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PARTS LIST

SEMICONDUCTORS:
IC1 - 7909 9V Regulator
IC2 - LM358 Dual operational
Amplifier
IC3 - LM324 Quad operational
Amplifier
IC4 - LM339 Quad Voltage
Comparator
T1 - BD678 pnp Darlington
Transistor
ZD1 - 5.1V Zener diode
D1-d4, d8 - 1n4007 Rectifier diode
D5-D7 - 1N4148 Switching diode

RESISTORS:
R1 - 2.2-Kilo-ohm
R2 - 4.7-Kilo-ohm
R3,R6,R18 - 2.2-Kilo-ohm
R4,R5,R13 - 1.5-Kilo-ohm
R7,R8 - 100-Kilo-ohm
R9,R10
R14-R16 - 10-Kilo-ohm
R11,R12 - 20-Kilo-ohm
R17 - 6.8-Kilo-ohm
R19,R22 - 47-Kilo-ohm
R20 - 15-Kilo-ohm
R21 - 470-Kilo-ohm
VR1 - 1-Kilo-ohm preset
VR2 - 100-Kilo-ohm preset

CAPACITORS:
C1 - 100 microfarad, 35V
Electrolytic
C2, C3 - 0.1microfarad ceramic
Disk
C4 - 0.22 microfarad ceramic
Disk
C5 - 47 picofarad ceramic
Disk
C6 - 22 microfarad,10V
Electrolyte
C7 - 10 microfarad tantalum
C8 - 47 microfarad tantalum
C9 - 100 picofarad ceramic
Disk

MISCELLANEOUS:
X1 - 230V AC Primary to
12V, 500mA AC
Secondary transformer
RL1 - 12V, 200-ohm 1C/O
Relay U-Bolt 13mm
INTRODUCTION
This Project discuss the need of power factor
correction and provides a suitable solution that could
be used for small-scale industries and establishments.

When voltage and current are in phase with each


other in an AC circuit, the electrical energy drawn
from the source is fully converted into another form
of energy in the load and the power factor (cosine of
the angle between voltage and current waveforms) is
unity. As the power factor drops, the system becomes
less efficient.

A drop from unity to 0.9 in the power factor results in


15 percent more current requirement for the same
load. A power factor of 0.7 requires approximately
43 percent more current; and a power factor of 0.5
requires approximately 100 percent more current feed
to same load.

In small-scale industrial units and establishments,


most of the load is in the form of electrical motors
and air conditioning units. These loads are in
inductive in nature, where in the current lags the
applied voltage and their power factor is termed as
lagging power factor. In contrast, in capacitive loads,
the current leads the voltage and their power factor is
termed as leading power factor. The objective
therefore should be neutralise the lagging power
factor of inductive loads by using switching
capacitors across load, which have a leading power
factor.

By improving the power factor you can save money


on your electricity bill and also derive the following
benefits:
1. Reduction of heating losses in transformers and
distribution equipment.
2. Longer equipment life.
3. Stable voltage levels.
4. Increase in the capacity of your existing system
and equipment.

BULK VS INDIVIDUAL
STATIC PFC
In small industrial units where the load is contributed
by a number of inductive appliances, it is
cumbersome to switch in capacitor banks at the
power entry point in accordance with the varying
load to neutralise the inductive reactance of the load.
If you think of connecting the bulk capacitors
permanently at the power entry point, you run the
risk of over-correction (when only a fraction of full
load is ‘on’), which is worse than under-correction
as this may cause a huge surge current to flow at
switching times and damage the switchgear/load.

Under the circumstances, it is prudent to switch in a


specific value of the power-factor-correction (PFC)
capacitor across each individual inductive load, as
and when the specific load is switched on and
drawing its rated current.

PFC CAPACITOR
CALCULATIONS
For neutralizing the inductive reactance, we need to
determine the value of PFC capacitors including
their kilo-volt-ampere-reactive (KVAR) ratings,
which need to be connected across the respective
loads. The measurement of a load’s power factor
also tells you whether the manufacturer has already
incorporated a PFC capacitor as part of the
equipment itself. The various methods for measuring
the phase angle (between voltage and current
waveforms), power factor and capacitor’s KVAR
rating are discuss below.

METHOD 1: If you have access to a power meter


whose true power reading you can compare with the
calculated apparent power (obtained by multiplying
the line voltage and current into the load), you can
easily determine the reactive power and power factor
from these values of true and apparent power.

METHOD 2: In an ideal situation, voltage and


current (waveforms) are in phase, and the voltage
and current cross the neutral horizontal line
concurrently. When dealing with realistic AC
electrical system, the current usually crosses the X-
axis after the voltage (the current lags the voltage
causing phase displacement) – a condition caused by
inductive type loads. The amount of phase
displacement relates to the power factor.

The phase difference between the voltage and


current is phi. The power factor (PF) of the load is:
PF = cos phi

By measuring the time difference between the zero-


crossing instants of voltage and current waveforms
on an oscilloscope, we can find the value of phi, as
the complete cycle period at 50HZ frequency of
mains is known (period =1/f=1/50=20 milliseconds).
Voltage and current samples for the load can be
easily derived as under:

(a) The voltage sample can be derived using a


resistor divider of 220 kilo-ohms in series with 1
kilo-ohm across the load to get around 1V RMS
across the 1 kilo-ohm resistor. The 1 kilo-ohm
resistor may be connected towards the AC
neutral.
(b) For the current sample, either use a current
transformer or take a U-bolt with a gap of
around 1.5 cm between its two arms. Winding
400 turns of 34 SWG insulated copper wire
around the U- section. Identify the phase line
going to the load, take it slightly away from the
neutral line and clamp the U-bolt around the
phase line. Once the load is energized, the
induced voltage in U- bolt coil will serve as the
load current sample. Alternatively, connect a
low value, high power resistor in series with the
load, towards the neutral line and sample the
voltage waveform across it. This will be
representative of the load current waveform.
Once PF is found by this method, and apparent
power ‘S’ is calculated by multiplying the RMS load
current by RMS voltage across the load, the true
power in the load can be calculated by multiplying
‘S’ by ‘PF’. Similarly, reactive power (KVAR) and
other parameters as also the value of the capacitor
can be found by the same formulae as used in
method 1.

METHOD 3: This method is specifically useful


for finding the proper capacitor KVAR value for
single/3 phase induction motors when the motor
horsepower (HP) and its full load power factor and
motor efficiency are known. The KVAR required to
correct the PF can be found as:
KVAR= (K1-K2)*HP*0.746/efficiency

Where ‘HP’ is the motor’s name plate horsepower,


‘efficiency’ is the motor’s full load efficiency
expressed as a percentage, ‘K1’ is a factor
corresponding to the existing PF at full load and
‘K2’ is a factor for the desired PF after correction.

METHOD 4: The KVAR of a motor can also be


determined by knowing its magnetizing current
(Im). If Im is not known, simply take it to be 95 per-
cent of the no-load (open shaft) current and find the
corrective KVAR (90 per-cent of maximum) from
the following equations:
For single phase motor:

KVAR=0.9*Im*VL/1000

AND
For three phase motor:

KVAR=0.9 Im VL*1.732/1000

CAPACITOR SELECTION
Capacitors for PFC application are non-polarized
(reversible terminals), metal-film (aluminum and
polypropylene film) electrolytic type with self-
healing property. (During momentary faults, small
areas of electrodes evaporate to restore back its
function.) These may be metal encased oil-filled or
dry units (epoxy filled in a plastic case), and should
be capable of continuous working over the
temperature range of up to +70 degree Celsius.

Motor-run capacitors are quite suitable as PFC


capacitors for loads like air- conditioners and motors.
These are specified by the working voltage (e.g.
240V, AC, 440V AC) and capacitance in microfarad.
However, for bulk PFC, one should use specially
designed PFC capacitors from reputed manufacturers.
These PFC capacitors are specified by not only their
capacitance but also the KVAR rating, current,
voltage and frequency. Some of these may have built-
in discharge resistors and reset table fuses.

Having calculated the value of a capacitor for each


particular load by any of the methods and guidelines,
detailed above, it should be connected across the load
(air-conditioner/motor) is running and drawing a
minimum specified current. The PFC capacitor
should be connected through a relay/contactor of
appropriate contact rating.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

The circuit comprises a current sensor followed by a


direct- coupled differential amplifier, precision
rectifier, comparator and relay- driver circuit. The
current sensor is formed by a coil wound around a
U-bolt. A reference voltage level of approximately
0.65 V developed across diode D5 ensures that the
induced AC voltage in coil L varies about this
reference.

A 400- turn coil L1 with two turns of load-current-


carrying conductor develops around 400mV (peak-
to- peak) across it when the load current is around 10
amperes. The induced voltage in coil L1 is DC
coupled to the differential amplifier formed by N1
and N2 sections of LM358 (IC1), which amplifies
the induced voltage in the coil by a factor of ‘15’
offset adjustment is carried out using VR1 such that
there is no output from N2 stage when no current is
flowing into the load.

The output of the differential amplifier is rectified by


a full – wave precision rectifier configured around
N3 through N5 sections of IC LM324 (IC2). This
precision rectifier can accept a voltage of 2.5 without
clipping. The output of the precision rectifier is
smoothed by capacitor C7 shunted by resistor R17.

A part of smoothed output developed across R21-C8


combination is applied to the non- inverting terminal
of comparator stage N6, while the inverting terminal
is kept at a fixed reference voltage of around 1V.
Offset- adjustment preset VR2 is used to ensure zero
–voltage output with input pins 2 and 3 of N3
shorted. Thus when the sampled input to N6 is less
than the reference input, the output of the
comparator is high. This high output is applied to the
non- inverting terminals of the remaining three
comparators N7, N8 and N9 connected in parallel

When the output of the comparator N3 is high, the


output of the comparators N7, N8 and N9 are also
high. This reverse biases Darlington transistor T1
and thus relay RL1 remains de- energized.

When the load starts drawing its rated current, the


induced voltage in coil L1 rises and so does the
output from full- wave precision rectifier built
around IC3. As a result, the output of comparator N6
as also the outputs of comparators N7, N8 and N9
drop low to forward bias Transistor T1 and relay
RL1 energizes. As a result, the PFC capacitor is
connected across the load via normally- opened
(N/O) contacts of RL1.

The contact rating of relay RL1 should be around 30


amperes if the average current drawn by the load is
around 10 A. A bleeder resistance of around 220
Kilo- ohms, 1W may be connected across the PFC
capacitor if no such resistance is built inside the
capacitor for its discharge (when it is offline).

The power supply circuit is a conventional one


powered by step down transformer X1 of 12V AC
secondary voltage, and capable of delivering 500mA
continuous current. The unregulated 12V DC output
activates the relay via driver transistor T1. The
regulated 9V output from IC 7809 powers the
remaining circuit.

PARTS LIST
DESCRIPTION
7909 9V REGULATOR (IC1):

The LM7909 three terminal negative voltage


regulators IC is available in TO-220 package and
with a fixed output voltage of -9 volt, making it
useful in a wide range of applications. Each type
employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down
and safe operating area protection, making it
essentially indestructible.
LM358 DUAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
(IC2):

The LM158 series consists of two independent, high


gain, internally frequency compensated operational
amplifiers which were designed specifically to
operate from a single power supply over a wide range
of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is
also possible and the low power supply current drain
is independent of the magnitude of the power supply
voltage.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, dc
gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits
which now can be more easily implemented in single
power supply systems. For example, the LM158
series can be directly operated off of the standard
+5V power supply voltage which is used in digital
systems and will easily provide the required interface
electronics without requiring the additional ±15V
power supplies.
LM324 QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
(IC3):

The LM124 series consists of four independent, high


gain, internally frequency compensated operational
amplifiers which were designed specifically to
operate from a single power supply over a wide range
of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is
also possible and the low power supply current drain
is independent of the magnitude of the power supply
voltage.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC
gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits
which now can be more easily implemented in single
power supply systems. For example, the LM124
series can be directly operated off of the standard
+5V power supply voltage which is used in digital
systems and will easily provide the required interface
electronics without requiring the additional ±15V
power supplies.

LM339 QUAD VOLTAGE COMPARATOR


(IC4):
The LM139 series consists of four independent
precision voltage comparators with an offset
voltage specification as low as 2 mV max for all
four comparators. These were designed
specifically to operate from a single power
supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation
from split power supplies is also possible and
the low power supply current drain is
independent of the magnitude of the power
supply voltage. These comparators also have a
unique characteristic in that the input common-
mode voltage range includes ground, even
though operated from a single power supply
voltage. Application areas include limit
comparators, simple analog to digital converters;
pulse, square wave and time delay generators;
Wide range VCO; MOS clock timers;
multivibrators and high voltage digital logic
gates. The LM139 series was designed to
directly interface with TTL and CMOS. When
Operated from both plus and minus power
supplies, they will directly interface with MOS
logic— where the low power drain of the LM339
is a distinct advantage over standard
comparators.
BD678 PnP DARLINGTON TRANSISTOR (T1):

This series of plastic, medium-power PNP Darlington


transistors can be used as output devices in
complementary general-purpose amplifier
applications.
ZENER DIODE (ZD1):

A Zener Diode is a special kind of diode which


permits current to flow in the forward direction as
normal, but will also allow it to flow in the reverse
direction when the voltage is above a certain value -
the breakdown voltage known as the Zener voltage.

The Zener voltage of a standard diode is high, but if


a reverse current above that value is allowed to pass
through it, the diode is permanently damaged. Zener
diodes are designed so that their zener voltage is
much lower - for example just 2.4 Volts. When a
reverse current above the Zener voltage passes
through a Zener diode, there is a controlled
breakdown which does not damage the diode. The
voltage drop across the Zener diode is equal to the
Zener voltage of that diode no matter how high the
reverse bias voltage is above the Zener voltage.

The illustration above shows this phenomenon in a


Current vs. Voltage graph. With a zener diode
connected in the forward direction, it behaves exactly
the same as a standard diode - i.e. a small voltage
drop of 0.3 to 0.7V with current flowing through
pretty much unrestricted. In the reverse direction
however there is a very small leakage current
between 0V and the Zener voltage - i.e. just a tiny
amount of current is able to flow. Then, when the
voltage reaches the breakdown voltage (Vz),
suddenly current can flow freely through it.

1N4007 RECTIFIER DIODE (D1-D4, D8):

A rectifier diode is used as a one-way check valve.


Since these diodes only allow electrical current to
flow in one direction, they are used to convert AC
power into DC power. When constructing a rectifier,
it is important to choose the correct diode for the job;
otherwise, the circuit may become damaged. Luckily,
a 1N4007 diode is electrically compatible with other
rectifier diodes, and can be used as a replacement for
any diode in the 1N400x family.
IN4148 SWITCHING DIODE (D5- D7):

1. High reliability
2. High speed
3. High temperature soldering guaranteed
4. DO-35 Glass case

RESISTORS (R1-R21):

The fixed resistors commonly used in DIY stomp


boxes look like small cylinders with leads (or wires)
coming out of each end. Such components are called
axial leaded. Resistors can be soldered onto a circuit
board oriented either way; the leads are
interchangeable. The leads are bent so that they can
stick into holes on the circuit board. As a result, this
type of resistor is also called through-hole. These
resistors have a fixed value and the color bands on
the cylindrical case of a resistor tell this value. The
case itself identifies the type of resistor. Carbon film
(labeled B and C) and metal film (labeled D) resistors
are common types in stomp box builds. Older guitar
effects were usually made with carbon composition
resistors (labeled A).

PRESET (VR1-VR2):
Preset resistors are used in circuits when it is
necessary to alter the resistance. Dark/light and
temperature sensors usually have these components
as the preset resistor allows the circuit to be made
more or less sensitive (they can be turned up or down
- reducing or increasing resistance).

A small screwdriver can be used to turn the centre


part of the preset resistor, altering the value of the
resistance.

The range of resistance varies, for example:


0 to 100 ohms
0 to 1M ohms

CAPACITORS (C1-C9):
A capacitor is an electronic device which consists of
two plates (electrically conductive material)
separated by an insulator. The capacitor's value (its
'capacitance') is largely determined by the total
surface area of the plates and the distance between
the plates (determined by the insulator's thickness). A
capacitor's value is commonly referred to in
microfarads, one millionth of a farad. It is expressed
in micro farads because the farad is such a large
amount of capacitance that it would be impractical to
use in most situations.

There are various types of capacitors used in this


project like electrolytic, ceramic and tantalum.

TRANSFORMER (X1):
It is a static device which transfers power from one
circuit to another without change in frequency. It
consist of two winding one is primary and another is
secondary.

RELAY (RL1):

CAUSES POWER FACTOR


TO CHANGE

Inductive loads cause the AMPS to lag behind the


VOLTS. The wave forms of VOLTS and AMPS are
then "out of phase" with each other. The more out of
phase they become then the lower the Power Factor.
Power Factor is usually expressed as Cos Phi. (Ø)

NEED OF POWER
FACTOR CORRECTION
Capacitive Power Factor correction (PFC) is applied
to electric circuits as a means of minimizing the
inductive component of the current and thereby
reducing the losses in the supply.

The introduction of Power Factor Correction


capacitors is a widely recognized method of
reducing an electrical load, thus minimizing wasted
energy and hence improving the efficiency of a plant
and reducing the electricity bill.

It is not usually necessary to reach unity, i.e. Power


Factor 1, since most supply companies are happy
with a PF of 0.95 to 0.98

WORKING

By installing suitably sized switched capacitors into


the circuit, the Power Factor is improved and the
value becomes nearer to 1 thus minimizing wasted
energy and improving the efficiency of a plant.
IMPROVED POWER
FACTOR GIVES

1. Decrease the copper loss in transformer,


Distribution cables, Transmissions line and
other equipments, thus allowing considerable
saving in energy consumptions.

2. Helps in stabilizing the system voltage.

3. Reduce the load on transmission and


distribution equipment and transformer. Thus, it
allows transmission of larger power and full
utilization of substation and generating unit
capabilities.

4. Avoids larger penalty often imposed on low


power factor consumer by the utilities.

PFC BY CAPACITOR
SHOULD NOT USED FOR
1. When motor is coupled to an active load: Active
load may drive the motor as a generator. A part
of generated energy may be stored in the
capacitor causing its voltage to rise beyond the
safe value.

2. In pole changing method: When connections of


the motor running at higher speed are changed to
reduce speed, motor regenerates until new steady
state speed is reached, posing the problem
mentioned in 1.

3. When motor is started open circuit transition.

4. When motor is frequently subjected to transient


operations such as starting, inching and
plugging.

5. Applications involving reversal by plugging.

6. When motor is fed from a semiconductor


converter: Transient current peaks produced by
the capacitor can damage the converter.

7. When motor is fed from a variable frequency


source.