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Volunteer
Trail
Guide

Manual




Leisure
Services
Department,
Division
of
Natural
Resources

SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 1




If
you
are
running
late,
or
cannot
make
a
session
you
have
signed
up
for…

PLEASE
CALL
ASAP!

Sandy
Creek
Nature
Center

(706)
613‐3615

Janice
Denney:
x227

or

Front
Desk:
x0


Volunteer
Trail
Guides
are
a
very
special
group
of
people.
Each
year,
new
guides
join
the
ranks
of
experienced
guides

to
provide
the
program
with
individuals
from
diverse
backgrounds
and
possessing
unique
talents.
The
staff
is

honored
to
work
side
by
side
with
such
talented
volunteers.

Overview
of
Field
Studies ............................................................................................................................................... 2

Getting
Started ................................................................................................................................................................... 2

Working
with
Children .................................................................................................................................................... 3

Working
with
Animals ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

SCNC
Emergency/Hazardous
Weather
Procedures.............................................................................................11

Loop
Trails
from
ENSAT ................................................................................................................................................13

Loop
Trails
from
Walker
Hall......................................................................................................................................13

Sandy
Creek
Nature
Center
Map.................................................................................................................................14

Topic:
The
Animal
Kingdom ........................................................................................................................................15

Topic:
Lifecycles...............................................................................................................................................................16

Topic:
Reptiles..................................................................................................................................................................17

Topic:
Rocks
and
Fossils ...............................................................................................................................................18

Topic:
Weather .................................................................................................................................................................19

Topic:
Habitats .................................................................................................................................................................20

Topic:
Classification........................................................................................................................................................21

Topic:
Microorganisms..................................................................................................................................................22

Characteristics
of
Different
Age
Groups ..................................................................................................................23

Interpretation
for
Grade
School
Children ...............................................................................................................24

Suggested
Reading
List ..................................................................................................................................................25

A
Historical
Account
of
the
Brick
Factory ...............................................................................................................26

The
Louie
R.
Bridges
Log
House
at
Sandy
Creek
Nature
Center ......................................................................27

The
Vertebrates ...............................................................................................................................................................28

The
Animal
Kingdom......................................................................................................................................................29

Animal
Tracks...................................................................................................................................................................30

Parts
of
a
Flower ..............................................................................................................................................................31

The
Water
Cycle ...............................................................................................................................................................32

The
Carbon
Cycle .............................................................................................................................................................33

2
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Overview
of
Field
Studies


Our
Philosophy


The
natural
environment
is
a
storehouse
of
opportunities
for
fascinating,
personal
learning
experiences,
children
who

have
positive
experiences
in
the
outdoors
are
more
likely
to
develop
attitudes
of
caring,
and
respect
for
the
world

around
them.
Such
attitudes
provide
a
strong
basis
for
future
decisions
that
will
determine
the
quality
of
our

environment.



Goal
and
Concepts

The
goal
of
Sandy
Creek
Nature
Center's
field
studies
program
is
to

provide
children
with
opportunities
for
a
variety
of
positive
outdoor

learning
experiences,
in
a
personal,
supportive
atmosphere.

While
trail
guiding,
keep
your
eyes
open
for
examples
of
ecological

processes
in
action.
When
a
child
leaves
the
nature
center
he
or
she

may
quickly
forget
the
name
of
a
tree.
However,
after
holding
and

smelling
a
handful
of
decomposing
wood,
it
is
more
likely
that
he
or

she
will
remember
that
the
life
and
death
of
a
tree
is
a
remarkable

event.
The
following
concepts
are
part
of
the
ecological
processes
that,

when
studied
together,
provide
a
total
picture
of
how
the
natural

world
functions:

• Energy
Flow:
energy
from
the
sun
is
transferred
from
plants
to

animals
along
paths
called
food
chains
or
food
webs.


• Cycles:
as
plants
and
animals
live
and
die,
the
energy
and
essential
chemicals
move
in
and
out
of
the
reservoir

in
the
earth's
air,
soil,
and
waters.


• Diversity:
the
quantity
of
solar
energy
and
essential
chemicals
varies
from
place
to
place
resulting
in
a
great

variety
of
plants
and
animals.


• Community:
groups
of
plants
and
animals
are
found
in
areas
that
best
meet
their
individual
needs
(ex.
the

pond
community).


• Interrelationships:
plants
and
animals
are
constantly
interacting
with
one
another
and
their
surrounding

environment
(ex.
food
gathering).


• Change:
because
plants
and
animals
are
in
the
process
of
both
acting
upon
their
surroundings
and
being
acted

upon,
all
plants,
animals,
and
environments
are
in
the
process
of
becoming
something
else.


• Adaptation:
plants
and
animals
have
special
features
that
enable
them
to
survive
in
the
place
where
they
live.



Program
Objectives


1. Offer
a
variety
of
field
study
topics
to
teachers.


2. Offer
trail
walks
in
small
groups,
led
by
trained
guides,
in
order
to
provide
personal
experiences
in
nature.


3. Emphasize
"hands‐on"
experience
and
promote
personal
involvement
with
nature.


4. Involve
children's
imagination
and
creative
thinking
through
an
inquiry
approach
to
field
study
topics.
An

inquiry
approach
focus
less
on
"what
we
know"
and
rather
puts
the
emphasis
on
"how
we
come
to
know."


5. Encourage
a
perception
of
people
as
"a
part
of'
not
"apart
from"
nature.


Getting
Started

Volunteer
Trail
Guiding
Program

The
nature
center
offers
field
trip
opportunities
during
the
fall

and
spring
of
each
school
year
for
both
in‐
and
out‐of‐county

schools.
At
the
nature
center
field
trips
are
referred
to
as
field

studies
and
generally
occur
Tuesday
through
Friday
from
9:30

to
11:30
am..
Teachers
make
reservations
on
a
first‐come,
first‐
served
basis.
Other
groups
and
organizations
can
also
schedule

field
studies
throughout
the
year.


SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 3


Role
of
the
Naturalist

Nature
center
naturalists
and
interns
are
available
to
answer
questions
about
field
study
topics
and
to
help
volunteers

locate
special
equipment
for
trail
walks.
They
should
organize
short
morning
meetings
with
guides
to
give
final

instructions
with
special
notes
on
any
changes
in
the
field
study
and
set
the
time
for
the
"switch."
The
naturalist
will

meet
the
teachers
and
students
at
the
bus
when
they
arrive
give
initial
instructions
to
teachers
before
the
program.

They
will
also
give
a
large
group
introduction
and
help
divide
the
group
in
half.
One
group
will
go
inside
with
the

naturalist
while
the
other
group
will
subdivide
and
walk
with
the
trail
guides.



Typical
Field
Study

Responsibilities
of
Trail
Guides

9:00‐9:20
 Volunteers
arrive
&
gather
materials

Trail
guides
are
responsible
for
leading
small
groups

9:20‐9:30
 Short
organizational
mtg
w/naturalist

of
children
on
trail
walks,
while
focusing
on

activities
and
discussions
around
pre‐selected
field
 9:30
 Bus
arrives
&
is
greeted
by
naturalist

study
topics.
Trail
guides
must
be
familiar
with
trails
 9:35‐10:20
 1st
group
trail
walk

and
areas
to
be
visited,
as
well
as
information
and
 10:20‐10:30
 1st
group
wrap‐up
&
switch
w/2nd
group

concepts
related
to
field
study
topics.
All
volunteers

10:30‐11:15
 2nd
group
walk

should
be
committed
to
providing
children
with

enjoyable
experiences
outdoors
and
setting
 11:15‐11:30
 2nd
group
wrap‐up

examples
of
respect
for
the
lives
of
plants,
animals,

and
all
other
aspects
of
nature
at
Sandy
Creek.


Leading
a
Walk

• After
arriving
at
the
nature
center,
sign
in
and
check
with
the
naturalist.
Put
the
items
you
need
for
your
trail

walk
in
a
denim
bag
or
backpack.
Take
a
radio
from
the
charger.
Make
sure
that
it
is
turned
on
and
set
to

channel
1.
Also
make
sure
you
have
a
mini
first
aid
kit.

• Trail
walks
generally
last
between
30
and
50
minutes
depending
on
the
group.
Make
sure
you
plan
to
get

back
on
time
so
that
each
group
gets
equal
time
for
all
activities.

• When
you
return
with
the
first
group,
there
are
usually
five
minutes
or
so
before
switching
with
the
next

group.
The
exhibit
hall
is
perfect
for
post
walk
"wrap‐ups"
and
exploration.
Please
interact
and
monitor

students
while
in
the
exhibit
hall.

• When
all
the
trail
walk
groups
have
returned,
the
naturalist
will
gather
all
of
the
students
together
and
take

them
into
the
classroom.
Trail
guides
will
meet
their
second
group
on
the
front
porch.

Working
with
Children

Preparation
Starts
at
Home

Watch
the
local
weather
and
know
what
to
expect
weather‐wise
during
your
morning
trail
hike.
Field
studies
take

place
rain
or
shine
unless
notified
by
staff.
Examine
the
field
study
topic
pages

carefully
and
plan
activities
accordingly,
based
on
the
weather,
topic,
and
age
level
of
 Safety
First!

the
students.
There
are
plenty
of
books,
magazines,
and
videos
to
help
you
learn
about
  Always
take
a
radio

natural
history
or
working
with
children.
Also
be
sure
to
read
the
Characteristics
of

with
you
on
the

Different
Age
Groups
section
of
this
guide.
 trails.

 Place
a
First
Aid

Training
at
the
Nature
Center

 pouch
in
your
bag.

• Trail
guide
training
sessions
are
offered
twice
a
year
for
new
trail
guides.
  Count
the
number
of

Experienced
trail
guides
are
welcome
to
return
for
a
"refresher
course"
at
the
 kids
before,
during,

beginning
of
each
new
trail‐guiding
season.
 and
after
your
hikes.

• Hike
the
different
trails
of
the
center.
Make
notes
about
the
special
highlights
  Contact
someone

of
each
trail
in
order
to
maximize
discussion
opportunities
over
specific
 immediately
in
the

topics.
For
example,
you
might
find
a
large
number
of
bird
nests
along
a
 event
of
a
lost
child

certain
trail,
which
would
be
the
perfect
trail
for
an
"Animal
Kingdom"
walk.
 or
injury.

Make
sure
that
you
are
familiar
with
the
to
Trail
Map.


4
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


• Check
the
program
schedule
and
sign
up
to
observe
an

experienced
guide
with
a
group.
Take
notes
on
how
the

program
comes
together.
Observing
experienced
guides
in

action
is
an
excellent
way
to
learn
about
activities
and

techniques
for
use
on
future
hikes.

• Ask
questions.
The
nature
center
staff
is
always
willing
to

discuss
and
share
natural
history
information
or
techniques

for
working
with
children.
The
volunteers
and
staff
are
a

team.
As
a
team,
we
are
excited
about
the
opportunity
to

learn
from
each
other.



On
The‐Trail

Start
off
with
a
personal
touch;
introduce
yourself
to
the
children

and
greet
each
one.
Tell
them
briefly
and
simply
what
you
plan
to
do
and
what
to
expect.
For
example,
"We're
going

down
this
trail,
which
leads
to
the
pond
to
look
for
animals
and
their
homes."

Let
them
know
the
“rules”
for
the
walk.
For
instance,
“Let's
stay
together
as
a
group,
and
since
I
know
where
we're

going,
let
me
lead
the
way.”
Trail
guides
should
convey
any
rules
for
the
walk
in
a
positive
manner
with
his/her
own

style,
or
let
the
children
come
up
with
their
own
list
of
rules.


Help
focus
the
group's
attention
by
asking
questions
that
draw
on
their
knowledge.
You
might
try,
"Tell
me
what
you

know
about….”
or
“What
do
you
think
we
might
see
today?”

Let
the
children
discover
things
for
themselves
as
much
as
possible.
“Let's
all
look
for
animal
signs
(or
seeds,

mushrooms,
evidence
of
erosion,
etc.)”
and
“Show
me
what
you
find”
are
great
ways
to
do
this.

Encourage
the
use
of
all
senses
and
hands‐on
exploration.
Children
are
naturally
curious.
Encourage
questions.
Don't

feel
compelled
to
label
everything.
A
frequent
question
is,
"What
is
this?"
Some
possible
responses
are:

• “What
does
it
remind
you
of?”
 • ”What
does
it
feel
or
smell
like?"

• “What
does
it
look
like
to
you?”
 • "What
is
it
doing?”
Encourage
the
children
to
answer
questions
with
their
own
observations.

Stop
occasionally
along
the
trail
for
activities
or
to
examine
something
interesting.
Have
the
group
form
a
circle
to

focus
attention.


Ask
questions
that
compare
and
contrast
observations
of
other
outdoor
areas
such
as
the
schoolyard
or
a

neighborhood.
When
you
ask
a
question,
leave
it
open‐ended.
Don't
fish
for
a
single
answer.
You
might
also
ask,
“Who

can
tell
me
something
about
this
caterpillar?"
or
"What
are
some
things
this
tree
needs
to
live?"
After
asking
a

question,
allow
time
for
all
children
to
respond.
Typically
teachers
are
trained
to
wait
3‐5
seconds
for
a
response.
Give

positive
feedback
for
any
response.
Even
off·‐he‐wall
answers
can
be
imaginative!


Spread
your
attention
and
responses
around.
Don't
allow
the
most
outspoken
children
to
dominate
the
group.
Draw

the
quiet
children
out
with
simple
questions
directed
to
them.

Many
children
have
fears.
It's
OK
to
be
afraid.
Always
respect
a
child's
honest
expression
of
fear.
Praise
any
effort
on

the
child's
part
to
face
the
fear.
Never
belittle
anyone
for
being
afraid.
Likewise,
be
honest
about
your
own
fears.
The

only
“real
dangers”
at
Sandy
Creek
are
bee‐stings,
poison
ivy,
and
the
seldom
seen
copperhead.
Learn
to
recognize
and

respond
correctly
to
these
last
two.

Remember
you
are
the
leader.
A
teacher
or
other
adult
may
accompany
your
group.
However,
it
is
the
children's
field

study
program
and
your
responsibility
is
to
them.
You
may
want
to
ask
an
accompanying
adult
to
help
you
by
bringing

up
the
rear
on
the
walk.
If
any
difficulties
arise,
do
not
hesitate
to
discuss
your
situation
with
one
of
the
staff.


Disruptive
Behavior

Most
children
are
enthusiastic
and
excited
about
field
studies
at
Sandy
Creek!
Don't
expect
sedate,
passive
behavior.

However,
if
a
child
is
consistently
disruptive,
here
are
some
possible
responses:

• Ignore
the
behavior
and
move
the
group
ahead
to
something
more
interesting

• Divert
his/her
attention
with
something
to
do,
“John,
would
you
hold
this
net
for
me?”

• Ask
a
question,
“What
do
you
think
this
moss
feels
like,
Julie?”
Using
the
child's
name
helps.

• If
a
child
is
persistent,
deal
more
directly,
“John,
it
makes
it
difficult
for
the
other
students
to
hear
when
you

do
that.
I'd
appreciate
it
if
you'd
stop.”
The
tone
of
the
voice
conveys
your
seriousness.

• A
stern
look
may
also
suffice

SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 5


Most
children
are
well
behaved
and
interested
in
the
trip.
Expect
the
best
and
you
will
rarely
be
disappointed.
If
a

child
threatens
you
or
anyone
in
the
group
(physically
or
verbally),
take
action.
Have
another
adult
return
the
child
to

the
bus
or
ask
for
help.

Behavior
Modification
Techniques

As
trail
guides,
you
are
not
expected
to
fix
each
and
every
behavioral
issue
that
occurs
on
the
trail.

However,
there
are

some
simple
techniques
that
can
be
used
when
dealing
with
the
general
population
of
school‐aged
children.

Patience:
The
first
step
to
deal
effectively
with
inappropriate
behavior
is
to
show
patience.
This
often
means
you'll

need
to
take
a
cooling
period
before
you
say
or
do
something
you
just
might
regret.
This
may
involve
having
the

child/student
separating
from
you
physically
until
you're
ready
to
deal
effectively
with
the
inappropriate
behavior.
If

a
chaperone
is
present,
send
the
child
to
them,
cool
down,
then
speak
to
the
incident
when
emotions
are
no
longer
at
a

high.

Be
Democratic:
Children
need
choice.
When
you're
ready
to
give
a
consequence,
allow
for
some
choice.
The
choice

could
have
to
do
with
the
actual
consequence,
the
time
when
the
consequence
will
occur
or
input
as
to
what
follow
up

should
and
will
occur.
When
you
allow
for
choice,
the
outcomes
are
usually
favorable
‐
the
child
becomes
more

responsible.
(Example:
“Billy,
it
seems
that
you
may
not
be
able
to
continue
the
tour
with
us.

Would
you
like
to
return

to
the
Star
Room
with
Mr.
So‐and‐So
or
sit
with
an
adult
until
we
return?”)

Understand
the
Purpose:
Why
is
the
child/student
misbehaving?
There
is
always
a
purpose.
Do
you
know
what
the

purpose
is?
Getting
attention?
Power?
Revenge?
Feelings
of
frustration?
Sleepiness?
It's
important
to
understand
the

purpose
to
readily
support
it.
For
instance,
knowing
a
child
is
frustrated
will
require
a
change
of
programming
to

ensure
that
he/she
is
set
up
to
experience
success.
Those
seeking
attention
need
to
receive
attention
‐
catch
them

doing
something
good!
Recognize
it!

Avoid
Power
Struggles:
In
a
power
struggle,
nobody
wins.
Even
if
you
do
feel
like
you've
won,
you
haven't
because

the
chance
of
reoccurrence
is
great.
Avoiding
power
struggles
really
comes
down
to
exerting
patience.
When
you

show
patience,
you're
modeling
good
behavior,
you
ALWAYS
want
to
model
good
behavior
even
when
you
are
dealing

with
inappropriate
student
behaviors.
Do
you
do
this?
A
child's
behavior
is
most
often
influence
by
your
behavior,

remember
this.
If
you
are
hostel
or
mad
when
dealing
‐
they
too
will
be.

Do
the
Opposite
of
What
They
Expect:
When
a
child/student
misbehaves,
they
often
anticipate
your
response.
Do

the
unexpected.
For
instance,
when
you
see
children
playing
with
branches
or
playing
in
an
area
that
is
outside
of
the

boundaries,
they
expect
you
to
say
"Stop",
or
"Get
back
in
line
now!"
However,
try
saying
something
like
"You
kids

look
too
smart
to
be
playing
there"
(or
playing
with
branches).
You'll
quite
surprise
them.
This
is
a
little
trick
that

works
well
most
of
the
time.
Say
something
positive
first.

Find
Something
Positive:
For
students
or
children
who
regularly
misbehave,
it
can
be
very
difficult
to
find
something

positive
to
say.
Work
at
this,
the
more
they
receive
attention
for
the
positive
things,
the
less
apt
they
are
to
look
for

attention
in
a
negative
way.
Go
out
of
your
way
to
find
something
positive
to
say
to
your
chronic
misbehaving

students.
Remember,
these
children
often
lack
belief
in
their
own
ability.
You
need
to
help
them
see
that
they
are

capable.

Don't
Be
Bossy
‐
This
Too
is
Bad
Modeling
:
Bossiness
usually
ends
up
with
students
seeking
revenge.
Ask
yourself,

do
you
like
being
bossed
around?
Chances
are
that
you
don't.
Neither
do
children.
Always
express
a
strong
desire
and

strong
interest
to
have
a
good
relationship
with
the
student/child
while
facilitating
the
tour.

Sense
of
Belonging:
When
students
or
children
don't
feel
that
they
belong,
the
result
is
usually
the
display
of

unacceptable
behavior.
Make
sure
the
student
has
a
strong
sense
of
belonging.
Praise
the
child's
efforts
to
get
along
or

work
with
others.
Praise
attempts
to
follow
rules
and
adhere
to
routines.


Up,
Down
Then
Up
Again:
This
can
be
paired
with
“Do
The
Opposite
of
What
They
Expect.”
When
you're
about
to

reprimand
or
punish
a
child.
Bring
them
up
first
"Lately
you've
done
so
well,
I've
been
so
impressed
with
your

behavior'.
"Why
did
you
feel
the
need
to
destroy
that
insects
home?"
(Deal
with
the
issue).
Then
end
on
"I
know
it

won't
happen
again
because
you've
been
so
good
up
until
this
moment.
I
have
great
faith
in
you."
You
may
use

different
approaches
but
always
remember:
Build
them
up,
take
them
down
to
the
level
of
disappointment,
then
build

them
up
again!


6
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Tips
to
Remember

Strive
to
create
a
positive
tone.
Research
shows
that
the
most
important
factor
in
student
behavior
and
performance

is
the
teacher/student
relationship.
In
your
case,
you
are
the
teacher
for
20
–
50
minutes.

This
relationship
could
last

a
lifetime
in
their
minds!
You
could
be
the
reason
that
they
choose
a
field
in
natural
sciences!
Students
want
teachers

that:

• Respect
them

• Care
about
them

• Listen
to
them

• Don't
yell
or
shout

• Have
a
sense
of
humor

• Are
in
a
good
moods

• Let
students
give
their
opinions
and
their
side/opinion

Don't
be
afraid
to
be
imaginative
and
spontaneous
(even
silly).
Take
advantage
of
the
unexpected.
Serendipity
is
all

around.
Above
all,
have
FUN!
Hope
this
helps
you
in
your
quest
for
giving
students
the
best
positive
outdoor

experience!


Student
Behavior
Infraction
Listing

Minor
Behavioral
Infractions
 Major
Behavioral
Infractions

(Handled
by
Tour
Staff)
 (Handled
by
School
Personnel)

• Inappropriate
language
(insensitive
remarks,
 • Abusive
Language
(Highly
inappropriate

teasing)
 language,
profanity)

• Inappropriate
physical
contact
(minor
 • Illegal
substances

horseplay)

• Defiance/Extreme
Disrespect

• Disrespect
or
non‐compliance


• Disruptive/rude
behavior
(talking
while
tour
 • Rough‐housing,
harassment,
or
bullying

guide
is
talking,
jumping
to
the
head
of
the
line,
 • Fighting
or
physically
abusing
others

etc)
 • Major
trail
vandalism
(polluting
creeks
and

• Misuse
of
trail
manipulatives
 trails,
tearing
down
animal
habitats,
starting

• Minor
trail
vandalism
(stomping
on
bugs,
tearing
 fires,
etc)

off
leaves/branches,
throwing
rocks,
etc)

• Theft

• Wandering
due
to
curiosity

• Use
of
weapons

• Purposely
leaving
the
tour
group,
wandering
off

beyond
tour
boundaries


SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 7


Behavior
Profiles

These
profiles
may
help
identify
potential
problem
behaviors
and
how
to
intervene.

Description
 Reasons
 Interventions

Bully
 The
bully
is
usually
somebody
 Teach
cooperative
skills,
teach
anger

who
has
also
been
bullied.
 management,
and
teach
empathy.
Use
drama

This
child
bullies
others
and
can

There
may
be
an
issue
at
home
 (role
playing)
when
you
can,
focusing
on
the

be
quite
a
manipulator.
He/she

or
school
(very
poor
role
 wilderness
–
NOT
THE
CHILD.
Show
students

is
frequently
involved
in
name‐
modeling).
Remember,
the
 what
expected
behavior.

calling
and
likes
to
make
fun
of

bully
doesn't
usually
suffer

others.
He/she
will
antagonize
 You
need
a
'No
Tolerance'
policy
and
the
bully

from
self‐esteem.

others,
involves
him/herself
in
 has
to
be
a
part
of
the
implementation
of
the

fighting
or
instigating
fights
or
 policy.
The
bully
needs
to
fully
understand
the

arguments
and
belittling
others.
 no
tolerance
policy.

The
bully
is
described
as
being

Reward
positive
behavior
by
verbal
praise
and

'insensitive'
to
others.
He/she

including
student
in
tour
script.

likes
to
solve
problems
by

winning
fights
and
arguments.

The
bully
tends
to
be
lacking
in

empathy
and
compassion.

Teaser
 At
some
point
most
children
 The
teaser
needs
to
be
taught
that
he
is
hurting

have
taken
part
in
teasing.
 others.
This
can
be
accomplished
through
some

This
child
constantly
teases
and

Some
tease
because
the
one
 role‐playing.

pokes
fun
at
others
and
is
often

being
teased
is
just
different

seen
as
picking
on
them.
 The
teaser
needs
to
be
taught
about
difference

and
the
teaser
doesn't

Teasing
is
actually
another
form
 among
children.

You
can
teach
this
through

understand
those
differences.

of
criticizing
and
harassment;
 drawing
a
correlation
between
differences
in

Others
tease
because
they
take

the
child
who
teases
is
usually
 animals/insects.

Ask
students
“How
would
the

pleasure
in
poking
fun
and
it's

“putting
others
down.”
 bug
feel
if…,”
instead
of
putting
the
focus
on
the

a
quick
way
to
get
attention.

child.

Sometimes
the
child
who

teases
just
likes
to
hurt
others
 Praise
the
teaser
for
positive
interactions,
this

and
if
they
get
the
response
 will
help
his/her
self‐esteem
and
hopefully

they're
looking
for,
they'll
 reduce
the
amount
of
teasing
he/she
embarks

continue
to
tease
that
much
 on.

more.

Avoid
lectures
and
quick
irrational
decisions.


8
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Description
 Reasons
 Interventions

Attention
Seeker
 The
Attention
Seeking
child
is
 Explain
to
the
child
that
you
have
a
number
of

in
need
of
more
attention
than
 children
to
work
with
each
day.
Provide
them

This
child
constantly
does

most.
They
seem
to
have
 with
a
point
in
the
tour
that
appears
to
be
just

things
to
get
your
attention
and

something
to
prove
and
don't
 for
the
tour
(even
if
just
a
30‐second
period).


it
can
become
quite
annoying.

take
as
much
pride
 Ask
the
child
to
pay
special
attention
to
the
tour

They
will
blurt
out
and
tell
you

intrinsically
as
they
do
 because
you
are
going
to
have
them
explain
that

what
they
did
or
even
mimic
as

extrinsically.
This
child
may
 part
of
the
tour.

It
may
be
a
help
to
have
a

tour
guides
themselves.
Their

not
have
a
sense
of
belonging.
 specific
place
picked
out
on
the
tour
to

desire
for
attention
is
almost

Try
and
understand
the
need,
 incorporate
every
time.

insatiable.
Much
of
what
they
do

may
need
some
confidence

is
done
to
get
attention.
It
 Promote
intrinsic
motivation.
Ask
the
child
what

building.
Sometimes
the

doesn't
seem
to
matter
that
you
 they
like
about
what
they
did

attention
seeker
is
simply
just

provide
lots
of
attention
as
they

immature
or
used
to
getting
a
 Always
commend
the
child
on
his/her

continually
seek
more.

certain
amount
of
attention
at
 improvement.

home.
If
this
is
the
case,
adhere

During
the
child's
special
time,
take
time
to

to
the
interventions
and
the

boost
their
confidence.

child
will
outgrow
the

insatiable
need
for
attention.
 Provide
the
child
with
responsibilities
and
a

leadership
role
from
time
to
time.

Aggressor
 The
aggressor
will
rarely
have
 Never
ignore
inappropriate
aggressions
and
do

self‐confidence
and
gains
it
 not
get
drawn
into
a
power
struggle
with
the

This
child
will
often
antagonize

through
aggressive
behavior.
 aggressor.

others,
involves
him/herself
in

Aggressors
are
attention

fighting
or
instigating
fights
or
 Be
firm
but
gentle
in
your
approach.
Remember,

seekers
and
they
enjoy
the

arguments.
This
type
can
often
 the
aggressor
can
handle
the
tough
side
of
you

attention
they
gain
from
being

be
seen
as
a
bully
and
tends
to
 but
he/she
will
succumb
to
gentleness
and
it's

aggressive.
Power
brings

have
just
a
few
friends.
He/she
 really
what
he
wants
‐
the
right
kind
of
attention.

attention
and
the
aggressor

likes
to
solve
problems
by

has
learned
this.
Due
to
the
 Successful
teachers
know
that
when
they

winning
fights
and
arguments.

child's
weaker
self‐image
and
 establish
a
one
to
one
relationship
with
he

Aggressive
children
often

the
fact
that
he
or
she
doesn't
 aggressor,
success
soon
follows.
Remember,
the

threaten
others.
Other
students

fit
in,
they
try
aggressive
 aggressor
can
usually
tell
if
you
genuinely
like

often
fear
the
aggressor
as

behavior
and
soon
become
 him/her,
be
genuine,
this
child
merely
needs

he/she
will
be
both
verbally
and

leaders,
even
though
they
 attention.

physically
aggressive.

usually
know
that
they
are

Provide
opportunities
for
this
child
to
act

behaving
inappropriately.

appropriately
and
get
some
badly
needed

attention,
give
him/her
responsibilities
and

provide
praise.

Catch
the
aggressor
behaving
well
and
provide

immediate,
positive
feedback.
In
time,
you
will

see
that
the
aggressive
behaviors
will
start
to

diminish.

Provide
him/her
with
activities
that
bring
forth

leadership
in
a
positive
way,
always
let
him/her

know
that
you
care,
trust
and
respect
him.

Remind
him/her
that
it's
the
inappropriate

behaviors
that
you
don't
like.

Provide
as
many
methods
as
you
can
for
this

child
to
take
ownership
for
his/her

inappropriate
behavior.
Probe
him/her
with

how
should
that
have
been
handled
and
how
will

it
be
handled
next
time.


SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 9


On
a
Nature
Hike

1. Keep
the
group
moving,
active,
and
focused.
Come
prepared
with
more
activities
than
may
allow.

2. Let
them
know
ahead
of
time
what
to
expect,
including
where
they
are
going,
how
long
they
will
be
there,
etc.

Remember
to
save
some
surprises.

3. Put
time
between
expectations,
directions,
and
rules.
Do
not
overwhelm
them
with
information;
putting
the

most
important
details
first.

4. Have
a
focus
or
theme
for
the
hike,
making
connections
to
the
theme
as
much
as
possible.

5. Ask
questions
inquiring
about
what
they
already
know;
“What
do
you
know
about
frogs?”

6. Encourage
using
all
senses.

7. Turn
questions
back
to
the
students.
Have
them
work
out
a
question
through
reason
and
observation.

8. Concentrate
on
what
interests
the
group.
If
they
like
the
butterfly,
spend
more
time
watching
how
it
flies,

where
it
lands,
etc.

9. Repeat
what
the
students
have
learned.
If
they
identified
a
certain
tree
once,
ask
them
at
least
three
more

times
on
the
hike.

10. Have
them
discover
on
their
own;
“Go
find
something
green”
or
“Go
find
something
that
feels
coarse.”

11. Use
fun
ways
to
review
information.
Use
riddles
to
quiz
them
or
have
them
review
with
each
other.

12. Use
different
activities
with
varying
group
sizes.


Wrap‐up
Activities

As
the
groups
filter
back,
let
each
child
share
their
favorite
part
of
the
walk.
This
could
be
an
animal
they
saw
or

something
unusual
that
happened.
The
wrap‐up
is
a
good
time
to
discuss
the
importance
of
what
we
can
do
to
become

better
stewards
of
earth's
natural
resources.

• “How
many
animals
did
we
see
signs
of?”

• ”What
did
you
like
the
best
about
our
walk?”

Working
with
Animals

Animals
of
all
kinds
make
their
homes
along
the
trails
at
Sandy
Creek
Nature

Center.
During
morning
walks
it
is
not
uncommon
to
see
birds,
squirrels,
 The
Golden
Rule

lizards
and
snakes
as
well
as
a
myriad
of
smaller
creepy
crawlies
(insects,
 

worms
and
unknowns).
Most
of
these
animals
will
avoid
close
contact
with
 “If
you
don’t
know
what
it
is,
don’t

the
group,
but
a
few
will
provide
you
with
a
hands‐on
learning
opportunity.

 handle
it.


Wild
animals
wouldn't
choose
to
be
handled.
When
we
choose
to
handle
them

we
must
do
everything
possible
to
make
it
a
positive
experience
for
both
the
animals
and
the
group.
The
general
rule

is:
IF
YOU
DON'T
KNOW
WHAT
IT
IS,
DON'T
HANDLE
IT.
Some
critters,
such
as
bees,
wasps,
and
spiders
can
sting
or

bite.
If
you
come
across
these
or
critters
you
can't
identify,
use
your
eyes
and
not
your
hands.
The
techniques
for

handling
animals
vary
as
greatly
as
the
animals
do.
The
following
tips
should
help
when
critters
cross
your
path.



Mammals
and
Birds

Currently,
the
center
does
not
have
a
collection
of
mammals
and
birds
suitable
for
handling.
Thus,
it
is
important
to

learn
ways
for
the
group
to
observe
them
from
a
distance.
If
the
group
is
stationary,
birds
and
mammals
will
often

continue
their
normal
behavior
(food
gathering,
nest
building,
etc.)
Role‐playing
as
“jungle
explorers”
can
help
focus

the
group's
attention
on
the
necessity
of
quiet
observation.
If
your
group
finds
an
injured
or
baby
bird
or
mammal,

leave
it
where
you
found
it
and
inform
the
staff.
Most
baby
birds
out
of
the
nest
do
not
need
our
assistance.



• Rabies
can
be
transmitted
by
a
bite
from
a
stray
animal.
Should
your
group
encounter
a
wild

Note
 or
stray
animal
acting
abnormally
(e.g.,
a
raccoon
active
during
the
day
&
ignoring
people),

immediately
move
the
group
away
and
contact
the
staff.





10
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Reptiles

Snakes,
turtles,
and
lizards
are
common
reptiles

that
can
be
found
along
the
trail.
Snakes
are
best

left
alone.
Most
classes
get
the
opportunity
to
touch

a
snake
during
the
inside
portion
of
the
field
study

program.
Of
the
five
species
of
lizards
found
at

Sandy
Creek
Nature
Center,
all
are
fast
and
have
a

unique
adaptation
for
escaping
predators
(human

and
otherwise).
When
restrained,
the
tail
of
most

lizards
will
break
off.
When
this
happens
under

natural
conditions,
the
lizard
leaves
behind
a

wiggling
appendage
that
often
confuses
predators.

Even
though
it
will
grow
back,
it
is
not
worth
the

risk
to
the
lizard
while
on
the
trail.


They
can
often
be
found
scurrying
along
logs
and
up
the
trees
at
the
top
of
Pine
Ridge
Trail.
Turtles
are
commonly

encountered
during
trail
walks.
Many
can
be
seen
sitting
on
floating
logs
in
the
pond.
Aquatic
species
of
turtles
are

generally
more
apt
to
snap
or
bite
during
handling.
So,
beware!
The
very
common
Eastern
Box
turtle,
a
land
turtle,
is

easily
handled.
Use
both
hands
and
support
the
top
and
bottom
shells.
The
claws
are
quite
sharp,
especially
to

children,
so
it
is
important
to
keep
a
close
eye
on
the
handler.


Amphibians

Frogs
and
toads
are
very
common
in
Georgia,
and
most
young
children
are
quite
familiar
with
them.
As
a
rule,
toads

found
along
the
trail
will
end
up
in
the
fastest
youngster's
hands.
Make
sure
the
excited
child
does
not
squeeze
too

hard.
Salamanders
are
found
under
logs
or
stones
and
can
also
give
children
quite
a
surprise.
As
amphibians,

salamanders
have
a
moist
outer
covering
for
protection.
Dry
hands
can
damage
this
covering
so
be
careful
picking

them
up.
We
recommend
leaving
them
alone
or
wetting
hands
and
placing
the
captive
in
a
small
jar
and
passing
the

jar
around
the
group.


Insects
and
Other
Creepy
Crawlies

With
so
many
kinds
of
insects
around
the
Nature
Center,
it
would
be

difficult
to
learn
to
identify
them
all.
Use
magnifying
cubes
or
jars
to

handle
unidentified
insects
and
other
invertebrates.
Soft‐bodied

insects,
such
as
caterpillars,
can
be
handled
on
twigs.
Brightly
colored

animals
are
usually
best
left
alone
as
they
may
sting,
bite,
or
are

dangerous
when
handled.
Many
caterpillars
have
long
or
bristly
hairs

that
can
cause
skin
irritation
when
touched.
Daddy
Long‐Legs
are
not

harmful
and
can
be
allowed
to
crawl
on
a
child’s
arm.


Venomous
Animals

Generally,
trailside
venomous
animal
encounters
are
rare.
It
is
still
a
good
idea
to
be
able
to
identify
the
venomous

animals
found
at
Sandy
Creek.
If
you
should
encounter
one
of
these
creatures,
use
extreme
caution.
Keep
the
group

back
and
observe
from
a
distance.
Remain
calm,
turn
the
group
around,
and
move
to
another
trail
if
necessary.
Never

attempt
to
move
a
dangerous
animal
off
the
trail.
Copperheads
are
generally
not
aggressive
if
left
alone!



...Last
But
Not
Least

Young
children
are
not
born
with
gentle
hands.
Small,
soft‐bodied
animals
cannot
protect
themselves
from

inexperienced
handlers.
Pay
special
attention
to
nervous
or
first‐time
handlers
of
any
animal
and
be
ready
to
help
out

at
the
"drop
of
a
toad."


SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 11


Additional
Resources


Reference
Books


The
Nature
Center's
reference
books
are
located
in
the
library
of
the
ENSAT
building.
These
materials
are
for
you
to

use
while
at
the
center.
Golden
Guides
and
Peterson
Field
Guides
are
perfect
for
the
trail
and
may
be
used
outdoors.

Because
of
the
limited
space
and
high
usage,
all
books
must
remain
at
the
Nature
Center.
After
use,
replace
books
to

the
shelves
on
which
you
found
them.
Also
refer
to
the
Suggested
Reading
List
in
this
guide.


Equipment
Use

Depending
on
what
kind
activities
you
select,
various
kind
of
equipment
will
be
helpful.
If
you
can't
find
something
on

the
list,
just
ask
one
of
the
staff
members,
as
it
may
be
stored
some
where
else.
If
you
use
equipment
during
a
walk,

return
it
to
where
it
is
stored.
If
clean
up
is
handled
before
storage,
items
will
be
ready
for
the
next
group.
Accidents

do
occur
and
damage
to
equipment
should
be
reported
to
one
of
the
naturalists
as
soon
as
possible.
If
you
can
think
of

a
useful
gadget
or
resource
that
is
not
on
the
list
just
ask
a
staff
person.
They
might
have
an
idea
on
how
to
get
it
for

next
time.
If
you
need
ideas
or
instruction
on
how
to
use
any
of
the
equipment,
just
ask
a
naturalist.


Available
Equipment

• Hand
lenses
 • Magnifying
cubes

• Observation
pans
 • "Magic
circles"

• Blindfolds
 • Insect
nets

• Increment
borers
 • Small
magnification
jars

• Misc.
field
guides
 • “Mini‐Guide
to
Living
Things”

• Spray
bottles
 • Scavenger
Hunts



SCNC
Emergency/Hazardous
Weather
Procedures

Definition

Emergency
hazardous
weather
conditions
are
those
environmental
conditions,
which
by
either
official
radio
weather

aim
warnings,
or
by
obvious
visual
and
other
physical
environmental
states,
constitute
life‐threatening
danger
for

people
in
park
settings.
In
the
Northeast
Georgia
Piedmont
Region,
such
conditions
will
normally
include

thunderstorms,
tornadoes,
and
occasionally
hurricanes.
These
storms
may
incorporate
hail,
high
winds,
lightning,

driving
rain,
and/or
flash
flooding
in
low
areas
and
in
the
immediate
vicinity
of
lakes,
rivers,
and
creeks.


General
Procedures
for
Foul
Weather
Alert

For
Outdoor
Activities

Note:
groups
already
at
a
facility
should
remain
inside
and
follow
appropriate
steps
as
outlined
below:


• A
Radio
with
battery
operation
potential
and
NOAA
weather
alert
frequency
is
located
at
Walker
Hall
and
in

ENSAT.
This
radio
stays
on
at
all
times
during
operating
hours.
Additionally,
a
staff
member
is
always
present

and
within
earshot
of
the
radio
during
operating
hours.
Staff
high‐band
radios
also
can
monitor
NOAA

weather
on
channel
3.


• At
ENSAT,
a
lightning
monitor
is
also
present
for
additional
warning
time
for
thunderstorms.

• Staff
and
volunteers
conducting
outdoor
programs
during
operating
hours
and/or
when
the
Administrative

Offices
are
open,
should
wear
a
high
band
radio.


• When
a
hazardous
weather
aim
is
signaled
on
the
radio,
the
office
staff
member
radios
all
volunteers/staff

and
informs
them
of
the
nature
of
the
alert.
Staff
and
volunteers
should
keep
themselves
and
their
groups

close
to
"safe"
areas
until
the
alert
passes
or
intensifies.
Safe
areas
include
ENSAT,
the
Log
House,
and
the

Walker
Hall
Complex.
If
the
weather
deteriorates,
groups
should
be
moved
inside
a
safe
area
and
to
the
most

secure
portion
of
the
facility.
These
areas
have
been
identified
as:


 ENSAT:
Main
hallway
between
the
reception
area
and
the
exit
doors
by
the
administrative
offices.

 Walker
Hall
Complex:
Closing
the
solid
hallway
door,
groups
should
sit
in
the
comer
of
this
area
up

against
the
wall
and
door.
If
possible,
the
moveable
portion
should
be
pulled
across
the
open
space
and

secured.
This
will
help
minimize
flying
glass
and
debris.

12
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


 Log
House:
Groups
should
move
to
the
comer
of
the
building

to
the
left
of
the
fireplace
(when
facing
the
fireplace).


Emergency
Call
Sequence

• Children
should
not
be
released
or
moved
from
the
safe
area

during
severe
weather.
Parents
need
to
wait
until
the
danger
has
 In
case
of
emergency,
call
(in
order):

passed,
especially
lightning
in
the
general
vicinity.

 1. 9‐911

2. Facility
Supervisor

When
Severe
Weather
Strikes
 3. Division
Manager

4. Director
of
Leisure
Services

In
Any
Building
 or
Representative

Tornadoes:
position
visitors/staff
against
walls
away
from
plumbing
in
a
 

squatting
or
sitting
position

 Refer
all
calls
from
the
media
to
the

Thunderstorms/Hurricanes:
take
up
positions
against
inside
walls
and
 Department
Director
or
appropriate

away
from
plumbing
and
fireplace
openings

 supervisor.



In
Any
Open
Area

Tornadoes:
seek
lowest
possible
point
nearby,
away
from
power
lines
or
obstructions.
Have
participants
lie
face
down

and
cover
their
heads
with
their
arms.


Thunderstorms/Hurricanes:
seek
lowest
point
nearby,
away
from
power
lines
or
obstructions.
Have
participants

squat
down
with
feet
together
and
cover
their
head
with
their
arms.


In
Any
Wooded
Area

Seek
a
clearing
or
near
clearing,
if
possible,
away
from
bodies
of
water
and
power
lines.
Follow
instructions
for
open

areas.


Once
the
situation
has
been
stabilized,
contact
risk
management,
fill
out
appropriate
forms
(incident
report,
first

report
of
accents,
etc.)
within
the
appropriate
time
span.

SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 13


Loop
Trails
from
ENSAT


1. Stumphole
Trail
to
Kestrel
Trail
to
ADA
Boardwalk

Begin
at
the
front
door
of
ENSAT.
Walk
through
the
parking
lot
and
begin
down
the
path
that
links
to
the
overflow

parking
lot.
Look
for
Stumphole
Trailhead
on
your
left
about
halfway
down
the
trail.
Follow
trail
until
it
dead‐ends

into
Kestrel
Trail.
Turn
left.
Shortly
thereafter,
you
will
reach
another
T‐junction.
Turn
right
and
follow
along
the

North
Oconee
River
until
you
meet
the
platform
at
the
end
of
the
ADA
boardwalk.

2. Boardwalk
Trail
to
Kestrel
Trail

Begin
at
the
ENSAT
backdoor.
Follow
the
ADA
Boardwalk
all
the
way
until
you
reach
the
platform
at
the
North
Oconee

River.
Step
off
the
platform
on
the
right‐hand
side
and
take
the
path
(Kestrel
Trail)
that
follows
along
the
riverbank.

Stay
to
your
right
as
you
follow
this
trail
and
you
will
eventually
wind
up
back
at
the
opposite
end
of
the
ADA

Boardwalk
Trail,
next
to
the
wildlife
blind.

3. ADA
Boardwalk
to
Kingfisher
Pond
Trail
to
Road

Begin
at
the
backdoor
of
ENSAT.
Follow
the
ADA
boardwalk
until
you
reach
the
Kingfisher
Pond
Trail
turn
off
on
the

left‐hand
side
of
the
boardwalk.
Take
Kingfisher
Pond
Trail
until
you
reach
the
intersection
with
Crossridge
Trail.

Turn
left
on
Crossridge
Trail
and
follow
it
a
short
distance
to
the
roadway.
Turn
left
on
the
road
and
walk
back
to
the

backdoor
of
ENSAT.
If
you
have
additional
time,
you
may
continue
down
Kingfisher
Pond
Trail
further
until
it
dead­ends

into
the
road
rather
than
taking
Crossridge
Trail.

4. Hooded
Warbler
Trail
to
Pine
Ridge
Trail

Begin
at
the
front
entrance
of
ENSAT.
Take
the
sidewalk/asphalt
path
to
the
trailhead
in
front
of
the
Allen
House.
Go

through
the
wooden
fence
and
enter
the
woods.
Upon
entering
the
woods,
take
the
trail
to
the
left
and
follow
it
until

you
reach
the
Hooded
Warbler
Trailhead
on
your
right.
Turn
right
and
follow
Hood
Warbler
Trail
until
it
dead‐ends

into
Pine
Ridge
Trail.
You
will
pass
the
entrance
to
Claypit
Pond
Trail
on
your
left
as
you
near
the
junction
with
Pine

Ridge
Trail.
Do
not
travel
down
Claypit
Pond
Trail
unless
you
have
quite
a
bit
more
time
to
spend
on
the
trails
with
your

group.
Upon
reaching
Pine
Ridge
Trail,
take
a
right
and
follow
the
trail
until
you
are
back
at
the
wooden
fence
at
the

entrance
to
the
woods
located
next
to
the
Allen
House.

Loop
Trails
from
Walker
Hall


5. Pine
Ridge
Trail
to
Claypit
Pond
Trail

Beginning
at
the
front
deck
at
the
Fireside
Building,
walk
up
Pine
Ridge
Trail
until
you
reach
the
large,
wooden

staircase.
Descend
the
staircase.
At
the
bottom
of
the
stairs,
you
will
now
be
on
Claypit
Pond
Trail.
Turn
right
on

Claypit
Pond
Trail
and
follow
the
trail
along
the
banks
of
the
pond
until
you
reach
the
large,
wooden
staircase
located

behind
the
Fireside
Building.
Climb
the
stairs
and
you
will
reach
the
front
deck
where
you
began
your
hike.

6. Levee
Trail
to
Georgia
Power
Easement

Begin
at
the
Levee
Trail
trailhead
that
is
located
across
the
parking
lot
in
front
of
Walker
Hall.
Descend
the
trail
and

turn
left.
Follow
the
trail
down
to
the
Sandy
Creek
/
North
Oconee
confluence
and
then
along
the
creek
bank
until
you

reach
the
Greenway
bridge.
Take
the
trail
under
the
bridge
and
then
turn
left
just
past
the
bridge
to
exit
the
woods.

You
will
find
yourself
at
the
power
line
easement
located
behind
Walker
Hall.
Take
the
asphalt
path
back
to
the

parking
lot
where
you
began.

7. Log
House
Loop
to
Levee
Trail

Begin
at
the
back
deck
of
Walker
Hall
and
take
the
ramp
behind
Walker
Hall
to
the
Log
House
Loop
trail.
Follow
the

trail
until
reaching
the
Log
House.
Stop
for
a
visit
then
continue
as
the
trail
goes
behind
the
Log
House
and
follows
the

banks
of
Sandy
Creek.
When
you
reach
the
Greenway
Bridge
over
Sandy
Creek,
take
the
trail
on
your
right
and
it
will

lead
you
to
the
power
line
easement
located
behind
Walker
Hall.
This
loop
trail
is
rather
short.
So,
you
may
want
to

spend
more
time
by
continuing
on
Levee
Trail
under
the
bridge
and
around
by
the
confluence
and
then
reemerging
in

the
power
line
easement
on
the
opposite
side.


14
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Sandy
Creek
Nature
Center
Map

SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 15


Topic:
The
Animal
Kingdom


Summary
of
Basic
Concepts

1. There
are
five
vertebrate
animal
groups.

a. Reptiles:
they
have
dry
scales
covering
their
body.
Examples
of

reptiles
include
snakes,
alligators,
and
turtles.
Most
reptiles
lay

eggs
to
reproduce.


b. Amphibians:
they
have
thin,
moist
skin.
Amphibians
live
in
moist

environments
so
their
skin
will
not
dry
out.
Examples
of

amphibians
include
frogs
and
salamanders.
Most
amphibians
lay

eggs
to
reproduce.


c. Fish:
live
in
both
salt
and
fresh
water
environments.
Their
skin
is

wet,
slimy,
and
scaly.
They
breathe
through
gills
and
lay
eggs
to

reproduce.


d. Birds:
have
feathers
for
insulation
and
flight.
All
birds
lay
eggs.


e. Mammals:
have
fur
or
hair,
which
keeps
them
warm.
All

mammals
have
mammary
glands
that
produce
milk
for
their

offspring.
All
but
two
species
of
mammals
give
birth
to
live

young
and
each
mammal's
gestation
period
(the
amount
of
time

a
baby
is
inside
the
mother's
womb)
differs.
Exceptions
are
the

duckbill
platypus
and
the
echidna,
which
both
lay
eggs.

2. Some
animals
are
classified
as
invertebrates,
which
means
they
do

not
have
a
backbone.
Examples
of
these
include
insects
and
worms.

Of
all
the
animals
on
earth,
75%
are
invertebrates.


Suggested
Trails

Claypit
Pond
or
Kingfisher
Pond


Materials

First‐aid
pack,
"A
Mini‐Guide
To
Living
Things,"
Animal
Track
ID
sheet,
and
Animal
Kingdom
“bingo”
sheet


Trail
Walk
Activities

1. Look
at
different
layers
of
the
forest
and
discuss
the
different
habitats
that
exist
in
each
layer.

a. Start
off
with
the
canopy
and
look
for
bird's
nest.


b. Then
discuss
the
animals
that
live
on
the
forest
floor
(deer,
raccoons,
squirrels,
chipmunks,
etc.)


c. Along
the
water,
discuss
animals
that
use
the
water
as
a
habitat
(fish,
duck,
beavers,
otters,
snakes,

turtles,
frogs,
etc.)
If
possible,
look
for
beaver
dams
and
beaver
logs
along
the
banks!
Use
“A
Mini‐
Guide
To
Living
Things”
to
help
identify
native
species
that
live
around
SCNC.

2. Compare
vertebrates
and
invertebrates
that
you
may
find,
including
size,
habitat,
body
covering,
etc.


3. Visit
the
track
box
or
a
bank
along
the
either
river
and
let
the
children
try
to
identify
different
animals
that

have
traveled
through
the
area.
Use
a
track
identification
sheet
to
help
identify
the
tracks.



Rainy
Day
Activities

1. Animal
charades

 5. Reptile
Cards
(play
“Go
Fish,”
etc.)

2. Animal
sensory
game
(using
furs,
feathers,
 6. It's
not
just
an
animal
game

snakeskin)
 7. Use
the
resource
folder
in
the
volunteer
room

3. Animal
Sound
Bingo

 for
coloring
activities

4. Make
a
flight
of
the
bird
booklet

16
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Topic:
Lifecycles


Summary
of
Basic
Concepts

1. Insects
–
all
insects
go
through
a
process
called
metamorphosis,

which
means
to
change.
There
are
two
types
of
metamorphosis

a. Incomplete‐the
three
life
stages
are
egg
to
nymph
to
adult.
In
this

cycle,
the
nymph
looks
just
like
the
parent
insect.
(ex:

dragonflies,
crickets,
grasshoppers,
cockroaches
and
cicadas.)


b. Complete‐this
lifecycle
has
4
stages:
egg
to
larva
to
pupa
to
adult.

(ex.
butterflies,
moths,
flies,
fleas,
bees,
wasps.
ants,
and
beetles.)

2. Reptiles/amphibians
–
most
reptiles
and
amphibians
start
their
lives

off
as
an
embryo
in
an
egg.
Amphibians
undergo
metamorphosis.
For

example:
a
frog
starts
as
an
egg,
hatches
into
a
tadpole
with
a
tail
and

no
legs,
then
grows
legs
and
loses
it's
tail
to
become
a
frog.


3. Mammals
–
all
mammals,
except
for
the
duckbill
platypus
and
the

echidna
have
live
births.
Each
mammal's
gestation
period
(the
time
a

baby
is
inside
the
mother's
womb)
is
different.
An
elephant
baby

stays
in
her
mother's
womb
for
almost
two
years!
A
human's

gestation
period
is
only
nine
months!

4. Birds‐all
birds
lay
eggs,
and
most
birds
lay
their
eggs
in
a
nest.
Bird's

eggs
come
in
all
shapes,
sizes
and
colors.



Suggested
Trails

Claypit,
Kingfisher,
Pine
Ridge,
or
the
boardwalk
behind
ENSAT
(which

connects
to
Kingfisher)


Materials

First‐aid
pack,
Lifecycles
bingo
card,
ENSAT
lifecycles
scavenger
hunt
sheet,

mothers
and
babies
card
game.


Trail
Walk
Activities

1. Using
the
lifecycles
stages
bingo
card
look
for
the
different
life
stages

that
are
on
the
sheet.


2. Look
for
bird
and
squirrel's
nests
in
the
trees.
Discuss
the
difference

between
birds
laying
eggs
in
their
nests
vs.
squirrels
giving
birth
to

live
young
in
their
nests.


3. Look
for
seeds‐explain
that
fallen
seeds.
if
given
the
right
conditions,

\\'ill
grow
into
trees.
A
great
example
of
a
seed
would
be
an
acorn

from
an
oak
tree.
Explain
how
animals
such
as
bees,
butterflies
and
birds
help
disperse
seeds
and
promote

new
plant
growth.


4. Stay
on
the
lookout
for
signs
of
lifecycles
such
as
molted
snakeskin,
cicada
exoskeletons,
new
seedlings,
etc.


5. If
you
come
across
anything
cool,
like
a
caterpillar
or
a
frog.
or
even
a
pinecone,
talk
about
it's
lifecycle!


Rainy
Day
Activities

1. Make
a
book
illustrating
the
different
phases
of
a
frog's
life

2. Go
on
a
lifecycles
scavenger
hunt
around
the
ENSAT
building

3. Play
the
mothers
and
babies
matching
game



SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 17


Topic:
Reptiles


Summary
of
Basic
Concepts

Reptiles
are
cold‐blooded
with
scaly
tough
skin
that
feels
dry
to
touch
and
lay

eggs
on
land.

1. Alligators
and
Crocodiles
have
tough
scaly
skin,
long
tails,
powerful
jaws,

and
are
carnivores.
An
alligator's
jaw
is
rounded
and
broad,
while
a

crocodile’s
jaw
is
long
and
pointed.
Do
they
live
in
Claypit
Pond?
No!
We

are
too
far
north
for
them
to
reproduce.


2. Turtles
are
different
from
other
reptiles,
because
they
have
a
shell
that
is

a
part
of
their
skeleton.
There
are
land
turtles,
which
cannot
swim
and

water
turtles
with
webbed
feet.
All
turtles
must
breathe
air
using
their

lungs,
even
sea
turtles.
Look
for
box,
Eastern
painted,
slider,
sea
turtle,

and
gopher
tortoise
(in
exhibit
hall).

3. Snakes
are
also
carnivores.
Most
snakes
lay
eggs,
but
some,
like
the
garter

snake
give
live
birth.
As
a
snake
grows
larger,
it
must
molt
its
skin.
This

happens
several
times
a
year.
Venomous
snakes
have
a
triangular
head,

football
shaped
pupils,
a
single
row
of
scales
on
their
tail,
and
their
body

is
thick.
Non‐venomous
snakes
have
a
more
rounded
head,
basketball

shaped
pupils,
two
rows
of
scales
on
their
tail,
and
slender
bodies.
Look

for
rat,
ringneck,
king,
copperhead,
and
rough
green
snakes.

4. Lizards
and
Skinks
have
a
short
body,
long
tail,
and
usually
four
legs.
Two

legged
lizards
and
legless
lizards
do
exist,
but
are
rare.
Most
lizards
eat

insects
as
they
fly
past.
Some
species
can
change
color
to
blend
in
with

their
surroundings,
like
the
green
anole
and
chameleon.
Look
for
anoles,

fence
lizards,
five‐lined,
and
broad‐headed
skink.

Note:
salamanders
and
newts
look
similar
to
lizards,
but
are
amphibians
with
moist
slimy
skin
and
claws.
Amphibians

develop
in
water,
have
gills
for
breathing,
and
eventually
undergo
metamorphosis
unlike
reptiles.


Suggested
Trails

Kestrel,
Log
House,
Kingfisher,
or
Claypit
Pond


Materials

First‐aid
pack,
“A
Mini‐Guide
to
Living
Things,”
Reptile
ID
sheet,
and
a
Reptile
“bingo"
sheet
or
Snake
Skin


Trail
Walk
Activities

Look
for
evidence
of
reptile
activity
(snakeskin).
A
black
rat
snake
often
hangs
out
in
a
birdhouse
along
Kingfisher

Pond
Trail.
Look
for
lizards
around
ENSAT
building
or
turtles
at
Claypit
Pond.
Discuss
differences
between
reptiles

and
amphibians.
Challenge
the
children
to
see
how
many
reptiles
they
can
find
in
exhibit
Hall
at
Fireside
or
ENSAT


Games

1. Turtle
tag:
This
game
is
like
freeze
tag.
The
person
who
is
"it"
tags
people,
when
tagged
they
have
to
go
into

their
shell
and
stay
that
way
until
tagged
by
another
child.

2. Egg.
Egg.
Snake:
This
game
is
just
like
Duck.
Duck.
Goose.
It
works
well
with
younger
children.
Try
using
other

variations
such
as
Tadpole.
Tadpole.
Frog.


3. Rattlers:
Form
a
circle
(snake
pit)
around
two
players
that
are
“it.”
One
is
the
quarry
snake
and
the
other
the

pursuer
snake.
These
two
should
close
their
eyes.
The
pursuer
can
make
a
rattling
sound
(up
to
5
times
only)

to
which
the
quarry
must
respond
with
a
rattling
sound.
The
children
forming
the
snake
pit
can
participate
by

helping
the
pursuer
keep
track
of
its
rattles.
Once
the
pursuer
catches
the
quarry,
the
game
is
finished.


Rainy
Day
Activities

1. Nature
Bingo
 3. Reptile
Cards
(play
“Go
Fish,”
etc.)

2. Eye
Witness
Reptiles
video
(library)
 4. Reptile
Hunt
(resource
file)

18
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Topic:
Rocks
and
Fossils



Summary
of
Basic
Concepts:


1. There
are
three
types
of
rocks

a. Sedimentary
(layers):
These
rocks
are
layered,
because
they
form

from
rock
fragments,
minerals,
and
fossils
that
get
compressed

together
either
by
pressure
or
chemical
processes
(sandstone,

limestone,
and
shale).
Fossils
are
commonly
found
in
between
the

layers
of
sedimentary
rocks.

b. Igneous
(volcanoes):
These
rocks
are
created
from
volcanoes.

Igneous
rocks
form
when
hot
molten
rock
(magma)
cools
down.

They
may
form
at
or
below
the
earth’s
surface
(granite
and
basalts).


c. Metamorphic
(change):
These
are
rocks
whose
original
composition

is
changed
due
to
high
temperatures,
high
pressure,
or
both.
They

form
below
the
earth’s
surface
(marble
and
shale).


2. Rocks
are
made
up
of
different
types
of
minerals.
Minerals
give
rocks

their
color,
hardness,
shape,
and
texture.
Rocks
can
be
clear
(quartz),

bendable
(mica
layers),
large,
small,
soft
(talc),
hard
(diamonds),
smooth

or
tough.


3. Fossils
are
remains
of
ancient
life.
They
can
be
dinosaur
skeletons,

microscopic
organisms,
or
animal
tracks
and
trails.
Fossils
are
not
found

in
our
region,
because
our
soils
do
not
have
the
proper
conditions
for

making
fossils.


Suggested
Trails

Pine
Ridge.
Claypit,
and
the
Brickyard
ruins


Materials

Soil
corer.
Rock
ID
book,
fern
fossil,
magnifying
glasses


Please
remind
the
children
not
to
collect
rocks!



Trail
Walk
Activities

1. Look
for
rocks
along
the
trails.
Use
magnifying
glasses
to
get
a
closer
look
at
the
minerals‐that
are
in
a
rock.

Look
at
color,
hardness,
texture,
etc.
Look
for
bricks
and
tell
the
story
about
the
old
brickyard.
Have
the
kids

collect
rocks
and
identify
their
own
rock,
using
touch,
smell,
shape,
etc.
Then
have
the
children
pass
the
rocks

around
in
a
circle
behind
their
backs
to
see
if
they
can
find
their
own
rock.


2. Core
sampling.
Take
a
sample
of
soil
layers
using
the
corer
and
look
at
the
different
colors
and
composition
of

the
layers.
Darker
soils
indicate
there
is
more
organic
content
and
red
in
the
soil
means
it
contains
iron.


3. Turn
over
rocks
as
you
go
along
and
show
the
children
the
different
organisms
(such
as
insects
and
worms)

that
use
rocks
as
their
habitat.
Please
replace
them
when
finished.

4. Take
a
fern
fossil
and
show
the
children
how
a
living
plant
can
be
preserved
into
stone.
Show
them
examples

of
"living”
fossils,
such
as
dragonflies,
ferns,
millipedes,
and
the
sea
turtle.


SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 19


Topic:
Weather


Summary
of
Basic
Concepts:

1. Weather
encompasses
the
daily
changes
that
happen
in
the
lower
pan
of
the
earth's

atmosphere.
Water
(rain),
air
(wind),
and
the
sun
(temperature)
make
weather.


2. Types
of
clouds

a. Stratus
(layers):
usually
the
lowest
clouds
at
~6,500
ft,
appear
in
sheets
or
fog

b. Nimbostratus
(rain):
~6,500
ft,
look
like
piled‐up
heaps
of
cotton
balls
in
the
sky,

are
darker
than
stratus,
and
called
rain
clouds

c. Cumulus
(piled
up):
found
at
almost
any
altitude
with
a
puffy,
popcorn‐like

appearance
that
usually
means
fair
weather

d. Cumulonimbus:
up
to
60,00
feet,
are
the
tallest
of
all
clouds,
and
make
tornadoes

e. Cirrus
(curl
of
hair):
~25,000
ft
and
have
a
thin,
hair‐like
appearance.
These

wispy
clouds
are
easily
blown
around
into
feathery
strands

3. Wind
occurs,
because
air
always
tries
to
move
from
an
area
of
lower
pressure
to
an

area
of
higher
pressure
(compare
this
to
a
balloon;
the
air
inside
of
the
balloon
is

under
high
pressure.
So,
when
the
air
is
released,
it
rushes
out
of
the
balloon
to
the

lower
pressure
area.

4. Temperature:
the
heat
emitted
from
the
sun
controls
how
warm
our
planet
is.
The

sun
heats
the
earth
unevenly
though,
and
that’s
why
it
is
colder
at
the
North
and

South
Poles
than
it
is
here
in
Georgia!
The
equator
is
the
warmest
spot
on
the
earth,

because
it
receives
the
most
sunrays
year
round.


Suggested
Trails

Any
Trail


Materials

First‐aid
pack,
Soil
and
air
thermometers,
Scavenger
hunt,
Cloud
cover
mirrors



Trail
Walk
Activities

1. Using
a
soil
thermometer,
measure
soil
in
the
areas
that
receive
different
amounts
of

sunlight
(underneath
a
tree
vs.
an
area
of
less
tree
coverage).
Also
compare
the

temperature
of
light
and
dark
soils
to
see
which
is
warmer.

2. Observe
the
rain
gauges
along
the
trails
to
see
how
much
precipitation
we
have

received.
Look
for
dew
droplets
on
leaves
and
explain
that
dew
is
water
vapor
that

condenses
on
solid
surfaces.

3. Play
the
weather
seek‐and‐find
game,
using
the
nine‐squared
game
cards
or
the

weather
scavenger
hunt
game.

4. See
if
you
can
tell
which
way
the
wind
is
blowing
use
scale
below.


Wind
Force
Scale

Developed
in
1806
by
Sir
Francis
Beaufort
to
accurately
record
wind
speed.

Wind
Speed
(MPH)
 Wind
Effect
Observed
on
Land
 NWS
Forecast
term

0‐1
 calm,
smoke
rises
vertically
 calm

1‐3
 direction
of
wind
shown
by
smoke,
not
by
wind
veins
 light

4‐7
 wind
felt
on
face,
leaves
rustle
 light

8‐12
 leaves
in
constant
motion
 gentle

25‐31
 large
branches
in
motion,
umbrellas
difficult
to
use
 strong

39‐46
 breaks
off
twigs
 gale

73
or
more
 widespread
damage
 hurricane


Rainy
Day
Activities

1. Make
a
weather
rock
 3. Make
a
cloud
book
using
cotton

2. Make
your
own
weather
 4. Weather
Bingo

20
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Topic:
Habitats


Summary
of
Basic
Concepts:

1. A
habitat
is
the
natural
environment
of
an
organism.
The
air,
water,

minerals,
organisms,
and
all
other
external
factors
surrounding
and

affecting
a
given
organism
at
any
time
are
what
make
up
its
environment.

2. Classifications

a. Community:
group
of
plants
and
animals
living
and
interacting
with

one
another
in
a
specific
region
under
relatively
similar

environmental
conditions

b. Ecosystem:
ecological
community
interacting
with
the
environment

c. Population:
group
of
organisms
of
the
same
species
populating
a
given

area

3. What
types
of
habitats
are
there
in
Georgia?
From
the
coastal
plains
and

the
barrier
islands
up
to
the
forests
and
the
mountains.
Georgia
has
a
wide

range
of
habitats.
The
habitats
change
over
time
due
to
natural
succession,

global
climate
changes,
and
human
interactions.
Some
very
important

habitats
are:

a. Mountains:
(northern
Georgia)
They
are
the
highest
elevation
habitat.

Temperature
drops
with
higher
elevation
and
tree
covering
is
normal.

b. Piedmont:
"foothills"
of
the
mountains,
slowly
turning
the
mountains

into
rolling
hills
as
they
head
toward
the
coast.

c. Coastal
Plains:
almost
completely
flat.
Soil
and
ecosystem
are

completely
different
from
elsewhere
due
to
ocean
interactions.


4. There
are
different
types
of
animals
that
inhabit
each
of
these
areas
based

on
their
particular
needs.
Changes
in
habitat
greatly
affect
the
community

make‐up
in
that
area.


Suggested
Trails

Claypit,
Levee,
Brick
House
Loops,
Oconee


Materials

First‐aid
pack,
soil
and
air
thermometers,
Community
find
cards,
Bug
boxes,

Scavenger
hunts


Trail
Walk
Activities

1. Walk
10
at
least
two
different
habitats
(ex:
forest.
field.
pond)
and
compare
the
different
plants
and
animals

that
you
see
in
each.
Have
the
students
listen
quietly
and
count
the
number
of
different
sound
heard
on
their

fingers.
Compare
the
sounds
heard
in
each
habitat.

2. Test
the
temperatures
of
the
habitats
as
you
visit
them
and
discuss
why
there
is
a
difference
between
the

temperatures
in
the
water,
by
the
water,
under
the
tree
canopy,
and
out
in
the
open.
Why
would
certain

animals
prefer
certain
temperatures?


3. Play
the
hug‐a‐tree
game
and
then
discuss
the
natural
succession
afforests
in
Georgia.


4. Get
a
sample
of
water
from
Claypit
Pond
and
examine
it
for
organisms.
Discuss
what
populations
you
would

expect
to
find
based
on
the
environment.



Rainy
Day
Alternatives

1. Compare
ecosystems
in
Exhibit
hall.
 3. Make
a
"pond
viewer”
or
“ocean
viewer,”

2. Ask
the
kids
to
create
a
new
type
of
habitat,
 putting
in
organisms
that
you
would
find
in

including
soil
type,
water,
temperature,
 that
habitat
(in
exhibit
hall).

plants,
and
animals.
Have
them
explain
why
 4. Use
the
covered
sidewalk
to
create
pencil

the
organisms
prefer
their
"new"
habitat.

 traces
of
some
of
the
animal
tiles
and
where

the
different
animals
live.

5. Habitat
House
Hunt

SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 21


Topic:
Classification


Summary
of
Basic
Concepts

1. Scientists
classify
living
organisms
by
grouping
things
with
a
set
of

rules
that
everyone
follows.


2. Living
organisms
arc
classified
by
grouping
them
from
biggest

differences
(kingdoms:
plants,
animals,
fungi,
protists,
monerans)
to

the
most
specific
(genus
and
species:
Felis
domcsticus
is
a
house
cat

compared
to
a
Felis
concalor,
which
is
a
mountain
lion).

3. The
five
kingdoms
are
plants,
animals,
fungi,
protists,
and
monerans

4. The
animal
kingdom
is
divided
into
two
main
groups:
invertebrate

(without
backbones)
and
vertebrates
(with
backbones).
Invertebrate

phylums
include:
arthropods,
mollusks,
annelids
(worms),
porifera

(sponges),
and
cnidarians
(jellyfish).
All
vertebrates
are
in
the

phylum
Chordata
and
then
divided
into
5
classes:
reptiles,

amphibians,
birds,
mammals,
and
fish.

5. Plants
are
divided
into
two
main
groups:
vascular
(has
tubes)
and

non‐vascular
(no
tubes).
Examples
of
vascular
plants
are
trees,

grasses,
ferns,
etc.
They
carry
moisture
throughout
the
plant
through

tubes
in
roots,
stems,
and
leaves.
Non‐vascular
plants
are
like

mosses.
Water
must
soak
into
the
plant
directly.


Suggested
Trails

Claypit
Pond
or
Kingfisher
Pond


Materials

First‐aid
pack,
“A
Mini‐Guide
to
Living
Things,”
Animal
track
ID
sheet,
and
a

Kingdom
“bingo"



Trail
Walk
Activities

1. Show
kids
examples
of
vascular
and
nonvascular
plants.


2. Look
for
examples
of
the
animal,
plant,
and
fungi
kingdoms.
Use
“A
Mini‐Guider
to
Living
Things"
to
help

identify
native
species
that
live
around
SCNC.
Compare
vertebrates
and
invertebrates
that
you
may
find,

including
size,
habitat,
body
covering,
etc.

3. Find
a
cross
section
of
a
cut
tree.
Discuss
the
layers
and
functions
(bark,
xylem,
phloem,
heartwood,
growth

rings).

4. Visit
the
track
box
located
off
the
boardwalk
and
let
the
children
try
to
identify
different
animals
that
have

traveled
through
the
area.
Use
a
track
identification
sheet
to
help
identify
the
tracks.


Rainy
Day
Alternatives

1. Scavenger
Hunt
in
Exhibit
Hall

 5. Go
Fish
(card
game)


2. Animal
Charades

 6. It's
not
just
an
animal
game


3. Animal
sensory
game
(using
fur,
feathers,
and
 7. Use
the
resource
folder
in
the
volunteer
room

snakeskin)
 for
coloring
activities

4. Animal
Sound
Bingo


22
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Topic:
Microorganisms


Summary
of
Basic
Concepts

1. Microorganisms
are
all
around
us
but
too
small
to
sec
with
our
eyes.

To
view
them,
we
must
use
a
microscope.

2. Microorganisms
are
single‐celled
organisms.
Examples
are
protists

and
bacteria.


3. Some
microorganisms
are
beneficial
to
other
organisms,
while
some

can
be
harmful
to
the
health
of
other
organisms.



Suggested
Trails

Claypit
Pond,
Kingfisher
Pond,
Kestrel,
Screech
Owl


Materials

First‐aid
pack,
“A
Mini‐Guide
To
Living
Things,”
and
a
Microorganisms

"bingo"
sheet


Trail
Walk
Activities

1. Visit
the
compost
area
in
the
ENSAT
garden.
Bacteria
and
other

microorganisms
help
break
down
decaying
plant
material.


2. Look
for
slime
mold
while
on
the
trail.
Slime
mold
is
actually
a

protist,
not
fungi.

3. Take
a
trail
that
goes
near
a
natural
body
of
water.
It
is
not
a
good

idea
to
drink
from
this
water
without
purifying
first,
because
harmful

microorganisms
could
be
found
in
the
water.
Beavers
can
carry

Giardia
(beaver
fever),
which
is
a
one‐celled
parasite
that
can
make

you
very
sick.


4. Roll
logs
or
find
broken
logs
to
look
inside.
If
you
see
gray,
fibrous

threads
or
a
powder
like
substance,
it
is
actinomycetes
bacteria.
Also
look
for
termites.
They
have
bacteria
in

their
stomach
to
help
digest
cellulose.


5. Galls
on
plants
can
be
formed
from
insects,
bacteria,
or
fungi.
Most
of
the
ones
we
find
are
from
insects.
Try
to

find
an
example
of
what
a
gall
looks
like.


6. Find
plants
with
pea
pod
shaped
seeds.
These
plants
have
nitrogen‐fixing
bacteria
on
their
roots.


Rainy
Day
Activities

1. Microscope
crossword
puzzle


2. Sort
through
compost
or
pond
sample
for
microorganisms

SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 23


Characteristics
of
Different
Age
Groups

(Or
how
to
use
their
age
to
your
advantage)



PK
(Pre‐Kindergarten)
–
K
(Kindergarten)
[3‐5
year
olds]

• Accept
the
world
the
way
it
seems
to
be

• Unable
to
isolate
and
categorize
information;
no
logical
process

• Very
egocentric;
“I'm
the
most
important
thing
in
the
world."

• Very
excitable
and
verbal;
inappropriate
comments
due
to
excitement


• Tightly
structured
activities
with
little
"self
work"


1st
–
2nd
Grade
[6‐7
year
olds]

• Starting
interest
in
social
groups
and
friends

• Judgment
and
reasoning
still
not
developed
but
attitudes
are
evident


• Strong
imagination,
learn
through
senses

• Motor
skills
are
refined,
interested
in
making
things

• Difficulty
understanding
time
frames
(dinosaurs,
ancient
concepts,
time
scale)

• Can
classify
and
differentiate
between
animals,
etc.

• Trouble
differentiating
between
perspectives

• Hear
sounds
and
voices
differently
than
adults,
cannot
focus
on
small
objects

• Limited
hand‐eye
coordination

• Enjoy
role‐playing

• Short
attention
spans



3rd
–
5th
Grade
[8‐11
year
olds]

• No
longer
egocentric,
able
to
perceive
the
outside
world

• Understand
cause
and
effect

• Can
adapt
information
and
formulate
originate
thoughts

• Eager
to
explore,
discover,
and
create

• Responsive
to
questions
and
problems

• Competitive
and
enthusiastic


6th
–
8th
Grade
[12‐14
year
olds]

Rapid
physical
changes
and
unevenness
in
developing
maturity

Tendencies
to
question
authority

Aware
of
limitations
and
question
capacity
to
handle
the
future

Socialization
is
very
important

Require
adult
supervision;
cannot
show
self‐control
over
time

Enjoy
new
ideas
and
different
viewpoint

24
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Interpretation
for
Grade
School
Children

Grade
school
children,
especially
 the
North
Slope
oil
controversy
is
 Metaphors
for
complex
processes

those
in
fifth
and
sixth
grade,
are
 beyond
them.
Children
at
this
 are
useful
at
this
stage.
The

the
most
frequent
visitors
to
 stage
simply
cannot
manipulate
 Central
Wisconsin
Environmental

nature
centers,
zoos,
and
 complex
sets
of
variables
in
their
 Station
has
an
activity
called

museums.
Since
they
are
still
in
 mind.

 "tree
apartments"
that
compares

self‐contained
classrooms,
it
is
 
 the
forest
to
an
apartment

easier
to
take
them
out
of
the
 building.
“Who
lives
in
the

However,
they
can
reflect
on

school
than
in
later
grades.
These
 penthouse?
Flashy
characters

their
own
behavior
and
know

are
also
the
years
when
 like
hawks
and
tanagers
that

right
from
wrong.
Simple

participation
in
youth
 ‘drive
off
in
their
red
Mercedes.'

behaviors
‐recycling,
for
example,

organizations
is
highest.
 What
can
we
find
in
the

to
“save
the
earth”
are
seized


 basement
(feeling
under
leaf

upon.
Although
they
may
not

litter?
Ooooh.
Pipes!
It's
cool!
Oh,

A
grade
school
child
has
the
 know
the
full
complexity
of
the

look
at
the
bugs!
I've
got
bugs
in

ability
to
deal
with
simple
logical
 energy
crisis,
they
will
badger

my
basement!"

relationships.
However,
 parents
to
turn
off
lights
because

reasoning
is
still
dominated
by
 their
teacher
told
them
it
was
 

direct
personal
experience,
hence
 "important
to
save
energy."
 Children's
museums
have
also

the
term
“concrete
operational."
 Subscribing
to
group
norms
is
 recognized
the
need
for


 important.

 involvement.
Playing
with

computers,
pushing
buttons,
and

Early
in
this
stage,
the
ability
to

classify
objects
into
categories

Grade
School
Programs
 manipulating
objects
are

Grade
school
programs
can
be
 common
devices
for
teaching

and
to
order
objects
in
a
series

shows
for
large
groups
or
 children
about
their
physical,

develops.
Conceptually,
this
child

individual
experiences.
The
 biological,
and
sociological
world.

is
ready
to
make
order
out
of
a

critical
ingredient
is
involvement
 However,
it
often
requires
the

complex
world.
Time

in
concrete
experiences.
In
a
 help
of
an
adult
to
get
them
to

relationships
become
more

large
group
program,
group
 think
about
the
idea
being

understandable.
Dinosaurs,

participation
can
be
facilitated
by
 demonstrated
and
not
just
push

fanciful
reptiles
from
the
past,

questions
from
the
interpreter
 buttons
to
get
a
reaction.

fascinate
them.
Classifying
for

understanding
the
similarities
 and
answers
from
the
audience.
 

and
differences
within
and
 Physical
participation
and
humor
 Effective
strategies
include:

between
groups
of
animals,
 in
children's
shows
is
also
 • Activities
and
games
to

rocks,
plants,
or
people
is
a
key
 important.

 teach
concepts

interest.
 
 • Exploration
and


 At
Fort
McHenry
National
 discovery

Later
in
this
stage,
more
complex
 Historic
Site,
Maryland,
 • Sharing
and
empathizing

concepts
can
be
understood.
A
 interpreters
involve
children
by
 • Stories,
puppets,
skits,

human
or
a
deer
can
be
seen
as
a
 "recruiting"
them
into
the
army.
 and
characters

member
of
a
complex,
interacting
 They
must
have
good
teeth
to
rip
 • Questioning
strategies

community.
However,
various
 the
paper
cartridge
off
the
 • Devices
that
can
be

points
of
view
in
complex
issues
 musket
rounds!
"Recruits"
are
 manipulated

are
still
difficult.
For
example,
 dressed
in
period
uniform
and
 • Physical
and
sensory

understanding
the
economic,
 everyone
learns
how
the
various
 involvement

ecological,
and
social
aspects
of
 items
were
used.
 • Metaphors

SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 25


Suggested
Reading
List

Individual
Books

Carson,
R.
(1998).
The
sense
of
wonder.
New
York:
HarperCollins
Publishers,
Inc.

Chinery,
M.
(1988).
Complete
amateur
naturalist.
New
York:
Crescent
Books.

Cornell,
J.B.
(1998).
Sharing
nature
with
children.
Nevada
City,
CA:
DAWN
Publications.

Cornell,
J.B.
(1989).
Sharing
nature
with
children
II.
Nevada
City,
CA:
DAWN
Publications.

Graham,
G.L.
(1994).
Bats
of
the
world.
New
York:
St.
Martin's
Press.

Lingelbach,
J.,
Purcell,
L,
and
Sawyer,
S.
(2000).
Hands­on
nature:
Information
and
activities
for
exploring
the

environment
with
children.
Woodstock,
VT:
Vermont
Institute
of
Natural
Science.

Miller,
L.H.
(1986).
The
nature
specialist:
A
complete
guide
to
program
and
activities.
New
York:
American
Camping

Association.

Mitchell,
R.T.
(2001).
Butterflies
and
moths.
New
York:
St.
Martin’s
Press.

Rhodes,
F.H.T.
(1991).
Geology.
New
York:
St.
Martin’s
Press.

Reader’s
Digest.
(1977).
Joy
of
nature:
How
to
observe
and
appreciate
the
great
outdoors.
Westminster,
MD:
Random

House,
Inc.

Regnier,
K.,
Gross,
M.,
and
Zimmerman,
R.
(1992).
The
interpreters
guidebook:
Techniques
for
programs
and

presentations.
Stevens
Point,
WI:
UW‐SP
Foundation
Press.

Van
Matre,
S.
(1972).
Sunship
earth
:
An
acclimatization
program
for
outdoor
learning.
New
York:
American
Camping

Association.

Zim,
H.S.
(2001).
Birds.
New
York:
St.
Martin’s
Press.

Zim,
H.S.
(2001).
Insects.
New
York:
St.
Martin’s
Press.

Zim,
H.S.
(2001).
Mammals.
New
York:
St.
Martin’s
Press.

Zim,
H.S.
(2001).
Reptiles
and
amphibians.
New
York:
St.
Martin’s
Press.


Other/Series

Animal
South
(Wildlife
Issues)
(http://animalsouth.com)

Electronic
Naturalist
(http://www.enaturalist.org/)

First
Aid
(http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/)


Forest
Layers
(National
Zoo)

(http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Education/ConservationCentral/walk/walk2_broadband.html)

Georgia
DNR
(http://georgiawildlife.dnr.state.ga.us/conservation.aspx)

Golden
Guides

The
Herbarium
of
the
University
of
Georgia
(http://www.plantbio.uga.edu/PPG/Key.htm)

Invasive
Species
of
Concern
in
Georgia
(http://www.gainvasives.org/index.html)

NatureScope
by
the
National
Wildlife
Federation

The
New
Georgia
Encyclopedia
(Land
and
Resources)
(http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/)

Peterson
Field
Guide
Series

Project
Learning
Tree
by
American
Forest
Foundation


Project
WILD
by
the
Council
for
Environmental
Education

26
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


A
Historical
Account
of
the
Brick
Factory

The
factory
made
more
than
25,000
bricks
per
day
using
a

“tunnel
kiln”
patented
by
Frances
Shaw.
The
process
was

patented
in
November
of
1913.
Rights
to
the
process
were

assigned
to
the
Shaw
Kiln
Co.
of
Atlanta
shortly
afterward,
also

in
1913.
The
factory,
which
employed
about
25
people,
may

have
been
the
first
to
use
this
process.


The
Shaw
process
enabled
a
factory
to
make
glazed
bricks
as

well
as
rough
ones.
It
took
about
a
week
for
bricks
to
be
dried

and
baked
in
the
tunnel
kiln.
There
is
some
evidence
(rubble)

that
this
factory
made
bricks
for
other
companies.



The
furnace
was
located
near
the
road,
probably
where
the

"walls"
are.
The
kiln
ran
from
there
to
the
rubble
pile
(an

educated
guess).
The
dryer,
the
dimensions
of
which
was
approximately
90'
X
5.5'
X
3.
5',
ran
from
the
rubble
pile
to

the
little
bridge.
Stacks
of
bricks
were
at
the
opposite
end
of
the
furnace
and
the
heat
was
pumped
through
flues
in
the

floor
of
the
dryer
and
the
kiln.
“Foxhole”
may
be
one
of
these
flues.
The
kiln,
approximately
6'
X
6'
X
300',
probably

had
a
slight
incline
from
the
loading
end
(east)
to
the
unloading
end.


Chronology

1881
 There
is
a
reference
to
the
"brickyard‐lot.”
However,
this
may
be
the
small
yard

on
the
land
behind
Westinghouse
since
there
is
no
reference
to
"our"
brickyard

on
the
1884
map.


1906
 The
Georgia
Brick
Co.
was
chartered.
It
used
the
"Boss
kiln,"
patented
in
1905
and

the
"Martin
Dryer,"
patented
in
1905.

1914
 In
March,
the
Georgia
Brick
Co.
went
bankrupt
and
was
sold
to
the
Georgia

National
Bank
along
with
the
rights
to
the
"Shaw
Process."

1918
 In
May,
the
Georgia
National
Bank
sold
the
company
to
Georgia
Clay
Products.

1922
 An
out‐of‐town
business
possibly
transferred
to
Athens
Brick
and
Tile
Co.

1923
 The
business
may
have
burned
(although
there
is
no
real
evidence
of
this).
It
was

possibly
sold
to
Athens
Brick
and
Tile
Co.
In
any
case,
some
reorganization

occurred.


SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 27


The
Louie
R.
Bridges
Log
House
at
Sandy
Creek
Nature
Center

As
families
moved
to
different
areas
seeking
a
better
life,
they
also
brought
distinct
cultural
heritages
and
different

adaptations
to
their
environment.
Shelter
from
the
weather,
wild
animals,
and
other
elements
was
critical
to
the

survival
of
the
family.
Because
trees
were
plentiful,
a
log

structure
created
a
simple
and
practical
shelter.

The
first
structure
traditionally
built
at
a
new
homestead
site

in
the
Southeast
was
a
log
cabin.
Log
cabins
were
built
quickly,

with
significantly
less
attention
to
construction
detail
and

generally
dirt
floor
and
clay
over
log
chimney.
Homes
that

were
intended
to
be
more
permanent
were
called
a
log
house.

Log
houses
were
carefully
structured
with
hand‐hewn
logs,

wooden
floors,
and
brick
or
stone
chimney.

A
snug,
reasonably
tight
log
house
was
the
objective
and

locking
the
logs
securely
together
required
considerable

attention.
Logs
were
carefully
selected
and
used
either
round

or
after
being
hand‐hewn
for
a
more
secure
fit.
Carefully

crafted
notches
were
cut
at
the
corner
of
each
log.
Thus,

reducing
or
eliminating
the
need
for
nails.
At
this
point
in

history,
nails
were
hand
wrought
from
iron,
expensive
to
purchase
in
large
quantities,
and
because
of
their
weight,

difficult
to
transport
via
wagon
to
the
construction
site.
Stuffing
high‐quality
clay
in
between
the
logs
and
other
cracks

weatherproofed
the
structure.
Careful
examination
of
the
Bridges
Log
House
illustrates
the
extensive
chinking,

intricate
notching
and
the
hand‐hewn
log
construction
techniques
used
to
build
log
structures.


Ambrose
Baber
built
the
Louie
R.
Bridges
Log
House
at
Sandy

Creek
Nature
Center
between
1805
and
1810.
Mr.
Baber
and

his
family
moved
to
Georgia
from
Virginia
and
purchased
386

acres
of
land
from
James
Holt
in
1805.
The
land
was
located

near
Mack's
Creek
in
Oglethorpe
County.
Typical
construction

techniques
typically
used
in
Virginia
area
are
very
evident
in

the
Bridges
Log
House.
In
1980,
the
log
house
was
donated
to

Sandy
Creek
Nature
Center,
Clarke
County,
Georgia.

The
log
house
started
out
as
a
“single‐pen”
model,
measuring

16
x
20
feet.
These
dimensions
were
chosen,
because
suitable

trees
longer
than
20
feet
were
difficult
to
locate,
transport,

and
handle.
By
adding
a
second
wood‐frame
or
stone
room

onto
the
end
of
the
house,
the
Bridges
Log
House
became
a

“double‐pen”
style
house.
The
addition,
or
second
“pen”
was

built
on
the
end
of
the
house
opposite
the
chimney.
Logs
were
fastened
using
a
style
of
notching
known
as
diamond

notching.
The
notches
are
weight
bearing
to
hold
the
walls
in
place,
preventing
horizontal
slippage.
Diamond
notching

was
used
mainly
in
the
Northeastern
pan
of
the
United
States
and
is
rarely
found
in
the
South.

Since
older
log
houses
and
cabins
were
made
of
untreated,
air‐dried
wood,
the
logs
would
shrink
as
the
house
settled.

This
would
make
wide
spaces
between
the
logs.
The
open
spaces
were
packed
with
either
a
mixture
of
straw
and
mud

or
clay
or
a
mixture
of
clay,
sand,
and
horsehair.
This
process
is
referred
to
as
“chinking.”
In
places
where
the
gap

between
logs
was
too
large,
thin
poles
or
sticks
were
wedged
in
the
space
prior
to
chinking.


The
log
house
had
a
fireplace
with
a
quarried
granite
chimney.
The
chimney
was
constructed
with
the
help
of
the
Bogg

family
in
1936.
It
is
assumed
that
the
original
field
stone
chimney
became
unsafe
and
either
fell
down
or
was
torn

down.
Later
occupants
of
the
log
house
left
a
hole
in
the
roof
to
allow
the
smoke
to
escape.

Keeping
cool
was
a
major
consideration,
because
of
Georgia's
long,
hot
summers.
There
were
few
windows
in
a
log

house
because
they
weaken
the
structure
and
were
time‐consuming
to
build.
The
Bridge's
Log
House
has
one
window

located
to
the
right
of
the
fireplace
and
another
in
the
wood‐frame
addition.
The
house's
two
doors
are
positioned

exactly
across
from
each
other
in
order
to
create
a
cool
draft
through
the
house.
Additionally,
the
house
is
raised
off

the
ground,
further
cooling
the
structure
by
allowing
air
to
freely
circulate
around
the
house.
Raised
foundation

construction
also
helps
keep
the
wood
dry,
thereby
reducing
fungal
rot
and
insect
damage.

28
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


The
Vertebrates

Birds

 warm‐blooded

 feathers

 breathe
with
lungs
and
have
air
sacs

 wings

 store
food
in
crop;
grind
food
in
gizzard

 lay
hard‐shelled
eggs

 oil
gland
(helps
waterproof
feathers)

 hollow
or
partly
hollow
bones

Examples:
ducks,
penguins,
warblers


Reptiles

 cold‐blooded

 scales

 breathe
with
lungs

 many
have
4
legs
(with
3‐5
clawed
toes),
but
some
have
no
legs

 most
lay
leathery
eggs;
some
give
birth
to
live
young

Examples:
snakes,
turtles,
lizards,
crocodiles


Mammals

 warm‐blooded

 most
have
hair

 breath
with
lungs;
have
muscular
diaphragm

 most
give
birth
to
live
young

 glands
in
skin
(oil,
sweat,
scent,
milk)

 different
kinds
of
teeth
for
eating
different
kinds
of
food

 large,
well‐developed
brains

Examples:
deer,
kangaroos,
people


Fish

 cold‐blooded

 scales

 breathe
with
gills

 fins

 eyes
usually
on
sides
of
head

 lay
eggs
in
water

 life
cycles
often
include
larval
stage

Examples:
sharks,
trout,
minnows


Amphibians

 cold‐blooded

 moist
skin

 break
with
lungs,
skin,
or
gills

 most
have
4
legs,
but
a
few
have
2;
toes
never
have
claws

 lay
eggs,
usually
in
a
jelly‐like
mass
in
the
water

Examples:
frogs,
toads,
salamanders

SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 29


The
Animal
Kingdom

30
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


Animal
Tracks



SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 31


Parts
of
a
Flower



32
 SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual


The
Water
Cycle



SCNC
Volunteer
Trail
Guide
Manual
 33


The
Carbon
Cycle