Modeling autopilots

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Modeling autopilots

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Proportional Navigation
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- Missile System Design_Stability Control
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- Missile Autopilot Math Modeling
- missile control
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- Transfer Function Models Representing the Dynamics of a Missile
- MATLAB SIMULATIONS FOR GARNELL's PITCH AUTOPILOT
- Garnell- Autopilot Design
- Notes on Linearisation(H.K.Khalil)
- Transfer Function Form of Roll Dynamics
- Missile Aerodynamics 2
- Missile Autopilot Lateral
- Aerodynamics Fundamentals - II
- Missile Autopilot
- Introduction to Basics of Missile Guidance using Proportional Navigation
- 22467202-Missile-Servos[1]

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— D Viswanath

Acknowledgment

teachings have been my source of motivation throughout this work.

(D Viswanath)

Dec 2010

1

Synopsis

Broadly speaking autopilots either control the motion in the pitch and yaw planes, in

which they are called lateral autopilots, or they control the motion about the fore and

aft axis in which case they are called roll autopilots. Lateral ”g” autopilots are designed

to enable a missile to achieve a high and consistent ”g” response to a command. They

are particularly relevant to SAMs and AAMs. There are normally two lateral autopilots,

one to control the pitch or up-down motion and another to control the yaw or left-right

motion.

The requirements of a good lateral autopilot are very nearly the same for command

and homing systems but it is more helpful initially to consider those associated with

command systems where guidance receiver produces signals proportional to the mis-

alignment of the missile from the line of sight (LOS).

2

Contents

Acknowledgment 1

Synopsis 2

Contents 3

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2 Mathematical Modelling :

Aerodynamic Derivatives and Transfer Functions 7

3

2.3 Inertial Form of Force Equation in terms of Eulerian Axes . . . . . . . . 10

References 15

4

Chapter 1

Introduction

Broadly speaking autopilots either control the motion in the pitch and yaw planes, in

which they are called lateral autopilots, or they control the motion about the fore and

aft axis in which case they are called roll autopilots.

(a) Lateral ”g” autopilots are designed to enable a missile to achieve a high and con-

sistent ”g” response to a command.

(c) There are normally two lateral autopilots, one to control the pitch or up-down

motion and another to control the yaw or left-right motion.

(d) They are usually identical and hence a yaw autopilot is explained here.

(e) An accelerometer is placed in the yaw plane of the missile, to sense the sideways

acceleration of the missile. This accelerometer produces a voltage proportional to

the linear acceleration.

(g) The error is then fed to the fin servos, which actuate the rudders to move the

missile in the desired direction.

(h) This closed loop system does not have an amplifier, to amplify the error. This is

because of the small static margin in the missiles and even a small error (unam-

plified) provides large airframe movement.

1

Figure 1.1: Lateral Autopilot[1]

1.1 Overview

The requirements of a good lateral autopilot are very nearly the same for com-

mand and homing systems but it is more helpful initially to consider those associated

with command systems where guidance receiver produces signals proportional to the

misalignment of the missile from the line of sight (LOS). A simplified closed-loop block

diagram for a vertical or horizontal plane guidance loop without an autopilot is as shown

below: -

2

Figure 1.2: Basic Guidance and Control System [1]

(b) Let the guidance receiver gain be K1 volts/rad (misalignment). The guidance

signals are then invariably phase advanced to ensure closed loop stability.

(c) In order to maintain constant sensitivity to missile linear displacement from the

LOS, the signals are multiplied by the measured or assumed missile range Rm

before being passed to the missile servos. This means that the effective d.c. gain

of the guidance error detector is K1 volts/m.

(d) If the missile servo gain is K2 rad/volt and the control surfaces and airframe

produce a steady state lateral acceleration of K3 m/s2 /rad then the guidance loop

has a steady state open loop gain of K1 K2 K3 m/s2 /m or K1 K2 K3 s−2 .

(e) The loop is closed by two inherent integrations from lateral acceleration to lateral

position. Since the error angle is always very small, one can say that the change in

angle is this lateral displacement divided by the instantaneous missile range Rm .

(f) The guidance loop has a gain which is normally kept constant and consists of the

product of the error detector gain, the servo gain and the aerodynamic gain.

3

Consider now the possible variation in the value of aerodynamic gain K3 due to change

in static margin. The c.g. can change due to propellant consumption and manufacturing

tolerances while changes in c.p. can be due to changes in incidence, missile speed and

manufacturing tolerances. The value of K3 can change by a factor of 5 to 1 for changes

in static margin (say 2cm to 10 cm in a 2m long missile). If, in addition, there can be

large variations in the dynamic pressure 21 ρu2 due to changes in height and speed, then

the overall variation in aerodynamic gain could easily exceed 100 to 1.

gain

A general conclusion can be drawn that an open-loop missile control system is not

acceptable for highly maneuverable missiles, which have very small static margins espe-

cially those which do not operate at a constant height and speed. In homing system,

the performance is seriously degraded if the ”kinematic gain” varies by more than about

+/ − 30 per cent of an ideal value. Since the kinematic gain depends on the control

system gain, the homing head gain and the missile-target relative velocity, and the latter

may not be known very accurately, it is not expected that the missile control designer

will be allowed a tolerance of more than +/ − 20 per cent.

4

1.2.2 Increase weathercock frequency

A high weathercock frequency is essential for the stability of the guidance loop.

(a) Consider an open loop system. Since the rest of the loop consists essentially of

two integrations and a d.c. gain, it follows that if there are no dynamic lags in the

loop whatsoever we have 180 deg phase lag at all frequencies open loop.

(b) To obtain stability, the guidance error signal can be passed through phase advance

networks. If one requires more than about 60 degrees phase advance one has to use

several phase advance networks in series and the deterioration in signal-to-noise

ratio is inevitable and catastrophic.

(c) Hence normally designers tend to limit the amount of phase advance to about 60

deg. This means that if one is going to design a guidance loop with a minimum

of 45 deg phase margin, the total phase lag permissible from the missile servo and

the aerodynamics at guidance loop unity gain cross-over frequency will be 15 deg.

(d) Hence the servo must be very much faster and likewise the weathercock frequency

should be much faster (say by a factor of five or more) than the guidance loop

undamped natural frequency i.e., the open-loop unity gain cross-over frequency.

(e) This may not be practicable for an open-loop system especially at the lower end

of the missile speed range and with a small static margin. Hence the requirement

of closed loop system with lateral autopilot arises.

The weathercock mode is very under-damped, especially with a large static margin and

at high altitudes. This may result in following: -

(a) A badly damped oscillatory mode results in a large r.m.s. output to broadband

noise. The r.m.s. incidence is unnecessarily large and this results in a significant

reduction in range due to induced drag. The accuracy of the missile will also be

degraded.

5

(b) A sudden increase in signal which could occur after a temporary signal fade will

result in a large overshoot both in incidence and in achieved lateral g. This might

cause stalling. Hence the airframe would have to be stressed to stand nearly twice

the maximum designed steady state g.

If the missile has two axes of symmetry and there is no roll rate there should be no cross

coupling between the pitch and yaw motion. However many missiles are allowed to roll

freely. Roll rate and incidence in yaw will produce acceleration along z axis. Similarly

roll rate and angular motion induce moments in pitch or yaw axis. These cross coupling

effects can be regarded as disturbances and any closed-loop system will be considerably

less sensitive to any disturbance than an open-loop one.

In a command system, the missile is usually launched some distance off the line of sight.

At the same time, to improve guidance accuracy, the systems engineer will want the

narrowest guidance beam possible. Thrust misalignment, biases and cross winds all

contribute to dispersion of the missile resulting in its loss. A closed-loop missile control

system (i.e., an autopilot) will be able to reasonably resist the above disturbances and

help in proper gathering.

6

Chapter 2

Mathematical Modelling :

Aerodynamic Derivatives and

Transfer Functions

The reference axis system standardized in the guided weapons industry is centred

on the c.g. and fixed in the body, as follows:

(a) x axis, called the roll axis, forwards, along the axis of symmetry if one exists, but

in any case in the plane of symmetry.

(b) y axis called the pitch axis, outwards and to the right if viewing the missile from

behind

(c) z axis, called the yaw axis, downwards in the plane of symmetry to form a right

handed orthogonal system with the other two.

Table given below defines the forces and moments acting on the missile, the linear and

angular velocities, and the moments of inertia.

7

*Missile velocity along x-axis U is denoted by a capital letter to emphasise that it is

a large positive quantity changing at most only a few percent per second

(c) Force F = Xi + Yj + Zk

(d) Moments M = Li + Mj + Nk

8

R

(e) Moments of inertia Ix = (y 2 + z 2 ) dm = Σ(yi2 + zi2 )mi

R

(f) Products of inertia Iyz = yz dM (when body not symmetrical).

The equations of motion of a missile with controls fixed may be derived from Newton’s

second law of motion, which states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is

proportional to the summation of forces applied to the body and that the rate of change

of the moment of momentum is proportional to the summation of moments applied to

the body. Mathematically, this law of motion may be written as (Reference axis can be

taken as the inertial axis (fixed) x,y,z): -

d(mU )

ΣFx = (2.1)

dt

d(mV )

ΣFy =

dt

d(mW )

ΣFz =

dt

d(hx )

ΣMx = (2.2)

dt

d(hy )

ΣMy =

dt

d(hz )

ΣMz =

dt

in terms of moments of inertia and products of inertia and angular velocities p,q

and r of the missile as follows: -

hy = qIy − rIyz − pIxy

hz = rIz − pIxz − qIyz

9

For designing an autopilot, we can consider a particular point in space instead of

considering the complete trajectory (system parameters will not be the same at different

points of the trajectory). In that case, mass can be assumed as constant. Hence the

force equations can be rewritten as

dV

ΣF = m (2.4)

dt

The equations of motion as per Newton’s laws of motion for translational system are

written about an inertial or fixed axis. They are extremely cumbersome and must be

modified before the motion of the missile can be conveniently analysed. In eqn (1), if

î, ĵ and k̂ are considered as not varying with time, then Newton’s law will no longer

be valid since î, ĵ and k̂ with respect to missile body frame change with time. Hence a

moving-axis system called the Eulerian axes or Body axis (for rotational system)

is commonly used. This axis system is a right-handed system of orthogonal coordinate

axes whose origin is at the center of gravity of the missile and whose orientation is fixed

with respect to the missile. The two main reasons for the use of the Eulerian axes in

the dynamic analysis of the airframe are: -

(a) The velocities along these axes are identical to those measured by instruments

mounted in the missile and

lerian Axes

Since we now consider î, ĵ and k̂ also as variables, the derivative of linear velocity, V, in

the force equation is given by

dV dV

( )I = ( )B + ω X V (2.5)

dt dt

10

Substituting for V in ( dV ) and since î, ĵ and k̂ are considered constant in this body

dt B

axes form, we get

dV du dv dw

( )B = î + ĵ + k̂ (2.6)

dt dt dt dt

or

î ĵ k̂

ω X V = det p q r (2.8)

u v w

dV du dv dw

( )I = î + î(qw − rv) + ĵ + ĵ(ru − pw) + k̂ + k̂(pv − qu) (2.10)

dt dt dt dt

Hence the Force equation (2.4) can be written/resolved in terms of X, Y and Z compo-

nents acting along x,y and z axes respectively as: -

du

X= + (qw − rv) (2.11)

dt

dv

Y = + (ru − pw)

dt

dw

Z= + (pv − qu)

dt

Eulerian Axes

The moments acting on a body are equal to the rate of change of angular momentum

that is given by

dH

M =( )I (2.12)

dt

11

Angular momentum is equal to the moment of linear momentum whereas the linear

momentum is product of mass and velocity where velocity for a rotating mass is the

vector cross product of angular velocity (ω ) and distance from c.g.(r). That is

v̂ = ω̂ X r̂

Angular Momentum (dH)=r̂ X Linear Momentum=r̂ X dm ∗ (ω̂ X r̂)

Hence

Z

H= (r̂ X (ω̂ X r̂))dm (2.13)

Considering ω̂ = pî + q ĵ + rk̂ and r̂ = xî + y ĵ + z k̂, their cross product is given by

î ĵ k̂

ω̂ X r̂ = det p q r (2.14)

x y z

Expanding the determinant gives

î ĵ k̂

r̂ X (ω̂ X r̂) = det x y z (2.16)

(qz − ry) (rx − pz) (py − qx)

12

Expanding the above determinant gives

(2.17)

Z

H = ([p(y 2 +z 2 )−qxy−rxz]dmî+[q(x2 +z 2 )−ryz−pxy]dmĵ+[r(x2 +y 2 )−pxz−qyz]dmk̂)

(2.18)

Defining the moment of inertia along the x,y and z axes respectively as

Z

Ix = (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (2.19)

Z

Iy = (x2 + z 2 ) dm

Z

Iz = (x2 + y 2 ) dm

and similarly

Z

Ixy = (xy) dm (2.20)

Z

Ixz = (xz) dm

Z

Iyz = (yz) dm

H = [pIx − qIxy − rIxz ]î + [qIy − rIyz − pIxy ]ĵ + [rIz − pIxz − qIyz ]k̂ (2.21)

dH

M =( )I (2.22)

dt

can also given by

dH

M =( )B + (ω X H) (2.23)

dt

13

The term ( dH ) is given by

dt B

dH d d d

)B = [pIx − qIxy − rIxz ]î + [qIy − rIyz − pIxy ]ĵ + [rIz − pIxz − qIyz ]k̂ (2.24)

dt dt dt dt

and the term ω X H is given by

ω X H = [pî+q ĵ+rk̂] X [[pIx −qIxy −rIxz ]î+[qIy −rIyz −pIxy ]ĵ+[rIz −pIxz −qIyz ]k̂] (2.25)

î ĵ k̂

ω X H= p q r (2.26)

(pIx − qIxy − rIxz ) (qIy − rIyz − pIxy ) (rIz − pIxz − qIyz )

+ĵ[rpIx − rqIxy − r2 Ixz − rpIz + p2 Ixz + pqIyz]

+k̂[pqIy − prIyz − p2 Ixy − pqIx + q 2 Ixy + qrIxz]

Hence the Moment equation can be resolved in terms of L, M and N components acting

along x,y and z axes respectively using

dH

M =( )B + (ω X H) (2.28)

dt

and

M = Lî + M ĵ + N k̂ (2.29)

as: -

˙ − ṙIxz − rIxz

˙ ] + [qrIz − qpIxz − q 2 Iyz − rqIy + r2 Iyz + rpIxy]

(2.30)

M = [q̇Iy + q I˙y − ṙIyz − rIyz

˙ − ṗIxy − pIxy

˙ ] + [rpIx − rqIxy − r2 Ixz − rpIz + p2 Ixz + pqIyz]

˙ − q̇Iyz − q Iyz

˙ ] + [pqIy − prIyz − p2 Ixy − pqIx + q 2 Ixy + qrIxz]

14

References

[1] P. Garnell, Guided Weapon Control Systems. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers,

1980.

15

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