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Student Motivation “The most important attitude that can be

and formed is that of the desire to go on


learning”
Technology -John Dewey, 1938

Matthew D. Laliberte
March 6, 2006
mdl@wpi.edu

What Motivates You?


 What motivated you to attend today?

 What motivates you to work?

 What motivates you to play?

 How do you motivate students?

 How do you motivate individual students?


© Artlex

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Motivation is… Qualities of Motivation
 Complex  Energizes behaviors

 Physical & psychological


 Directs behaviors

 Unique to each and every


person  Enables persistence towards a goal

 Context-sensitive  Exists in varying strengths

 Not fully understood

What does the Research Tell Us? What else does the Research Tell Us?
Technology helps to motivate students, as it… Studies tell us that…

 Garners and maintains student attention;  The targeted use of multimedia as an instructional
methods results in increased student motivation
 Enables the conceptual to be made visual;
 Dynamically represents processes often seen as static or  Simulations and virtual tours are consistently rated by
theoretical; students as highly motivating
 Brings the real world into the normally self-contained
classroom;  A reliance upon or overabundance of extrinsic rewards
 Leverages the visual learning strengths many students of diminishes the affect of intrinsic motivation over time
the Millennial Generation possess
 Motivation is a prerequisite to learning

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Needs Theory – A. Maslow Expectancy Theory – V. Vroom
•Satisfied needs cease to
motivate students
•When threatened, student
needs become more basic
•Self-Actualization drives
people to utilize their most
unique abilities •Motivation = Effort * Performance * Satisfaction
•Operates under the 50/50 Principle (competition)
•Motivation will be small if any of the factors in the
equation are limited

The 6 C’s of Motivation Flow - M. Csikszentmihalyi


Choices Collaboration •Knowing it is possible to
do the task well

•Timeliness of instruction

Constructing •Intrinsic motivation is


Challenge
Meaning critical, and is determined
by…
•Student experiences
•Student beliefs
•Prior knowledge
Control Consequences •Sociocultural history
Turner & Paris, 1995

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Vertex of Flow ARCS Model - John Keller
•Changing disposition of
the learner
 Attention - What are you doing to gain and maintain
students’ attention?
Challenge

•Motivation is ephemeral
 Relevance - How do you demonstrate the relevance of
•Capitalizing on the course content to your students?
teachable moment
 Confidence - What are you doing to build confidence in
students that they will be able to learn and apply course content?

 Satisfaction – Upon learning, what do you do to impart


satisfaction amongst students?

Attention Relevance
Perceptual Arousal (creating  Goal Orientation (meeting learner needs)
curiosity) – Allow students to define own and class goals
– Inject personal, emotional, or – Provide multiple examples of practical content utility
controversial material – Invite guest lecturers & discussion moderators
– Use novel delivery methods
– Use cases or mystery scenarios
 Motive Matching (ownership)
– Provide for individual projects
Inquiry Arousal (increasing – Provide for group projects
curiosity) – Provide opportunities to assume different classroom roles
– Use Socratic method
Ehninger, 1986  Familiarity (personal connections)
– Create paradoxes from hitherto resolved
issues – Utilize concrete examples and analogies
– Use current examples
Variability (maintaining interest)
– Differentiated instruction
– Group dynamics

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Confidence Satisfaction
 Performance Requirements  Natural Consequences (practical application)
(expectations)
– Establish trust – Incorporate real-world projects
– Clearly outline class requirements and – Demonstrate practicality of skills & knowledge learned
evaluative criteria
– Utilize participant modeling  Positive Consequences (reinforcement)
 Success Opportunities (self-confidence)
– Provide many and varied learning
– Supply extrinsic rewards
experiences – Engage individual students to understand and elicit
– Sequence instruction – harder material built intrinsic rewards
on easier
– Allow for choice when demonstrating – Provide public forums for student display of work
learning
– Provide encouraging and informational  Equity (fairness)
feedback
– Apply stated performance expectations consistently
 Personal Control (locus of control)
– Learning contracts
– Provide checkpoints along the way
– Customized/individualized assignments

Course Management Systems Virtual Tours


Benefits Benefits
 Aggregates content of various forms  Grabs student attention by being unique

 Ability to modularize content & media  Brings the real world to the classroom

 Facilitates discussion & formation of  Demonstrates applicability of skills &

social relationships knowledge being studied


 Reduces social & cultural resistance to  24/7 access

participation Drawbacks
Drawbacks  Time-consuming film and edit

 Amount and location of content may  Bandwidth-intensive


become overwhelming and/or Sample 1
 Passive
Sample 1
confusing Sample 2 Sample 2

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Animations Interactive Simulations & Remote Labs
Benefits Benefits
 Makes concepts & theories visual  Promotes active learning

 Plays to the strengths of many learners  Incorporates elements of variation

 Dangerous or difficult-to-replicate  Dangerous or difficult-to-replicate

experiments are made possible experiments are made possible


 24/7 access  24/7 access

Drawbacks Drawbacks
 Time-consuming to develop  Time-consuming to develop Sample 1

 Passive
Sample 1  May be bandwidth-intensive
Sample 2
Sample 2 Sample 3

Synchronous Connections Hung up on the Visual…


Benefits  Experiential/Interpersonal:
http://www.beelinetv.com/
– Brings outside experts into the classroom
 Intrapersonal:
– Demonstrates practicality of skills &
http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/erm0450.asp?bhcp=1
knowledge being learned
 Auditory:
– Internet-based (Webconferencing) http://www.jfklibrary.org/speeches.htm
Drawbacks  Linguistic:
– Bandwidth intensive http://www.ipl.org/div/news/

(videoconferencing/Access Grid)  Artistic:


http://www.imaginationcubed.com/LaunchPage

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Conclusion Discussion
 No single model is comprehensive  How might we characterize the motivational
qualities of different classes of students?
 Every faculty member and their teaching style
is unique  How might we best access and leverage
students’ intrinsic motivations?
 Every student and their learning style is
unique
 How might we best motivate faculty members
to attend faculty development sessions?
 Technology is a motivational tool