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EMS 2061.


 Introduction & Comparison

The True Computer on a Chip is nothing but a Microcontroller. The

Design incorporates all of the features found in a microprocessor CPU: ALU,
PC, SP, and registers. It also had added the other features needed to make a
complete computer: ROM, RAM, parallel I/O, serial I/O, Counters and a
clock circuits.

 Microprocessors are intended to be general-purpose digital

computers whereas microcontrollers are intended to be special-purpose
digital controllers.

 Microprocessor contains a CPU, memory-addressing circuits,

and interrupts handling circuits. Microcontrollers have these features as
well as timers, parallel and serial I/O, and internal RAM and ROM.

 Microcontroller models vary in data size from 4 to 32 bits.

Four-bit units are produced in huge volumes for very simple
applications, and 8-bit units are the most versatile. Sixteen – and 32-bit
units are used in high-speed control and signal processing applications.

 Many models feature programmable pins that allow external

memory to be added with the loss of I/O capability.

 Project Module
The projects modules are divided in two major types are
 Hardware Module
 Software Module
Hardware Module
The hard ware modules are divided into these categories
a. Designing of the circuits
b. ultrasonic interfacing
c. motor interfacing
d. mechanism design

The term "ultrasonic" applied to sound refers to anything above the

frequencies of audible sound, and nominally includes anything over
20,000 Hz. Frequencies used for medical diagnostic ultrasound scans
extend to 10 MHz and beyond.

Sounds in the range 20-100 kHz are commonly used for communication
and navigation by bats, dolphins, and some other species. Much higher
frequencies, in the range 1-20 MHz, are used for medical ultrasound. Such
sounds are produced by ultrasonic transducers.

The use of longer wavelengths implies lower resolution since the

maximum resolution of any imaging process is proportional to the
wavelength of the imaging wave.

Ultrasonic can be easily generated and doesn't suffer electromagnetic

interference, so it is nicely used in communication and control. Remote
controls use the 36 kHz to transmit information. Ultrasound emitted by
piezo transducers is pulsated at 36 thousand times per second, when
transmitting logic level "1" and silence for "0".

Software Modules
1. Gettting knowledge in embedded C
2. Labworks on embedded tools
Keil µ vision Software
4. Experimentation of each modules
We have to testing the above modules with the breadboard.
5. Combined circuit diagram
We have to design the combined circuit for our project.
6. Testing the combined diagram with breadboard.
We are going to implement the working circuit (combined) in the GPB.
7. Designing and development of the Printed Circuit Board
After getting our final Output from the breadboard, we have to design
the Printed Circuit Board and implementing the same circuit diagram in
the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

The 8051 architecture consists of these specific features

 8-bit CPU with registers A (the accumulator) and B.

 16-bit Program Counter (PC) and Data Pointer (DPTR).

 8-bit Program status word (PSW).

 8-bit Stack Pointer (SP).

 4 register banks, each containing 8 registers

 16 bytes, which may be addressed at the bit level

 80-bytes of general – purpose data memory.

 32-I/O pins arranged as four 8- bit ports: P0-P3.

 Two 16 – bit timer/counters: T0 and T1.

 Full duplex serial data receiver/transmitter: SBUF

 Control Registers: TCON, TMOD, SCON, PCON, IP and


 Two External and three internal interrupt sources.

 Oscillator and clock circuits.




AT 89C51




This funny ROBO automatically detects the obstacle in front of it and

changes its direction of moving automatically. The principle behind is the
ULTRASONIC WAVES which is reflected back when there is an obstacle. A pair of
ultrasound trans-receiver is placed in front of the robo, which resembles a car
headlight. Whenever the light is reflected back the ROBO notices that there is an
Obstacle and changes its direction by the instruction of microcontroller. A buzzer
may be added whenever the ROBO senses the obstacle. This project reflects our
programming and hard ware interfacing skill. Obstacle sensing robo, when it detects
an obstacle, it turns right /left and continues on.
Obstacle sensing robot Avoider has a pair of ultrasonic sensors and emitters,
one on the back, one on the front right and another on the front left. The avoidance
mechanism is activated when reflected sound is received by any of the sensors. The
reflected infrared light is converted to an electric signal. The signal then travels to an
OP Amp (Operational Amplifier), where it is amplified. The amplified signal then
travels to the right side motor and turns it off. This causes the robot to turn right. As
long as the motor receives the signal, it remains off, and the robot continues to turn
right. When the signal stops, both wheels turn and the robot continues on.

- Obstacle-avoiding robot.
- Sequential logic control (no CPU).
- Two pairs of ultrasound sensors.
- Independently powered wheels.
- Adjustable sensing distance.