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Manual de Formação

UFCD 0628 - Língua inglesa –


técnicas de escrita

Formadora: Luciana Pinto


2. FICHA TÉCNICA

Objetivos e Condições de Utilização do manual

O formando deverá complementar os conhecimentos adquiridos e retidos durante a sessão


com a leitura do presente Manual. Este contém todos os temas abordados durante o curso,
devendo ser um suporte ao estudo a desenvolver pelo formando, bem como um reforço
aos conhecimentos adquiridos durante a sessão.
A leitura do Manual não invalida que o formando não aprofunde os seus conhecimentos,
através da consulta da bibliografia recomendada ou de outros que julgue convenientes.

Objetivos:

• Aplicar as técnicas de elaboração de documentos comerciais à língua inglesa.

Conteúdos
________________________________________
• Documentos comerciais em língua inglesa:

 Documentos comerciais e contabilísticos

 Documentos bancários

 Frases comerciais tipo


3. ÍNDICE

Objetivos e conteúdos ....................................................................................................... ......................... 2


Revisions .......................................................................................................................................................... 4
Formal letters .............................................................................................................. ................................. 9
Sales Letters ................................................................................................................................................... 11
Style in Business Correspondence........................................................................................................ 16
Sample claim letter ..................................................................................................................................... 17
Introductory Sales Letter.......................................................................................................................... 23
How to write a cover letter ..................................................................................................................... 24
Formal widely used abbreviations....................................................................................................... 27
Telephone conversation ........................................................................................................................... 30
Telephone language ................................................................................................................................... 31
Email correspondence ............................................................................................................................. . 34
Organic company structure .................................................................................................................... 36

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................. 39
4. MANUAL

Portuguese English

Adeus! Goodbye! Bye! Bye, bye!


Alguém me pode emprestar uma caneta / um lápis? Can someone lend me a pen / a pencil?
Boa noite! Good evening!
Boa noite! (na hora de ir deitar) Good night!
Boa tarde! Good afternoon!
Bom dia! Good morning!
Como está(s) / estão hoje? How are you today?
Esta frase está correcta? Is this sentence right?
Esteja / está quieto /silencioso! Be quiet!
Estou bem. I’m fine!
Estou doente. I’m sick.
Estou muito bem. I’m very well.
Eu não entendo!  I don’t understand! 
Faltei na última aula. I was absent last lesson.
Isto está correcto? Is this right?
Não estou muito bem. I’m not very well.
Não faça(s) isso! Don’t do that!
Não, não pode(s). No, you may not.
O que é que fizemos a aula passada? What did we do last lesson?
O que faço agora? What can I do now?
Olá! Hello, Hi!
Ouçam-me! Ouve-me! Listen to me!
Peço desculpa por estar atrasado(a). I’m sorry I’m late.
Pode desviar-se, se faz favor? Can you step aside, please?
Pode falar mais devagar, se faz favor? Can you speak slower, please?
Pode repetir a palavra, se faz favor? Can you repeat the word, please?
Pode repetir? Can you repeat?
Posso apagar o quadro? May I clean the board?
Posso atender o telefone? May I answer the phone?
Posso entrar? May I come in?
Posso ir afiar o meu lápis? May I sharpen my pencil?
Posso ir ao sanitário (wc/casa-de-banho), se faz May I go to the toilet, please?
favor?
Posso ir lá fora um minuto? Can I go out for a minute?
Posso responder? May I answer?
Posso tentar? Can I try?
Posso trocar de lugar? Can I change places?
Prestem /presta atenção! Pay attention!
Sente-se! Senta-te! Sentem-se! Sit down!
Sim, pode(s). Yes, you may.
Tenho uma terrível dor de cabeça. I’ve got a terrible headache.
Vamos começar a aula. Let’s start the lesson.

The English Alphabet and spelling


Study this. Practise with your colleagues spelling your name, surname and other words. Try to
spell Portuguese words with accents as well.
 This is the English Alphabet.
 Read the sounds according to the information How do you spell
given. “Washington” in I think
English? spelling is
very hard!
Diacritical marks
accents
acute accent ( ´ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ` )
double grave accent ( ̏ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ^ )
diaeresis / umlaut ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe ( ’ )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( - )
tilde ( ~ )

To learn more:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C2%B4

Days of the week, months, the weather

Read and study the following vocabulary.


Days of the week
Portuguese Segunda-feira Terça-feira Quarta-feira Quinta-feira Sexta-feira Sábado Domingo

MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY


ENGLISH
(Inglês)

WEEK (Semana) DAY (Dia)


WEEKEND
(Fim de semana)

ENGLISH
JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE
(Inglês)

Portuguese Janeiro Fevereiro Março Abril Maio Junho


(Português)

ENGLISH
JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER
(Inglês)

Portuguese Julho Agosto Setembro Outubro Novembro Dezembro


(Português)
USEFUL VOCABULARY:
(Vocabulário útil)

Calendar – calendário Diary (false friend) – agenda


Month – mês Date – data (comparação com DATA = DADOS, também false
Year – ano friend)
Day – dia (on) Tuesday, the 2nd of June... – (na) Terça-feira, 2 de Junho…
Week – semana The first – dia um
Weekend – fim-de-semana The second – dia dois
The third – dia três

Temperature (temperatura): hot (quente/calor); warm (morno); cold (frio).

IN THE CLASSROOM:
(Na sala-de-aula)
 Wednesday, 21st April, 2004 – Quarta-feira, dia 21 de Abril de 2004.

 What is the weather like today? - Como está o tempo hoje?

 It is a sunny day and it is hot. – Está um dia solarengo e está calor.


Numbers and Mathematics

CARDINALS 101 – a hundred and one


1 – one 102 - a hundred and two
(…)
2 – two
154 – a hundred and fifty-four
3 – three (…)
4 – four 200 – two hundred
5 – five 201 – two hundred and one
6 – six 300 – three hundred
7 – seven
8 – eight ORDINALS
9 – nine 1st – first (st)
10 – ten 2nd – second (nd)
11 – eleven 3rd – third (rd)
12 – twelve 4th – fourth (th)
13 – thirteen 5th – fifth (th)
14 – fourteen 6th – sixth (th)
15 – fifteen 7th – seventh
16 – sixteen 8th – eighth
17 – seventeen 9th – ninth
18 – eighteen 10th – tenth
19 – nineteen 11th – eleventh
20 – twenty 12th – twelfth
21 – Twenty-one 13th – thirteenth
(…) 14th – fourteenth
30 – thirty 15th – fifteenth
31 – Thirty-one 16th – sixteenth
(…) 17th – seventeenth
40 – forty 18th – eighteenth
41 – forty-one 19th - nineteenth
(…) 20th – twentieth (th)
50 – fifty 21st – twenty-first
60 – sixty 22nd – twenty-second
70 – seventy 30th – thirtieth
80 – eighty
90 – ninety
100 – a hundred

Verbs To Be and To Have Got


Study the following information and solve the exercises.

1. VERB TO BE (ser ou estar)

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
Full form Short Translation Full form Short form Translation
(Forma longa) form (Tradução) (Forma longa) (Forma (Tradução)
(Forma abreviada)
abreviada)
I am I’m Eu sou /estou I am not I’m not Eu não sou/não
estou
You are You’re Tu és / estás You are not You aren’t Tu não és / não estás
He He’s Ele He He Ele
She is She’s Ela é / está She is not She isn’t Ela não é / não
está
It It’s O/A It It O/A
We We’re Nós somos/ estamos We We Nós não somos/não
estamos
You are You’re Vós sois / estais You are You aren’t Vós não sois / não
not estais
They They’re Eles são /estão They They Eles não são / não
estão

London is a
beautiful city.

2. VERB TO HAVE GOT (ter)


AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
Full form Short form Translation Full form Short form Translation
(Forma longa) (Forma (Tradução) (Forma longa) (Forma abreviada) (Tradução)
abreviada)
I have got I’ve got Eu tenho I have not got I haven’t got Eu não tenho
You have got You’ve got Tu tens You have not got You haven’t got Tu não tens
He He’s got Ele tem He He Ele não tem
She has got She’s got Ela tem She has not got She hasn’t got Ela não tem
It O/A tem It It O/A não tem
We We’ve got Nós temos We We Nós não temos
You have got You’ve got Vós tendes You have not You haven’t got Vós não tendes
got
They They’ve got Eles têm They They Eles não têm

1. According to the examples given, translate the sentences (Portuguese--» English), using the
verbs to be and to have got.

a) Ela é. She is.

b) Ela tem. She has got.

c) Eles têm. ____________________________________________________

d) Eu tenho. ___________________________________________________

e) Tu és. ______________________________________________________

f) Vós estais. ___________________________________________________

g) Ela está. _____________________________________________________

h) Nós temos. __________________________________________________


i) Ele está.

_____________________________________________________

Nationalities
Portuguese English Portuguese English

Alemão German Indiano Indian


Belga Belgian Inglês English
Brasileiro Brazilian Iraquiano Iraqi
Britânico British Irlandês Irish
Checo Czech Israelita Israeli
Chinês Chinese Italiano Italian
Dinamarquês Danish Japonês Japanese
Escocês Scotch, Scottish Jugoslavo Yugoslav
Espanhol Spanish Norueguês Norwegian
Finlandês Finnish Paquistanês Pakistani
Francês French Polaco Polish
Galês Welsh Português Portuguese
Grego Greek Russo Russian
Holandês Dutch Sueco Swedish
Húngaro Hungarian Suíço Swiss

Formal Letters
1. Sales Correspondence

Sales correspondence refers to sales-related communications. It is not limited to just


selling a product or service, but it also includes other activities relating to sales. Sales
correspondence include marketing letters, offer and discount letters, sales proposals,
invoices, statement of accounts, sales reports, order confirmation, purchase orders,
letters of authorization, collection letters, and such.

For the purpose of selling, it is important to know how to write quality sales letters to be
able to communicate effectively. Also, marketing and offer letters should reflect truthful
and non- misleading information. Other kinds of sales correspondence — such as
invoice, purchase orders, and collection letters — must contain accurate information.
What is a Sales Letter?

A sales letter is a letter written to publicise and ultimately sell a product or a service to the
consumers. It is a type of business letter; meant for generating business. It also has the
bearing of an Announcement Letter. A sales letter is also referred as Letter of Sale,
Marketing Sales Letter and Business Sales Letter. It is also known as direct mail as it is
being directly sent to the client. A definition of sales letter provides additional and
assisting information in understanding the one mentioned.

A sales letter is marketing tool that businesses use to promote their products, highlight
specials or remind customers about expiration dates on warranties or special services.
Sales letters can be highly effective in achieving a company's objective. They are often
used along with brochures in direct mail campaigns or on the Internet as one of the
introductory pages. There are several types of sales letters that are used in business
writing.

Introductory Sales Letter

An introductory sales letter is usually sent to introduce a consumer or business customer


to your company and products. In addition to apprising people of your existence, the
introductory sales letter explains how readers would benefit from purchasing your
products over other brands. Companies sometimes offer a trial period in an introductory
sales letter. The introductory sales letter should be limited to one page. It must grab
people's attention, build their interest and prompt their desire to visit the store to buy your
products.

Product Update Sales Letter

Product update sales letters apprise your old and existing customers of new products or
changes to existing ones. Many companies use comparative details to describe the
advantages of the new products over older ones. Additionally, a special promotion may
be included in the product update sales letter that gives the customer a limited period to
purchase newer products at a discount.

Selling Incentive Sales Letter

A selling incentive sales letter promotes existing products among current customers. You
will need to build a considerable degree of excitement when writing a selling incentive
sales letter, perhaps offering a discount, rebate or contest prize for a limited time.

Thank You Sales Letter

Every so often, it is important to thank your customers for their business. The thank you
sales letter should almost always mention how much you value your customers
for their patronage. Keep the thank you letter short, and briefly mention that your products
are always available when the customer needs them.

Holiday Celebration Sales Letter

The holiday celebration sales letter gives you a chance to offer your product as a
potential gift for your customers' family, friends or work associates. A holiday sales letter
could begin with, "We'd like to wish you a happy holiday season here at ABC Jewelry. We
just received a limited supply of tie clamps and bracelets with diamond studs that make
wonderful gifts for that special someone. Visit our store now while the supply lasts."

Invitation Sales Letter

If your company is celebrating an anniversary, write an invitation sales letter to your


customers. This letter should be designed to make your customers feel important and as
if they are part of your family. Briefly mention your products in the letter, and invite
customers to enjoy the celebration. You may want to decorate your business
establishment or offer free refreshments for the occasion.

Lost Customer Sales Letter

The lost customer sales letter is designed for customers who have not purchased
products or have canceled their service. You should state that you miss these customers
and apprise them of any new products or specials.

Sales Letter Definition

Direct mail meant to generate sale of an item or service through tactful writing meant to
arouse and initiate a purchase.

The definition sums up all about sales letter. But how is it created? and what to write and
what not to write?

To begin with, sales letter is a marketing strategy often employed by businesses that do
not have the budget to advertise their product / service through television or other means.
They are also used by certain organisations whose mode of operation is specifically
through mail order only. A certain number of companies use these to inform their loyal
customers about special offers and discounts. While most firms use ordinary mail to
communicate, many use electronic mail. A sales paper mail is different from electronic
one both in presentation and format. The latter one will be more graphical and the former
one will be more textual. There is, however no hard and fast rule and one can stick to a
certain format which works best for the business. But that format should always contain
Four Essentials to make a sales letter work.

Sales Letters That Work

AIDA is the most commonly used technique to write a sales letter that will always work.

A I D A
Attention Interest Desire Action

Attention – First and foremost step is to attract attention towards your product or service.
An appropriate Headline does that to full effect. It is the initial and the first things that can
guarantee a sale, like they say ‘First impression is the last impression’.

Interest – The second important incumbent of a sales letter is to generate interest. Once
the reader has got the attention, it is time to generate and hold their interest. Providing
relative information with a sustained flow generates enough interest.

Desire – Desire, the third essential feature is initiated by providing real life and practical
examples. Showing the benefits through a simple language does create a desire.

Action – The first three features are meant to lead to a final call for action. Sometimes,
that is not enough and you need persuasion to generate a successful sale. In this case, it
also becomes your (sender’s) call of action as you have to persuade a prospective
customer into an actual buyer.

Common Components of Business Letters

The following is concerned with the mechanical and physical details of business letters.
All of the components discussed in the following are illustrated in the following:
Heading - The heading contains the writer's address and the date of the letter. The writer's
name is not included; only a date is needed in headings on letterhead stationery. Remember
that if you use letterhead stationery in which the first page contains a fancy masthead and logo,
don't use that type of page on following pages. Use the following-page stationery that comes
with the logo-page stationery. Consider these two examples:

Inside address - The inside address shows the name and address of the recipient of the letter.
This information can help prevent confusion at the recipient's offices. Also, if the recipient has
moved, the inside address helps to determine what to do with the letter. In the inside address,
include the appropriate title of respect of the recipient; and copy the name of the company
exactly as that company writes it. When you do have the names of individuals, remember to
address them appropriately: Mrs., Ms., Mr., Dr., and so on. If you are not sure what is correct for
an individual, try to find out how that individual signs letters or consult the forms-of-address
section in a dictionary.

Salutation - The salutation directly addresses the recipient of the letter and is followed by a
colon (except when a friendly, familiar, sociable tone is intended, in which case a comma is
used). Notice that in the simplified letter format, the salutation line is eliminated altogether. If
you don't know whether the recipient is a man or woman, the traditional practice has been to
write "Dear Sir" or "Dear Sirs"—but that's sexist! To avoid this problem, salutations such as
"Dear Sir or Madame," "Dear Ladies and Gentlemen," "Dear Friends," or "Dear People" have
been tried—but without much general acceptance. Deleting the salutation line altogether or
inserting "To Whom It May Concern" in its place, is not ordinarily a good solution either—it's
impersonal.
The best solution is to make a quick, anonymous phone call to the organization and ask for a
name; Or, address the salutation to a department name, committee name, or a position name:
"Dear Personnel Department," "Dear Recruitment Committee," "Dear Chairperson," "Dear
Director of Financial Aid," for example.

Block letter format


Subject or reference line - As shown in the order letter, the subject line replaces the salutation
or is included with it. The subject line announces the main business of the letter.

Body of the letter - The actual message of course is contained in the body of the letter, the
paragraphs between the salutation and the complimentary close. Strategies for writing the body
of the letter are discussed in the section on business-correspondence style.

Complimentary close - The "Sincerely yours" element of the business letter is called the
complimentary close. Other common ones are "Sincerely yours," "Cordially," "Respectfully," or
"Respectfully yours." You can design your own, but be careful not to create florid or wordy ones.
Notice that only the first letter is capitalized, and it is always followed by a comma.

Signature block - Usually, you type your name four lines below the complimentary close, and
sign your name in between. If you are a woman and want to make your marital status clear, use
Miss, Ms., or Mrs. in parentheses before the typed version of your first name. Whenever
possible, include your title or the name of the position you hold just below your name. For
example, "Technical writing student," "Sophomore data processing major," or "Tarrant County
Community College Student" are perfectly acceptable.

End notations - Just below the signature block are often several abbreviations or phrases that
have important functions.

Initials - The initials in all capital letters in the preceding figures are those of the writer of the
letter, and the ones in lower case letters just after the colon are those of the typist.

Enclosures- To make sure that the recipient knows that items accompany the letter in the
same envelope, use such indications as "Enclosure," "Encl.," "Enclosures (2)." For example, if
you send a resume and writing sample with your application letter, you'd do this: "Encl.: Resume
and Writing Sample." If the enclosure is lost, the recipient will know.

Copies - If you send copies of a letter to others, indicate this fact among the end notations
also. If, for example, you were upset by a local merchant's handling of your repair problems and
were sending a copy of your letter to the Better Business Bureau, you'd write this: "cc: Better
Business Bureau." If you plan to send a copy to your lawyer, write something like this: "cc: Mr.
Raymond Mason, Attorney."

Following pages - If your letter is longer than one page, the heading at the top of subsequent
pages can be handled in one of the following ways:
Examples of following-page header format.

If you use letterhead stationery, remember not to use it for subsequent pages. However, you
must use blank paper of the same quality, weight, and texture as the letterhead paper (usually,
letterhead stationery comes with matching blank paper).

Style in Business Correspondence

Writing business letters and memos differs in certain important ways from writing reports. Keep
the following advice in mind when you write and especially when you revise your business
letters or memos.

State the main business, purpose, or subject matter right away. Let the reader know from
the very first sentence what your letter is about. Remember that when business people open a
letter, their first concern is to know what the letter is about, what its purpose is, and why they
must spend their time reading it. Therefore, avoid round-about beginnings. If you are writing to
apply for a job, begin with something like this: "I am writing to apply for the position you currently
have open...." If you have bad news for someone, you need not spill all of it in the first sentence.
Here is an example of how to avoid negative phrasing: "I am writing in response to your letter of
July 24, 1997 in which you discuss problems you have had with an electronic spreadsheet
purchased from our company." The following shows an additional example.
State the main purpose or business of the letter right away. The problem version just starts
flailing away from the very outset. The revised version at least establishes the purpose of the
letter (and then starts flailing). If you are responding to a letter, identify that letter by its subject
and date in the first paragraph or sentence. Busy recipients who write many letters themselves
may not remember their letters to you. To avoid problems, identify the date and subject of the
letter to which you respond:

Dear Mr. Stout:

I am writing in response to your September 1, 20XX letter in which you describe problems
that you've had with one of our chainsaws. I regret that you've suffered this inconvenience
and expense and....

Dear Mr. Cohen:

I have just received your August 4, 20XX letter in which you list names and other sources
from which I can get additional information on the manufacture and use of plastic bottles
in the soft-drink industry....
Keep the paragraphs of most business letters short. The paragraphs of business letters
tend to be short, some only a sentence long. Business letters are not read the same way as
articles, reports, or books. Usually, they are read rapidly. Big, thick, dense paragraphs over ten
lines, which require much concentration, may not be read carefully—or read at all.

To enable the recipient to read your letters more rapidly and to comprehend and remember the
important facts or ideas, create relatively short paragraphs of between three and eight lines
long. In business letters, paragraphs that are made up of only a single sentence are common
and perfectly acceptable. Throughout this chapter, you'll see examples of the shorter
paragraphs commonly used by business letters.

"Compartmentalize" the contents of your letter. When you "compartmentalize" the contents
of a business letter, you place each different segment of the discussion—each different topic of
the letter—in its own paragraph. If you were writing a complaint letter concerning problems with
the system unit of your personal computer, you might have these paragraphs:

 A description of the problems you've had with it


 The ineffective repair jobs you've had
 The compensation you think you deserve and why

Study each paragraph of your letters for its purpose, content, or function. When you locate a
paragraph that does more than one thing, consider splitting it into two paragraphs. If you
discover two short separate paragraphs that do the same thing, consider joining them into one.

Provide topic indicators at the beginning of paragraphs. Analyze some of the letters you
see in this chapter in terms of the contents or purpose of their individual paragraphs. In the first
sentence of any body paragraph of a business letter, try to locate a word or phrase that
indicates the topic of that paragraph. If a paragraph discusses your problems with a personal
computer, work the word "problems" or the phrase "problems with my personal computer" into
the first sentence. Doing this gives recipients a clear sense of the content and purpose of each
paragraph. Here is an excerpt before and after topic indicators have been incorporated:

Problem:
I have worked as an electrician in the Decatur, Illinois, area for about six years. Since 1990 I
have been licensed by the city of Decatur as an electrical contractor qualified to undertake
commercial and industrial work as well as residential work.

Revision:
As for my work experience, I have worked as an electrician in the Decatur, Illinois, area for
about six years. Since 1980 I have been licensed by the city of Decatur as an electrical
contractor qualified to undertake commercial and industrial work as well as residential
work.(Italics not in the original.)
List or itemize whenever possible in a business letter. Listing spreads out the text of the
letter, making it easier to pick up the important points rapidly. Lists can be handled in several
ways, as explained in the chapter on lists. For examples of lists in business correspondence,
see the block-letter format in the preceding, the inquiry letter, and order letter.

Place important information strategically in business letters. Information in the first and last
lines of paragraphs tends to be read and remembered more readily. These are high-visibility
points. Information buried in the middle of long paragraphs is easily overlooked or forgotten. For
example, in application letters which must convince potential employers that you are right for a
job, place information on your appealing qualities at the beginning or end of paragraphs for
greater emphasis. Place less positive or detrimental information in less highly visible points. If
you have some difficult things to say, a good (and honest) strategy is to de-emphasize by
placing them in areas of less emphasis. If a job requires three years of experience and you only
have one, bury this fact in the middle or the lower half of a body paragraph of the application
letter. The resulting letter will be honest and complete; it just won't emphasize weak points
unnecessarily. Here are some examples of these ideas:

Problem:

In July I will graduate from the University of Kansas with a Bachelor of Science in Nutrition
and Dietetics. Over the past four years in which I have pursued this degree, I have worked
as a lab assistant for Dr. Alison Laszlo and have been active in two related organizations,
the Student Dietetic Association and the American Home Economics Association. In my
nutritional biochemistry and food science labs, I have written many technical reports and
scientific papers. I have also been serving as a diet aide at St. David's Hospital in Lawrence
the past year and a half. (The job calls for a technical writer; let's emphasize that first, then
mention the rest!)

Revision:

In my education at the University of Kansas, I have had substantial experience writing


technical reports and scientific papers. Most of these reports and papers have been in the
field of nutrition and dietetics in which I will be receiving my Bachelor of Science degree this
July. During my four years at the University, I have also handled plenty of paperwork as a
lab assistant for Dr. Alison Laszlo, as a member of two related organizations, the Student
Dietetic Association and the American Home Economics Association, and as a diet aide as
St. David's Hospital in Lawrence in the past year and a half.
Problem:

To date, I have done no independent building inspection on my own. I have been working
the past two years under the supervision of Mr. Robert Packwood who has often given me
primary responsibility for walk-throughs and property inspections. It was Mr. Packwood who
encouraged me to apply for this position. I have also done some refurbishing of older
houses on a contract basis and have some experience in industrial construction as a welder
and as a clerk in a nuclear construction site. (Let's not lie about our lack of experience, but
let's not put it on a billboard either!)

Revision:

As for my work experience, I have done numerous building walk-throughs and property
inspections under the supervision of Mr. Robert Packwood over the past two years. Mr.
Packwood, who encouraged me to apply for this position, has often given me primary
responsibility for many inspection jobs. I have also done some refurbishing of older houses
on a contract basis and have some experience in industrial construction as a welder and as
a clerk in a nuclear construction site.

Find positive ways to express bad news in your business letters. Often, business letters
must convey bad news: a broken computer keyboard cannot be replaced, or an individual
cannot be hired. Such bad news can be conveyed in a tactful way. Doing so reduces the
chances of an end of business relations with the recipient of the bad news. To convey bad news
positively, avoid such words as "cannot," "forbid," "fail," "impossible," "refuse," "prohibit,"
"restrict," and "deny" as much as possible. The first versions of the example sentences below
are phrased in a rather cold and unfriendly negative manner; the second versions are much
more positive, cordial and tactful:

Problem: Because of the amount of information you request in your letter, I simply cannot
help you without seriously disrupting my work schedule.

Revision: In your letter you ask for a good amount of information which I would like to help
you locate. Because of my work commitments, however, I am going to be able to answer
only a few of the questions....

Problem: If you do not complete and return this advertisement contract by July 1, 20XX,
you will not receive your advertising space in this year's Capitol Lines. If we have not heard
from you by this deadline, we will sell you your advertisement space to some other client.

Revision: Please complete the enclosed contract and return it to us by July 1, 20XX. After
this deadline, we will begin selling any unrenewed advertisement space in this year's Capitol
Lines, so I hope we hear from you before then.
Problem: While I am willing to discuss changes in specific aspects of this article or ideas on
additional areas to cover, I am not prepared to change the basic theme of the article: the
usability of the Victor microcomputer system.

Revision: I am certainly open to suggestions and comments about specific aspects of this
article, or any of your thoughts on additional areas that you think I should cover. I do want,
however, to retain the basic theme of the article: the usability of the Victor microcomputer
system.

Focus on the recipient's needs, purposes, or interests instead of your own. Avoid a self-
centered focus on your own concerns rather than those of the recipient. Even if you must talk
about yourself in a business letter a great deal, do so in a way that relates your concerns to
those of the recipient. This recipient-oriented style is often called the "you-attitude," which does
not mean using more you's but making the recipient the main focus of the letter.

Problem: I am writing you about a change in our pricing policy that will save our company
time and money. In an operation like ours, it costs us a great amount of labor time (and thus
expense) to scrape and rinse our used tableware when it comes back from large parties.
Also, we have incurred great expense on replacement of linens that have been ruined by
stains that could have been soaked promptly after the party and saved.

Revision: I am writing to inform you of a new policy that we are beginning, effective
September 1, 20XX, that will enable us to serve your large party needs more often and
without delay. In an operation like ours in which we supply for parties of up to 500, turn-
around time is critical; unscraped and unrinsed tableware causes delays in clean-up time
and, more importantly, less frequent and less prompt service to you the customer. Also,
extra fees for stained linens can be avoided by immediate soaking after the party.

Problem: For these reasons, our new policy, effective September 1, 20XX, will be to charge
an additional 15% on unrinsed tableware and 75% of the wholesale value of stained linens
that have not been soaked.

Revision: Therefore, to enable us to supply your large party needs promptly, we will begin
charging 15% on all unrinsed tableware and 75% of the wholesale value of stained linens
that have not been soaked. This policy we hope will encourage our customers' kitchen help
to do the quick and simple rinsing and/or soaking at the end of large parties. Doing so will
ensure faster and more frequent service.
Avoid pompous, inflated, legal-sounding phrasing. Watch out for puffed-up, important-
sounding language. This kind of language may seem business-like at first; it's actually
ridiculous. Of course, such phrasing is apparently necessary in legal documents; but why use it
in other writing situations? When you write a business letter, picture yourself as a plain-talking,
common-sense, down-to-earth person (but avoid slang). Check out the following illustration for
a serious dose of bureaucratese.

Avoid pompous, officious-sounding writing. Not only is the tone of the problem version
offensive, it is nearly twice as long as the revised version!
Give your business letter an "action ending" whenever appropriate. An "action-ending"
makes clear what the writer of the letter expects the recipient to do and when. Ineffective
conclusions to business letters often end with rather limp, noncommittal statements such as
"Hope to hear from you soon" or "Let me know if I can be of any further assistance." Instead, or
in addition, specify the action the recipient should take and the schedule for that action. If, for
example, you are writing a query letter, ask the editor politely to let you know of his decision if at
all possible in a month. If you are writing an application letter, subtlety try to set up a date and
time for an interview. Here are some examples:

As soon as you approve this plan, I'll begin contacting sales representatives at once to
arrange for purchase and delivery of the notebook computers. May I expect to hear from
you within the week?

I am free after 2:00 p.m. on most days. Can we set up an appointment to discuss my
background and this position further? I'll look forward to hearing from you.

Introductory Sales Letter

****************Grand 5 Days Sale (27th -31st Dec 2018) at Coatimundi***************

Save up to 65%

Samuel Philips
Information Officer, Sales Department
Coatimundi Apparels
Westside Mall
128, Near Golden Airport
Canada
Dear Mr. Hobbit

Happy Christmas! As an esteemed and loyal customer of Coatimundi Apparels


we bring ‘The Year-end Sale’ to you with savings of up to 65% on all items from 27th -31st Dec
2012. I repeat this is a ‘Up to 65% on all items’, no other store offers such a generous and
honest offering as most of the stores offers sale on select items and that also is kept oblivious to
you.
This maybe just another sale for other customers but for a privileged clients, such as yourself
we are offering ‘Pre-Booking of your desired clothing’s so that they will be reserved only for you
and none else will be able to buy it but only you. It is time to show our loyalty towards you.

You can call us at our Toll Free Number 180078456-59 to book your selected products or to get
any further information. We have enclosed a products brochure with item code; you can call us
24/7 and book your favourite products.

You can visit our online web store – www.coati.com and book your items at the convenience of
your home or you can also email us on this address - support@coati.com.

There is more if any of your referral purchases a product from us you will get 100 points for a
single purchase. These points are redeemable and you can use them to buy products from us
at no extra cost (terms and conditions apply). Let’s not forget that for every product you buy
from us, you also receive points which can also be used for shopping at our store.

With season’s best wishes.

Yours Truly

Samuel Philips
Mobile – 089349593
samilips@coati.com
Encl: Coati Shopping Brochure

Introductory Sales Letter

Do you want to Reduce your Fuel Expenditure and Save the Environment?

YES!!! Then use VegoCar and save up to 200$ annually!!!

Save Fuel Limited


No. 34 Ion Urdareanu Street,
Bucharest, 050688 Romania
Phone: 2141030
Fax: 213038
25th December, 2018
Nikala Dosai

28 Bucharest, 040298 Romania

Save Fuel Limited an initiative of Ecofuel Industries presents you an innovative and
revolutionary product which will not only save your hard earned cash; it will save the
environment too. Hard to believe isn’t it? But then ‘Impossible’ itself states ‘I-M-POSSIBILE’.
With that motto it is indeed our pleasure to introduce you with VegoCar.

So what is VegoCar?

VegoCar is not a car, it is a practical concept materialised in the form of a Conversion Kit. And
not just any Conversion Kit, it is ‘THE VEGOCAR’. VegoCar system uses State of the Art
Patented Engineering Technology that uses ‘Oil from Jatropha Plant, found in India’. After 3
years extensive research and study Jatropha Plant Oil has been modified to run any vehicle. It
has been certified by the World Environmental Agency as a suitable alternative fuel energy.

How is it different from other kits in the market?

Good question, the prevalent conversion kits in the market run on CNG, LPG, Solar, Electricity
or other vegetable oils which includes soya bean oil and others. Jatropha Plant Jatropha plant
seeds are very rich in oil; they contain about 40% oil which is far more than any other vegetable
oil. It costs less than petrol, diesel or other vegetable oils. 1 litre of Jatropha oil costs only 5$
which is far less than the 15$ petrol, 10$ diesel and 11$ vegetable oils. It has been blended with
ethanol to make it more engine friendly as compared to other vegetable oil based fuel.

How is it so cheap?

Jatropha Oil CNG, LPG, Solar, Electricity and Vegetable Oils

Economical - Jatropha is not a cash crop making it an economical option as it is yet to have a
market value Expensive

Other Vegetable oils are produced from cash crops which is expensive because of their value in
the market.

CNG, LPG, solar and electricity have a high market value

Jatropha plant can be grown on dry marginal non-agricultural lands - Vegetable crops require
good soil.

Doesn’t require much refinement, can be used even without refining in diesel generators and
enginesCNG and LPG are not easy to produce and store.
Why don’t I see it people using it when it is so cheap?

New technology takes times to spread as there are legal and environmental formalities which
consume a lot of time and money. There is lack of awareness which is why we are circulating
literature wherever possible.

New technology is also not readily acceptable as people have doubts which can be cleared with
proper information and practical approach. Nobody believed that cars would run on rubber
tyres! But eventually they did!

Our commercials are slated to be scheduled on radio and television in coming weeks.

You can also visit our website – www.vegocar.com for more information.

Additionally we have a facebook page – vegocar and YouTube video with the same name –
VegoCar.

Soon you will see us on billboards, magazines and newspapers as well. Till that time you can
contact us and order a Free Brochure delivered at your door steps. The brochure contains all
the possible answers to your questions.

You can also contact us at these Toll Free Numbers:


96450490, 235983259, 2309479203
Thank you for your time and have a Happy Day.
Team Save Fuel Limited
2. Formal widely used abbreviations

ASAP - as soon as possible


attn - attention: to show that a letter is for the attention of a particular person
BYOB - bring your own bottle: used on invitations to show that you should bring your own
beverage to a party or get-to-gether
cc - used on a business letter or e-mail to indicate that a copy of a given letter is being sent to
the person mentioned
c/o or c/- - care of: used in the address on a letter or parcel that you are sending to someone at
another person’s house
encl. - enclosed or enclosure: used at the top or bottom of a letter to show that an attachment
has been included in the letter
FAO - for the attention of: written in front of someone’s name on a document, letter, or envelope
to show that it is intended for them
FIO - for information only: written on a business letter or email to show that it is being sent to
someone in order to give them information, and they are not expected to reply or take any
action
FYI - for your information: written on a business letter or e-mail to show that it is being sent to
someone for their information only; they are not expected to reply or take any action
pp - on behalf of - written in front of someone’s name when you are signing a letter for them
PPS - written before a note at the end of a letter, after the PS note
PS - postscript: used for introducing some additional information at the end of a letter after you
have signed your name
PTO - please turn over: used at the bottom of a page to indicate that there is a second page
(informal)
RE - used in business letters to introduce their subject matter
ref. - reference: used in a business letter when you are giving the numbers and letters that show
exactly which document or piece of information you are writing about
RSVP - used on written invitations to ask the invited person to confirm their attendance

Abbreviations in titles:
Mr. - Mister - used when addressing men
Messrs. - used when addressing two or more men, as in Messrs. Smith and Wesson
Mrs. - Misses - used for women if you are sure that they are married and for those who do not
prefer another title
Ms. - used for women, regardless of their marital status. Usually the safest bet
Dr. - Used with addressees who you know have earned a doctorate, not only in medicine
Abbreviations in time and date:
a.m. (am) - ante meridian = before midday - used with a 12-hour clock
p.m. (pm) - post meridian = after midday - used with a 12-hour clock
BC - Before Christ - used to denote years prior to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth
AD - Anno Domini - used to denote years after the birth of Jesus of Nazareth
Other often used abbreviations in business letters:
a/c - account
appar. - Apparently
bus. - business
cf. - compare (Latin: confer)
comm. - commerce
Corp. - Corporation
dt - date
e.g. - for example (Latin exampli gratia)
et al. - and other people (Latin et alii)
etc. - and so forth (Latin et cetra)
i.e. - in other words (Latin id est)
ibid. - in the same book, chapter, page, etc. (Latin ibidem)
Ltd. Limited
nb. - nota bene
NOO - not on original
P&P - postage and packing
pdd - probable date of delivery
PIN - postal index number or Personal Identification Number
SAE - stamped (self-) addressed envelope
yr - year
ZIP (code) - Zone Improvement Plan (used in US addresses after the state designation to
assure delivery)

Useful Business Acronyms and Abbreviations


ABC – always be closing
ASAP - as soon as possible
B2B – business to business
B2C – business to consumer
CAD – computer aided design
CEO – chief executive officer
CFO – chief financial officer
CIO – chief investment officer/chief information officer
CMO – chief marketing officer
COO – chief operating officer
CTO – chief technology officer
DOE – depending on experiment
EBITDA – earning before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization
EOD - end of day/end of discussion
ERP - enterprise resource planning (business management software that a company can use to
store and manage data from every stage of business)
ESOP – employee stock ownership plan
ETA – estimated time of arrival
FYI - for your information
HTML – hypertext mark-up language
IPO – initial public offering
ISP – internet service provider
KPI – key performance indicators
LLC – limited liability company
MILE - maximum impact, little effort
MOOC – massive open online course
MSRP – manufacturer’s suggested retail price
NDA – non-disclosure agreement
NOI – net operating income
NRN - no reply necessary
OTC – over the counter
PR - public relations
QC – quality control
R & D – research and development
RFP - request for proposal
ROI – return on investment
RRP – recommended retail price
SEO – search engine optimization
SLA – service level agreement
VAT – value added tax
VPN – virtual private network
Other business acronyms
VAT = Value Added Tax (IVA) (recently raised in the UK form 17.5% to 20%)
P&L = Profit & Loss account / statement (one of the financial statements a company has to
produce)
KPI = Key Performance Indicators – measurements used to evaluate how well a team or firm is
performing
KM = Knowledge Management – a strategic approach to insights undertaken by companies
RRP = Recommended Retail Price – the price customers should pay suggested by the
manufacturer
Telephone English - The Phrases
There are a number of phrases and idioms that are only used when telephoning. Let's first
take a look at an example dialogue: Here are the most common:

 Operator: Hello, Frank and Brothers, How can I help you?


 Peter: This is Peter Jackson. Can I have extension 3421?
 Operator: Certainly, hold on a minute, I'll put you through...
 Frank: Bob Peterson's office, Frank speaking.
 Peter: This is Peter Jackson calling, is Bob in?
 Frank: I'm afraid he's out at the moment. Can I take a message?
 Peter: Yes, Could you ask him to call me at 347288931 . I need to talk to him
about the Nuovo line, it's urgent.
 Frank: Could you repeat the number please?
 Peter: Yes, that's 347288931 and this is Peter Jackson.
 Frank: Thank you Mr Jackson, I'll make sure Bob gets this asap.
 Peter: Thanks, bye.
 Frank: Bye.

As you can see, the language is rather informal and there are some important differences to
everyday English. Look at the chart below for key language and phrases used in telephone
English:

Introducing yourself Asking who is on the telephone


This is Ken. Excuse me, who is this?
Ken speaking Can I ask who is calling, please?

Asking for Someone


Can I have extension 321? (extensions are internal Connecting Someone
numbers at a company) I'll put you through (put through - phrasal verb
Could I speak to...? (Can I - more informal / May I - meaning 'connect')
more formal) Can you hold the line? Can you hold on a
Is Jack in? (informal idiom meaning: Is Jack in the moment?
office?
How to reply when someone is not available
I'm afraid ... is not available at the moment Taking a Message
The line is busy... (when the extension requested Could (Can, May) I take a message?
is being used) Could (Can, May) I tell him who is calling?
Mr Jackson isn't in... Mr Jackson is out at the Would you like to leave a message?
moment...
Practice 1: Making an Appointment
Receptionist: Thank you for phoning Maple Dental Clinic. Sylvia (speaks/speaking/calls).
How can I help you?

Thelma: Hi Sylvia. (this be/It’s/I am)Thelma Woods calling. How are you today?

Receptionist: I'm fine Mrs. Woods. How are you?

Thelma: Well, actually, I have a bit of a sore tooth. I was hoping Dr. Morris would have some time to see
me this week.

Receptionist: I'm (afraid/scared/worried) he's booked this week. I can put you in for 2pm next
Tuesday. How does that sound?

Thelma: That would be great.

Receptionist: I'll have to give you the address of our new office.

Thelma: Oh, that's right, you moved.

Receptionist: Yes, we moved downtown. Do you have a (pen handy/ the handy pen/the
available pen)?

Thelma: Could you hold on a (buzz/ moment/time) please. ...Okay, go ahead Sylvia.

Receptionist: Okay, we are at 723 Baltic Avenue. Suite 004.

Thelma: (If you could/Please can you/ Would you mind) spelling that for me?

Receptionist: Sure. That's seven-twenty-three Baltic--B (for Bear/ As if Brave/As in


Bravo), A as in Alpha, L as in Lima, T as in tango, I as in India, and C as in Charlie. And it's suite
zero zero four.

Thelma: Okay great. I'll see you on Tuesday then.

Receptionist: Okay. (Great for/ Pleased to/ Thanks for)calling. See you then.

Thelma: Thanks. Bye.


Company Structure:
FONTES BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

- Hoffman Herbert. (1977). Alphanumeric Filing Rules for Business Documents. New York: H.
H. Pub.
- Seraydarian, P. E. (1995) Proofreading & Editing Business documents. Montreal:
Paradigm Pub
- Wauson, J. & Wilson, K (2011).The AMA Handbook of Business Documents. New York:
American Management Association