinate beam shown below.
C

## L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2 C

A B D E F

1
1/2
L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2
RAI x
1 Solution By Muller-Breslau principle, we obtain the influence lines as follow: 1) release the
1/2 constraint associated with the quantity of interest, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose
unit virtual displacement/rotation in the direction of released constraint, and 4) the resulting
RFI x virtual displacement is the influence line to be determined. It is noted that values at points on
1/4 the influence line can be readily determined from the geometry.
1/2
1/2 1
x
VBI x C
A B D E F
-1/2

## VCLI x L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

-1/2 1 1 1
-1 1/2
VCRI x RAI x
-1/2 -1/2
-1 L/2
L/4 L/4
VDLI x
MAI x
-1/2
-L/4
-1 -1
3/2
1 1
1/2 1/2
1/4
VDRI x REI x
1 1
L/8 1/2
MBI x VBI x
1 -1/2
L/4 1/2
L/8
VCI x
MDI x
-1/2
2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line 2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 33 Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 34

Example6: Use Muller-Breslau principle to construct influence lines RAI, MAI, RDI, RFI, VBI,
1 VCI, VDLI, VDRI,VEI, MBI, and MDI of a statically determinate beam shown below.
x
A B C D E F
A B C D E F

## L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2

L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2
1/2
VDI x Solution By Muller-Breslau principle, we obtain the influence lines as follow: 1) release the
constraint associated with the quantity of interest, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose
-1/2 -1/2 unit virtual displacement/rotation in the direction of released constraint, and 4) the resulting
virtual displacement is the influence line to be determined. It is noted that values at points on
VELI x the influence line can be readily determined from the geometry.
-1/2
-1/2 x 1
-1
A B C D E F
1 1

VERI x
L/4 L/4 L/2 L/2 L/2
1 1 1
L/8
MBI x RAI x
-L/8 L/2
-L/4 -1
L/4
L/4 MAI x

MDI x
-L/2

-L/4 2
1
REI
MEI x x

-L/2 1

REI
x
2101-301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 35

x 1

A B C D E F

1 1

VBI x

1
-1

VCI x

-1

VDLI x

-1 -1
1 1

VDRI x
1

VEI x

L/4

MBI x

-L/4

MBI

-L/2