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Apostila Matrizes

Engenharia Ambiental
Centro Universitário do Triângulo (UNITRI)
72 pag.

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1
BAUMGART, John K. Tópicos de História da Matemática para uso em sala de aula: Álgebra. Trad. Hygino H Domingues. São Paulo:
Atual, 1997.
2
LIMA, Elon Lages. Meu Profesor de Matemática e outras histórias. (Coleção do Professor de Matemática: SBA Sociedade Brasileira de
Matemática). Rio de Janeiro: Solgraf Publicações Ltda, 2000.
3
LIMA, Elon Lages. Matemática e Ensino. (Coleção do Professor de Matemática: SBA Sociedade Brasileira de Matemática). Rio de
Janeiro: R&S, 2001.

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4
LAY, C David. Álgebra Linear e suas aplicações. 2ed. Trad. Ricardo Camelier e Valéria de M. Iório. Rio de Janeiro: LTC, 1999.
5
HAETINGER, Claus. 2007. Disponível em http://ensino.univates.br/~chaet/Algebra_Linear.html . Acesso em Jan 2009.

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75 8 " ..................................................................................................................................................... 10
95 8 3: 2 " " 8 ....................................................................... 12
;5 " 8 .................................................................................................................................................... 12
<5 ' ' " ............................................................................................................................................. 13
Lista 1 de Atividades - Matrizes ...................................................................................................................................... 14
=5 8 3: ' " ..................................................................................................................................... 16
=5- 34 2% 34 ' " ............................................................................................................... 16
=5+ 2 8 34 8 2' ..................................................................................................................... 17
=57 2 8 34 ' " ...................................................................................................................... 18
>5 ? 2' " ....................................................................................................................................... 22
@5 8 8 3: ' " .............................................................................................. 23
Lista 2 de Atividades – Operações com Matrizes ............................................................................................................ 24
-,5 A2 # ? " .................................................................................................................................. 28
Lista 3 de Atividades – Equivalência de Matrizes/escalonamento................................................................................... 30
22 GE%E$"2R R%E@ E " %$2XE@ .................................................................................................................................... 32
- 2' '2 34 ................................................................................................................................. 32
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+57 ' 7! ' 2 ................................................................................... 35
+59 ' ' B7 ' ................................................................. 37
+5; 2 34 8 0 2 ' ........................................................... 38
7 8 ' ..................................................................................................................... 39
9 ' " # ......................................................................................................................... 40
Lista 4 de atividades – Determinantes e Matrizes............................................................................................................ 43
; 8 34 ' '0 ' ' .......................................... 46
Lista 5 de atividades - Determinantes .............................................................................................................................. 47
222 @2@%E" @ GE EM! VYE@ 12RE $E@ E " %$2XE@ ............................................................................................ 48
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D 34 2 ' 34 E 2 FG ........................................................... 55
+5< 234 2' ' A2 3: 8 ' ................................. 58
7 ' H ' ? A2 3: 2 4 234 ............................................ 59
Lista 6 de atividades – Parte I .......................................................................................................................................... 61
Lista 6 de atividades - Parte II ......................................................................................................................................... 61
9 2 4 2' ' A2 3: I ' ? 4 FI ' ? .................. 65
Lista 7 de atividades ........................................................................................................................................................ 66
J ...................................................................................................................................................................... 67
" F$ K2 0 5........................................................................................................ 67
8 34 ' K2 0 " # ........................................................ 67
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7 " # 8 ' ............................................................................... 70


Lista de atividades – Determinantes, Matriz Inversa e Adjunta Clássica......................................................................... 71
L% 6 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 72

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5 @ _ L @_ , E_ 0 2 0 0 2 _ 0 1 0 0 0 ' ?_& O _ H
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)R ' ( 34 ) F _ ] <^ RL
N / K
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6 3 ( 2% 34 )
K E _ TL / K

< _ < ,<

, .
a ij = bij
a11 a12 b11 b12 a11 + b11 a12 + b12
M '8 - @ A= B= A+ B =
a 21 a22 b21 b22 a21 + b21 a22 + b22

M '8 + , A , F& F3
F: F
K

F& F3 F:
&5 P& &(
&( ;3 &;
F 3; P5 &'
18 41 17
, & _ 17 52 15 )
25 48 19
F / / , /
, A e
18 41 17 18 41 17 36 82 34
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25 48 19 25 48 19 50 96 38
& E 3 )%
K
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F: _&43 444 )
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1 4 5 3 1 4 5 3 6 7
M '8 7 @ _ _ E _ E N
2 0 8 6 2 0 8 6 10 6
1 4 5 3 1 4 5 3 −4 1
M '8 9 @ _ _ _ N
2 0 8 6 2 0 8 6 −6 −6
1 2 3 3 2 3
M '8 ; @ _ −4 −3 −2 _ 4 8 −4
3 5 7 1 5 3
1 2 3 3 2 3 1+ 3 2+2 3+3 4 4 6
RL_ − 4 − 3 − 2 E 4 8 − 4 _ − 4 + 4 − 3 + 8 − 2 + (−4) _ 0 5 − 6 _F
3 5 7 1 5 3 3 +1 5+5 7+3 4 10 10
1 2 3 3 2 3 1− 3 2−2 3−3 −2 0 0
TL_ −4 −3 −2 4 8 − 4 _ − 4 − 4 − 3 − 8 − 2 − (−4) _ − 8 − 11 2 _G
3 5 7 1 5 3 3 −1 5−5 7−3 2 0 4

1 7
M '8 < @ _ [2 b − 1] _ 2 3 E _ b+2 2
3 3

M '8 = @ _ [2 5 − 1] _ [3 − 2 4] E _ Q _ [− 1 7 − 5]

=5+ 2 8 34 8 2'

@
< _] <^ U A ? )6 2
_ ], <^ / ,< _ 2 < < ,
2 → ,< _ U <

1 4 k 4k 1 4 5 20
M '8 - U NU _ UN; ; N; _ NL
2 0 2k 0 2 0 10 0

1 1 1 1 1
M '8 + @ _ [3 − 2 4] . A = .[3 − 2 4] _ .3 .− 2 .4 _
3 3 3 3 3
−2 4
1 )
3 3

M '8 7 F , /
, A / ) ,
A , F& F3 F:
F K

F& F3 F:
&5 P& &(
&( ;3 &;
F 3; P5 &'

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18

18 41 17
, & _ 17 52 15 )
25 48 19
, A
- )M / - 4P e
18 41 17
& K & _ 17 52 15 _ 3 →3 L
25 48 19
18 41 17 36 82 34
: K : _ 3) & _ 3) 17 52 15 _ 34 104 30 _ P →P L
25 48 19 50 96 38
108 246 102
234 9 ' -R +R 7 R 9 N 75 9 N 102 312 90
150 288 114

18 41 17 108 246 102


6! _ H) &_ H) 17 52 15 _ 102 312 90
25 48 19 150 288 114

=57 2 8 34 ' "

' 2" 8 M '8

M '8 - E - < F F& F3


F: , K

% , "
F& F3 F: 18 41 17
&5 P& &(
&( ;3 &; *_ 17 52 15
F &4 :' &H 10 39 16
@ F& F3 F: ;4 P4 H4
50
_ 40 )
60
6 , < ,
& * )

18 41 17 50
*_ 17 52 15 ) _ 40 _ &5);4EP&)P4E&()H4 _ '44E&HP4E&434 _ :;H4 →1 <
10 39 16 60

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G , , < F)

18 41 17 50
*_ 17 52 15 ) _ 40 _ &();4E;3)P4E&;)H4 _ 5;4E3454E'44 _ :5:4 →1 <
10 39 16 60

18 41 17 50
*_ 17 52 15 ) _ 40 _ &4);4E:')P4E&H)H4 _ ;44E&;H4E'H4 _ :434 →1 < F
10 39 16 60
, - < F
18 41 17 50 3560
*) _ 17 52 15 ) 40 _ 3830 ) , < F
10 39 16 60 3020
F& F3 F: $h &4)P&4 44 / / $h :);H4 44
1 < $h :)5:4 44 1 < $h :)434 44 1 < F)

M '8 +! & 3) @ -
K? O 7 K
% , "
& 3 3 1
? : &
O P 3 2 _ 4 2
: ( 3 7

G , 54 & &34 3) E /
80
_ )
120
, / K
2 ? → :)54E&)&34 _ 3P4E&34_:H4
2 O → P)54E3)&34 _ :34E3P4_;H4
2 → :)54E()&34 _ 3P4E5P4_&454
360
E / _ 560 )
1080
, 2 K
3 1 3.80 + 1.120 360
80
4 2 ) _ 4.80 + 2.120 _ 560 _
120
3 7 2.80 + 7.120 1080
R / K
< K
:H4 _ :)54E&)&34
;H4 _ P)54E3)&34
&454_ :)54E()&34
D' 2' M '8 '2 8 34 ' " 5

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20

2 8 2 ' "

! K* e

R . , '
@ , " K ' A , ) ?
&E 3E :E PE ; , K
5 5
ai - K & ; ) ai _ &E 3E
i =1 i =1
n
:E PE ;) # K ai _ E E&E E3E)))E )R
i=m
. '
)
5
E? K 3i 2 _ :)&3E:)33E:):3E:)P3E:);3_:)&E:)PE:)'E:)&HE:)3;_&H;)
i =1

6 34

6
. A
A ) @ ?
A A ) ?
? )

G _ U ? _ ,U ? F _
< ? / <
< )
p
N ⋅L K N
k =1
( Aik .Bik )
@ ? _] < ^3? _ ] ,< ^ ?& _
F _ ] < ^3?& / < /
)R /
F A A )
1 5 2 4 1
4 2 6
M '8 - @ < _ [3 − 2 4] _ 2 F_ G_ 2 3 1 0 )
2 5 3
4 1 2 7 6
a) ? _e
&0+ &?: ? :?& _ ] :?& E 3?3 E P?P ^ _ ]: PE&H^ _ ]&;^ _ F& ? &)

b) ?F_e
&0+ :?& ? F3?3 _V R ? F `
` F & ≠ 3)

c) F ? G _ e
5 2 4 1
4 2 6 a11 a12 a13 a14
&0+ F3?: ? G:?P _ ? 2 3 1 0 _ "3?P _
2 5 3 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 24
1 2 7 6
" / F ? G
)
F < " _ FG) F e
& " & F & G) &
F 3 G) E & F

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21

: P G) 6, && &3 &: &P


/ ")
3 E " 3 F & 3 :
P G )6 < K
-- N & F ? & G _ P?; E 3?3 E H?& _ 34 E P E H N 7,
-+ N & F ? 3 G _ P?3 E 3?: E H?3 _ 5 E H E &3 N +<
-7 N & F ? : G _ P?P E 3?& E H?( _ &H E 3 EP3 N <,
-9 N & F ? P G _ P?& E 3?4 E H?H _ P E 4 E :H N 9,
+- N 3 F ? & G _ 3?; E ;?3 E :?& _ &4 E &4 E : N +7
++ N 3 F ? 3 G _ 3?3 E ;?: E :?3 _ P E &; E H N +;
+7 N 3 F ? : G _ 3?P E ;?& E :?( _ 5 E ; E 3&N 79
+9 N 3 F ? P G _ 3?& E ;?4 E :?H _ 3 E 4 E &5N +,

30 26 60 40
F3: G :P "3P _
23 25 34 20

<
1 2 −1 3
M '8 + @ < K _ _ )G
3 4 4 2
F )
&0+ 6 F / 3)
/
)* < K
c11 c12 1 2 −1 3
3?3 ? 3?3 _ F3?3 _ )N ) ) _ ) _
c 21 c 22 3 4 4 2
F&& _ & &

F&3 _ & 3

F3& _ 3 &

F33 _ 3 3

6
SOMATEMATICA: Ensino Superior: Teoria, Exercícios. (CD-Room). Virtuous Tecnologia da Informação Ltda. 2008

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22

c11 c12 7 7
3?3 ? 3?3 _ F3?3 _ _
c 21 c 22 13 17

6, / ) , ) )
−1 3 1 2
3?3 ? 3?3 _ ) _
4 2 3 4

d11 d12 8 10
3?3 ? 3?3 _ G3?3 _ _ )
d 21 d 22 10 16

" ' " 8 8 2 ' "


< 0
/ '4` ) @ 2
)
) _2 2' ' " 5

>5 ? 2' "

!
/ ) /
7 / 8 ? ' " )

1 1 3
1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1
M '8 -K _ → _ ) _ ) _ )
2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2 2
3
- 3 )

A2

@ _ ≥3 ' "8 ) E
3
_3 < _ , ' " '8 )
@ ? A / _4 ' " I 8 5
3 : P ;
R / _4 _ _ _ ))) _ _ 4

M '8
2 −1 1
M '8 -K _ −2 3 −2 /
−4 4 −3
2 −1 1 2 −1 1 2 −1 1
3
_ ) _ −2 3 −2 ) −2 3 −2 _ −2 3 −2 _
−4 4 −3 −4 4 −3 −4 4 −3

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23

1 −1 1
M '8 +K (
_ −3 3 −3 . 3 / 3
_4 :
_ P

−4 4 −4
: 3
_ ))) _4) _ ) _ 4) _4)

1 1 3
M '8 7K _ 5 2 6 : /
− 2 −1 − 3
0 0 0 0 0 0
:
_4 ) _ 3 3 9 3
) _ 0 0 0 _ 4)
−1 −1 − 3 0 0 0
: P ;
F _4 _ _ ))) _ _4
6 9 12 16
M '8 9K _ _ . 3 /
−4 −6 − 9 12
3 3
_4 _ 4)

@5 8 8 3: ' "
8 34 ' "
F K
& F E _ EF
3 E EF _ E EF
: E R E4_4E 4 R
P @ E _ _4
8 8 2 2' ' "8 2'
U UW / / K
U E _U EU U UW _U UW )
E , UUW _ U UW U _U _ )
8 8 2 ' "
@ < F) * 7 ? -
K
& F _ F
3 G , > E F_ FE F F E _F EF
: E R 2 _2 _ 2 2
A2

7
Steinbruch (1987, p.406)

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24

@ . U _ U _U / / U )
@ _4 / _4 _4
@ _ F / _F
@ ' " A2 A ,
) E
)E ≠ )

1 −1 −1 2 −4 −2 −3 1
3?3 _ 3?3 _ _ _
−1 0 3 4 1 −2 −1 − 3
@ _ '2 # )
8 ' " 8
@ < U / / 7
+ K
& E _ E P _
3 U _U ; _
: _ ≠
8 ' " 'D F 'D
@ < U / / 7
+ K
& 6 / @ ⋅
N
3 / @
N R N
: @i
F N W

M '8 - F K
1 −3 1 0
_ _ )
0 4 −3 4
1 −3 1 0 1.1 + (−3).(−3) 1.0 + (−3).4 10 − 12
N ⋅ N ⋅ _ _ _ ) R
0 4 −3 4 0.1 + 4.(−3) 0 .0 + 4 .4 − 12 16
/ &3 _ 3&
1 −3 1 0 2 −3
N R N E _ _
0 4 −3 4 −3 8
R / &3 _ 3&
1 −3 1 0 0 −3
N F N _ _ W
0 4 −3 4 3 0
R / W &3 _ 3&

--dd
$ 1

+ # T 8 3: ' "
&) E _ < :?3 / < _ E< _ ,< :?3 / <
_ <)E K

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25

, E L E L ; E: )

1 −1 4 −5 9 1 −1 1 1 −1
3) F _ _ F_ G_ )
2 −2 0 −2 2 −1 3 2 4 3
* / ⋅ _ ⋅ L
, G ⋅F E ⋅G L
= . F ⋅ Ge T / )
:) / : _ < < _3 _ ,< , <_ <3
K
E , E )3 E
2 5 9
P) @ _ 4 7 1 K
3 6 2

E _ @) * / @ < / L
, _ )* / < / )

4 3 5 2 −7 1
2 3
;) F _ _ −1 2 − 7 F _ 3 4 2 ) E
5 −7
8 1 −9 5 −9 6
@ / \ )
@_ ) , @ _ FEF @_F F @_ Q @_ E
H) < ? ,
? E& E3) R ? O
) R ? E& ;
? 5 O & ) R ? E3
/ P H : ? O ) (;
? E& 'H ? E3) E , ,
K
/ e
, F / / K $h & :4 ? $h
3 :4 O $h ( ;4 ) M e M
e
() F F G
2 1 1 −1 2 −1 2 0 0 2 0 0
_ 0 1 3 _ 0 3 1 F _ 1 1 0 G _ 0 1 0 )
0 0 2 0 0 2 1 1 1 −1 2 −1
G K
E_ ) L
, N _ F)G
F / E N )
* / )
5) / )!
:)

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26

sen α - cos α 6 10 5 10
') F _ _ F_ )
cos α - sen α −3 −5 −2 −4
" / ) _2 2 " 2 )1 )
, * / F '8 8 I 8 5
3
. & < F3 )
6 9 12 16
&4) * / _ _
−4 −6 − 9 12
1 0 0 2 0 0
&&) G _ 0 1 0 _ 0 4 0 )
0 0 8 0 0 6
−2 1 −1
3
&3) F _ 2 −3 2 )F / ) @%E2R $!FS &'5( )P&:
4 −4 3

8 # +

2 3 0 −1 2 2 2 4 10 12
& _ 3 4 _ 1 0 E _ 4 4 , E _ 2 4 ; E: _ 18 20
4 5 2 1 6 6 2 4 26 28

4 −3 −6 6 7 2 −4 − 6 − 16 − 19 1 − 14 − 23
3 ) _ g ) _ 3, E _ )
8 −6 −4 4 14 4 − 8 −4 −8 −6 10 −4 − 14
3 R . F)G F G)

1 1 1 −1 − 4 − 9 0 −3 −8 2 5 10
: _ 4 4 4 _ −1 − 4 − 9 : E _ 3 0 −5 :, E _ 5 8 13
9 9 9 −1 − 4 − 9 8 5 0 10 13 18

−6 − 24 − 54 −3 − 12 − 27 − 98 − 98 − 98 − 101 − 110 − 125


: − 24 − 96 − 216 : − 12 − 48 − 108 E − 98 − 98 − 98 _ − 110 − 146 − 206 P E _@ _
− 54 − 216 − 486 − 27 − 108 − 243 − 98 − 98 − 98 − 125 − 206 − 341
4 9 12 0 1 6
9 14 7 @ < _ < g < ) P, _ _ −1 0 − 5 @ < _ < g<
12 7 4 −6 5 0
< _4 _ <) ; @ , / <_ <) @ < _ <

4 −4 6 0 − 10 − 4 0 4 −3
13 − 11
g< < _4 _ <) ; @_ ;, −4 8 −7 ; 10 0 11 ; − 4 0 −8 ;
− 11 74
6 −7 12 4 − 11 0 3 8 0
8 2 13 759
2 4 −6 H ? _ (;' O _ &&(H _ :H: 1176 ) H, 6 K E& _ $h :3 P4L E3 _ P& ;4 F
13 − 6 − 18 363
75
_ (32,40 41,50) ) 6 $h H)P&P 44 _ (32,40 41,50)
96
) ( E_

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27

−2 7 1 4 0 0
0 3 7 L (, N _ 2 1 0 L ( E N ) 5 F ) ' N )
0 0 4 1 3 −1
3 3
/ G K , / ?E ? _ & ) ', F
3
3 . & / ) _ _ F3_F)

2 0 0
&4 3 3
_4_ :
_ P
_))) 2 ) && _ 0 4 0 )
0 0 48
2 −1 1
&3 3
_ −2 3 −2 ) F 3
≠ )
−4 4 −3

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28

-,5 A2 # ? "

G
/ / / ,
7 K
G / * '& (
∼ , 7
1 < , )

/ ,
) 7 . K
&) ⇔ K &) % L
3) " L
3) ⇔ U5 K U≠4 :) @ , U
:) ⇔ U5 K R U≠4 )

R / K
@ 7 , )
' " 8 I )
1 2 1 2
M '8 -K @ _ _
3 −4 0 −10
)

! / ' " 2" 8 I


' " 6 ' X 8 I ) K
5
A L
&)
1 0
M '8 +K _
0 1
1 0 0 2
M '8 7K _ 0 1 0 7
0 0 1 4
+ 8 &`
A )
2 −1 0 1 1
−1 3 1 1 1
M '8 9K _
0 0 −5 1 −1
1 1 −1 − 3 1
/ < )
&0+ R ,< < , ?
3 : ; : < )
7 1K

8
Elementos distinguidos são os primeiros elementos não nulos das linhas de uma matriz

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29

2 −7 0 1 1 2 −7 0 1 1
−1 3 1 1 1 −1 3 1 1 1
_ ∼ ∼
0 0 −5 1 −1 1P ⇔ 1: 1 −4 −1 − 3 −1
1 −4 −1 − 3 1 0 0 −5 1 −1

2 −7 0 1 1
13 ⇔ 1& E 313L 0 −1 2 3 3
∼ ∼
1: ⇔ 1& 31:) 0 1 2 7 3
0 0 − 5 1 −1

2 −7 0 1 1
0 −1 2 3 3
∼ ∼
1: ⇔ 13 E 1:) 0 0 4 10 6
0 0 −5 1 −1

2 −7 0 1 1
0 −1 2 3 3
∼ _
1P ⇔ ;1: E P1P) 0 0 4 10 6
0 0 0 54 26
R / / 2 −7 0 1 1
, ? )
0 −1 2 3 3
, 6 ' 5 ∼ _
0 0 4 10 6
0 0 0 54 26

2 K , +
< 6 ' 2"
8 I )R / K

! / ' "
6 ' X 8 I )
A )

1 0 0 1 0 0 9 1 2 0 −3 0
E? KF_ 0 1 0 G_ 0 1 0 2 E_ 0 0 1 7 0 )
0 0 1 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 1
F G E 8 &`
A - A )

--dd $ 7 #

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30

7 # T A2 # ? " Y '
&) E )2 / ´)
1 2 1 3 2 0 1 −1 0 1
2 −4
2 −1 0 2 −1 4 1 0 2 0
_ , _ _ _ −3 6
0 1 1 −1 1 −5 1 0 0 2 3
− 3
1 3 2 0 4 − 12 0 1 1 0 2
3) E /
/ - K
1 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1
_ −1 2 1 0 ∼ 0 2 1 2 _ , _ −3 −4 −2 −6 ∼ 0 2 1 −3 _
−3 1 0 −5 0 0 1 0 2 − 1 5 − 18 0 0 11 − 55

1 −4 −2 1 1 −4 −2 1 0 2 0 2
_ ∼ _
_ 1 − 3 −1 2 ∼ 0 1 1 1 _ 0 −9 0 0
3 −8 − 2 7 0 0 0 −8

:) E 8 K
6 3 −4 1 2 −1 2 1 0 1 3 −2
_ −4 1 −6 , _ 2 4 1 −2 3 0 4 −1 3
_
1 2 −5 3 6 2 −6 5 0 0 2 1
0 5 −3 4
P) E / < / )

2 3 1 2 3 1 1 3 2 1 6 3 −4
_ 1 2 5 _ 1 2 5 2 4 3 0 G_ −4 1 −6
F_
3 5 10 3 5 10 1 2 2 2 1 2 −5
−3 0 1 1

1 2 −3 4 1 2 3 1 1 −1 1 1 −1
1 3 1 11 N_ 4 5 6 #_ 2 4 −1 S_ 2 −3 1
E_
2 5 − 4 13 5 7 8 3 2 2 1 −4 2
2 6 2 22
;) E /
1 2 1 1 2 1 −2 3 1 3 0 1 5 1 − 2 3 −1
_ 1 1 1 −1 _ 3 2 −1 2 4 F_ 2 −1 2 2 G_ 2 −1 2 2
2 4 2 2 3 3 3 −2 5 1 −1 1 1 3 1 2 3
H) K % / -
)

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31

x + 2 y − 3z = 6
2x − 2 y + 4z = 4
4 x + 3 y − 2 z = 19

$ 1 :
1 2 1 3 2 0 1 −1 0 1 2 −4
& ´_ 0 −5 −2 L , ´_ 0 7 − 12 L F´_ 0 1 2 −1 L G´_ 0 0 L
0 0 3 0 0 45 0 0 2 −2
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 2 1 1
3 R / 3, 3 3, ´≈ 3
0 2 1 −3 ≠
0 0 −9 29
1 −4 −2 1
≈ 0 1 1 1 ≠ )
0 0 0 0

1 0 7
9 1 2 0 0 4 0 1 0 0
3
: 0 1 − 26 L , 0 0 1 0 0 L 0 0 1 0
9
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 −1
6 0 0 0 0

1 3 2 1 1 2 −3 4 1 2 3
1 2 5 1 2 −1 6 3 −4 1 1 −1
P ∼ ∼ F ∼ 0 −1 0 1 G∼ 0 18 − 52 E∼ 0 1 4 7 L N ∼ 0 1 2 # ∼ 0 2 1 S ∼
0 −1 − 9 0 −1 3
0 0 1 4 0 0 −2 −2
0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 11
0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0
1 1 −1 1 2 1 1 2 1 −2 3 1 1 −1 1 1
0 −5 3 ; ∼ ;, ∼ 0 1 4 −5 5 L ; F∼ 6, / L
0 1 0 2 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 −8 0 0 −2 2
1 −2 3 −1 1 2 −3 6
; G∼ 0 3 − 4 4 H 6 / 0 − 6 10 − 8 ) ?_: O_:
0 0 7 − 10 0 0 10 10
_& @ _ b : : & c)

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32

- 2' '2 34

)F KG ,< & 3 ))) )! σ


,< 8Q ) 6 <
)

7 ` < . 7 ) $
@ @ )

M '8 & 3 : , H 7 / K
&3 : & : 3 3&: 3 : & : & 3 : 3 &
3` :` P` ;` H`

/ 7 Z - K 6 K

ZN M ( F-) M ( F+) M 5 5 5 M + M - > 4)

_: K :d _ : ? 3 ? & _ H 7 )@ _4 4d _ &)

8 3:

G / +
> ) F
)
Ra < / ? / A
/ )
M '8 - 6 & 3 : P H &34 7 ;d_; ? P ? : ? 3 ? & _
&34 HP:3& &4 7 / K HP H: H3 H& P: P3
P& :3 :& 3&)
M '8 + ;P:3& &4 7 / K ;P ;: ;3 ;3 P: P3 P& :3 :&
3&)
M '8 7 P;3& 4; 7 / K P3 P& ;3 ;& 3&)

6, , A 7 7 & 3 :K

'2 3: [ # : '2 3: [ # :

&3: 4 3:& 3

&:3 & :&3 3

3&: & :3& :

! σ
A . 7 ) σ , + @ @
< 7 / σ . ? `
. U / B U U σ) E? K
&:3 . )

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33

G &/ σ σ
1, se σ é par ;
σ_
− 1, se σ é ímpar.

6 < K
M ? A 7 σ σ
)
M ? A . 7 σ )

M '8 - σ;:&3P H 7 / σ _&)


M '8 + @: _ :d _ :)3)& _ H) 6, , )
&3: &:3 3&: 3:& :&3 :3&
σ
4 & & 3 3 :
R` 7
Z Z Z
.
E E E
@ σ

+ ' 2' ' "

*
/ / / A <
? ) / + A /
)

G + 7 " + K
• $ / 7 L
• F+ + 0 /
)

" / e
G / > , / ,
7 . ?
. E
. < . )
G / /
/ L
G & / / L
2 /
)
jj <
, / - )

@ , " K

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34

F , KM ? O / ) _F _
1 2 x 1
_ F_ e) ? O ) _
5 4 y −1
F , K

1 2 x 1
) _ )$ K
5 4 y −1

x + 2y 1
_ ) K
5x + 4 y −1
x + 2y = 1 x + 2y = 1 .(-5)
$ K ⇔
5 x + 4 y = −1 5 x + 4 y = −1
− 5 x − 10 y = −5
− 5 x − 10 y = −5 5 x + 4 y = −1 −6 −6 −6
⇔ ⇔O_ _ _ _&) @
5 x + 4 y = −1 4 y − 10 y = −6 4 − 10 (1.4) − (2.5) − 6
y (4 − 10) = −6
? , / ,
H ) ? _ &) 6, / ? &)P 3); ? 7
/ M O
)G . ' ) 6, , / ?
1 2
&)P 3); _ )
5 4
/ T / + 1 , &HPH &(&H
@ U @)k l &HP3 &(45 , 7 + >
/ 7 + )G , F
1 * 1 F O T , )

' 2 ' V

+5- ' -! '

G
/ & "_] &&^ A
&& < " _j &&j _ &&

M '8

"_ ];^ "_; j;j _ ; " _ ] H^ "_ H j Hj _ H

+5+ ' +! '

G
/ " 3
3 K

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35

3
+ )

6, M '8

2 3
"_ K " _ 3); P): _ &4 &3_ 3)
4 5

1 3 1 3
, @ _ _ _ &?P Q 3?: _ 3
2 4 2 4

+57 ' 7! ' 2

6
: , @ )
a11 a12 a13
G_ a 21 a 22 a 23 .
a31 a32 a33
-[ 8 K $ >
K

+[ 8 K E / /
,
K

7[ 8 K E & 3
,
K

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36

G_ E && 33 :: E &: 3& :3 E &3 3: :& && 3: :3 &3 3& :: &: 33 :&

−1 2 1
M '8 - E j j _ 1 2 0 )
−1 1 0
−1 2 1 −1 2
@ 1 2 0 1 2 _
−1 1 0 −1 1
&)3)4 E 3)4) & E &)&)& 3)&)4 &)4)& &)3) & _ 4E4E& 4 4E3 _ :)
1 j j_ : G _ :)

4 x 1
M '8 + G ? , / 2 x 5 _4
−1 8 3

4 x 1 4 x
@ 2 x 5 2 x _ 4) 1
−1 8 3 −1 8
&3? Q ;? E &H Q H? Q &H4 E? _ 4 → 3? Q &PP _ 4 → ? _ &PP\3 → M N =+)

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37

+59 ' ' B7 '

*
/ @ + +
:) M : % 1
: @ )

' @ 1 _ < >


, / /
F <K

_ & F& E 3 F 3 E )))E F

_ &< F&< E 3< F3< E ))) E < F <

" / e$ < - )

−1 0 1
M '8 + @ < _ 2 3 −1 )
7 1 3
6G 8 K
E → - - / / ) R
&)

G _ & ) F&& R 4 ) F&3 R & ) F&: ? & )


&E&
3 −1 &E:
2 3
G _ & ) & R 4 ) F&3 R & ) &
1 3 7 1
G _ & ) & ) ]' & ^ R 4 R &) & ) 3 3&

G _ &)&)&4 R 4 R &)&) &'

G _ &4 R 4 F &'

G _ 3'

$ 2
−1 0 1 −1 0
G _ 2 3 −1 2 3 _ &):): E 4) &)( E &)3)& &):)( &)&) & :)4)3
7 1 3 7 1
_ ' E 4 E 3 Q 3& Q & Q 4 _ 3')

1 3 4
M '8 7 @ < _ 5 2 −3 ) F G )
1 4 2
6G 8

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38

G _ & ) F&& R ; ) F3& R & ) F:& ? & )


&E&
2 −3 3E&
3 4 :E&
3 4
G _ & ) & R ; ) & R & ) &
4 2 4 2 2 −3
G _ & ) & ) ]P &3 ^ R ; ) & ) H &H R &) & ) ' 5

G _ & )&) &H R ; ) & ) &4 R &) & ) &(

G _ &H R ;4 R &(

G _ P'

$ 2
1 3 4 1 3
G _ 5 2 − 3 5 2 _ &)3)3 E :) :)& E P);)P P)3)& &) :)P :);)3
1 4 2 1 4
_ P ' E 54 Q 5 E &3 :4 _ 'H Q P( _ P')

+5; 2 34 8 0 2 '

8 2 34 8 0 2 ' 8 8 '
' " A2 ' ≥ +5

? 7 /
7 / ?
A A &)

6, ` & & & && _ & , 7


& L ,
33 _& , 3 , ? 33
) M -
K

& 6 →
Q& /
)

3 6 U≠ & → \U
/ , A & )
/ +
&\U U)

: 6 &→ / > )

2 1 7
- F A= 1 3 2
5 3 4
)* m , _ HH

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39

7 8 '

/ K

&) 6 / < j j _
j j)
1 3 1 2
M '8 -K @ _ _ )E _ &)P Q 3): _ 3 _ )
2 4 3 4
1 2 3 1 2 2
M '8 + N 2 1 2_@_ N 2 1 4_@
2 4 3 3 2 3
3) @ / _ 4
)

M '8 - M '8 +
:) @ / _4 M
)
M '8

P) @ /
)

M '8
;) @ _
) M '8

H) @ /
U U)

F /J- K @
U - )

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40

1 6 3 1 2 3
M '8 - _ 4 15 1 i_ : 4 5 1 _ : i )
2 3 0 2 1 0
M '8 + 7

() 6
< ) _ ) j ) j_j j)j )j

5) ! / . ≠ 4)

') @ , 7

) M '8

&4
% T ,K /
,
)

1 2 3
E? K 2 1 2 =9 @ , &
2 4 3

, 3 K

9 ' " #

F
F-
/ )G ' "
F- F-
/ 5 N N 5 ' " )

8 3:
@ / . )

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41

@ / . K
& & & & & & & &
_ ? . ) _ ) E _ E _ )
% / <
/ ) E
/J- ' " 2 4
' # ) / )
@ ' → ≠4
& 1
_
Det A
Q& 1
@ . × ≥3 K _ ) <
det A

E K2 0 < )
< +
- )

!
&
_ )
' " #
6$%6#6R 12G GE GE " %$2XE@) G / D
F-
A2 2 # D 2 2 8 )
@ , " K & & &
@ " _ " ")" _ " )" _ 2 ,
/ 5 N 5 N 2 )
1 3
E? K " _ 2 2 / "
3 1

2 2
) R # " D 2
8 5
F-
5 N 5 N N 1 " )

, / ?
+ K
&` 6 34 L
3` ' 34 )

' # 6 2 ' " 4 # V

12 7 3 −7
M '8 - * / _ _ )
5 3 − 5 12
F- F-
&0+ 5 N N 5
6 < / )
) _2 ) _ 2)
12 7 3 −7 12.3 + 7.(−5) 12.(−7) + 7.12 1 0
) _ 2 → ) _ _ _ 2 )
5 3 − 5 12 5.3 + 3.(−5) 5.(−7) + 3.12 0 1
/ _2
' ' # 2' ' "V

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42

7 + )

F-
834 - ' ' " # 8 8 34 5 N

R , , 5
1 2
M '8 -K E _ )
−1 3
F-
&0+ / 5 N
1 0 &
a b 1 2 a b 1 0
@ , / 2 _ ) @ _ ) _ )
0 1 c d −1 3 c d 0 1
$
1a + 2c 1b + 2d 1 0
_ )F , K
− 1a + 3c − 1b + 3d 0 1
a + 2c = 1 b + 2d = 0
)$ K
− a + 3c = 0 − b + 3d = 1
3 −2
3 −2 1 1 &
a b & 5 5 )
_ ,_ _ _ ) _ _
5 5 5 5 c d 1 1
5 5
, )
/
3 −2
2) 6 < &
) _ 5 5 ) 1 2 _ 2)
1 1 −1 3
5 5

834 + ' ' " # 8 ' # %

! . ? /J- 7 /
)
&
! , /J- 7
)
M '8
1 1 0
_ 0 1 1 ? )
1 0 2

1 1 01 0 0 1 0 0 2 3 − 2 3 13
1 1 0 1 0 0
234 0 1 1 0 1 0 ≈ 0 1 1 0 1 0 ≈ 5555 0 1 0 1 2 −1
3 3 3
1 0 20 0 1 0 −1 2 −1 0 1 0 0 1 −1 1 1
3 3 3

$ 1 P

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43

9 # T ' "

& F K

2 1 1 3 −2 −4 1 2 2 3 3 2 5
_ 0 5 −2 , _ 2 5 −1 1 0 −2 0 G_ 4 1 3
F_
1 −3 4 0 6 1 3 −1 1 −2 2 3 1
4 −3 0 2
1 2 5 1 3 4 1 2 1 3 −1 2
S_
E _ 0 8 79 N_ 0 0 0 3 5 3 2 3 1
#_
0 0 1 9 − 2 77 0 4 0 7
2 1 2 1
2 −1 0 2
2 −1 1
0 2 −1 3
3 G _ 2 1 −1 3
L : E _
0 0 3 1
0 2 2
1 0 4 2
4 −1 3 2 6 8
P _ 3 0 1 _ 3 9 12 ) * G _G )G )
7 2 −4 −1 − 2 − 3
1 0 1 x
2
0 x 1
x 1 2 3 4 5
; _ _ 1 − 1 x F_ , G EG _G F
1 2x x 0 1 0
x 1 0
0 0 x 1
H $ / 7 M / K
4 6 x 12 − x 1 0 x x 1 5 −1 + 2x x2 −1
_4 _4
5 2 − x _ &35 b) 18 − x 3 2 =6 2 x x _4 2x 4 −1 x2
7 4 2x 15 − 2 x 0 1 x x 3

( E % / # <
a 0 1 b
% , / _2 2 _ _
0 a b 1
1 2 2 0
5 @ _ _ / K L ,
0 1 1 1
2 4 5/6 − 2/3
' " / _ _ )
1 5 −1/ 6 1/ 3
1 1 0 −1 −1 2
&4 / _ 0 −1 2 _ 2 1 −2
1 0 1 1 1 −1

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44

sen α cos α
&& F _ ) * / G K ,
cos α - sen α
/ ) _2 ) E )

cos α - sen α 0
&3 / " _ sen α cos α 0 ) E
0 0 1
@%E2R $!FS &'5( )P&&
2 1 3 2 1 7
12 7
&: G K _ 4 2 2 _ 1 3 2 F_
5 3
2 5 3 5 4 3
1 1 0
& &
&P E _ 0 −1 2 / ) _2
1 0 1
&; E K
1 1 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 −1 1 1 −1 1
−1 1 2 L , 1 1 1 L 1 −1 1 L 1 1 1 L 1 1 1 L 0 1 1
2 −1 1 −1 1 1 1 0 1 1 −1 2 −1 1 1 1 −1 −1

8
& 3&L & , &&L & &:& G K 1 L& :4L &
< G E _5L & 4L & 4 G K 1 L & (L
2− 2 −1 1+ 2 2
3 F 3
_ 2 + 2 1− 2 2 −1 G 3
_ HP) R / + P . P = 8.8 = 64 L : − &PL P
2 2+ 2 2− 2

2 9 11
G _ 5 16 21 _ AB _ 4) E _ ' _4 / ) _ ' )4 _ 4) _ ) L
24 68 92
3
; ?_ L H ? _ 3L H, ? _ (L H ?_4 ?_3 H ?_3; ?_−3 H ? _n &)
4
a 0 ) 1 b _ 1 0 4 2 2 4 2 −2
( ) _2 _& , _ 4L 5 _ ) _ )
0 a b 1 0 1 1 1 1 3 0 −2
g 2) , )
2 4 5/ 6 − 2/3 1 0
' ) _2 ) _2 ) _ )6
1 5 − 1/ 6 1/ 3 0 1
2 4 a b 1 0 2a + 4c 2b + 4d 1 0 2a + 4c = 1
)* < K ) _2 ) _2 _ )1
1 5 c d 0 1 a + 5c b + 5d 0 1 a + 5c = 0
2b + 4d = 0 5/ 6 − 2/3
)$ , / / L
b + 5d = 1 − 1/ 6 1/ 3
1 1 0 −1 −1 2 1 0 0
&4 0 −1 2 ) 2 1 − 2 _ 0 1 0 L
1 0 1 1 1 −1 0 0 0

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45

&
sen α cos α
&& / ) _ 2) E _ _ )
- cos α - sen α

cos α sen α 0
&3 " / ")" _ 2) E " _ - sen α cos α 0 " < " _ " &)
0 0 1

−1 / 8 3 / 8 −1 / 8 − 1 / 11 − 17 / 66 19 / 66
3 −7
&: &
_ −1 / 4 0 1/ 4 &
_ − 1 / 11 9 / 22 − 1 / 22 F &
_ L &P ) &
_
− 5 12
1 / 2 −1 / 4 0 2 / 11 1 / 66 − 5 / 66
1 1 0 −1 −1 2 1 0 0 3 / 7 − 2 / 7 1/ 7 0 1 / 2 −1 / 2
0 − 1 2 ) 2 1 − 2 _ 0 1 0 _ 2L &; 5 / 7 − 1 / 7 − 3 / 7 L &; , 1 −1 1 L &;
1 0 1 1 1 −1 0 0 1 −1 / 7 3 / 7 2/7 −1 3 / 2 −1 / 2
1 4 −5 − 3 5 −1 0 1 / 2 −1 / 2 0 1 1
0 − 3 3 L&; 1 − 1 0 L&; −1 / 2 1 / 2 0 L &; − 1 / 2 1 1 / 2 )* K
−1 − 4 6 2 −3 1 1/ 2 0 1/ 2 1 / 2 0 −1 / 2
1 0 0
−1
AA = 0 1 0
0 0 1

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46

; 8 34 ' '0 ' '

*
7 /
. )

8 34 - F :

@ < - ?& O& ?3 O3 F ?: O: )


x1 y1 1
E < x2 y 2 1 _ 4)
x3 y3 1
E? K* / 4& &3 F 3: )
0 1 1 0 1 10 1
&0+ F 1 2 1 _4 < 1 2 1 1 2 _4E3E: P 4 &_4)
2 3 1 2 3 12 3
G F < →

8 34 + F+ + 0

@ < 0 ?& O& ?3 O3 F ?: O: )


@ / \ 2 )

x1 y1 1
1
+ 0 + @_ D G_ x2 y2 1 )
2
x3 y3 1

E? K G + 0 F < && :P
F ;3 )
1 1 1
1
&0+ @_ D G_ 3 4 1 _PE;EH 34 : 3_ &4)
2
5 2 1
1 1 1 10
@_ D @_ − 10 = .10 = = 5) +
2 2 2 2
0 F ; ) ) + )

-d $ 1 ; )

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47

; # F '

&* / &3 3: F P; )
3G + 0 F < 3: &5 F 3; )
: 6 &3 ?ii Oii F ; 3 ) G
, / + , ? M)
P R -
3
3: : : F H: )F + )
3
;G 0 : ; & : ) + 0 &H )E
, , / ;)
HG / :& 3 & E& < )
(* / )E + 0
F)
&: &3 F &P
, &: &P F 3 &
&: 3P F :;

8
3
& @ L 3 @ _ & ) )L : :4 P 3P ; ? _ :: H g& g 3)

1 3 1
( F −1 2 1 _ 3 / )
1 4 1
ABC
0 F < + _& ) ) +
2
(, R + 0 F _ &\3 ) ) +
( @ 0 F)

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48

Q .]

- A2 3:

/ A2 C% + ,
'
, ) E 1 &''( /
+ :? E :; _ 3) R
&4
/ + <+ ) 6 7
/ 7 K 2 # 0# )
! / + ?& ?3 ))) ? < ,
A2 34 )

6 % / - ?& E + ?3 E 7 ?: E ) ) ) E ? _, A2 34
/ K
& 3 ))) 6 # 0#
?& ?3 ))) ? # 0#
% ' 8 )

6 + / /
C" A2 34 5
M '8
3?& E :?3 ?: _ ; / - - + ?& ?3 ?:
, ?EOE E _ & / / / + ? O )

% # 3:
& M % / A2 34
I ' ? ) ? K ;? :O _ 4)
3 ! / x12 ?& ) ?3
/ A < ? &) / 7 3x12 E 3?3 _ :
P?) O E _3 4 )
: / /J- A F28
? 28 o& o3 ))) α / ?& ?3 ))) ?
)
P ! / - :? E O _ 4 44 )

* < ? / 7

M '8 - G / P? OE _3 7 )
&0+ , , + >? O , ) ?
?_3 O_4 P)3 4 E _ 3) 1 _ H
R 7 3 4 H )
" / /
2+ y−z
+ . K P? OE _3 P? _ 3 E O ?_ )
4
'
12R@ $ F) #2"EREX T / ) 8 # ' 'D 1 % 8 D 2 @ &''()
&4
, ? 612*E2$ K\\lll) , ) ), \ \, 344:\ \ &)

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49

2+ y−z
R / @ _b O c O
4
+ )
R / / + 7 ) + ? O )@ O_3
_4 &34 )@ O_4
_ H @ 3 4 H ))))
2+ y−z
/ / @ _b O c O )!
4
@ _b 443 c O_4 _3)

M '8 + G / :? 3O _ ; α / & α <


/ )
&0+ , , / & α / ?_ & O_
α) , / K :? 3O _ ; : & 3α _ ;
: 3α _ ; 3α _ ;E: α_ P

/ 6 α & α < / α_ P

M '8 7 / :? E O _ 3 . ?_4 O_ 3 :)4 E


3 _ 3) M K

&0+ / + , K
−2− y
:? E O _ 3 :? _ 3QO ?_ ∀O ∈ $)
3
−2− y
/ / @ K@ _b O ∀O ∈ 2$c) R /
3
/ 7 / , . O) @
−2−4 −6
, O P ? , ?_ = = −2 ) ?_ 3
3 3
O _ P) 1 @ _ b P 3 c)

M '8 9 M U / P _ : 3 4 & < /


U? O E : l _ 4e

&0+ F _ : 34& / ?_: O_ 3 _4 l_&)

@ , / U)
U? O E : l_4
U): Q 3 E :)4 & _ 4 U): E3 E 4 & _ 4 :U E & _ 4 U _ &\:)
* K &\: ): 3 E:)4 &_ &E3 &_4

/ 6 U / P _ : 34& < / U_ &\:)

M '8 ; / 3? OE _& / e
− y − z +1
&0+ @ 3? Q O E _ & ⇔ 3? _ & Q O Q ⇔?_ ∀O ∈ 2$)
2
− y − z +1
/ / @ _b O ∀O ∈ 2$c)
2

8 3: @ / ,M- R ,M+ R 5 5 5 R ,M N % K

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50
&&
@ %N, / / / ) E? K 4? E 4O
E 4 _ 4) R @_b ?O ∀? O ∈ $c)
@ %≠, / ) E? K 4? E 4O E 4 _ : 4? _ : Q 4O
3 − 0 y − 0z
4 ?_ .
0

+ ' A2 3:

+5-

!
' / 7 + . , 7
' A2 3: ''M 5

2* / 7 < / 7
a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + a13 x3 + ... + a1n x n = b1
a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x3 + ... + a 2 n x n = b2
a 31 x1 + a 32 x 2 + a 33 x3 + ... + a 3n x n = b3 K
.......................................................
a m1 x1 + a m 2 x 2 + a m 3 x3 + ... + a mn x n = bm

' / 7
+
K A ? + _ &
3 ))) K _ & 3 : )))
% < A
? _ & 3 ))) )

234 C" A ?& ?3 ))) ? /


+ ' / 7 )

% # 34 @ / 7 ,& _ ,3
_))) _ , _ 4 I ' ? 5

2x + y − z = 0 ! - ?_O_ _
4 @_b 444 c
M '8 K x + y + 4z = 0 E 234 # - )
5x − 2y + 3z = 0 @ - /
+ 234
4 # 5

+5+ 8 34 2' ' A2 3:

%
/ 7
) G 7
/ 7 )

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51

a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + a13 x3 + ... + a1n x n = b1


a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x3 + ... + a 2 n x n = b2
F a 31 x1 + a 32 x 2 + a 33 x3 + ... + a 3n x n = b3
.......................................................
a m1 x1 + a m 2 x 2 + a m 3 x3 + ... + a mn x n = bm
! K

a11 a12 a1n x1 b1 "


a 21 a 22 a 2n x2 b2
) _

a m1 a m 2 a mn xn bn
" .
" .

M '8
$ $
2x1 + 5x 2 − x 3 = 0 2 5 −1 x1 0
4x1 − 3x 2 + 6x 3 = −1 4 − 3 6 ) x2 _ −1
7 x1 + x 2 − 2x 3 = 8 7 1 −2 x3 8

R / K % , )R
K

$ $ / 7
/ 7 ' " ' " '8 )
'8 ' " '8 )

a11 a12 a13 ... a1n b1 a11 a12 a13 ... a1n
a21 a22 a23 ... a2 n b2 a21 a22 a23 ... a2 n
a31 a32 a33 ... a3n b3 a31 a32 a33 ... a3n
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
am1 am 2 am 3 ... amn bm am1 am 2 am 3 ... amn

'% F A2 R A I
2 )

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52

+57 6 34 ' A2 3:

6
/ . 7 ) A
) 6, K

SISTEMA LINEAR

POSSÍVEL (COMPATÍVEL) IMPOSSÍVEL (INCOMPATÍVEL)


Quando tem solução Quando não tem solução

DETERMINADO INDETERMINADO
Admite uma única solução Admite infinitas soluções

M '8 -
x + y =1
6 @_ 7 / ? M ^ <
x+ y =0
< & 4) 1 @_∅
x − y =1
, 6 A ?_4 O _ &) 1 @_b 4& c
x + 2y = 2
x+ y =2
6 ?_ 3O O) R
2x + 2 y = 4
7 )@ @ # @# _ b 3O O c / / O )
+ 7 ) ! ? @ _ b
3& c O_& @ _b H: c O_: )

R / K

• ! / 7 ) G
) ! 8 C# , '8 C# )
E '8 C# , '8 C# )

• # $3 p p 7 )
$3 ? O && , E
45 6 _,& 3& ,E 55 6 _,3)
$ / 7 3?3

a11 x + a12 y = b1
@_
a 21 x + a 22 y = b2

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53

1.
@ . ,
8 C# ' A
? O < A / ,
/ 7
-+
)

2.
@
8 C# '
/
. /
-7
/ 7 )

3.
E '8 C# *
+ / <
-9
8 )

&;
* M '8 d

M '8 - @&
2x + y = 1 2x + y = 1 2x + y = 1
_ ≅ ≅
2x + y = 3 0 x − 0 y = −2 0 y = −2

6 @&
2 '8 C# 5

8 @& K ' '8 C#

M '8 <
x+ y = 4 x+ y=4 x=3
@3 _ ≅ ≅
x− y = 2 0x + 2 y = 2 y =1

6 @3 @ _ b :& c
' 5

@3K ' ' :& /

!
" # ! $ %
& ' $ (( ( ( ( ( $

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54

M '8 = @:
2x + y = 1 2x + y = 1 1− y
_ ≅ ≅ 2x + y = 1 ≅ x =
4x + 2 y = 2 0x + 0 y = 0 2

6 @: 7 4?E4O_4
' 5
/ 7
1− y
. @ _b ,y O∈$ Fc)
2

@:K @ ' '

/ / $3 K
&) @ A
L
3) @ L
:) @ . )

+59 A2 # ? ' A2 3:

@
- + '
A2 # 5* < ? K

2x + y = 4 − 3 x + y = −1
M '8 - 6 / /
− x + 3y = 5 x − y = −1
@_b & 3 c
M '8 + F b & 3 c @& @3 / )
y
x + 3y = − 5 3x +
=2
S1 : @_b & 3 c 2 @_b & 3 c
2x − y = 4 S2 :
−x+y
= −1
3

' -

G / 7 @ , - / / 8 3:
' , / 7 / K
&) / 7 L
3) " / U L
:) @ , / /
U ∈ $a )

! 7 ' - . / )

/ , + )

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55

8 3:
78 + /
/ . / # 0#
# )

7 8 A +
/ - K

[ # 0# # N # 0# F' A2 3: 4 2 5

7 8@
7 ) 7 , .
+ / )

+5; 234 ' A2 3: 8 8 C8 A2 # ?


D 34 2 ' 34 E 2 FG

,+ 7 / 7
# Q

M '8 - F / 7
x + 2y + z = 1
@& _ x + y + z = −1 )
2x + 4 y + 2z = 2
/ - )* < K

D - A2 # ? ' F '

x + 2y + z = 1 x + 2y + z = 1 x + 2y + z = 1
@& _ x + y + z = −1 ≅ 0x + y + 0z = 2 ≅ y=2 )
2x + 4 y + 2z = 2 0x + 0 y + 0z = 0

@ , O_3 & / / @& K


x + 2 .2 + z = 1 x = 1− 4 − z x = −3 − z
≅ ≅ ≅ )
y=2 y=2 y=2
A2
6 .
+ )
6 + ) / +
K ` + _:Q3_& )
, 7 )
@ K @´_ b : 3 ∀ ∈ $c)
! K @´_ b P 3 & c _ &)
D + A2 # ? ' "

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56

x + 2y + z = 1 1 2 1 +1
@& _ x + y + z = −1 @& K 1 1 1 −1
2x + 4 y + 2z = 2 2 4 2 +2
* @ / 7
' -K
1 2 1 +1 1 2 1 1
1 1 1 −1 ≅ 0 1 0 2 3 &
2 4 2 +2 0 0 0 0
7 K 13 _ 13 Q 1& 1: _ 1: Q 31& )
x + 2y + z = 1
/ @&_ ⇔O_3)
y=2
@ , O & / / @ K
?E3OE _&⇔ ?E3)3E _&⇔ ? _ : )
' D8 C# ' @´_ b : 3 ∀ ∈ $c
@´_ b : 3 4 c _ 4)

% # 2 M '8
M '8 + R , ? 7
K
x + 2 y − 3z = 4 x + 2 y − 3z = 4
x + 2 y − 3z = 4
x + 3 y + z = 11 → L2 = − L1 + L2 y + 4z = 7
q q y + 4z = 7
2 x + 5 y − 4 z = 13 → L3 = −2 L1 + L3 y + 2 z = 5 → L3 = − L2 + L3
− 2 z = −2
2 x + 6 y + 2 z = 22 → L4 = −2 L1 + L4 2 y + 8 z = 14 → L4 = −2 L2 + L4
R / : / 7 -
+ A )
6 K 1: 3 _3 _ &L 13 O_: 1& K ?_&
1 7T28 (-* 7* -) D & 234 ' 56 @_b &:& c

M '8 7 F K
2 x + y − 2 z + 3w = 1 → L1
3 x + 2 y − z + 2w = 4 → L2
3 x + 3 y + 3 z − 2 w = 5 → L3
&` 13 _ :1& E 31: , 1: _ :1& E 31:
2 x + y − 2 z + 3w = 1 → L1
y + 4 z − 5w = 5 → L 2
3 y + 12 z − 13w = 7 → L3
3` 1: _ :13 E 1:
% # 34 F # 0# #
2 x + y − 2 z + 3w = 1 + /
/ )
R ? + "
y + 4 z − 5w = 5 # 0# # - / 7 ) 1
+ )
2 w = −8
6 A / 7
A + + 7 )

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57

234 3l _ 5 l _ P) @ , l /
K
OEP Q;l_; O E P Q ;) P _ ; O _ ; Q P Q 34 O_ P Q &;)

@ , / l O
3?EO 3 E:l _& 3?E P &; Q3 E:) P _& 3?_&EP E&;Q3 E&3 ? _ : E &P)

234 E Nb ? O l c _ _(-9R 7"* F-; F 9"* "* F9)`*

234 2 @ _& @ _ &( &' & P

M '8 9 $ K

x + 2 y − 2 z + 3w = 2
2 x + 4 y − 3 z + 4 w = 5 → L 2 = −2 L1 + L 2 q
5 x + 10 y − 8 z + 11w = 12 → L3 = −5L1 + L3

x + 2 y − 2 z + 4w = 2
...............z − 2w = 1 q
..............2 z − 4 w = 2 → L3 = −2 L 2 + L3

x + 2 y − 2 z + 3w = 2
.................z − 2 w = 1
..........................0 = 0

6 3 / 7 P +
+ 7 )

R + + O l
/ , O l / /
)

N O_& l_4 , _& ?_3 @ _ 3 & & 4 )

234 + , ? +
O l) _ & E 3l ) @ , /
K ? E 3O Q 3 E :l _ 3
? _ 3 Q 3O E 3 & E 3l E :l
? _ 3 Q 3O E 3 E Pl E :l
? _ P Q 3O E (l

1 234 @ _ b P Q 3O E (l O & E 3l l c O l )

2' 234 8 2 , + O l)
? O_4 l_& @ _ b && 4 : & c)

M '8 ; @ < @ K

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58

3x + y − z = 0 − x + + y + 2z = 1 − x + y + 2z = 1
@ _ − x + y + 2z = 1 K 3x + y − z = 0 q 4 y + 5z = 3 ) 6
2x + 2 y + z = 2 2x + 2 y + z = 2 0 =1
/ 4_&/ )
. @_∅

+5< 234 2' ' A2 3: 8 '

% ' ./ > / 7 K$ F

G F 3 :
/ 7 3 : + ) ? ,
+ )
@ ? - + ? O )
$ F K
&) E G_∆ ? O L
3) F G? _ ∆? / , ,
? L
∆x ∆y ∆z
:) G + ? O ?_ O_ _ )
∆ ∆ ∆
@ < rK
a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + a13 x3 + ... + a1n x n = b1
a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x3 + ... + a 2 n x n = b2
a 31 x1 + a 32 x 2 + a 33 x3 + ... + a 3n x n = b3
.......................................................
a m1 x1 + a m 2 x 2 + a m 3 x3 + ... + a mn x n = bm
& ∆ / 3 ∆? /
? / ,
r , ?&
)
a11 a12 a1n b1 a12 a1n
a21 a22 a2 n b2 a 22 a 2n
∆= Det A = ∆? _ G ?& _

am1 am 2 amn bn am2 a mn

: G + ∆?
∆O ∆
a11 b1 a1n a11 a12 b1
a 21 b2 a2n a 21 a 22 b2
∆O_G ?3_ ∆ _G ? _

a m1 bn a mn a m1 am 2 bn
∆x det Ax1 ∆y det Ax 2 ∆z
P F ?& _?_ _ ?3 _ O_ _ _ )
∆ det A ∆ det A ∆

det Axn
# F ? _
det A

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59

M '8 - $ @ F )
x − y − z = −4
N 2x + y + z = 1 )
3x + 2 y + z = 2
1 −1 −1 − 4 −1 −1 1 − 4 −1 1 −1 − 4
% s_ 2 1 1 s? _ 1 1 1 sO _ 2 1 1 s _ 2 1 1 )
3 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 2
$ K
s _ & : PE: 3E3 s? _ P 3 3E3E&E5 sO _ & &3 PE: 3E5 s _ 3 : &HE&3EP 3)
s _ : s? _ : sO _ H s _ :)
∆x 3 ∆y − 6 ∆z − 3
1 K?_ = = −1 O _ = =2 _ = = 1)
∆ −3 ∆ −3 ∆ −3
@´_ b & 3 & c)

7 ' H ' ? A2 3: 2 4 234

F
<+ / 7 <
, _ 4 ' I ' ? ) R
,& ,3 ))) , )
' I ' ? . * 8 '8 ' 234 5
* ' 2 8 % 234
• 6 ' / 7 '
4 4 ))) 4 / ' N < / A ' / 7
/ A + )
• 6 ' / 7 ' ,
7 / ' < < / + /
/ 7 ')
a11 x1 + a12 x 2 + + a1n x n = 0
a 21 x1 + a 22 x 2 + + a2n xn = 0
@ < - @_ )

a m1 x1 + a m 2 x 2 + + a mn x n = 0
6 @ + Q 4 4 ))) 4
) M / Q )
- , K
& / A / 7 A
/ ' ' ' 234 " 2 # )
3 / A / 7 /
A / ' ' 234 4 2 5
x+ y−z =0 x+ y−z =0
M '8 - E @&_ 2 x + 4 y − z = 0 @3 _ 2 x − 3 y + z = 0
3x + 2 y + 2 z = 0 x − 4 y + 2z = 0

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60

x+ y−z =0 x+ y−z =0 x+ y−z =0


&0+ @&_ 2 x + 4 y − z = 0 2y + z = 0 2y + z = 0 ?_4 O_4 _4
3x + 2 y + 2 z = 0 − y + 5z = 0 11z = 0
R / A / 7 A
A # 5 1 @_ 444 )
x+ y−z =0 x+ y−z =0 x+ y−z =0
&0+ K @3_ 2 x − 3 y + z = 0 − 5 y + 3z = 0 − 5 y + 3z = 0 ) 6, /
x − 4 y + 2z = 0 − 5 y + 3z = 0 0=0
/ 7 - ? O ) 1
3z − 3z 2z
+ 7 ) + ) ! " ;OE: _4 O_ ?_ +z ? _ )
5 5 5
2 z 3z 2 3
1 E_ , ,z L! # _& @ _ , ,1
5 5 5 5

--dd $ H #

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61

< # T
1
& 7 / K ?& E ?3 _ 4)
2
3 G / && 3 < / ?EO 3 _H
x y
: G / + = −1 α / α αE& )
2 2
P G 7 / ? E 3O _ 4)
2 x1 + 3x 2 − x3 = 0
; @ < @K x1 − 2 x 2 + x3 = 5 ) * / 3 && @) , * /
− x1 + x 2 + x3 − −2
444 @)
3x + y = K 2 − 9
H @ < K U / < -
x − 2y = k + 3
2x − y = 5 − x + 5 y = 11
( * / @& @3 / )
x+ y =7 3x − y = 9
x − y =1 mx − ny = −1
5 F / < / )
2x + y = 5 nx + my = 2
2 a + b + c = −1
2x + y = 5
' E? K , a+c =0 )
x − 3y = 0
− 3a + 5b − c = 2
2 −5 a −4
&4 ? @ K ) _ )G / 7 @)
3 1 b 7

< # F

&E < )F / < )


x − y − z = −4 x − 2 y + 4 z = −7 x + y + 2z = 0
@&_ 2x + y + z = 1 , @3_ 2 x − y + 3z = −4 @:_ x − y + 2z = 2
3x + 2 y + z = 2 − 2 x − 2 y + 3z = 1 2 x + 2 y + z = −1

x− y+z = 4 x+ y−z =3 x+ y+ z+t = 6


@P_ 2 x + 3 y + 2 z = −2 @;_ 2 x + y − 3z = 4 x + 2y + z − t = 1
@H_
3 x + 2 y − 3 z = −4 − x + 2y − z = 3 2x + y − z + t = 2
− x + 2y + z + t = 7

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62

x− y + z +t =1 x+ y =1 x+ y+ z = 6
y + z − t = −2 @5_ 2x + 3y = 2 @'_ x − y − z = −1
@(_
− x+ y+t = 2 3x + 3 y = 3 x+ y+ z = 2
z+t =1

x+ y+z = 2 2x + y + z − w = 4 x+ y+ z=6
< @&4_ x− y−z =0 U @&&_ 3x − y − z + w = −4 @&3_ − x − y − z = −6
3x − 2 y + 4 z = 13 − x − 2 y + 3z − 2w = 6 x− y+ z=2

3$ $ F K
x + 2y − z = 2 2a − b + c = 3
2 x − y + 3z = 9 , a − b + 2c = 3
3x + 3 y − 2 z = 3 a+b+c = 6

: G ) F -
< )@ )

x − 2 y + 3z − 2w = 0 x + 2y − z = 0 x + 2 y − 3z = 0 3x − y + 2 z = 0
3x − 7 y − 2z + 4w = 0 2 x + 5 y + 2z = 0 2 x + 5 y + 2z = 0 2x + y + z = 0
,
4x + 3y + 5z + 2w = 0 x + 4 y + 7z = 0 3x − y − 4z = 0
x + 3y + 3z = 0

x − y + 2z = 0 2 x − y + 3z − w = 0 x− y+t = 0
− 2x + 2 y − 4z = 0 3x − y − 2 z + w = 0 2x − y + z − w + t = 0
x − y + 3z − w = 0 − x + 2 y − w + 2t = 0
−x+ y+z =0 2x − y − z + t = 0

PE )

x − y + z =1 x − y + z =1 x− y+z =3
2x − y + z = 2 , 2x − y + z = 2 2x − y − z = 2
x+ y+ z =3 x+ y+ z =3 x+ y + z =1

;E /
2x − y + z = 5 x − 2y + z = 3 x+ y + z −t = 6
3x + 2 y − 4 z = 0 , 2x + y + z = 1 2 x + y − 2 z + t = −1
z − 2y + z = 2 3x − y + 2 z = 2 x − 2 y + z + 2t = −3
H F / < - -
/ 7 ) @
)

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63

x + 2y − z = 0 2 x − y + 3z = 0 5x + 2 y − z = 0 x + 2y + z = 2
3x − y + 2 z = 0 , 3x − y + z = 1 x − y + 3z = 0 − 2x − 4 y − 2z = 4
x+ y+z=2 2x − y + z = 0 3x + 6 y + 3z = 6
( " , / @&

2x − y = 1 x+ y=2
@3 K @&_ 4 x − 2 y = 2 @3_ x− y=0 )
x− y =1 2x + y = 2
2 2
5 F / / 7 ) @
)
2 x − y + 3z = 11
x + 3 y + 2 z + 3w − 7t = 14
4x − 3y + 2z = 0
@&_ , @3_ 2 x + 6 y + z − 2w + 5t = −2
x+ y+ z=6
x + 3 y − z + 2t = −1
3x + y + z = 4
'* / - - < )
x + 3 y − 2z = 0 x + 3 y − 2z = 0 x + 2y − z = 0 5x + 2 y − z = 0
@&_ 2 x − 3 y + z = 0 , @3_ x − 8 y + 8 z = 0 @:_ 3x − y + 2 z = 0 @:_ x − y + 3 z = 0
3x − 2 y + 2 z = 0 3x − 2 y + 4 z = 0 2x − y + z = 0 2x − y + z = 0
&4 " , / / 7 3? O_& ? O\3
_t P? 3O _ 3 )
&& 6 - / 7 ? E :O 3 _ 4 3? E :O E _4 :? 3O E 3
_4 eT / )
&3 F / / 7 ) @
)
2 x − y + 3z = 8
x + 3 y + 2 z + 3w − 7t = 2
4x − 3 y + 2z = 8
@&_ , @3_ 2 x + 6 y + z − 2w + 5t = 12
x+ y+ z =3
x + 3 y − z + 2t = 5
3x + y + z = 5
&: E , K

x+ y=2 x+ y=2 x+ y=2 x+ y=0 x+ y=0 x+ y=0


_ _ F_ G_ E_ N_
2 x − 3 y = −1 2x + 2 y = 4 x+ y =3 2x − 3 y = 0 2x + 2 y = 0 x+ y=0

/ ( 9

& @ _ b
y O c O ∈ 2$ 3 _ & : α _ −3 P @ _ b 3OE O c O ∈ 2$ ; @ ;, R
2 2
H U_ : ( @ )@_b P : c
5 6 / _4 _ &) @_ b 3 & c
2 1 1 x −1
2 1 x 5 2a − 5b = −4
' ) _ ', 1 0 1 ) y _ 0 &4
1 −3 y 0 3a + b = 7
− 3 5 −1 z 2

/ ( :! 99

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64

& @ _ b &3& c &, @ _ b ; &; ( c & @_b 1 & 1 c & @_b & 3& c & @_b &34 c & @
3 3
_b 4&3: c & @_b − 1 ,1 ,3 ,8 c & @_b &4 c & 2 . &< @ _ b & & 3 c &U @ _
3 5 5 5
w + 6 2( 2 w + 7 )
b 4 , l c l ∈ 2$) 6 @K @ + @ _ b 4 tE \P
5 5
(\3E; \P c ) & @ _ b P 3 c ∈ 2$L @ R - F G & &, & &
& & & & &<L @ R - F 2 &U & L @ R - 2 &
9 12 9 23w
3 @ _ b & 3 : cL , @ _ b , , cL : @_b , 5w ,15w ,w c l ∈ 2$) @ S -
5 5 5 16 16 16
F 2 ) @ _ b 3: ; &; &H c l _ &HL :, @ _ b ' P c ∈ 2$) @ S -
F 2 ) @ _ b ' P & c _ &L : @ _ b 4 4 4 c) @ S - F
− z +5
G L : @ _b , z − 15, z c ∈ 2$) @ S - F 2 )@ _b 4 &4 ; c
2
_;L : @_b O 3 O c O ∈ 2$) @ S - F 2 )@ _b & & 4 c \O_&
− w 5w w w
_ 4L : @ _ b 4 4 4 4 c) @ S - F G L : @ _b , , , w, c l ∈ 2$
2 8 2 8
@ _b 4t ,5t ,4t ,8t , t c ) @ S - F 2 )@ _b P;P5& c l _ 5)
P @ _ b & & & cL , @ _ b :\3 : ;\3 cL @ _ b& & & c)
1− t t +5
;<8 @ G @_ b 3 & 3 cL ; 8 @2 @_ b cL ; 8 @ 2 @ _ {( , t + 3, , t )} )@ _b 4P:& c _&L
2 2
−3 z 5 z
: 8@ 2 @ _ {( , , z )} )@ _b :;( c _(L : 8 @ G) @ _ b P\; &:\&4 &\&4 cL
7 7
= 8 @ G)@ _ b & 3 ; cL = 8 @ 2 @ _ b & :O ( O 3E :E3 c O )@ _b &&&& & c O_& _ &L
−8 z 10 z
>< > > 8 @ G @_ b 4 4 4 cL ' 8 @ 2 @ _ {( , , z )} ) @ _ b 5 &4 && c _&&L
11 11

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65

9 2 4 2' ' A2 3: I ' ? 4 F


I ' ?

G
, 8 C# '8 C# )
@ . ' ' 5 F
/ - ,
/ 0 )

M '8 - G U , ? K
x + 2y − z = 4 x + 2y − z = 4 x + 2y − z = 4
2 x − y + 3z = 3 − 5 y + 5 z = −5 − 5 y + 5 z = −5
3x + y + 2 z = k − 5 y + 5 z = −12 + k 0 = 5 − 12 + k
2 4 4_; &3 E U k_(
@ k_( + 7 ) + )
@ k≠( . . )

M '8 + G / ? O
K A L L )
x + y − z =1 x + y − z =1 x + y − z =1
2 x + 3 y + az = 3 → L2 = −2 L1 + L2 q ...... y + (a + 2) z = 1 q y + ( a + 2) z = 1
x + ay + 3 z = 2 → L3 = − L1 + L3 (a − 1) y + 4 z = 1 → L3 = (a − 1) L2 + L3 (3 + a )(2 − a) z = 2 − a
2 4 6 / :E 3 _3Q K
A + / <
< :E 3 ≠4 ≠ : ≠ 3)
_3 / 4_4 + 7 )
R _ : / 4_; )

&H
M '8 7 G / 7 @
x + ky + z = 1
0 2 @_ x + y + (k − 1) z = 1
2 x + 4 y + kz = 0
&0+ $ # K
1 k 1 1 1 k 1 1 1 k 1 1
1 1 k −1 1 ≅ 0 1− k −2+k 0 ≅ 0 1− k −2+k 0 )
2 4 k 0 0 4 − 2k −2+k −2 0 0 − k + 5k − 6 2(k − 1)
2

+
0 U K
&QU_4 U_&)
U3 ;UEH _ 4 U_3 U _ :)
+ + , U≠& U≠3 U ≠ :)
/ , K
x + ky + z = 1
(1 − k ) y + (−2 + k ) z = 0 A / K
2
(−k + 5k − 6) z = 2(k − 1).

) '* +, - ../ 0

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66

2t (− k + 2) − 2
(−k 2 + 5k − 6) z = 2t (−k + 2) − 2 _ )
− k 2 + 5k − 6
. U)* < K
@ U_3 U_: ? . )
@ U ≠ 3 U ≠ : ? .
)

(−2 + k ) z
, (1 − k ) y + (−2 + k ) z = 0 O_ )
1− k
. O U)* < K
@ U_& ? O . )
@ U≠& U U≠3 U ≠ :) R . )

2' 6 . U_& U_3 U _ :) 6 .


U≠3 U≠:)

--dd $ ( #

= #
4x + 3y = 2
&E B C / @ @_ 5x − 4 y = 0
2x − y = a
− 4x + 3y = 2
3E U / @ / 7 K 5x − 4 y = 0
2x − y = k
:G U / ; U & :UE3 < / ? 3O E _ ()

kx + y + z = 0
PF @ / 7 x + (k + 1) y + z = 1
− 2 x + (k + 2) y + 2 z = t
G 0 U
$ F U_& _ 4)
/
58 U_ HL ?8 U_ 3

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67

J
" F$ K2 0 5
8 34 ' K2 0 " #

- " F6

6 2' ' K 2' ' " F F


cij = (−1) i+ j
M ij j" <j '8 ' ' K ' " 5
R / K @ !* "!*
, "ER6$ " j" <j) E
< , ' " 6 F )
E? K

a11 a12 a13


a22 a23
@ A = a21 a22 a23 "ER6$ && M 11 = =_ a22 a33 − a23a32
a32 a33
a31 a32 a33
6 K
F6 6 34 )K @ < _ ] <^ / ≥ 3 ,
k) @ < < , , < )6
' < , < " <) 6 F6
E<
< & < F< _ & E< ) " <)

% 1 K
_ && j"&& j &3 j"&3 jE &: j"&: j _ && ) F&& E &3 )F&3 E &: ) F&:
"< & <
F< )

_ && M 11 &3 M 12 E &: M 13

a22 a23 a21 a23 a21 a22


_ && &3 E &:
a32 a33 a31 a33 a31 a32

_ && 33 :: 3: :3 &3 3& :: 3: :& E &: 3& :3 33 :&

−1 0 1
M '8 - @ < _ 2 3 −1 ) K
7 1 3
&E&
3 −1 &E3
2 −1
F&& _ & ) _&) 'E& _ &)&4 _ &4) F&3_ & ) _ & ) HE( _ & ) &: _ &:
1 3 7 3
&E:
2 3 3E&
0 1
F&: _ & ) _&) 3 3& _ &) &' _ &') F3& _ & ) _ & ) 4 & _ & ) & _ &)
7 1 1 3
3E3
−1 1 3E:
−1 0
F33 _ & ) _&) : ( _&) &4 _ &4) F3: _ & ) _ & ) & 4 _ & ) & _&
7 3 7 1

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68

2 F:& _ :L F:3 _ &L F:& _ :)


10 − 13 − 19
% F :?: _ 1 − 10 1
− 3 −1 −3
% 1 K
_ && ) F&& E &3 )F&3 E &: ) F&: ⇔G _ & ) &4 E 4) &: E &) &' _ 3'

8 3:
• 6 2" < 2 <

• G F < A F< _ & E<


) Mij )
>: 1 )

+ " K2 0

F
/ * _ < , k) G
K2 0 ' " 6 F
< < )

a11 a12 a1n C11 C12 C1n C11 C 21 C m1


a 21 a 22 a 2n C 21 C 22 C2 n C12 C 22 Cm 2
_ →F _ → < _ F _

a m1 a m 2 a mn C m1 C m 2 C mn C1n C 2n C mn
'% F A2 6 6 < F
cij = (−1) i+ j
M ij ) j" <j )

E < , ' " 6


F )

" K2 <
< _ F )

M '8 - E < )
&0+ , < /
< ) * / @ <
E<
& , / ,
/ <) N
+ < )
1 0 1
( _ 2 1 0 K
−1 1 0

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69

2 1
1+1 1 0 1+ 2 2 0 c13 = (−1)1+ 3 .
c11 = (−1) . c12 = (−1) . −1 1
1 0 −1 0

1 0 0 0 3
2 +1 0 1 2+ 2 1 1 c 23 = (−1) 2 +3 .
6 _ c 21 = (−1) . c 22 = (−1) . −1 1 _ 1 1 −1
1 0 −1 0
−1 2 1
0 1 1 1 1 0
c 31 = (−1) 3+1 . c 32 = (−1) 3+ 2 . c 33 = (−1) 3+3 .
1 0 2 0 2 1

0 1 −1
% , < K N 0 1 2 N
3 −1 1

/ K2 )
M . e
< / + ,
K6 1 F O)

&`K ' ( ' ) 8 )


)
3`K ' 2 I^)
)
6, K
1 0 1 0 0 3
R E?)- _ 2 1 0 F_ 1 1 −1 ) @
−1 1 0 −1 2 1

+ < ' 8
' G _ &&) && E &3) &3E &:) &: _ &)4E4)&E&): _ :
2 / / / / )= # #'
8 6 )
2 ' 2 I^ @
)
& 3
, K
* K& ?3 F _ &)&E4)&E&) & _ & E 4 Q & _ 4)
& ?: F _ _ &) &E4) &E&) & _ & E 4 E& & _ 4) * -
)
6 8 2 I^ A K B@
/ ) < _G )2 2
C)
R / / ) < _ < ) < <
)

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70

M '8 +
−1 0 1 10 − 13 − 19
@ < _ 2 3 −1 ) F :?: _ 1 − 10 1 )
7 1 3 − 3 −1 −3
% 1 F O
)
6 K2 0 K
10 1 −3
< :?: _ − 13 − 10 − 1
− 19 1 −3

8 34 '& '& '& ( '& (


, 7( " (8 - 7( " (8 , ( - 7 (8 , 9

7 " # 8 '

*
& & &
/ / # ) _ ) _2 2
) G 7 ) 7
K

&
@ ≠4 _ &\

Q& 1
@ . × ≥3 K _ ) <
det A

2 3 −4
M '8 E " _ 0 −4 2
1 −1 5
< + < )
&0+
L
, @ , < , F L
6, " F _ < L
G < j j)

G → _ ]3) P );^E]:)3)&^E] P )4) & ^ ] P ) P )&^ ]3) & )3^


];)4):^ _ P4 E H E 4 Q &H E P Q 4 _ PH) F ≠4 )
− 18 2 4
" F _ − 11 14 5 ) * / 1 /
− 10 − 4 8
+ )
− 18 − 11 − 10
% " F _ < _ 2 14 −4
4 5 8

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71

Q& 1
G < j j < _ ) <
det A

− 18 − 11 − 10 9 / 23 11 / 46 5 / 23
1
Q&
_ 2 14 −4 ) Q&
_ − 1 / 23 − 7 / 23 2 / 23 )
− 46
4 5 8 − 2 / 23 − 5 / 46 − 4 / 23
&
* / / ) _2

$ 1 G

# T ' * " # K2 0
1 1 0 1 2 2
&G _ 1 1 1 _ 3 1 0 < L , <
0 2 1 1 1 1
2 1 3 2 1 7
12 7
3G K _ 4 2 2 _ 1 3 2 F_
5 3
2 5 3 5 4 3
1 1 0
:E &
_ 0 −1 2 / ) &
_2
1 0 1
1 2 3
PF _ 5 7 4 : (a) Encontre o determinante de A; (b) Determine a matriz de cofatores de
2 1 3
A; (c) Encontre a matriz Adjunta de A; (d) Calcule a matriz inversa de A.
;) E K
1 1 1 2 1 0 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 −1 1 1 −1 1
−1 1 2 L , 1 1 1 L 1 −1 1 L 1 1 1 L 1 1 1 L 0 1 1
2 −1 1 −1 1 1 1 0 1 1 −1 2 −1 1 1 1 −1 −1

−1 −1 1 1 0 −2 − 1/ 8 3 / 8 − 1/ 8
8 & < _ −1 1 −1 _ F < L < _ − 3 −1 6 L 3 &
_ − 1/ 4 0 1/ 4 &

2 −2 0 2 1 −5 1/ 2 − 1/ 4 0
− 1 / 11 − 17 / 66 19 / 66 1 1 0 −1 −1 2 1 0 0
3 −7
_ − 1 / 11 9 / 22 − 1 / 22 F &
_ L : ) &
_ 0 − 1 2 ) 2 1 − 2 _ 0 1 0 _ 2L P
− 5 12
2 / 11 1 / 66 − 5 / 66 1 0 1 1 1 −1 0 0 1
17 − 7 − 9
G _G _ j j _ 3PL P, " F F _F_ − 3 − 3 3 L P %
− 13 11 − 3

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72

17 − 3 − 13 17 − 3 − 13 − 17 / 24 1 / 8 13 / 24
1 1
F_F _ < _ −7 − 3 11 L P Q&
_ ) < _− ) − 7 − 3 11 _ 7 / 24 1 / 8 − 11 / 24 ;
−9 3 −3
A 24 − 9 3 − 3 3/8 −1 / 8 1/ 8
3 / 7 − 2 / 7 1/ 7 0 1 / 2 −1 / 2 1 4 −5 − 3 5 −1
5 / 7 −1 / 7 − 3 / 7 L ; , 1 −1 1 L; 0 − 3 3 L; 1 − 1 0 L;
−1 / 7 3 / 7 2/7 −1 3 / 2 −1 / 2 −1 − 4 6 2 −3 1

0 1 / 2 −1 / 2 0 1 1 1 0 0
−1
−1 / 2 1 / 2 0 L; − 1 / 2 1 1 / 2 )* K AA = 0 1 0
1/ 2 0 1/ 2 1 / 2 0 −1 / 2 0 0 1

L% 6

R%6R S)L !@ u $)F) D , 1 F 0 )% ) F)2)G ) K U )


344H)
2EXX2 # L S XX R @ L "!$ k "2 F ) $2 ' ' '0 '
9K /J ) H) @ KE ) &'':) )P)
k!S1T " R ) " ' A2 3: )N K E ) !N@F 344()
1 u G F) 1 % 2 8 3: 5 3) $ T K 1%F &''') ;4P )
1E6R @ T) 1 % ' 8 3: 5 P) $ < K 1%F &''') :'4 )
12R@ $ F #2"EREX T / ) 8 # ' 'D 1 % 8
D 2 @ &''()
@%E2R $!FS L r2R%E$1E )1 % ) $TK " U U &'5() ;5& )
@%E2R $!FS )1 % ' C )@ KE )" # l S &'(;);&5 )

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