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Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).
16th century wine press
 The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden". while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. such as barley wine and rice wine (i. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.. . In these cases. acids. Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented. rather than production process. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. Lycian: Oino. Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans. Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. sake). apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays).oînos. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast.(cf. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content. Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine.Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage. Thrace and Rome. Others. "wine" or "(grape) vine.woinos)." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum. written in Linear B inscriptions. enzymes or other nutrients. the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. Hittite: wiyana. and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush.e. Aeolic Greek . Ancient Greek . and was very common in ancient Greece. typically made of fermented grape juice. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.
Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia. other fruits indigenous to the region. There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine. The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. but possibly composed even earlier). In his writings. If these beverages. storing it underground in caves to age. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. In Ancient Egypt. Monks in France made wine for years. . dating from the second and first millennia BC. Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. included grapes rather than other fruits. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC. from as early as 6000 BC. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. made by fermenting grapes.As explained in the History section below. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. rather than from Vitis vinifera. In medieval Europe.  History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin. took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. could not be ruled out.g. Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. such as hawthorn. some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e. Alkman (7th century BC).g. Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu. Russian vino). However. a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. and others.
Vitis rupestris. Cabernet Sauvignon. where consistency is more important. type and chemistry of soil. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. the result is a varietal. as opposed to a blended. but sometimes made into wine. finishing. such as Pinot Noir. Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. wine. and aging processes as well. jam. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines. the Canary Islands and Chile. or jelly. influencing the fermentation. In the context of wine production. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. elevation and shape of the vineyard. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). some of the world's most expensive wines. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. Vitis aestivalis. In the late 19th century. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using . Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). created by the genetic crossing of two species. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. However. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. climate and seasonal conditions. and the local yeast cultures. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. Chardonnay. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. Gamay and Merlot.
thin film evaporation. Petit Verdot. Rioja and Chianti). tannin filtration. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws.production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. Columbia Valley in Washington. and may also include Cabernet Franc. cross-flow filtration. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California. . Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. however. Central Valley in Chile. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. Some blended wine names are marketing terms.g.g. Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil. Pinot Noir and Merlot). Bordeaux. and Malbec. and spinning cones. For example.  Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. Willamette Valley in Oregon. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. More and more. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association".
for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"). a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir. Spain. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar. Portugal has something similar and. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. in fact. European classifications Moscato d'Asti. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality. Germany did likewise in 2002. and labelled as such. body and development. In the United States. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. it must contain at least 95% of . Consequently. depending on the region. palate. nose.  Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color.  Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin.
will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. vanilla. are only made in betterthan-average years. for example. . vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought. Individual flavors may also be detected. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency. relative to the acidity present in the wine. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. and spices.its volume from grapes harvested in that year. Dry wine. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making.  Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. like Brunellos. Some vintage wines. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. Superior vintages. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. from reputable producers and regions. vegetables. chocolate. One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. has only a small amount of residual sugar. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. Thus.
A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . cult wines from Europe and elsewhere. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1. A drinking window plateau (i.e. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. barnyard. and Vintage port. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is. Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle.Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism. many people prefer them chilled. Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone). though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty. goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises.  Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux. is highly collectible. and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide).. For red wines that are already highly aromatic. Burgundy. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). like Chinon and Beaujolais.
483 1. Sweden.012.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.666 2. just north of the 59th parallel north.000 2.600 827. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south. including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.450.980 977.600 3.000 1.600 1. and the northernmost are in Flen.972 891.000 1.  Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5.746 891.711. .711.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.000 4. Rigorous production methods at every stage.550.000 1.232.349. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.410. proper research is essential before investing. Like any investment.665 3.050.000 1. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions.300.400.050.539.333 4.643.000 961.645.4.000 1.
6% Chile 4.0% Germany 3. Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1.793 1 1.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8.7% Australia 9. semi-official or estimated data.0% France 34.3% Spain 8.3% Italy 18.  Uses . ** May include official.5% United States 3. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.353 New Zealand 1.4% Portugal 3.462 2 1.8% South Africa 2.9% 2006 export market shares Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure.
from 15 to 30 litres. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. and flavor. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. Older wines generally fade. from 7 to 15 litres. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. In addition to aeration. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. with extended aeration. texture. white. but as a flavor agent. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. Despite these general rules. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. or lose their character and flavor intensity. primarily in stocks and braising. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. More than 30 litres. Christianity and alcohol.  Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. Red. while others recommend drinking it immediately. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . During aeration. if at all. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. and sparkling wines are the most popular. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine. from 1 to 7 litres.
A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. King of the universe.  Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery. . Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder."  Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood. Libations often included wine. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. Creator of the fruit of vine. our God. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. In Christianity. many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented. but especially in Persia. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. There remains an ongoing debate between some American . pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19).
However. In Greater Persia.5 oz) . people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so.  Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law.  Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3.Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage. Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years. Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan.
although the association is considerably stronger for wine. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk.6 g alcohol is 13%vol. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine.4 fl oz. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric . though other studies have found no difference. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease. but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited. Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects.6 g 10.6 g 0. A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. and additional news reports on the French Paradox.6 g 0.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more. Also.1 g 10. In the United States. and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure. Specifically. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine.0 g 0. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French. to be more health conscious.
called The Million Women Study. absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol. However. Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet." Professor Roger Corder. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols. author of The Red Wine Diet. The level of added sulphites varies. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. This has led the lead author of the study. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection. most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation. pharynx and liver cancer. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. particularly those with asthma. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver. including breast. To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines. to have adverse reactions. Another study concluded that among alcoholics. the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. counters that two small glasses . "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you. Also. antioxidants. Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. Biomarkers and Prevention. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical.restriction . concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. and is quoted as saying. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. Sulphites in wine can cause some people." Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. and flavonoids. when sipping slowly. A study of women in the United Kingdom. and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. Professor Valerie Beral. While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect.
In addition to being less expensive. An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps. Alternative wine closures.of a very tannic. Box wine. Wine bottle. Closure (bottle). alternative closures prevent cork taint. procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit. although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction. or synthetic plastic "corks". and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal). ."  Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material). although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol.
Wine scientist or wine chemist. a student of oenology. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. And while a wine box is recyclable. being lighter in package weight. or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. and are called box wines. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . A wine merchant. However. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. An amateur wine maker. Boxed wine plastics. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. as it is completely recyclable. most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. even though possibly recyclable. Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. or cask wine. its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. and is considerably degraded within a few days. but often hires a consultant instead. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation.
Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. a person who makes wine. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. can spoil. In an active wine cellar. Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. and complexity as they age. Terroir specialist Vintner. Wine is a natural. when exposed to heat. and fortified. are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. light. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma. others 59 °F (15 °C). Wine cellars. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. and so must be carefully located. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. including red. irrigation. When properly stored. and assisting customers with their wine selections. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. Winemaker A wine producer. usually under 50%. all types of wine. Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. flavor. Oak wine barrels . vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C). perishable food product.and wine grape quality or wine character. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system.Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list. white. educating the staff about wine. sparkling. climate and topography .also known as terroir . These refrigerators keep the humidity low. and pest control. or wine rooms if they are above-ground.
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