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~ Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1. ~ Some contains sulpur & phosphorus. ~ Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is higher ~ Complex macromolecules which
~ Main source of energy. ~ Made up of monomers amino acids. than in carbs. store genetic info. in the form of a
~ Types of Carbs: ~ Amino acids are joined by a peptide bond to ~ Types if lipids:- code.
a) Monosaccharides form longer chains (polypeptides). a) Fats and Oils (Triglycerides) ~ Building blocks of nucleic acid is
- Simplest type of carbs (monomers). ~ Polypeptides can b broken down by hydrolysis. - Formed from glycerol and 3 molecules nucleotides.
- Simple sugars & reducing sugars. ~ Types of amino acids:- of fatty acids through condensation. ~ Each nucleotide has:
- Can be detected with Benedict solution. *essential: can’t b synthesised by body , only
- Can b broken down by hydrolysis. i. Nitrogenous base (rectangle)
Examples: obtained by diet. (leucine & animal proteins)
- Types of fats:- ii. Pentose sugar (pentagon)
Glucose Found in plants & animals. *non-essential: can b synthesised by body. (plant
i. Saturated iii. Phosphate group (circle)
Fructose Found in fruits & honey. proteins)
Galactose Present in milk. ii. Unsaturated
~ Grouped into 4 levels of organisation:
~ Types of nucleic acid:-
b) Disaccharides
b) Waxes a) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
- Formed when 2 monosaccharides combine a) Primary Structure
- Found on cuticles of epidermis of - A double stranded polynucleotide
by condensation. - Linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide
leaves, fruits and seeds. twisted to form a double helix.
- Can b broken down into their constituent chain.
- Waterproof, prevents entry of - Mostly found in nucleus but can also
monomers by hydrolysis (addition of water b) Secondary Structure
microorganisms and evaporation of b found in chloroplast &
using acid or enzymes). - The polypeptide chain coiled to form an alpha-
helix or folded into beta-pleated sheets. water. mitochondria.
- Non-reducing sugar
c) Tertiary Structure c) Phospholipids - Contains genetic info.
Example: maltose & glucose.
- Refers to the way the helix or sheet are folded - Component of plasma membrane.

c) Polysaccharides into a 3D shape of polypeptide. d) Steroids b) Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

- Formed then 2 or more monosaccharides - Examples of tertiary structured proteins are - Includes cholesterols and hormones - Found in cytoplasm, ribosomes and
combine through condensation. enzymes, hormones & plasma proteins. (oestrogen & progesterone). nucleus.
- Polymers formed by condensation of d) Quaternary Structure - Copies info. carried by DNA for use
glucose molecules - Combination of 2 or more tertiary structured in protein synthesis.
- Insoluble in water, not sweet, doesn’t polypeptide chains to form a large and complex
crystalise. protein molecule.
- Can b broken down by hydrolysis. - Example: Haemoglobin