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MANUAL DE TRONCO COMUM

ENGLISH YEAR I
Código: A0002

Universidade Católica de Moçambique (UCM)


Centro de Ensino à Distância (CED)
Direitos de autor (copyright)
Este manual é propriedade da Universidade Católica de Moçambique (UCM), Centro de Ensino à Distância (CED)
e contêm reservados todos os direitos. É proibida a duplicação e/ou reprodução deste manual, no seu todo ou em
partes, sob quaisquer formas ou por quaisquer meios (electrónicos, mecânico, gravação, fotocópia ou outros), sem
permissão expressa de entidade editora (Universidade Católica de Moçambique – Centro de Ensino à Distância). O
não cumprimento desta advertência é passível a processos judiciais.

Elaborado Por: dra. Amália Dickie

Docente de Inglês na Faculdade de Economia e Gestão,

da

Universidade Católica de Moçambique (UCM)

Universidade Católica de Moçambique (UCM)


Centro de Ensino à Distância (CED)
Rua Correia de Brito No 613 – Ponta-Gêa
Beira – Sofala

Telefone: 23 32 64 05
Cell: 82 50 18 440
Moçambique

Fax: 23 32 64 06
E-mail: ced@ucm.ac.mz
Website: www.ucm.ac.mz
Agradecimentos
A Universidade Católica de Moçambique (UCM) – Centro de Ensino à Distância (CED) e o autor do presente
manual, dra. Amália Dickie, agradecem a colaboração de todos que directa ou indirectamente participaram na
elaboração deste manual. À todos sinceros agradecimentos.

Contribução de conteúdo UCM - FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND


COMMUNICATION; - English Department.
ENGLISH YEAR I i

Índice
Visão geral 1
Introdução: ........................................................................................................................ 1
Objectivos do curso .......................................................................................................... 1
Quem deveria estudar este módulo ................................................................................... 2
Como está estruturado este módulo .................................................................................. 2
Ícones de actividade .......................................................................................................... 3
Acerca dos ícones .......................................................................................... 3
Habilidades de estudo ....................................................................................................... 3
Precisa de apoio? .............................................................................................................. 4
Tarefas (avaliação e auto-avaliação)................................................................................. 4
Avaliação .......................................................................................................................... 5

Unit 1 7
GREETINGS AND VERB TO BE ................................................................................... 7
By the end of this unit students should be able to: .................................................. 7
Summary ........................................................................................................................... 7
Exercícios.......................................................................................................................... 8

Unit 2 13
NUMBERS AND DATES.............................................................................................. 13
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ......................................................... 13
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 13
Exercícios ............................................................................................................... 15
Unit 3 16
VERB TO HAVE AND FAMILY .................................................................................. 16
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ......................................................... 16
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 16

Unit 4 19
VERB TO DO ................................................................................................................. 19
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ......................................................... 19
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 19
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 20

Unit 5 22
PRESENT SIMPLE ........................................................................................................ 22
By the end of this unit students should be able to ................................................. 22
ii Índice

Summary ......................................................................................................................... 22
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 25

Unit 6 26
TELLING THE TIME .................................................................................................... 26
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ................................................ 26
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 26
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 27

Unit 7 29
PRESENT CONTINUOUS ............................................................................................ 29
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ................................................ 29
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 29
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 31

Unit 8 34
PLURALS ....................................................................................................................... 34
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ......................................................... 34
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 34
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 36

Unit 9 37
PREPOSITIONS ............................................................................................................. 37
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ................................................ 37
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 37
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 38

Unit 10 42
COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.................................................................. 42
By the end of this unit students should be able to ................................................. 42
ENGLISH YEAR I iii

Summary ......................................................................................................................... 42
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 44
African Elephant is bigger .................................................................................................. 47

Unit 11 50
THE PAST ...................................................................................................................... 50
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ......................................................... 50
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 50
EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST ................................................................. 50
Simple Pas....................................................................................................................... 51
FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST .................................................................................. 52
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 53

Unit 12 61
THE PAST CONTINUOUS ........................................................................................... 61
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ......................................................... 61
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 61
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 64

Unit 13 70
ADVICE AND OBLIGATION ...................................................................................... 70
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ................................................ 70
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 70
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 72

Unit 14 74
OBLIGATIONS.............................................................................................................. 74
By the end of this unit students should be able to ................................................. 74
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 74
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 76

Unit 15 80
THE FUTURE ................................................................................................................ 80
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ................................................ 80
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 80
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 83

Unit 16 89
FIRST CONDITIONAL ................................................................................................. 89
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ................................................ 89
iv Índice

Summary ......................................................................................................................... 89
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 91

Unit 17 94

SECOND CONDITIONAL 94
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ................................................ 94
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 94
Exercícios........................................................................................................................ 96

Unit 18 98
PRESENT PERFECT ..................................................................................................... 98
By the end of this unit students should be able to: ................................................ 98
Summary ......................................................................................................................... 98
Exercícios...................................................................................................................... 100
ENGLISH YEAR I 1

Visão geral

Introdução:
O presente manual destina-se aos estudantes da UCM que estão nos
cursos à distância e, visa desenvolver a compreensão geral e escrita em
diferentes situações de comunicação e fornecer instrumentos que
permitam a manipulação de diferentes tipos de textos, tendo em conta o
público a que se destina.

Considerando que a Língua Inglesa organiza os saberes curriculares de


outras disciplinas, este manual preconiza a aquisição de determinadas
técnicas de expressão e desenvolvimento de capacidades e aptidões que
permitam ao sujeito de aprendizagem uma compreensão crítica das outras
matérias de estudo para a sua profissão.

Objectivos do curso

 Desenvolver a competência comunicativa em Língua Inglesa nas


vertentes linguística, sociológica e pragmática.

 Desenvolver o conhecimento da língua e da comunicação através de


uma reflexão metódica e critica sobre:
Objectivos .1. A estrutura do sistema linguístico nas componentes lexical,
morfossintática, semântica e discursiva.
.2. A organização de discursos orais e escritos, nos vários
planos da sua estruturação linguística, textual e discursiva.
2 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

Quem deveria estudar este


módulo
Este módulo foi concebido para todos aqueles que frequentam os cursos à
distância, oferecidos pela Universidade Católica de Moçambique (UCM),
através do seu Centro de Ensino à Distância (CED).

Como está estruturado este


módulo
Todos os módulos dos cursos produzidos pelo Centro de Ensino à
Distância encontram-se estruturados da seguinte maneira:

Páginas introdutórias

 Um índice completo.

 Uma visão geral detalhada do curso / módulo, resumindo os


aspectos-chave que você precisa conhecer para completar o estudo.
Recomendamos vivamente que leia esta secção com atenção antes de
começar o seu estudo.

Conteúdo do curso / módulo

O curso está estruturado em unidades. Cada unidade incluirá uma


introdução, objectivos da unidade, conteúdo da unidade incluindo
actividades de aprendizagem, um sumário da unidade e uma ou mais
actividades para auto-avaliação.

Outros recursos

Para quem esteja interessado em aprender mais, apresentamos uma lista


de recursos adicionais para você explorar. Estes recursos podem incluir
livros, artigos ou sites na internet.

Tarefas de avaliação e/ou Auto-avaliação

Tarefas de avaliação para este módulo encontram-se no final de cada


unidade. Sempre que necessário, dão-se folhas individuais para
desenvolver as tarefas, assim como instruções para as completar. Estes
elementos encontram-se no final do módulo.

Comentários e sugestões

Esta é a sua oportunidade para nos dar sugestões e fazer comentários


sobre a estrutura e o conteúdo do curso / módulo. Os seus comentários
serão úteis para nos ajudar a avaliar e melhorar este curso / módulo.
ENGLISH YEAR I 3

Ícones de actividade
Ao longo deste manual irá encontrar uma série de ícones nas margens das
folhas. Estes icones servem para identificar diferentes partes do processo
de aprendizagem. Podem indicar uma parcela específica de texto, uma
nova actividade ou tarefa, uma mudança de actividade, etc.

Acerca dos ícones


Os icones usados neste manual são símbolos africanos, conhecidos por
adrinka. Estes símbolos têm origem no povo Ashante de África
Ocidental, datam do século XVII e ainda se usam hoje em dia.

Pode ver o conjunto completo de ícones deste manual já a seguir, cada


um com uma descrição do seu significado e da forma como nós
interpretámos esse significado para representar as várias actividades ao
longo deste curso / módulo.

Habilidades de estudo
Caro estudante, procure olhar para você em três dimensões
nomeadamente: o lado social, profissional e estudante, daí ser importante
planificar muito bem o seu tempo.

Procure reservar no mínimo 2 (duas) horas de estudo por dia e use ao


máximo o tempo disponível nos finais de semana. Lembre-se que é
necessário elaborar um plano de estudo individual, que inclui, a data, o
dia, a hora, o que estudar, como estudar e com quem estudar (sozinho,
com colegas, outros).

Evite o estudo baseado em memorização, pois é cansativo e não produz


bons resultados, use métodos mais activos, procure desenvolver suas
competências mediante a resolução de problemas específicos, estudos de
caso, reflexão, etc.

O manual contém muita informação, algumas chaves, outras


complementares, daí ser importante saber filtrar e apresentar a
informação mais relevante. Use estas informações para a resolução dos
exercícios, problemas e desenvolvimento de actividades. A tomada de
notas desempenha um papel muito importante.

Um aspecto importante a ter em conta é a elaboração de um plano de


desenvolvimento pessoal (PDP), onde você reflecte sobre os seus pontos
fracos e fortes e perspectivas o seu desenvolvimento.

Lembre-se que o teu sucesso depende da sua entrega, você é o


responsável pela sua própria aprendizagem e cabe a ti planificar,
organizar, gerir, controlar e avaliar o seu próprio progresso.
4 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

Precisa de apoio?
Caro estudante, temos a certeza de que por uma ou por outra situação, o
material impresso, lhe pode suscitar alguma dúvida (falta de clareza,
alguns erros de natureza frásica, prováveis erros ortográficos, falta de
clareza conteudística, etc). Nestes casos, contacte o tutor, via telefone,
escreva uma carta participando a situação e se estiver próximo do tutor,
contacte-o pessoalmente.

Os tutores têm por obrigação, monitorar a sua aprendizagem, dai o


estudante ter a oportunidade de interagir objectivamente com o tutor,
usando para o efeito os mecanismos apresentados acima.

Todos os tutores têm por obrigação facilitar a interação, em caso de


problemas específicos ele deve ser o primeiro a ser contactado, numa fase
posterior contacte o coordenador do curso e se o problema for da natureza
geral, contacte a direcção do CED, pelo número 825018440.

Os contactos só se podem efectuar, nos dias úteis e nas horas normais de


expediente.

As sessões presenciais são um momento em que você caro estudante, tem


a oportunidade de interagir com todo o staff do CED, neste período pode
apresentar dúvidas, tratar questões administrativas, entre outras.

O estudo em grupo, com os colegas é uma forma a ter em conta, busque


apoio com os colegas, discutam juntos, apoiem-se mutuamnte, reflictam
sobre estratégias de superação, mas produza de forma independente o seu
próprio saber e desenvolva suas competências.

Juntos na Educação à Distância, vencedo a distância.

Tarefas (avaliação e auto-


avaliação)
O estudante deve realizar todas as tarefas (exercícios, actividades e auto-
avaliação), contudo nem todas deverão ser entregues, mas é importante
que sejam realizadas.As tarefas devem ser entregues antes do período
presencial.

Para cada tarefa serão estabelecidos prazos de entrega, e o não


cumprimento dos prazos de entrega, implica a não classificação do
estudante.

Os trabalhos devem ser entregues ao CED e os mesmos devem ser


dirigidos ao tutor/docentes.
ENGLISH YEAR I 5

Podem ser utilizadas diferentes fontes e materiais de pesquisa, contudo os


mesmos devem ser devidamente referenciados, respeitando os direitos do
autor.

O plagiarismo deve ser evitado, a transcrição fiel de mais de 8 (oito)


palavras de um autor, sem o citar é considerado plágio. A honestidade,
humildade cintífica e o respeito pelos direitos autorais devem marcar a
realização dos trabalhos.

Avaliação
Vocé será avaliado durante o estudo independente (80% do curso) e o
período presencial (20%). A avaliação do estudante é regulamentada com
base no chamado regulamento de avaliação.

Os trabalhos de campo por si desenvolvidos, durante o estudo individual,


concorrem para os 25% do cálculo da média de frequência da cadeira.

Os testes são realizados durante as sessões presenciais e concorrem para


os 75% do cálculo da média de frequência da cadeira.

Os exames são realizados no final da cadeira e durante as sessões


presenciais, eles representam 60%, o que adicionado aos 40% da média
de frequência, determinam a nota final com a qual o estudante conclui a
cadeira.

A nota de 10 (dez) valores é a nota mínima de: (a) admissão ao exame,


(b) nota de exame e, (c) conclusão do módulo.

Nesta cadeira o estudante deverá realizar: 3 (três) trabalhos; 2 (dois)


testes escritos e 1 (um) exame escrito.

Não estão previstas quaisquer avaliação oral.

Algumas actividades práticas, relatórios e reflexões serão utilizadas como


ferramentas de avaliação formativa.

Durante a realização das avaliações, os estudantes devem ter em


consideração: a apresentação; a coerência textual; o grau de
cientificidade; a forma de conclusão dos assuntos, as recomendações, a
indicação das referências utilizadas, o respeito pelos direitos do autor,
entre outros.

Os objectivos e critérios de avaliação estão indicados no manual.


Consulte-os.

Alguns feedbacks imediatos estão apresentados no manual.


ENGLISH YEAR I 7

Unit 1

GREETINGS AND VERB TO BE


By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Introduce themselves

 Use verb to be in:


Objectivos (a) first person

(b) second person

(c) third person

Summary
The verb TO BE is the most important verb in the English language.
Study the table below and do the exercises that follow.

To Be – Present Tense

PRESENT SHORT NEGATIVE QUESTION

I am I’m I’m not Am I?

You are You’re You’re not Are you?

He/She/It is He’s/She’s/It’s He’s/She’s/It’s not Is he/she/it?

We are We’re We’re not Are we?

You are You’re You’re not Are you?

They are They’re They’re not Are they?


8 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

Exercícios
Meeting for the first time

Look at the following sentences David uses to introduce


himself to someone for the first time. Change the underlined
words to make sentences about yourself.

Hi, my name is David. I’m from Quelimane.

I’m 36 years old. I like football and music. I’m studying Portuguese.

(a) Hi, my name is David. What’s your name?

(b) My name is Maria.

(a) Nice to meet you Maria.

(b) Nice to meet you too. (shake hands). Where are you from?

(a) I’m from Quelimane, how about you?

(b) I’m from Cuamba. What do you study?

(a) I study Portuguese, how about you?

(b) I study English.

(a) How old are you?

(b) I’m 36, how about you?

(a) I’m 23. I like watching films. What do you like?

(b) I like swimming and going to the beach.

(a) Nice meeting you. I have a class now. See you later.

(b) OK, goodbye.

(1) Complete using am or are.

(1) Where ______ you from, Mr. Taylor? I ______ from London.

(2) Good morning. I ______ Miss Kenney, your geography teacher.

(3) How ______ you? Fine, thanks, and you?

(4) ______ you from Japan? Yes, I ______.

(5) How old ______ you? I ______ twelve.


ENGLISH YEAR I 9

(6) ______ you Egyptian? No I ______ not.

(7) What nationality ______ you? I ______ English.

(8) ______ you eleven? Yes, I ______.

(2) Complete these sentences using am, are, and is.

1) What _______ that?

(2) _______ you Portuguese?

(3) His name ________ Roberto.

(4) Where ________ she from?

(5) My address __________ 90 Central Street.

(6) It _________ an orange.

(7) Who _________ he?

(8) I __________ thirteen.

(9) How old __________ you?

(10) Mr. Taylor _________ an English teacher.

(3) Complete these sentences using am, is, are, am not, isn’t, aren’t.

(1) Peas ________ red.

(2) A football ________ round.

(3) Crisps _________ cheap.

(4) You and I _________ friends.

(5) Sunil__________ fifteen

(6) You _________ a student.

(7) Pedro _________ English.

(8) I _________ Mozambican.

(9) We _________ Japanese.

(10) Marco and Rajiv ________ in England.


10 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

4) Write these sentences in the interrogative (question) form.

Example: You are intelligent. Are you intelligent?

(1) You are twelve. __________________________________?

(2) You are from Germany. ____________________________?

(3) You are my geography teacher.


______________________________________?

(4) You are American. ______________________________________?

(5) You are my friend. ______________________________________?

(5) Write the missing sentences, questions and answers.

Sentence Question Answer

Marco is Italian. Is Marco Italian? Yes, he is.

You are Japanese. No,

Is Marie Dutch? , she

That is a fish. No, it

I am a student. Yes, you

This is my English Yes,


book.

Is Rajiv fifteen? ,

I am your friend. , you are.

(6) Write these sentences in the Negative form. Then write a correct
answer.

Sentence Negative Answer

1 Marco is Spanish. Marco isn’t Spanish. He’s Italian.

2 Zaira is twenty.

3 Rome is in Holland.

4 You are Greek.

5 I am Belgian.
ENGLISH YEAR I 11

(7) Write short answers for these questions.

Example: Is she from Maputo? Yes, she is.

Question Short Answer

1 Is your friend Italian? Yes,

2 Is Ms Amalia your English teacher? No,

3 Are you French? Yes,

4 Is your best friend from Chimoio? No,

5 Are you fifteen? Yes,

6 Is your surname Alberto? No,

7 Are you from Quelimane? Yes,

8 Is your name Judite? No,


ENGLISH YEAR I 13

Unit 2

NUMBERS AND DATES

By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Count in ordinal and cardinal numbers.


Objectivos  Do all the days of the week and months of the year.

Summary
Sunday Wednesday

Monday Thursday

Tuesday Friday
Saturday

There are two different kinds of numbers in English. We have numbers


we use to count things (I have two brothers. I have ten CDs.). The other
kind of numbers is called Ordinal Numbers. We use them to say dates.

Example: My birthday is on December second. (Not December two).

0 1 2 3 4

Zero One Two Three Four

5 6 7 8 9

Five Six Seven Eight Nine

10 11 12 13 14

Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen


14 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

15 16 17 18 19

Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen

20

Twenty

Numbers Ordinals Other Ordinals


1 1st (first)
12 12th (twelfth)
2 2nd (second)
rd
15 15th (fifteenth)
3 3 (third)

4 4th (fourth) 20 20th (twentieth)

5 5th (fifth) 21 21st twenty-first

6 6th (sixth)
22 22nd (twenty second)
7 7th (seventh)
25 25th (twenty-fifth)
th
8 8 (eighth)
30 30th (thirtieth)
9 9th (ninth)

10 10th (tenth) 31 31st (thirty-first)


ENGLISH YEAR I 15

Exercícios
What’s the date today?

It’s ________________________________________

Find out the birthdays of your classmates by asking the question below.
Then write their names beside the correct month. Try to find someone for
every month.

When is your birthday?

My birthday is on ________________________________

January July

February August

March September

April October

May November

June December

Match the words and the numbers.

a. 1/1 1. the fifth of April

b. 5/4 2. the seventeenth of March

c. 4/7 3. the twenty-seventh of April

d. 17/3 4. the thirty-first of August

e. 22/10 5. the eleventh of February

f. 31/8 6. the fourth of July

g. 11/2 7. the first of January

h. 27/4 8. the twenty-second of October


16 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

Unit 3

VERB TO HAVE AND FAMILY

By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use verb to have in

(a) first person


Objectivos (b) second person

(c) third person

 Say the family relationships in English

Summary

To Have – Present Tense

QUESTION WITH
PRESENT SHORT NEGATIVE QUESTION
‘DO’

I have I’ve I don’t have Have I? Do I have?

You have You’ve You don’t have Have you? Do you have?

He/She/It
He/She/It Has
He/She/It has Does he/she/it have?
‘s he/she/it?
doesn’t have

We have We’ve We don’t have Have we? Do we have?

You have You’ve You don’t have Have you? Do you have?

They have They’ve They don’t have Have they? Do they have?
ENGLISH YEAR I 17

We use the verb TO HAVE to talk about possession.

Example: I have two pens. She has three sisters. John has long hair.

Speakers of Portuguese often mistake the verb TO BE (SER/ESTAR) and


the verb TO HAVE (TER).

Example: Tenho fome = I am hungry. Ten 32 anos = He is 32 years old.

Example: I don’t like chicken. John doesn’t play tennis. (negatives)

Do you like chicken? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. (question)

Does Maria study English? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t. (question)

What kind of food do you like? I like fruit. (question)

What kind of music does she like? She likes rap. (question)

FAMILY RELATIONSHIP

Masculine Feminine

Grandfather Grandmother

Father Mother

Husband Wife

Uncle Aunt

Son Daughter

Brother Sister

Cousin Cousin

Nephew Niece

Grandson Granddaughter

Brother in law Sister in law

Use the words in the table above to

complete the sentences below about the Sitoe family.

(1) Victorino is Dangarilane’s ___________.

(2) Berta is Pedro’s ___________________.

(3) Pedro is Maria’s ___________________.


18 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

(4) Victorino is Rosa’s _________________.

(5) Dangarilane is Chicumba’s __________.

(6) Rosa is Maria’s ___________________.

(7) Chicumba is Victorino’s _____________.

(8) Berta is Rosa’s ___________________.

(9) Maria is Chicumba’s _______________.

(10) Pedro is Dangarilane’s _______________.

The Sitoe family

Victorino Sitoe is a clerk.

He has two daughters and a son.

He is 35 years old.

Victorino Sitoe’s wife is Rosa.

She works as a nurse.

She is 32 years old.

Pedro is the youngest in the Sitoe family.

He is 8 years of age.

He goes to A Luta Continua Primary School.

Berta Sitoe is 16.

She is a pupil at Maxaquene Secondary School.

Maria is her younger sister and Pedro is her younger brother.

Now write some sentences about your family and ask and answer
questions with other students.

Example: How many brothers do you have?

I have 3 brothers, how about you?

I have 1 brother and 3 sisters. My brother is a university student.


ENGLISH YEAR I 19

Unit 4

VERB TO DO

By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use verb to do in:

(a) first person


Objectivos (b) second person

(c) third person

Summary
Another important verb in English is the verb TO DO. Look at the
table below.

Present Negative Past

I do I don’t I didn’t

You do You don’t You didn’t

He/She/It does He/She/It doesn’t He/She/It didn’t

We do We don’t We didn’t

You do You don’t You didn’t

They do They don’t They didn’t


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Exercícios
One very important use of TO DO is as an auxiliary verb. That is a
verb that helps us to make questions and negative sentences.

Example: I don’t like chicken. John doesn’t play tennis. (negatives)

Do you like chicken? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. (question)

Does Maria study English? Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t. (question)

What kind of food do you like? I like fruit. (question)

What kind of music does she like? She likes rap. (question)

Answer these questions about yourself.

(1) Where do you go to school?

________________________________________________________

(2) What do you eat for breakfast?

_______________________________________________________

(3) What do you usually drink in the morning?

________________________________________________________

(4) Do you go to school by bus?

________________________________________________________

(5) Do you like going to school?

________________________________________________________

(6) What do you like about your school?

________________________________________________________

(7) What do you like doing in your free time?

________________________________________________________

(8) What do you do at the weekend?

________________________________________________________

(9) What do you like to watch on TV?

________________________________________________________
ENGLISH YEAR I 21

(10) What time do you usually go to bed?

________________________________________________________

Rewrite these sentences as questions.

Example: Maria plays tennis every day.

She is a teacher.

Does Maria play tennis every day? Is she a teacher?

(1) You always speak Italian with Andrea.

(2) He is coming back to Italy.

(3) Her husband leaves for work at 8.30.


________________________________________________________

(4) You and Peter live in the same house.


________________________________________________________

(5) We are having an English breakfast.


________________________________________________________

(6) John and Mary often go to bed late.

(7) Mike is looking for his suitcase.

(8) He usually eats a lot for dinner.

___________________________________________________________
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Unit 5

PRESENT SIMPLE
By the end of this unit students should be able to

 Use Present Simple in

(a) first person

Objectivos (b) second person

(c) third person

 Use Present Simple in question, negatives and positives

Summary
We use the Present Simple to talk about things that we do every day,
usually, etc. Look at the tables below.

Present Simple

You usually eat

often
He/She/It
never fish.
We
sometimes

You always eats

They
ENGLISH YEAR I 23

Present Simple Negative

I
don’t
You

He/She/It doesn’t
eat fish.
We

You don’t

They

Present Simple
Question

I
Do
You

Does he/she/it
eat fish?
We

Do You

They

Short Answer

I/you/we/they do
Yes
he/she/it does

I/you/we/they don’t
No
he/she/it doesn’t
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The Third Person (he/she/it)

In Portuguese verb endings are usually different for each person. In


English they are the same for all except the third person (he/she/it). This
is true of all verbs in English except the verb TO BE. (You can revise the
verb TO BE in Unit 1).

For third person there are 3 groups of spelling, and irregular verbs.

(1) Add “s” to the end of the verb. I play, you play, he plays.

(2) For verbs that end with “consonant-y”. Change the “y” to “i” and add
“es”.

Example:

I study, you study, she studies

I try, you try, he tries.

(3) For verbs that end with “ch”, “sh”, “x”, “z”, “s”, we add “es”.

Example

I watch, you watch, he watches

I wash, you wash, he washes

Some examples of common irregular verbs are:

be (I am, you are, he is)

have (I have, you have, she has)

do (I do, you do, it does)

There are many irregular verbs in English. For a full list

check the appendix at the back of the book

Work with another student. Ask them about things they do. Use the
Present Simple.

Example: What do you do every morning


(afternoon/evening/night/weekend)?

I get up early.

I study in the library.

I watch TV my family.
ENGLISH YEAR I 25

Write down your friends answers. Then write sentences in the third
person about them.

Example: He gets up early.

He studies in the library.

He watches TV with his family. (NOTE: His, not my)

Finally, tell the class, or another student, about what you wrote.

Exercícios
Write the third person Present Simple verb.

study have

run forget

fly learn

eat do

be carry

drive meet

worry come

like go

Write sentences in the Present Simple using the pictures and the words
below.

Example: (a) He drinks a beer.

TAKE IRON CARRY TYPE CUT (SAW)

He She John Maria You They We


I

A B C D E F G
H
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Unit 6

TELLING THE TIME


By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Tell the time in 12 and 24 hour clock.

 Tell the time in 2 different ways.


Objectivos  Use AM and PM in time.

Summary
There are various ways to tell the time in English. The easiest way is to
make 2 numbers.

Example: 03:30 → three (03): thirty (30)

We simply say the number before the colon (:), then the number after the
colon (:).

Example 2: 12:20 → twelve: twenty, 06:30 → six: thirty.

When the second number is ~:00, we use the expression o’clock.

Example: 12:00 → twelve o’clock

Note: We only use “o’clock” from one o’clock to twelve o’clock. We do


not say thirteen o’clock, for example. This is a difference between
English and Portuguese.

12:00 is also called midday. 24:00 is also called midnight.

When the time has a zero (0) in it, we call the zero “o” (the letter “o”).

Example: 03:05 → three: o five, 04:02 → four: o two

When we use the 24-hour clock the rule is the same.

Example: 16:30 → sixteen: thirty, 14:05 → fourteen: o five


ENGLISH YEAR I 27

AM and PM

We use “AM” after times in the morning that is from 00:00 to 12:00.

We use “PM” for times after this.

Example: 03:15 → three: fifteen AM, 16:20 → sixteen: twenty or four:


twenty PM

We can also use the following expressions when telling the time:

In the morning (from 00:00 to 12:00)

In the afternoon (from 12:00 to about 16:00~17:00)

In the evening (from 17:00 to about 21:00)

At night (from about 21:00 to 24:00)

Exercícios
Write these times in words.

(a) 11:15 (b) 12:30 (c) 9:00 (d) 7:45 (e) 3:50 (f) 8:23 (g) 5:41 (h) 4:33

Write the following times in words. Use AM, PM, in the morning, etc.

(a) 11:00 (b) 09:23 (c) 06:50 (d) 14:25 (e) 01:30 (f) 18:54 (g) 13:10 (h)
12:04

(i) 07:15 (j) 10:12 (k) 16:37 (l) 02:40 (m) 13:29 (n) 19:21 (o) 05:59

Using this second way of telling the time, write the following times in
words.

You can also use AM, PM, and in the morning, etc.

(a) 11:12 (b) 08:23 (c) 06:50 (d) 14:25 (e) 01:30 (f) 18:54 (g) 13:15 (h)
12:04

(i) 07:19 (j) 10:53 (k) 16:37 (l) 02:40 (m) 13:29 (n) 19:21 (o) 05:59
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How many different ways can you say the time these
clocks?
Example: Ten forty-four (in the morning, at night, AM,

Sixteen minutes to eleven.


PM,),

Sixteen minutes to eleven.


ENGLISH YEAR I 29

Unit 7

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use different variations in making the gerund

 Write a postcard using Present Continuous


Objectivos  Make sentences in Present Continuous

Summary
We have already learned the Present Simple. In this unit we are going to
learn the

Present Continuous.

The Present Simple talks about what we do every day, usually do, and so
on.

The Present Continuous talks about what we are doing now, at the
moment.

We always make the Present Continuous using the verb TO BE +


GERUND. The gerund is the –ing form of the verb (eating, drinking,
etc).

Forms of The Present Continuous

Present Negative Question

I am eating I am not eating Am I eating?

You are eating You are not eating You are eating?
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He/She/It is eating He/She/It is not eating Is he/she/it eating?

We are eating We are not eating Are we eating?

You are eating You are not eating Are You eating?

They are eating They are not eating Are they eating?

Note

We often use short forms.

I’m, You’re, He’s, She’s, It’s, We’re, They’re

Aren’t, isn’t

Maybe we started the action a long time ago, but it is still continuing
now.

Example: I am studying at UCM.

It’s possible that you started studying two years ago, but you are
continuing to study now.

There are some variations in spelling when we make the gerund. These
variations are common in English.

Most verbs simply use –ing (eating, drinking, etc).

Verbs that end with –e, lose the –e (phone → phoning, live → living).

Verbs of one syllable that end with a single vowel and a single consonant
have the final consonant doubled (cut → cutting, hit → hitting, run
→ running).

When the final consonant has 2 vowels before it, we do not


double the consonant

(shoot → shooting, keep → keeping - no double consonant


before –ing).
ENGLISH YEAR I 31

Exercícios
Complete the Present Continuous table.

Present Negative Question

He’s drinking He isn’t drinking Is he drinking?

We’re eating

She isn’t sleeping

It’s playing

You aren’t studying

I’m talking

Are they reading?

Is he singing?

What are the gerunds of the following verbs?

Write / stop / read / marry / talk / put / play / sit / swim / watch
/ dance

Dear Joaquim,

Here we are on the Island of Ibo in the north of Cabo-Delgado and we are
having a wonderful time. We are staying in a villa near the beach. I am
writing this post card from the hotel you can see in the picture.

Lukewell is learning to swim and Kate is bathing in the sun at the


moment. We are enjoying the holidays very much.

See you soon.

Love

Lucia and the kids.


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Read the postcard and answer the following questions.

Who is writing the post card?

Where are they staying?

Where is she writing from?

Who is she writing it to?

Work in pairs and check your answers.

Write a postcard to a friend.

Use the postcard above to help you say:

- where you are

- where you are staying

- where you are writing the card from

- what you are doing

- if you are enjoying yourself or not.

Read this dialogue and answer the questions that follow.

Lee: Hi, Peter. What are you doing out of bed before midday? Are you
looking for old watches for your collections?

Peter: Yes, I am actually.

Lee: You know, Marco, Peter collects old watches. He has about fifty,
but he is always late just the same!

Peter: How is Alison?

Lee: She is OK. She is at home cooking Sunday lunch. She wants to
show Marco that

English food can be quite good…Oh, by the way, she needs some apples,
for an apple pie, doesn’t she Marco?

Marco: Yes, and we need some bread too. We haven’t got any at home.

Peter: Look, there is a fruit and vegetable stall over there…

Peter: Marco, our producer, John Alexander is looking for a part time
helper. Are you interested in the job?

Marco: Well, yes in fact I am looking for a job.

Peter: O.K. This is his number. Can you phone him this afternoon?
ENGLISH YEAR I 33

Marco: Yes, sure. Thanks Peter.

What is Peter looking for at the market?

Where is Alison?

What is she doing?

Who is John?

What is he looking for?

Look at the pictures and write what the people are doing.

Use the verbs and nouns given. Some verbs can be repeated.

Luis He I They She You

I J K L M
N
Deliver A picture

Paint Clothes

Fix Wood

Play Beer

Take A table

Sleep Basketball

Cut A television

Iron A bath

Drink A letter

Type A chair

Carry Baseball

The house Suitcase


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Unit 8

PLURALS

By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use different variations in making the plurals

Objectivos  Pronounce different words in their plurals in the right way.

Summary
There are various ways of spelling plurals in English.

(a) Most words can be changed to plural simply by adding –s (book →


books, etc).

(b) Words that end with –s, –z, –x, –sh, –ch, are changed to plural by
adding –es (bus → buses, buzz → buzzes, box → boxes, dish →
dishes, watch → watches).

(c)Words that end with consonant-y lose the –y and add –ies (body →
bodies)

(d) When a word ends with –f or –fe, we lose the –f or –fe and
change it to –ves

(knife → knives, leaf → leaves, life → lives).

(e) There are some Irregular words in English. These do not change
to plural the same way as (a, b, c, and d). The table below shows
some of the most common.

(f) Words that end with –o change to plural by adding –es, the same as
(1) above. However, words that have come to English from other
languages are changed to plural simply by adding –s, the same as
ENGLISH YEAR I 35

(2), (piano → pianos).

(g) Some words do not normally have plurals. Names of some animals
such as sheep, and fish are some examples.

(h) Some words are always plural. Some examples are words for
something that has two parts (trousers, scissors, glasses).

Note

(a) to (h) above give most of the rules for making plurals in English. You
may still see some words that are different. Now that you have studied
these rules try to change the words below into their plural forms.

A Final Note - Pronunciation of Plurals

-s is pronounced “s” after a P, F, or K sound.

ships, laughs, books

After other sounds it is pronounced “z”.

clubs, reads, opens, tries, etc

When –s comes after –ce, –ge, –se, or –ze, an extra sound is added –
“ez”.

notices, cabbages, cases, grazes

Singular Plural Singular Plural

tooth teeth child children

man men ox oxen

woman women goose geese

foot feet louse lice

mouse mice person people


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Exercícios

Try to write the plurals of the following words.

Auto-
avaliação

Singular Plural Singular Plural

elephant class

monkey student

army match

toothbrush television

fax lady

country tomato house wolf donkey ostrich kiss dog church fly
thief tooth trousers baby person street possibility doctor leaf mouse
scissors student watch foot library woman dream child brush
ENGLISH YEAR I 37

Unit 9

PREPOSITIONS
By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Say where things are in relation to others using different prepositions


of place and position.
Objectivos
 Use different prepositions of movement.

Summary
Prepositions

Prepositions of position are words we use to say where something is in


relation to another thing. There are other kinds of prepositions too.

We use to when there is movement, and we use at or in to indicate place


or position

Without movement.

Example:

I want to go to Italy.

We walked from the house to the city centre.

What time do you go to bed?

Piccadilly Circus is in London.

My brother lives in Italy.

The best shops are in the city.

I like reading in bed.


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Note

An exception to the rule of movement or no movement is arrive.

Example:

Arrive in a country We arrived in Italy.

Arrive at a place We arrived at the station.

Arrive home no preposition (home is an exception)

In or At?

You can be in:

a country, a town, a village, a square, a street, a room, a forest, a wood, a


field, a desert or any place which has boundaries or is enclosed.

You can be at:

Home, work, the office, school, university, an address, a certain point


such as the bridge, the crossroads, the bus-stop.

Exercícios
Say whether the sentences below are TRUE or FALSE. If false write the
true sentence.

1 2 3 4 5

The window is in front of the plant.

___________________________________________________________

The flowers are in the vase.

_________________________________________________________

The computer is under the desk.

__________________________________________________________
ENGLISH YEAR I 39

The pillows are on the bed.

___________________________________________________________

The glasses are beside the wine.

_________________________________________________________

Here is a list of some prepositions of place. Work with a partner and write
sentences about your classroom. Write one sentence for each preposition.

In behind between under in front of beside on

above next to inside near outside against

Write sentences about these pictures. Use different prepositions

A B C D

(a) The flowers


____________________________________________________.

(b) The sun


________________________________________________________.

(c) The leaf


________________________________________________________.

(d) The insect


______________________________________________________.
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Complete the following sentences using to or at.

Sometimes it is not necessary to put a preposition.

1. Joy didn’t go to work yesterday.

2. Ann is ill. She has gone ____ the doctor.

3. Are you going ____ the party on Saturday evening?

4. I talked to some nice people ____ the party.

5. Where were you this morning? I was ____ work.

6. Do you usually walk ____ work? No I go by bicycle.

7. We had a good meal ____a restaurant and then we went back


____the hotel.

8. What time are you going ____ home?

9. Will you be ____ home this afternoon?

10. I went ____ Mary’s house but she wasn’t ____ home.

11. There were no taxis so we walked ____ home.

12. How often do you go ____ the dentist?

13. What time do you usually arrive ____ work in the morning?

14. It was very late when we arrived ____ home.

15. The boy jumped into the river and swam ____ the other side.

16. Would you like to study ____ university?

17. There were 20,000 people ____ the football match.

18. Are your children here? No, they’re ____ school.

Complete the sentences with at or in.

1. Hamid works ____a restaurant ____Oxford.

2. We live ____ number 32 Redland Road now.

3. We had a wonderful time ____Madrid.

4. The accident happened because the driver didn’t stop ____the


traffic lights.
ENGLISH YEAR I 41

5. We had great fun last night ____ Mick’s party.

6. Are there any fish ____ this river?

7. It’s too cold to go out. I ‘m staying ____ home tonight.

Here is a description of my house. Fill in the gaps using in or at.

We live ____ an old house ____ the end of a quiet street


____Birmingham. There are four rooms downstairs. I have my study on
the left ____ the front of the house. There are a few chairs ____ the room
and ____ one corner there is a table with a computer-that’s where I do
most of my work. The sitting room is also ____ the front of the house, on
the right as you come in. The kitchen is ____ the back. It looks out over
the garden. There is another small sitting room ____ the back of the
house. There are four bedrooms upstairs, two____ the back. There is a
bathroom ____the end of the corridor.

Complete with to or in.

1. Where is Jack? In bed

2. I’m going ____ the shop to buy some milk.

3. Tom went ____ the kitchen to make some coffee.

4. Where’s Tom? He’s ____ the kitchen making some coffee.

5. Would you like to go ____ the theatre this evening?

6. I got a postcard from Sue this morning. She‘s on holiday ____


Switzerland.

7. John lives ____ a small village ____ the southwest of England.

8. What time do you usually go ____ bed?

9. Kevin’s sister is very ill. She’s ____ hospital.

10. The train left Brussels at 7 o’clock and arrived ____ Paris at 9:30.

11. I was tired this morning. I stayed ____ bed until 10 o’clock.

12. Next year we hope to go ____ Canada to visit some friends.

13. Would you like to live ____ another country?

Do the following task and then compare with your friend.

Draw a house with a door and 2 windows. In front of the house, draw a
wall. In front of the wall there is a car. There is a cat sitting in a window.
There is a bird above the house. To the left of the house there is a tree. To
the right of the house there is a person. Behind the house there is a goat.
Next to the goat is a chicken.
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Unit 10

COMPARATIVES AND
SUPERLATIVES
By the end of this unit students should be able to

 Use adjectives to compare two and more items.

 Use adjectives with one or two and longer adjectives to compare


things.
Objectivos
 Make up sentences in comparisons.

Summary
Comparative and Superlative adjectives are formed in three ways:

(1) with –er and –est

(2) with –ier and –iest

(3) with more and most

The table below shows the different ways we have in English to compare
things, or to say that one thing is unique when compared to all others.
Study the table and try to do the exercises that follow.

LENGTH OF ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE

1. The novel is smaller than the dictionary.

One or two syllables 2. The dictionary is bigger than the novel.

3. The dictionary is heavier than the novel.

Some two-syllable, 4. Is the dictionary more useful than the novel?

all longer adjectives 5. The novel is less expensive than the dictionary.
ENGLISH YEAR I 43

LENGTH OF ADJECTIVE SUPERLATIVE

6. The dictionary is the thickest/ biggest/ heaviest of


One or two syllables
the three books.

Some two-syllable,
7. The dictionary is the most expensive of the three
books.
all longer adjectives

. Note: The novel is not as big as the dictionary

A B C

1. 500Mt 899Mt 699Mt

Cell phone A is more expensive than cell phone B.

Cell phone C is less expensive than cell phone B.

Cell phone A is the most expensive of all.

Cell phone C is the least expensive of all

more + adjective + than

less + adjective + than

This sentence is more difficult than that one.

the most + adjective

the least + adjective

That book is the most interesting of all.

Good → better than

Bad → worse
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Exercícios
Copy and complete these sentences by writing one word for each gap
in your exercise book. Choose from these:

more double most change

(1) If the adjective ends with one vowel and one consonant (wet) (_______)
the consonant: wetter, wettest.

(2) If the adjective ends with consonant-y (easy) (_________) the y to i:


easier, easiest.

(3) Some two-syllable and all longer adjectives have (_______) or less
before them for the comparative and (_________) or least for the
superlative.

Make up, and say, sentences comparing the three books. Use the
correct forms of these adjectives.

Heavy, light, big, small, thick, thin, cheap, useful, expensive

Dictionary 900mt Textbook 500mt Bible 200mt

Weight? How fast? Comfort? Noise? Price?

1,050kg 125km/h √√ √√√ 480M Mt


Landrover

900kg 130km/h √√√ √ 340M Mt


Suzuki 4 x 4
ENGLISH YEAR I 45

Read the report in the newspaper. What are the missing words?

This week we compared the Landrover and the Suzuki 4x4. We found
that the Landrover was __________ than the Suzuki – it weighs 1, 050
kilos, but the Suzuki weighs only 900 kilos. The Landrover was also
____________ than the Suzuki. It could only do 125 km per hour. The
Suzuki was 5 km/hr ____________ than the Landrover. The Suzuki was
_____________ than the Landrover – the seats in the Landrover were not
very comfortable. But the Suzuki was a noisy vehicle: it was
__________ than the Landrover when it drove normally. And the price?
The Landrover is a stronger and _______ reliable vehicle than the
Suzuki… but it is also 1.4 million meticais __________________ than
the Suzuki. So which vehicle is better than the other?

More More expensive

Slower Heavier

Noisier Faster

More comfortable

Which vehicle do you think is better than the other?

Ask your friends.

True or False. Write T or F.

1. The Suzuki is heavier than the Landrover.

2. The Landrover was slower than the Suzuki.

3. The Landrover was less comfortable than the Suzuki.

4. The Landrover is less expensive than the Suzuki.

5. The Suzuki is more reliable than the Landrover

Complete the groups

more reliable Interesting

reliable Dangerous

less reliable Famous

Beautiful
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Appearance Lion Leopard Elephant Horse Donkey Goat

(stylish, smart, snazzy)

Cost $102,000 $100,000 $32,000 $30,000 $10,500 $10,000

(expensive, cheap)

No. of seats 5 2 7 5 5 4

(more/fewer)

Maximum speed 220km/h 250 km/h 180km/h 180km/h 160km/h 110km/h


(fast/slow)

Engine capacity 3.5 litres 4 litres 3 litres 2 litres 1.6 litres 1.3 litres
(powerful)

Length (long/short) 470cm 460cm 500cm 420cm 420cm 350cm

Width (wide) 177cm 177cm 176cm 160cm 158cm 150cm

No. of km to litre 4 5 10 16 20 25
(economical)

QUIZ

Write the right question with the right answer.

(1) What is the longest river in the world?

(2) What is the tallest building in the world?

(3) What is the highest mountain in the world?

(4) What is the longest river in South America?

(5) What is the biggest city in the United States?

(6) What is the highest mountain in Africa?

(7) What is the biggest desert in the world?

(8) What is the largest ocean in the world?

(9) What is the largest lake in Africa?

(10) What is the biggest city in Mozambique?


ENGLISH YEAR I 47

ANSWERS

Lake Victoria New York

The Amazon Mount Everest

Mount Kilimanjaro The Pacific

Maputo The Sears Tower

The Sahara The Nile

Answer these questions

1. The most dangerous snake I know is the ________________.

2. The fastest animal in the world is ______________.

3. The biggest animal in the world is _____________.

4. The biggest bird in the world is _______________.

5. The smallest bird in my area is _______________.

African Elephant is bigger

There are two types of elephant: the African and the Asian. African
elephants live only in the part of Africa south of the Sahara Desert. There
were 1.3 million in 1981 but only

600 000 in 1991. Hunters kill them to get the precious ivory from their
tusks. Elephant hunting is now illegal.

Asian elephants are more numerous. They are found in different Asian
countries, especially in India. African elephants are wild animals but
Asian elephants are often trained to work.

The African elephant is bigger than its Asian cousin. It is 3.5 meters tall
and weighs 7 tons. The tusks are sometimes 2 or 3 meters long. The
Asian elephant is about 3 meters tall and weighs 5-6 tons. Its tusks are
much shorter.

There are also other differences between the two animals. The Asian
elephant has smaller ears and it has a rounder forehead. The African
elephant has a flatter forehead.
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(1) Underline the correct words. African/ Asian elephants are


smaller.

1. African/ Asian elephants are taller.

2. African/ Asian elephants are heavier.

3. African/ Asian elephants are wilder.

4. African/ Asian elephants are more numerous.

5. African/ Asian elephants have shorter tusks.

6. African/ Asian elephants have flatter foreheads.

2) Talk to your partner. Compare these two animals as pets: pony,


snake

More interesting, more dangerous, more friendly, more independent,


more active, more expensive to look after, more aggressive, more
intelligent

(3) Fill in the spaces using the following words

Longer, taller, bigger, smaller, faster, heavier

1. The whale is bigger than the elephant.

2. The snake is _______________ than the crocodile.

3. The dog is ______________ than the cat.

4. The hummingbird is ______________ than the ostrich.

5. The rabbit is _________________ than the tortoise.

6. The giraffe is _______________ than the bear.

What are the comparatives and superlatives of the adjectives below?

1. Beautiful ____ 6. near ____

2. cold ____ 7. Big ____

3. old ____ 8. crowded ____

4. Ugly ____ 9. far ____ (irregular)

5. hot ____ 10. Small _____


ENGLISH YEAR I 49

11. exciting ____ 20. interesting _____

12. noisy ____ 21. wet ____

13. Busy _____ 22. Clean _____

14. friendly ____ 23. boring _____

15. quiet ____ 24. dry ____

16. Cheap _____ 25. Dirty _____

17. heavy ____ 26. modern _____

18. polluted ____ 27. good/

19. Expensive ____ 28. bad (irregular


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Unit 11

THE PAST

By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Form the past of any given verb.

 Use the past in negatives questions and in third form.


Objectivos
 Distinguish between the regular and irregular verbs.

Summary

EXPRESSING PAST TIME: THE SIMPLE PAST


ENGLISH YEAR I 51

a. Mary walked downtown The Simple Past is used to talk about activities or
yesterday. situations that began and ended in the past
(yesterday, last night, two days ago, in 1990)
b. I slept for eight hours last
night.

c. Bob stayed home yesterday


Most simple past verbs are formed by adding –ed
morning.
to a verb, as in a), c) and d)
d. Our plane arrived on time.

e. I ate breakfast this morning. Some verbs have irregular past forms, as in b),
e), and f).
f. Sue took a taxi to the airport.

g. Mary phoned last night. In g) we add only d, because the verb already
ends in -e. Verbs ending in consonant-y end in -
h. I studied hard for the test. ied, as in h).

Simple

Simple Form
Pas
Finish Finished

Stop Stopped

REGULAR Wait Waited

VERBS Hope Hoped

Play Played

Try Tried

Carry Carried

Like Liked

See Saw

Make Made

IRREGULAR Sing Sang

VERBS Eat Ate

Put Put
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Go Went

Note

The verb TO BE makes negatives and questions differently than other


verbs. It does not use the auxiliary verb TO BE.

Negatives Questions

I was not (wasn’t) Was I?

You weren’t Were you?

He/She/it wasn’t Was he/she/it?

We weren’t Were we?

You weren’t Were you?

They weren’t Were they?

FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PAST


I- you- she- he- it- we- they worked yesterday / ate
STATEMENT
breakfast

I- you- she- he- it- we- they did not (didn’t) work
NEGATIVE
yesterday / did not (didn’t) eat breakfast

Did I- you- she- he- it- we- they work yesterday / eat
QUESTION
breakfast?

SHORT Yes / No, I- you- she- he- it- we- they did / didn’t.
ANSWER

All of the following sentences have inaccurate information. Correct them


by writing a negative sentence, and writing an affirmative statement with
accurate information.
ENGLISH YEAR I 53

Exercícios
Example: Thomas Edison invented the telephone.

Thomas Edison didn’t invent the telephone.

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

Example: Rocks floated.

Rocks didn’t float.

Rocks sank.

(1) Wood sank.

(2) You took a taxi to school today.

(3) You sat on a soft, comfortable sofa.

Read this newspaper report and fill in the blanks with the verbs in
the box in the past simple.

Wait / is / drive / go / whistle / dance / wave / arrive /


stay / sing

Yesterday afternoon a large crowd ________ for several hours for Rocky
Shout the American rock star to appear at the Central Stadium. When he
finally _______, he __________ a number of his most popular songs.
The crowd ________ very pleased by his performance and ________ to
the music. After each song they _________ and enthusiastically
_________. Rocky _________ on stage until nearly midnight. After his
performance he _________ back to his hotel. This morning he _______
on a tour of the city, visiting the radio station, the music school and a
children’s hospital.

A Zulu speaks: “I was born in a brick house in Soweto, near


Johannesburg in South Africa. We were poor. My mother was a maid
and my father was a factory worker. He died when I was six. I was
always unhappy, when I was a small child. Life was very hard. White
people were terrible to us.”

A Maori speaks: “I ______ born in a wooden house in a village near


Rotorua in New Zealand. We _________ not poor, but we _______ not
rich. My mother and my father ______ farmers. I ______ never hungry
when I was a small child; I ______ quite happy really. Life ________
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not hard, but white people _________ not always kind to us.

A Dakota Indian speaks: “________ in a cloth tipi near Sisseton, South


Dakota, _______ United States. _________ _________ poor.
_________ farmers. ____________ sometimes hungry ___________ a
small child, but ____________ happy. My mother _______ a good cook,
and my father __________ a good teacher, _____________ hard, and
white people _________ not usually ___________ us.”

Write a short autobiography. Do not put your name on it. Your teacher
will collect all the papers, mix them up, and redistribute them to the class.
Read the autobiography your teacher gives you. Then ask your
classmates the questions to try to find its writer.

Example: Did you come here in 1990? Or when did you come here?

Read the article about a modern writer. Then do the exercises that follow.

Ana Castillo is modern poet, novelist, short story, writer, and


teacher. She was born in Chicago in 1953, and she lived there for
thirty-two years. Outro Canto, her first book of poetry, appeared in
1977. In her work, she uses humour and a lively mixture of Spanish
and English (Spanglish). She got her special writer’s “voice” in a
neighbourhood with many different ethnic groups. She also thanks
her father. “He had an outgoing and easy personality and this
…sense of humour. I got a lot from him…”

Castillo attended high school, college, and graduate school in


Chicago. In the 1970s, she taught English as a Second Language and
Mexican history. She received a PhD in American Studies from
Bremen University in Germany in 1992.

Read the statements. Write that’s right or That’s wrong. Correct the
wrong statements.

Example

Ana Castillo was born in Mexico City.

That’s wrong. She wasn’t born in Mexico City. She was born in Chicago.

(1) She lived in Chicago until 1977.

_____________________________________________________

(2) Her father was very shy.

_____________________________________________________

(3) She grew up among people of different cultures.

_____________________________________________________

(4) Castillo got most of her education in Chicago.


ENGLISH YEAR I 55

_________________________________________________________

(5) She taught Spanish in the 1970s.

(6) She went to France for her PhD.

___________________________________________________________

All of the following sentences have inaccurate information. Correct


them by writing a negative sentence, and writing an affirmative
statement with accurate information.

Example: Thomas Edison invented the telephone.

Thomas Edison didn’t invent the telephone.

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

Example: Rocks floated.

Rocks didn’t float.

Rocks sank.

(1) Wood sank.

(2) You took a taxi to school today.

(3) You sat on a soft, comfortable sofa.

Read this newspaper report and fill in the blanks with the verbs in the box
in the past simple.

Wait / is / drive / go / whistle / dance / wave / arrive /


stay / sing

Yesterday afternoon a large crowd ________ for several hours for Rocky
Shout the American rock star to appear at the Central Stadium. When he
finally _______, he __________ a number of his most popular songs.
The crowd ________ very pleased by his performance and ________ to
the music. After each song they _________ and enthusiastically
_________. Rocky _________ on stage until nearly midnight. After his
56 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

performance he _________ back to his hotel. This morning he _______


on a tour of the city, visiting the radio station, the music school and a
children’s hospital.

A Zulu speaks: “I was born in a brick house in Soweto, near


Johannesburg in South Africa. We were poor. My mother was a maid
and my father was a factory worker. He died when I was six. I was
always unhappy, when I was a small child. Life was very hard. White
people were terrible to us.”

A Maori speaks: “I ______ born in a wooden house in a village near


Rotorua in New Zealand. We _________ not poor, but we _______ not
rich. My mother and my father ______ farmers. I ______ never hungry
when I was a small child; I ______ quite happy really. Life ________
not hard, but white people _________ not always kind to

George Mataka went to South Africa to report on the release of Nelson


Mandela from prison. He wrote a report in English, for a newspaper in
Kenya. His report was in the paper on the day after Mandela left prison
in April 1990. Here is George’s report.

MANDELA IS FREE

By George Mataka

Cape Town

A big crowd waited outside the Victor Vector Prison all morning
yesterday. They all wanted to see Nelson Mandela, the Deputy President
of the ANC, walk out of prison, free after 27 1/2 years. I was there in the
crowd, with the other journalists from all over the world, with the men,
women and children who waited for their leader to walk out from his
prison. This is what I saw.

14:00: The crowd laughed and talked and sang songs. It was a happy,
exciting day for us all. 14:30: Winnie Mandela, the young wife of
Nelson, arrived at the prison. She went inside.

14:50: More cars arrived with other friends and family inside them.

15:04: Three police cars stopped outside the prison gates. The crowd
suddenly went quiet… then the singing and laughing again…

15:50: The gates opened. A black car drove out and gates closed behind
it. The crowd whistled and laughed. The car drove away.

16:10: The gates opened for a second time. The crowd was very excited
now. Every one pushed, everyone wanted to see the great man. The
gates stayed open…

16:14: A tall man with grey hair walked slowly out through the prison
gates. With him were his wife Winnie, and other members of his family.
He smiled and waved at the crowd. People whistled and danced and
sang. Some people cried; other people watched quietly and took
photographs.
ENGLISH YEAR I 57

Mandela was free!

In his report George wrote about things that happened “yesterday”, so he


wrote his report in the past simple tense. What is the past simple of these
verbs? Some are regular and some irregular.

Open Walk Watch

Stay Want Start

Arrive Laugh Push

Whistle Dance Sing

Go Wave Close

Drive Take Wait

Talk Be

Now find the verbs in the report and check if you have

given the correct form.

Read this excerpt from a biography of Japanese poet Matsuo Basho.

Matsuo Basho wrote more than 1000 three-line poems called “haiku”.
He chose topics from nature, daily life, and human emotions. He became
one of Japan’s most famous poets, and his work established haiku as an
important art form.

Matsuo Basho was born near Kyoto in 1644. He did not want to become
a samurai (warrior) like his father. Instead, he moved to Edo (present day
Tokyo) and studied poetry. By 1681, he travelled on foot and on
horseback all over Japan. Sometimes his friends joined him and they
wrote poetry together. Travel was difficult in the seventeenth century,
and Basho often got sick. He died in 1694, during a journey to Osaka.
At that time he had 2000 students.

Write questions for the following answers.

(1)__________________________________________________?

1000 three-line poems.

(2) _________________________________________________?

Nature, daily life, and human emotions?

(3) _________________________________________________?

Near Kyoto in 1644.


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(4) _________________________________________________?

Because he did not want to become a samurai.

(5) ________________________________________________?

Travel on foot and on horseback all over Japan.

(6) _________________________________________________?

2000 students.

Irregular Verbs

Complete the sentences by using the PAST SIMPLE of the given


verbs. Use each verb only one time. All of the verbs have irregular
past forms.

begin, go, read, cut, hold, shake, drink, keep, shut, eat, lose, speak, find,
meet, and spend

(1) Sue ____________ a cup of coffee before class this morning.

(2) We ____________ a delicious dinner at a Mexican restaurant last


night.

(3) When it ____________ to rain yesterday afternoon I


____________all of the windows in the apartment.

(4) Chris hurt his finger when he was fixing his dinner last night. He
accidentally ____________ it with a sharp knife.

(5) I don’t have any money in my pocket. I ____________ my last dime


yesterday. I’m flat broke.

(6) Jessica didn’t throw her old shoes away. She ____________them
because they were comfortable.

(7) I ____________ an interesting article in the newspaper yesterday.

(8) Jack ____________ his pocket knife at the park yesterday. This
morning he ____________ back to park to look for it. Finally he
____________ it in the grass. He was glad to have it back.

(9) I ____________ Jennifer’s parents when they visited her. She


introduced me to them.

(10) Yesterday I called Jason on the phone. He wasn’t home, so I


____________to his sister.

(11) When I introduced Tom to Ryan, they ____________ hands and


smiled at each other.
ENGLISH YEAR I 59

Complete the following dialogues. Use the words in parentheses.


Give short answers where necessary.

A: (you go) Did you go to class yesterday?

B: No, I didn’t, I (stay) stayed home because I (feel, not) didn’t feel
good.

A: (you, sleep) _____________________ well last night?

B: Yes, __________________, I (sleep) _____________________very


well.

A: (Tom’s plane, arrive) _____________________ on time yesterday?

B: Yes, ___________________. It (get in) _____________________ at


6.05.

A: (you, stay) _____________________ home and (study)


_____________________last night?

B: No, _________________. I (go) _____________________to a new


movie.

A: (you, like) _____________________ it?

B: It was ok, I guess. But I don’t really like horror movies.

A: (Mary, study) _____________________last night?

B: No, _____________________. She (watch) _____________________


TV.

A: (Mark Twain, write) _____________________ Tom Sawyer?

B: Yes, _____________________. He also (write)


___________________Huckleberry Finn.

A: (the children, go) to the zoo yesterday?

B: Yes, _____________________. And they (have)


_____________________ a wonderful time.

A: (you, eat) _____________________ breakfast this morning?

B: Yes, _____________________. But I (have, not)


_____________________ enough time. I was late for class because my
alarm clock (ring not) _____________________.
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IRREGULAR VERBS

Complete the sentences by using the SIMPLE PAST of the given


verbs. Use each verb only one time. All the verbs have irregular past
forms.

Bite, feel, leave, draw, forget, lend, drive, get, ride, fall, hear, steal, feed,
hurt, take

(1) Mary walked to school yesterday. Rebecca


_____________________her car. Alison

_____________________her bicycle. Sandy


_____________________ the bus.

(2) When Alan slipped on the icy sidewalk yesterday he


________________ down and _____________________his back. His
back is very painful today.

(3)I didn’t have any money yesterday, so my roommate


________________ me enough so I could pay for lunch.

(4) The children had a good time at the park yesterday. They
____________ the ducks small pieces of bread.

(5) Alice called the police yesterday because someone


_________________ her bicycle while she was in the library studying.
She’s very angry.

(6) Dick _____________________his apartment in a hurry this morning


because he was late for school. That’s why he _____________________
to bring his books to class.

(7) The children _____________________pictures of themselves in art


class yesterday.

(8) I have a cold. Yesterday I _____________________terrible, but I’m


feeling better today.

(9) Last night I _____________________a strange noise in the house


around 2:00 am, so I _____________________to investigate.

(10) My dog isn’t very friendly. Yesterday she


_____________________my neighbour’s leg. Luckily, my dog is very
old and doesn’t have sharp teeth, so she didn’t hurt my neighbour.
ENGLISH YEAR I 61

Unit 12

THE PAST CONTINUOUS

By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Tell the difference between the Past Simple tense and the Past
Continuous.

 Use the Past Continuous for all persons in negatives, questions and
Objectivos affirmatives.

Summary

(a) Mary walked downtown The simple past is used to talk


yesterday. about activities or situations
THE that began and ended at a
particular time in the past
SIMPLE (yesterday, last night, two
(b) I slept for eight hours last days ago, in 1990), as in (a)
PAST night. and (b).

(c) I sat down at the dinner table The past continuous expresses
at 6 PM yesterday. Tom came to an activity that was in progress
my house at 6.10 PM. I was eating (was occurring, was
THE dinner when Tom came. happening) at a point of time
in the past (at 6.10) or at the
PAST time of another action (when
CONTINUOUS Tom came). In (c): Eating
(d) I went to bed at 10:00. The was in progress at 6.10; eating
phone rang at 11:00. I was was in progress when Tom
sleeping when the phone rang. came.
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FORM: was, were + ing

When = at that time


(e) When the phone rang, I was sleeping
While = during that time
(f) The phone rang while I was sleeping.
(c) and (f) have the same
meaning.

In (g): When two actions are


in progress at the same time,
(g) While I was doing my homework, my roommate
the past progressive can be
was watching TV.
used in both parts of the
sentence.

STATEMENT I- she- he- it- was working

You- we- they- were working

NEGATIVE I- she- he- it- was not (wasn’t) working

You- we- they- were not (weren’t) working

QUESTION Was I- she- he- it- working?

Were you- we- they- working?

SHORT ANSWER Yes, I- she- he- it- was. No, I- she- he- it- wasn’t.

Yes, you- we- they-were. No, you- we- they-


weren’t.

FORMS OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS

USE OF PAST CONTINUOUS (I was doing) AND PAST SIMPLE (I


did)

A. To talk about a temporary situation that existed at or around a


particular time in the past, we use the past continuous:

At the time of the robbery, they were staying with my


parents.
ENGLISH YEAR I 63

My head was aching again, so I went home.

Compare the use of the past continuous and the past simple in these
sentences:

She was shaking with anger as she left the hotel.

When he realised I was looking at him, he turned away.

Erika dropped her bag while she was getting into her car.

We often use the past simple to talk about a completed past event and the
past continuous to describe the situation that existed at the time. The
completed event might have interrupted the situation, or just occurred
while the situation or event was in progress.

We don’t normally use the past continuous with certain verbs describing
states:

This house belonged to the King of Sweden (not: was


belonging to)

B. When we talk about two past actions or events that went on over the
same period of time, we can often use the past continuous for both.

Sally was reading to the children while Kevin was washing


up.

Mario was working in a restaurant when I was living in


London.

However, we can often use the past simple to express a similar meaning:

Mario worked in a restaurant while he lived in London. (or was living in


London)

When we talk about two or more past complete events that follow each
other, we use the past simple for both. The first may have caused the
second:

She got up when the alarm went off.

He jumped out of bed and ran to see who the parcel was for.

C. When we talk about a permanent or long-term situation that existed in


the past, we use the past simple rather than the past continuous:

When I was a child I played the violin. (not: I was playing)

I was working in a car factory during the summer of 1976.


(or I worked)

He worked hard all his life. (not: He was working.)

D. We use the past simple rather than the past continuous when we are
talking about repeated actions or events in the past:
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We visited Spain three times last year. (not: We were visiting Spain.)

I went past her house every day. (not: I was going past)

She slept very badly whenever she stayed with her grandparents. (not was
sleeping)

However, the past continuous can also be used when we want to


emphasise that the repeated actions only went on for a limited and
temporary period of past time.

When Carlo was in hospital, we were visiting him twice a


day. (or we visited)

To get fit for the race, I was going to the sports centre every
day (or I went)

We use the past continuous when the repeated actions or events provide a
longer background to something else that happened.

During the time I started to get chest pains, I was playing


tennis a lot.

Exercícios
1. Look at this weather report from the newspaper

WORLD WEATHER

Yesterday’s weather report

S= SUN R= RAIN SN= SNOW

Athens S Moscow SN

Bangkok R Johannesburg S

Cairo S New York R

Dublin SN Paris S

Cape Town R Sydney SN

Ask and answer:

Example:
ENGLISH YEAR I 65

What was the weather like in Athens yesterday?

The sun was shining.

Then write five sentences about yesterday’s weather in different cities of


the world.

Example: It was raining in Bangkok yesterday

2. Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses.

Use the SIMPLE PAST or PAST CONTINUOUS.

1) At 6:00 PM, Bob sat down at the table and began to eat. At 6:05, Bob
(eat)

________________ dinner.

(2) While Bob (eat) ________________dinner, Ann (come)


________________through the door.

(3) In other words, when Ann ________________through the door, Bob


(eat)

________________dinner.

(4) Bob went to bed at 10:30. At 11:00 Bob (sleep) ________________.

(5) While Bob (sleep) ________________, the phone (ring)


______________.

(6) In other words, when the phone (ring) __________, Bob (sleep)
_______.

(7) Bob left his house at 8:00 AM and (begin) ________________to walk
to class. While he (walk) ________________to class, he (see)
______________ a car crash.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.

(1) As she (climb) ________________the ladder, she fell off it.

(2) I was alone in the house at the time because Mr Smith (work)
________________ and Mrs Smith (shop) ________________.

(3) I went into the kitchen to see what they (do) ______________.

(4) John and Mary (talk) ________________about you yesterday!

(5) When he first saw him, he (swim) ________________in the sea.

(6) I (take) ________________a bath, when the phone rang.

(7) Mary ate nothing for lunch; she said she (try) ______________ to
lose 3 kilos.
66 Erro! Utilize o separador Base para aplicar Heading 1 ao texto que pretende que apareça aqui.

(8) From the sounds it was clear Ann (practice) _______________ the
fiddle.

(9) There was nobody in the car, but the engine (run) __________.

(4a) Complete the sentences using the pairs of verbs. Use the past
simple in one space and the past continuous in the other.

Arrive/get go/get look/slip wait/order ski/break


meet/work

(1) Just as I was getting into the bath the fire alarm went off.

(2) Helen ____________her leg while she ____________ in


Switzerland.

(3) We ____________when I ____________in a music shop.

(4) When his mother ____________in the other direction, Steve

____________ away quietly.

(5) I ____________a drink while I ____________for Pam to arrive.

(6) Our guests were early. They ____________as I


____________changed.

(4b) Look at the past continuous verbs you wrote in (4a). Which of these
could also be in the past simple? What difference in meaning, if any,
would there be

5. Complete the sentences with one of these verbs: be, enjoy, have, live.
Use the same verb for each sentence in the pair. In one, you can use only
the past simple, in the other you can use either the past simple or the past
continuous

- It was now getting late, and my eyes ____________trouble focusing


on the birds in the disappearing light.

- I ____________trouble with that car the whole of the time I owned


it.

- As a historian, I’m interested in how people ____________in the


past.

- During the hard winter, people ____________by selling what few

remaining possessions they had.

- She____________ very good at talking to children in a way that


kept them entertained.
ENGLISH YEAR I 67

- Before the party, the children got very excited and


____________naughty.

- He ____________learning Japanese until the class had a new


teacher.

- Even when he was young, Jonathan ____________learning


languages.

6. Correct the sentences if necessary or write correct.

Whenever I called in on Sam, he talked on the phone.

- When I lived in Paris, I was spending three hours a day travelling to


and from work.

- Peterson was winning the tournament four times before he retired.

- We were having to play netball twice a week when I went to school.

- The weather was so good last summer that we went to the beach most
weekends.

7. Read the article and answer the questions.

THE TITANIC DISASTER

The British passenger liner the Titanic sank on the night of Sunday, 14th
of April 1912, while it was sailing from Southampton to New York on its
maiden voyage. The ship, considered unsinkable, was the largest and
most luxurious passenger ship of its time. It was crossing the Atlantic on
a route further north than the usual one and was travelling at a speed of
22 knots (41 km per hour). Just before midnight it struck an iceberg,
which cut a hole 100 m long in the ship. At the time of the disaster, many
of the first-class passengers were celebrating their arrival in New York
the following day.

However, not all passengers were very rich. The majority of the third-
class passengers were poor emigrants, many of them Irish, who were
going to America to look for work and a better life. Of the 2, 224
passengers and crew who were travelling on the Titanic, 1,513 lost their
lives. It was the greatest ship disaster of all time.

What kind of ship was the Titanic?

Where was it travelling to when it sank?

Why was it special?

How fast was it travelling when it struck the iceberg?

What were many of the first-class passengers doing at that time?


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Why were there a lot of poor people on the Titanic?

How many people was the ship carrying?

How many of these survived the disaster?

8. Answer the questions.

1. What were you doing this time yesterday?

________________________________________________________

2. Where were you living three years ago?

________________________________________________________

3. What school were you going to two years ago?

________________________________________________________

4. What were you studying before doing this exercise?

________________________________________________________

5. What were you thinking of, when you started this exercise?

________________________________________________________

9. Setting the scene

Joseph Dale, a reporter, was one of the survivors of the Titanic disaster.
When the ship hit the iceberg he was writing a report for his newspaper.
Read his report. Then, in pairs, ask and answer questions using the
prompts.

14th of April, 11.30 pm

Here I am on the world’s largest and most luxurious passenger liner, the
Titanic. We’re just entering an area of the Atlantic called the Grand
Banks (off the coast of Newfoundland). The ship is travelling at its
maximum speed because the captain wants to break the record for the
fastest Atlantic crossing.

I’m writing this report from the First Class Lounge. This is our last night
on board and the first class passengers are having a Gala dinner. J.J.
Astor, the millionaire, is sitting at the Captain’s table. The captain is
drinking champagne and chatting to Benjamin Guggenheim, the
American industrialist. The orchestra is playing a waltz and some young
couples are dancing.

Besides the 2, 224 passengers and crew, the ship is carrying animals like
cows, chickens and rabbits to make sure the passengers have fresh milk,
ENGLISH YEAR I 69

eggs and meat every day. There is also a special compartment for the
passengers’ pets. There are 55 bulldogs travelling to New York with
their owners!

It’s a beautiful night. There’s a light breeze blowing, but the sea is
incredibly calm. Some of the passengers are walking along the deck.
Everybody is talking about our arrival in New York tomorrow. They’re
all excited about it.

Example: What area was the Titanic entering? It was entering the Grand
Banks.

(1) What area ____________________the Titanic?

(2) Why ____________________at maximum speed?

(3) Where ____________________Joseph Dale


____________________?

(4) Who ____________________ at the Gala Dinner?

(5) Whose table ____________________Lord Astor


____________________at?

(6) What ____________________the Captain


____________________?

(7) What music ____________________?

____________________anyone dancing?

(8) Why ____________________cows, chickens and rabbits?

(9) ____________________any pets ____________________with


their owners?

(10) Where ____________________some of the passengers

____________________?

(11) What ____________________everybody


____________________?
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Unit 13

ADVICE AND OBLIGATION


By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use should when giving advice.

 Use should in question, negatives and positives

Objectivos

Summary
When we give or receive advice in English we use should.

Form

Should + infinitive (without to)

The forms of should are the same for all persons.

Look at the tables below.

Positive & Negative

He
should do more exercise.
We
Shouldn’t tell lies.
They

Etc.
ENGLISH YEAR I 71

Question

Should she

they
see a doctor?
I

Do you think he should

we

Short answer

Should I phone home? Yes, you should.

Should I buy a Mercedes


No, you shouldn’t.
Benz?

Use

Should is used to express what the speaker thinks is right or the best thing
to do. It expresses mild obligation, or advice.

Example:

I should do more work. (this is my opinion)

You should do more work. (I’m telling you what I think)

Do you think we should stop here? (I’m asking you for your opinion)

Shouldn’t express negative advice.

You shouldn’t sit so close to the TV. It’s bad for your eyes.
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Note

Should expresses the opinion of the speaker, and it is often introduced by


I think or I don’t think.

Example:

I think politicians should listen more.

I don’t think people should get married until they’re 21.

Exercícios
Give advice to the following people.

Use I think……should or I don’t think…..should.

Example:

Peter’s got a very bad cold.

I think he should go to bed.

I don’t think he should go to work.

1) ‘One of my teeth is loose.’

___________________________________________________________

(2) ‘I’ve lost my credit cards and cheque book.’

___________________________________________________________

(3) ‘John wants to drive home, but he hasn’t got his glasses.’

___________________________________________________________

(4) ‘Ann’s phone bill was enormous! 10,000,00 Meticais!’

___________________________________________________________

(5) ‘My shoes have got a hole in them. I only bought them last week!’

___________________________________________________________

(6) ‘Jenny and Tony are only sixteen, but they say they want to get
married.’

___________________________________________________________

(7) ‘My children spend all their pocket money on sweets.’

___________________________________________________________
ENGLISH YEAR I 73

Asking for advice.

Ask for advice in the following situations.

Use Do you think …………should…………?

Example:

George has asked me to marry him.

Do you think I should say yes?

(1) Teresa has invited me to a party at her parents’ house.

__________________________________________________________?

(2) Hazel still hasn’t given me back the money she owes me.

__________________________________________________________?

(3) My boss said today that I can have a pay rise if I learn Chinese.

__________________________________________________________?

(4) Lulu isn’t speaking to me today because yesterday I said she was
stupid.

__________________________________________________________?

(5) Jeremy doesn’t know whether to go to university or travel round the


world.

_________________________________________________________?

(6) This stereo’s beautiful, but it’s so expensive.

_________________________________________________________?

(4) Lulu isn’t speaking to me today because yesterday I said she was
stupid.

____________________________________________________?

(5) Jeremy doesn’t know whether to go to university or travel round the


world.

____________________________________________________?

(6) This stereo’s beautiful, but it’s so expensive.

____________________________________________________?
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Unit 14

OBLIGATIONS
By the end of this unit students should be able to

 Use have to in all persons to express obligations.

Objectivos  Use have to in negatives and questions.

Summary

When we speak about obligations we use have to or has to.

Form: has/have + to + infinitive

Look at the tables below.

Positive & Negative

We have

You don’t have

They to work hard.

He
has
She
doesn’t have
It
ENGLISH YEAR I 75

Question

we
Do
you

they have to work hard?

he

Does she

it

Short answer

Do you have to wear a


Yes, I do.
uniform?

No, he
Does he have to go now?
doesn’t.

Use

Have to expresses strong obligation. The obligation comes from ‘outside’


– perhaps a law, a rule at school or work, or someone in authority.

Example:

You have to have a driving licence if you want to drive a car.

I have to start work at 8:00.

The doctor says I have to do more exercise.

Don’t/Doesn’t have to expresses an absence of obligation. It isn’t


necessary.

You don’t have to do the washing-up. I’ve got a dishwasher.

She doesn’t have to work on Mondays.


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Note

The past tense of have to is had to, with did and didn’t in the question and
the negative.

Example:

I had to get up early this morning.

Why did you have to work last weekend?

They liked the hotel because they didn’t have to do any cooking

Note 2

Must is also used to express strong obligation. Generally, when it is used,


the obligation comes from the speaker.

Example:

I must get my hair cut. (This suggests that I feel it is necessary).

You must…. can be used to express a strong suggestion.

Example:

You must see the Monet exhibition! It’s wonderful.

You must call me when you’re next in town.

Exercícios
Complete the following sentences in a suitable way. Use have to, has
to, or had to.

Use the following verbs. go, be, take, drive, make, wear, go.

Example

I have to wear glasses because my eyes aren’t very good.

(1) I’ve got some tablets from the doctor. I ______________________


them three times a day.

(2) Thanks for a lovely evening! We __________________________


now or we’ll miss our bus.

(3) Remember! When you drive in England you


_____________________________ on the left!
ENGLISH YEAR I 77

(4) Mary’s in a panic. She ________________ at the airport at 2:30, but


it’s 2:00 and she isn’t ready yet.

(5) ‘Can I go and see the dentist when I want?’

‘Well, usually _______________ have an appointment, unless it’s an


emergency.

(6) At the weekend Jack wears jeans and a T-shirt. During the week he
__________________ a suit and tie.

(7) ‘Why are you late?’

‘Sorry. I ___________________ to the bank, and there was a queue.’

Put a form of have to or should into each gap. Sometimes the verb
forms are negative.

(1) Your hair’s too long. I think you _____________________________


get it cut.

(2) You smell bad you’ve got a cough. You


________________________ smoke.

(3) I’m going to bed. I _____________________________ be up early


tomorrow.

(4) I’d like to meet your boyfriend. You ___________________ invite


him around.

(5) I _____________________tell my parents where I am, then they


don’t worry.

(6) You ________________ come with me if you don’t want to. I’ll go
on my own.

(7) If you need some help with your homework, you


_____________________ go to the library.

(8) If you’ve got a ticket, you __________________queue. You can go


straight in.

(9) You ____________________________________________________


tell lies. It’s naughty.

(10) Geoff works too much. I think he _________________________


take it easy
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Look at the table below and make 10 true sentences about you and
your family, and add a comment.

Examples:

My grandfather doesn’t have to work. He’s retired.

I have to make the bed in the morning. I don’t mind.

We don’t have to do the washing-up. We have a dishwasher.

A B C

I do the washing-up.

We baby-sit.

My parents make the bed in the


have to morning.
My mother
has to do the shopping
My father
do the cooking.
My sister
don’t have to do the ironing.
My brother
doesn’t have to go to work.
My grandmother
work in the kitchen.
My grandfather
get up early in the
morning.

Making negatives

Complete the following sentences in a suitable way.

Use don’t have to, doesn’t have to, or didn’t have to.

Use the following verbs. work, do, ask, pay, do, go, do, iron.

Example

I like weekends because I don’t have to get up early.

(a) ‘How much are the tickets for the concert?’

‘They’re free. You__________________________ for them.


ENGLISH YEAR I 79

(b) Lady Vanessa has a maid. She _________________________ any


housework.

(c) The holiday was marvellous. We ________________________


anything. We just sat by the pool all day!

(d) I’ve just bought my first car. It’s great! Now I _______________
people for a lift all the time.

(e) When I go on holiday I take nylon shirts because you


_________________________ them. You just hang them up to dry and
they’re ready to wear.

(f) Paul’s won a million pounds! He _________________________


another day in his life.

(g) ‘Did you go to church when you were young?’

‘Yes, I ________________________, but I wanted to.

Making questions

Put the words in the right order to form a question.

Example: time you up what have get do to?

What time do you have to get up?

(1) job wear have in uniform you your to do a?

____________________________________________________?

(2) books have many you buy so why did to?

____________________________________________________?

(3) States visa get to to go you do have a the to?

____________________________________________________?

(4) John does pills take often his how have to?

________________________________________________________?

(5) plant carefully you after look do have to this very?


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Unit 15

THE FUTURE
By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use WILL, GOING TO and PRESENT CONTINUOUS in future.

 Use the future tense with all persons.


Objectivos  Use the future form in negatives and questions.

Summary

The easiest way to talk about the future in English is to use will in front
of the verb.

I will go to school tomorrow.

Mary will cook dinner tonight.

But this is not the only way to talk about the future. We can also express
the future using the verb TO BE + going to + VERB.

I am going to be a teacher when I graduate from university.

Paulo is going to play football tomorrow.


ENGLISH YEAR I 81

(a) I am going to leave at nine tomorrow


morning.

(b) I will leave at nine tomorrow morning. (a) and (b) have the same meaning.

(c) Marie is going to be at the meeting (c) and (d) have the same meaning.
tonight.

(d) Marie will be at the meeting tonight.

(e) I shall leave at nine tomorrow morning. The use of shall (with I or we) is not
used very often, and is formal.
(f) We shall leave at nine tomorrow
morning.

Future using the verb TO BE + going to + VERB

I am

You are

He/She/It is
going to play football tomorrow.

We

You are

They

So what is the difference between be going to and will?


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BE GOING TO OR WILL

(a) She is going to succeed because she Be going to and will are the same when
works hard. they are used to make predictions about
the future. (a) and (b) have the same
(b) She will succeed because she works meaning.
hard.

Be going to (but not will) is used to


(c) I bought some wood because I’m
express a plan we have for the future. In
going to build a bookcase for my
(c) the speaker is planning to build a
apartment.
bookcase.

Will (but not be going to) is used to


(d) This chair is too heavy for you to carry
volunteer or express willingness. In (d)
alone. I’ll help you.
the speaker is happy to help.

USING WILL

STATEMENT {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} will visit Paris.

NEGATIVE {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} will not (won’t) visit Paris.

QUESTION Will {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} visit Paris?

SHORT Yes, {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} will.


ANSWER
No, {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} won’t.

I’ll, you’ll, she’ll, he’ll, it’ll, Will is usually contracted


we’ll, they’ll with pronouns.

CONTRACTIONS Bob + will = Bob’ll Will is usually contracted


with nouns in speech, but
The teacher + will = the not in
teacher’ll

writing.

YES/NO QUESTIONS USING GOING TO + VERB

Am I I am.
have a
going to Yes,
party?
Are you you/we/they are.
ENGLISH YEAR I 83

Is he/she/it he/she/it is.

Are
we/you/they I’m

No, you’re/we’re/they’re not.

he’s/she’s/it’s

There is another way we can talk about the future. We can use the
Present Continuous.

(If you don’t remember the Present Continuous, go back and look at Unit
4 again.)

I’m going to Pemba tomorrow.

I’m visiting my grandmother next weekend.

In these examples we say the time in the future (tomorrow, next


weekend). We don’t always do this but it is helpful so the listener knows
we are talking about the future and not the present.

Present Continuous can be used to talk abut future plans. It is very similar
to be going to + verb form. However, it is usually used with certain verbs
that talk about a plan we have with another person (go, come, visit, meet,
etc). We don’t usually use the verbs GO or COME with be going to +
verb form.

Exercícios
Talk with a friend about your plans for tomorrow. You can use the
pictures below to help you.

do my homework read a book write a letter

go swimming cut my hair play football

Complete the dialogues using a form of will or going to, and any
other necessary words. Sometimes both future forms are possible.

Example: Why are you wearing your old clothes? Because I’m going to
wash the car.

a. I’ve got a headache. Have you got any aspirin? Yes, It’s in the
bathroom. I_________________________ it for you.

b. Don’t forget to tell me if I can help you. Thank you.


I___________________________ a ring if I think of anything.
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c. Why are you making sandwiches? Because we


_____________________________________ a picnic on the beach.

What a lovely idea! I ______________________________ the towels


and the swimming costumes.

d. I’m going now! Bye!

Bye! What time _________________ you ________________ back


tonight?

I don’t know. I _________________________ phone you later.

e. Who do you think ________________ win the next election? The


Frelimo party _______________ win, definitely!

f. You still owe me ten pounds. Have you forgotten? I’m sorry. Yes, I’d
forgotten. I __________________________back tomorrow.

g. Wow, Pete! What a lovely new bike!

It’s good. Isn’t it?

Pete, I was wondering. What ______________________________do


with your old bike?

I don’t know. Why? Do you want it?

Er…well. Maybe.

Fine. You can have it.

I ________________________________ you for it. How much do you


want?

It’s OK .You can have it for nothing.

Two people are travelling to the car show. Read their conversation
and underline the best verb form.

Jason: I just heard the weather report.

Ariel: Oh? What’s the forecast?

Jason: It’s raining/ It’s going to rain tomorrow.

Ariel: Oh no! I hate driving in the rain. And it’s a long drive to the car
show.

Jason: Wait! I have an idea. We’ll take / We’re going to take the train
instead!

Ariel: Good idea! Do you have a train schedule?


ENGLISH YEAR I 85

Jason: Yes, here’s one. There’s a train that will leave / leaves at 7:00
A.M.

Ariel: What about lunch? Oh, I know, I’ll make / I’m making some
sandwiches for us to take along.

Jason: Sounds good. You know, it’s a long trip. What are we doing / are
we going to do all those hours?

Ariel: Don’t worry. We’ll think / We’re thinking of something.

Jason: You know. We have to get up really early.

Ariel: That’s true. I think I’m going / I’ll go home now.

Jason: OK. I’m seeing you / I’ll see you tomorrow. Good night.

Ask your class mate the same questions and report his/her answers.

1. What football team will win the Mozambican championship this year?

I think …………………………………………..championship.

My class mate thinks…………………………….championship.

2. How many points do you think this team will get?

I think …………………………………………..points.

He/She………….……………………………….points.

3. What football player will score the highest number of goals?

I think …………………………………………..of goals.

He/She………….……………………………….of goals.

4. What make of car will win the Formula 1 racing championship?

I think …………………………………….. racing championship.

He/She………….…………………………. racing championship.

5. What racing driver will win the world championship?

I think ………………………………………. world championship.

He/She………….………………………………. world championship.

6. What country will win the World Cup?

I think ………………………………………….. the World Cup.


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He/She………….………………………………. the World Cup.

7. What basketball team will win the NBA championship?

I think ………………………………………….. NBA championship.

He/She………….………………………………. NBA championship.

Exciting new changes in the car Highway to the future….

On the road to design.

By Harry Vroom SPECIAL TO THE AUTO GAZETTE

Get ready! We’re on the road to exciting new changes in car design. How
will the vehicles of the future look? Well, it will probably still have four
wheels, but it’s going to come in many more colours and patterns. You’ll
be able to choose a green and yellow polka dotted model or design your
very own personal look! Its going to be environmentally friendly too. The
material will be 100% recyclable and the car will run on solar energy.
What about speed? The car of the future will go a lot faster than current
cars. One day it will even fly!

But it will also be safe. An electronic shield around the car will warn of
danger and automatically avoid accidents. And you won’t get lost
anymore! You’ll just say the destination and the car will give you the
directions.

One manufacturer, Smart Transporting, is holding a press conference next


week. At the conference you’ll see actual models of these fantastic new
cars. And before very long, you’ll be able to zip around town in the real
thing! So, full speed ahead to the future! It’s going to be a great trip!

RADIO CALL-IN QUESTIONS

Radio listeners are calling in with questions for Professor Vroom.


Complete question and answers. Use the words in (brackets) and will or
won’t.

CALLER 1: Hello, Professor Vroom. My question is this: will the car of


the future run (run) on gasoline?

VROOM: No, it ________. It _________ probably __________(use)


solar Energy. Thanks for calling. Next?

CALLER 2: I had a flat tire yesterday. I was wondering _________we


still ________(get) flat tires on these future cars?

VROOM: No, we __________. In fact, the year 2010,flat tires


__________(be) a thing of the past. Tires ________________(have) a
special seal so they _______________(repair) themselves automatically.

CALLER 3: Sounds great. In what other ways ____________ the car of


the future _________ different?
ENGLISH YEAR I 87

Write about professor Vroom’s plans for next week. Use the
information below and the Present Continuous. Add the and a when
necessary.

Wednesda
Monday Tuesday Thursday Friday
y

Take train Go to Attend Talk on


to annual
A.M Washingt radio
New on Work in car show show
Haven
(8:00 research
AM) lab all day

P.M Give lecture Date with


at Yale his
girlfriend

1. On Monday morning he’s taking the train to New Haven.

2. On Monday evening
_________________________________________________

3. On Tuesday morning
_________________________________________________

4. All day Wednesday


__________________________________________________

5. On Thursday morning
________________________________________________

6. On Friday morning
__________________________________________________

7. On Friday night
_____________________________________________________

Dear Val,

I’m so excited that you’re coming to visit!

Everything’s planned for your holiday here (sorry! Vacation…I think I’m
becoming British!). Of course Mom, Dad and I are meeting you at the
airport in London, after which we’re returning to Oxford for three days.
We’re having a party for you the next evening. All my friends and their
parents are coming. I particularly want you to meet Brian! If you don’t
like him, I shall die and I wont ever speak to you again! …. I’m only
kidding. I’m sure you’ll think he’s really great neat; I do!
Although Oxford isn’t very exciting, it’s very pretty. If it interests you,
we’ll go on a tour of the university and if it doesn’t rain we’ll walk along
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the river. Unfortunately your holiday vacation is short, so we decided that


the best idea is a coach tour (oops again! bus tour). We found a really
interesting one.
When you arrive, I’ll tell you all about the places that we’re visiting .One
of them is in Edinburgh, in Scotland. Our cousins, the Bennett’s are
coming there to meet us from Longbridge. I stayed there last year and had
a great time.

At the end of the tour, we’re staying in London until you leave. London’s
fantastic! Maybe we’ll see the queen at Buckingham palace or perhaps
we’ll meet Anne Boleyn’s ghost in the tower, who knows?

Well Val, these are the plans. I hope you’ll enjoy yourself. I really want
us to have a wonderful time!

See you soon.

Lots of love,

Debbie

Look at the letter above. There are many sentences using the Present
Continuous and others using will. Can you find them?

1. Who is writing the letter?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. To whom was she writing?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Write all Debbie’s plans for her friend.

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
ENGLISH YEAR I 89

Unit 16

FIRST CONDITIONAL
By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use will to construct a sentence in first conditional.

Objectivos  Use first conditional in negatives and questions.

Summary
First Conditional

We use First Conditional to talk about something that might happen in


the future. A sentence in the First Conditional has 2 parts (a present verb,
and a future verb). We combine these 2 parts using the word if.

So we can say that First Conditional sentences always have three things:

A verb in the present simple

A verb in the future

The word if

Example: If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home.

In this example rains is our present simple verb, and stay is our future
verb. We also have if, so this is a good First Conditional sentence.
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First Conditional sentences are about a possible future result or


consequence of some action or event.

In the example above the event or action is rain, and the result or
consequence is stay at home.

Look at the following example. Can you say what the action or event is,
and what the result or consequence is?

If I pass my exams I will be happy

Word order in First Conditional sentences

First Conditional sentences can be written in two ways. See below.

I will be happy if I pass my exams.

If I pass my exams, I will be happy. (note the comma)

Both of the above sentences are correct. We can see that the word if is
always followed by a verb in the present.

Negatives & Questions

First Conditional sentences can also use negative forms.

Present verbs become negative using don’t and doesn’t (remember the
verb TO BE is an exception).

Future verbs become negative using won’t (will not).

Example: If I don’t pass my exams, I won’t be happy.

If it rains, I won’t go to the beach.

If she doesn’t feel better, she will go to the hospital.

We can also make questions in the First Conditional.

Example: Will you go to the beach if it rains?

Will Lucia come to the party if she is feeling better?

Final notes on First Conditional

We sometimes get confused about which verb is Future, and which verb
is Present. Just remember - after if the next verb is always Present.

Also, remember that in English the third person is different in the present
tense. Don’t forget to add –s, -es, or –ies at the end of the verb.
ENGLISH YEAR I 91

In the negative form third person uses doesn’t, not don’t.

Exercícios
Try to complete the following sentences by putting the verbs in the
correct forms.

Remember there is always 1 present verb and 1 future verb.

Be careful about the third person.

1. He ________ (be) surprised if they ____________ (get) home on


time.

2. Claudia ____________ (bake) a cake if you ___________ (have)


a party.

3. If you __________ (come) to the party , I____________ (dance)


with you.

4. If I ___________ (get) some money I _______________ (buy) a


new car.

5. It ____________ (be) difficult to find a hotel if we


_________(arrive) late.

6. John ____________ (pass) the test if he _____________ (study)


hard.

Complete the following First Conditional sentences.

1. I _____________ (be) very happy if I ____________ (pass) my


exam.

2. If it _____________ (rain), I _________________ (not go) to the


beach.

3. If Mary _________________ (visit) me, I ____________ (bake)


a cake.

4. I _______________ (give) you $50 if you _____________(win)


the game.

5. If you _____________ (eat) that, you ______________ (get)


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sick.

6. Julia _____________ (hit) you if you ______________ (say)


that.

7. I _____________ (not go) to the party if he _____________(be)


there.

8. I _____________ (be) angry if you ______________ (copy) in


the exam.

9. If Mussa __________(fail) the exam, he ________ _____ (not


be) happy.

10. Claudia _____________ (not be) happy if you


__________(forget) to call.

11. If he ______________ (work) hard, he _______________ (get)


rich.

12. They ___________(not pass) their exams if they __________


(not study).

13. I __________________ (swim) if it ________________ (be) hot.

14. If we __________ (go) to bed late, we ____________ (be) tired


tomorrow.

15. She ____________ (get) a better job if she __________ (have) a


degree.

16. If there _________ (be) a nuclear explosion, we ________ (die).

Complete these sentences in the First Conditional.

(1) If you __________ (invite) me I __________ (come).

(2) If it ___________ (rain) we _____________ (not go) to the beach.

(3) I __________ (stay) in bed if I ___________ (be) sick.

(4) If she ___________ (cheat) in the exam she ___________ (get) zero.

(5) If you ___________ (eat) that you ___________ (be) sick.

(6) He ____________ (help) you if you ____________ (ask) him.

(7) She ____________ (be) angry if you _____________ (do) that.

(8) If I ____________ (pass) my exam I _____________ (have) a party.


ENGLISH YEAR I 93

(9) If you __________ (come) for dinner I ____________ (cook) matapa.

(10) If it __________ (be) sunny we __________ (go) to the swimming


pool.

Try to complete the sentences below in the First Conditional using


your own ideas.

If I visit England
__________________________________________________________

I will be sad
__________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________ if
they visit me.

If it rains
___________________________________________________________

I will go to university
___________________________________________________________

If you love
him________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________ if a
mosquito bites her.

The teacher ___________________________________________ if they


copy in the exam.

Singular Plural Singular Plural

elephant class

monkey student

army match

toothbrush television

fax lady

country tomato house wolf donkey ostrich kiss dog


church fly thief tooth trousers baby person street
possibility doctor leaf mouse scissors student watch foot
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library woman dream child brush

PREPOSITIONS

Work with a partner and look at the pictures below. Say if the statements
about the pictures are true. If they are not true, write a correct sentence.

Unit 17

SECOND CONDITIONAL
By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use WOULD to construct sentences in second conditionals.

Objectivos  Use second conditionals in negatives and questions.

Summary
The First Conditional is used to express things we think are possible or
likely in the future. The Second Conditional is also used to talk about the
future but it expresses things that are not likely, but they are still possible.
We also use Second Conditional to express wishes or desires.

Second Conditional has 2 parts (a past verb, and the word would +
infinitive verb). We combine these 2 parts using the word if.

So we can say that Second Conditional sentences always have three


things:

A verb in the past simple

The word would + an infinitive verb (without TO)

The word if

Example: If I had a million dollars, I would travel around the world.

In this example had is our past simple verb. We have would + travel, and
ENGLISH YEAR I 95

we have if. So this is a good Second Conditional sentence.

In this sentences we don’t really feel or believe that we will have a


million dollars in the future, but it is not impossible. It is unlikely, so
sometimes we say that Second Conditional expresses unreal situations in
the future.

Word order in Second Conditional sentences

The same as First Conditional sentences, Second Conditional sentences


can be written in two ways. See below.

If I had money, I would buy a new car.

I would buy a new car if I had money.

Both of the above sentences are correct. We can see that the word if is
always followed by a verb in the past.

Negatives

The negative of would is wouldn’t.

Remember that we make negatives in the past using didn’t + infinitive.

Example: If I had a million dollars, I wouldn’t work anymore.

I would be lonely if I didn’t have any friends.

Final notes about Second Conditional

In the previous exercise we saw some examples of people making a wish.


These sentences are related to the Second Conditional and are expressed
in the past tense.

Example: I wish I had more free time. If I had more free time I would
play sports.

I wish I were famous.

In the second example above we use the phrase I were, not I was. As we
know, the verb TO BE is very irregular in English. This is another
example of an irregular use of TO BE. However, these days we often hear
both I were and I was. So, really both are OK.

Questions in the Second Conditional

We often ask people questions using the Second Conditional. We call


these hypothetical questions. We are asking someone what they would do
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in an unreal or unlikely situation.

Example: What would you do if you had a million dollars?

I would buy a big house near the beach.

When we ask this question, we don’t really feel or believe that the other
person will have a million dollars in the future.

We can see that the question has the 3 parts necessary to make it Second
Conditional (past verb, would + infinitive, and if).

A question asked in the Second Conditional must be answered in the


Second Conditional.

Exercícios
Can you complete these sentences using Second Conditional?

Jim doesn’t study hard. If he ____________(study) harder, he


___________(get) better grades.

The weather isn’t nice. I _________ (take) a walk if the weather (be)
______________nice.

My wife and I want to buy a house, but it is too expensive. We


_______________ (buy) a house, if we (have) _______________enough
money.

Complete the following sentences in the Second Conditional.

1. If money _____________ (grow) on trees, all of us


________________ (be) rich.

2. If I (be) __________________you, I
(tell)________________ Jim the truth.

3. Life ________________ (be) boring if everyone


_______________ (have) the same opinions about
everything.

4. Airplane tickets are expensive. If they _______________


(be) cheap, I ________________ (fly) to Paris for the
weekend.

5. I wish I _________ (have) a camera. I __________ (take) a


picture of the sunset tonight if I ________ (have) a camera.

6. The student cafeteria is relatively inexpensive, but the food


isn’t very good. I ____________ (eat) there all the time if
ENGLISH YEAR I 97

the food _____________ (be) better.

7. Sometimes our teacher gives surprise tests. If I ________


(teach) this English class, I __________ (not give) surprise
tests.

8. I wish I ____________ (have) a car. If I ___________


(have) a car, I ____________ (drive) to school.

Here are some hypothetical situations. Ask and answer these


questions with some other students. Then write down the best
answers. Remember! The answers must be in the Second Conditional.
Start your answers with If.

Example: What would you do if you lived in America?

If I lived in America, I would eat hamburgers every day.

What would you do if you were the president of Mozambique?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

What would you do if you saw a ghost?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

What would you do if you found out that your friend was HIV positive?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

If you could go anywhere in the world where would you go?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

If you could be any famous person in the world, who would you be?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

If you could change one thing about yourself, what would it be?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

If you could only eat one food for the rest of your life, what would you
choose?

___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
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Unit 18

PRESENT PERFECT
By the end of this unit students should be able to:

 Use HAVE/HAS make present perfect.

 Distinguish between when to use present perfect and past simple.


Objectivos  Use present perfect in negatives and questions.

Summary

We studied the Past Simple already. Now we are going to look at another
English tense, which can be used to talk about the past - The Present
Perfect.

We make the Present Perfect by using the verb TO HAVE + Past


Participle.

(For regular verbs, past participles are the same as past simple. Check the
table at the back of the book for past participles of irregular verbs.)

Example: I have been to South Africa.

John has visited Pemba.

The table below shows the different situations when we use the Present
Perfect.
ENGLISH YEAR I 99

Uses of the Present Perfect

Jim has already eaten lunch.

Ann hasn’t eaten lunch yet.


The present perfect expresses
Have you ever eaten at that activities or situations that
happened (or didn’t happen)
restaurant? “before now”, at some time in
the past.
I have never eaten at that

restaurant.

I have eaten at that restaurant many


times. The present perfect often

I have flown in an airplane many expresses activities that were


times. repeated many times in the
past. The exact number of
It has rained three times so far this times may be unspecified.
week.

We also use the present


I have been to the United States.
perfect to talk about
I have eaten monkey.
experiences we have had in
I have never seen a ghost.
our lives.

When the present perfect is


Alice has lived in this city since
used with since or for, it
1980.
expresses a situation that
I have known Bob for ten years.
began in the past and
We have been in class since ten
o’clock this morning
continues to the present.

Ever & Never

We use the word never to express that we have not done something in
our life.

Example: I have never visited China.

Ever is only used when making a question in the Present Perfect.

Example: Have you ever visited China?

Has Maria ever been to your house?


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PRESENT PERFECT I finished my work at an unspecified time in the


past.
I have already finished my work.

SIMPLE PAST I finished my work at a specified time in the


past.
I finished my work two hours ago.

Note: When we use Present Perfect, we can’t say a time in the past that is

completed. When it is necessary to say a completed time in the past (yesterday, last
week, etc), then we use Past Simple.

Exercícios
Complete the sentences below in the Present Perfect. Discuss with
your friends the use of the Present Perfect in each case.

1) (I, meet) I’ve (I have) met Ann’s husband. I met him at a party last
week.

(2) (I, finish) _________________ my work. I finished it two


hours ago.

(3) (she, fly) Ms. Parker travels to Washington, D.C., frequently.


____________ there many times.

(4) (they, know) Bob and Jane are old friends.


_________________ each other for a long time.

(5) (it, be) I don’t like this weather. ___________ cold and cloudy
for the last three days.

( 6) (you, learn) Your English is getting better. _________________ a


lot of English since you came here.

(7) (we, be) My wife and I came here two months ago.
_______________ in this city for two months.

(8) (he, finish) Tom can go to bed now. _______________ his


homework.
ENGLISH YEAR I 101

Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses. Use the


present perfect or the simple past.

A: Have you ever been in Europe?

B: Yes, I ______________. I (be) ______________ in Europe several


times. In fact, I (be) ______________ in Europe last year.

A: Have you ever eaten at Al’s Steak House?

B: Yes, I ______________. I (eat) ______________ there many times.


In fact, I (eat) ___________________ there last night.

A: Have you ever talked to professor Alston about your grades?

B: Yes, I ______________. I (talk) ______________ to him about my


grades a couple of times. In fact, I (talk) ______________ to him after
class yesterday about the F I got on the last test.

A: What European countries (you, visit) ______________?

B: I (visit) ______________ France, Germany, and Switzerland. I (visit)


______________ Germany and Switzerland in 1984.

A: (Bob, have, ever) ______________a job?

B: Yes, he ______________. He (have) ______________lots of part-time


jobs. Last summer he (have) ______________ a job at his uncle’s bakery.

Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses. Use the


Present Perfect or the Past Simple. Use the Present Perfect with
already.

A: Are you going to finish your work before you go to bed?

B: I (finish, already) ________________________ it. I (finish)


________________________ my work two hours ago.

A: Is Jim going to eat lunch with us today?

B: No. He (eat, already) ________________________ . He (eat)


__________________ lunch an hour ago.

A: Do you and Virginia want to go to the movie at the Bijou with us


tonight?

B: No thanks. We (see, already) ________________________ it. We


(see) _______________it last week.

A: When are you going to write your paper for Dr. Roth?

B: I (write, already) _____________________it. I (write) ____________


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it two days ago.

A: When is Jane going to call her parents and tell them about her
engagement?

B: She (call, already) ________________________ them. She (call)


____________________them last night.

A: This is a good book. Would you like to read it when I’m finished?

B: Thanks, but I (read, already) ________________________ it. I (read)


__________________ it a couple of months ago.

Complete these sentences using the Present Perfect.

(1) John knows Mary. He met her at Easter. He ________________her


for ten months.

(2) Tom works in a Post Office. He started there two years ago. He
_______________ there for two years.

(3) I like my house. I ____________________ here all my life.

(4) Kate is at the School of Art. Her classes started today at 10.30. She
______________ there since 10.00.

(5) Mary’s parents live in Edinburgh. They moved there in 1968. They
_____________ there for 20 years.

(6) This book is wonderful, I ____________ just ____________ it.

(7) Granny is well, today. She ____________ just ____________ me.

(8) Tom likes playing football. He liked it when he was very young too.
He ______________ always ____________ it.

(9) We are interested in art. We were also interested in it ten years ago.
We ______________ always ____________ interested in art.

(10) How is your toothache? ____________ you ____________ to the


dentist this morning?

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