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Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).
16th century wine press
rather than production process.. "wine" or "(grape) vine. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. Others. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars.(cf. Lycian: Oino. and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. Aeolic Greek . Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum. Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam.woinos). apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays)." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. acids.Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans. enzymes or other nutrients. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content.oînos. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden". while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. Hittite: wiyana. the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. and was very common in ancient Greece. Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. sake). written in Linear B inscriptions. . Ancient Greek .e. such as barley wine and rice wine (i. typically made of fermented grape juice. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. In these cases. Thrace and Rome. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine.
 If these beverages. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. Alkman (7th century BC). included grapes rather than other fruits. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. In his writings. The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu.g. a royal chief vintner. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e. but possibly composed even earlier). could not be ruled out. Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". Russian vino). Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. such as hawthorn. made by fermenting grapes. In medieval Europe.g. other fruits indigenous to the region. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine. hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin. Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC.  History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic.As explained in the History section below. rather than from Vitis vinifera. The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. . Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. dating from the second and first millennia BC. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC. storing it underground in caves to age. However. and others. from as early as 6000 BC. Monks in France made wine for years. Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. In Ancient Egypt.
wine. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. created by the genetic crossing of two species. the result is a varietal. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. influencing the fermentation. In the late 19th century. Cabernet Sauvignon. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. Vitis aestivalis. and the local yeast cultures. elevation and shape of the vineyard. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. Vitis rupestris. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). type and chemistry of soil. such as Pinot Noir. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. some of the world's most expensive wines. but sometimes made into wine. In the context of wine production. Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. Gamay and Merlot. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. as opposed to a blended. or jelly. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. the Canary Islands and Chile. finishing. where consistency is more important. climate and seasonal conditions. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). However. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. and aging processes as well. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using . vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. jam. Chardonnay. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines.
and may also include Cabernet Franc. Rioja and Chianti). More and more. Petit Verdot. and spinning cones. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. and Malbec. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels. Central Valley in Chile. Columbia Valley in Washington. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. Willamette Valley in Oregon. and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. Bordeaux. Some blended wine names are marketing terms.  Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association". . Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California. Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil. tannin filtration. thin film evaporation. however. For example.g. cross-flow filtration. Pinot Noir and Merlot).production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada.g.
In the United States. and labelled as such. nose. depending on the region. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. palate. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. in fact. it must contain at least 95% of . Spain.  Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. Portugal has something similar and. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. Consequently. Germany did likewise in 2002. European classifications Moscato d'Asti.  Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"). body and development.
Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making.  Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Dry wine. Superior vintages. like Brunellos. Individual flavors may also be detected. or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. vanilla. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. are only made in betterthan-average years. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. vegetables. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. Some vintage wines. has only a small amount of residual sugar. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. relative to the acidity present in the wine. Thus. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages.its volume from grapes harvested in that year. and spices. for example. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. chocolate. from reputable producers and regions. One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. . Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought.
and Vintage port. and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). For red wines that are already highly aromatic. Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty. cult wines from Europe and elsewhere.. a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France. Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone). barnyard. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. A drinking window plateau (i. like Chinon and Beaujolais. though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. many people prefer them chilled. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. Burgundy. goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises.Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism. Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). is highly collectible. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1.  Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is.e. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3.
711.600 1. Sweden.746 891. including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market. and the northernmost are in Flen.000 1.972 891.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.333 4.711.980 977.  Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south.000 4. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.050.539.050.665 3.666 2. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions.600 827.349.400.000 1. proper research is essential before investing.600 3. Rigorous production methods at every stage.410.000 1.450.483 1. just north of the 59th parallel north.012.000 961.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.643. Like any investment.000 1.000 1. .645.000 2.4.550.300.232.
3% Italy 18. semi-official or estimated data.0% France 34.462 2 1. Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.5% United States 3.9% 2006 export market shares Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure.793 1 1.  Uses .6% Chile 4. ** May include official.0% Germany 3.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8.3% Spain 8.4% Portugal 3.7% Australia 9.8% South Africa 2.353 New Zealand 1.
Christianity and alcohol. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol. More than 30 litres. primarily in stocks and braising. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume. and flavor.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. Red. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. or lose their character and flavor intensity. from 1 to 7 litres. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. if at all. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. In addition to aeration. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. texture. Despite these general rules. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . while others recommend drinking it immediately. from 7 to 15 litres. white. and sparkling wines are the most popular.  Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. but as a flavor agent. During aeration. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. Older wines generally fade. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. with extended aeration. from 15 to 30 litres. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine.
"  Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana. a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery. our God. Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. Libations often included wine. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam. Creator of the fruit of vine. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine.  Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. . In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. King of the universe. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood.
While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament. but especially in Persia. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice. There remains an ongoing debate between some American . there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree. pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. In Christianity. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented.
 Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan. Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years. In Greater Persia.Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage.  Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3. people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so.  Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law. However.5 oz) .
6 g 0.6 g 0. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure. and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk. A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective.6 g alcohol is 13%vol. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more. Specifically. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine.4 fl oz.6 g 10. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric .) Sugar and alcohol content can vary. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. to be more health conscious. although the association is considerably stronger for wine. though other studies have found no difference. In the United States. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited.1 g 10.0 g 0. Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects. Also. and additional news reports on the French Paradox.
Due to inactivation in the gut and liver. Also. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines. Another study concluded that among alcoholics. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. and flavonoids. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. Professor Valerie Beral. including breast. particularly those with asthma. counters that two small glasses . A study of women in the United Kingdom. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection. to have adverse reactions. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. Sulphites in wine can cause some people. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol." Professor Roger Corder. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect. However. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols. and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers. and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus." Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation. The level of added sulphites varies. it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines. This has led the lead author of the study. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. called The Million Women Study. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. Biomarkers and Prevention. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. when sipping slowly. "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you. and is quoted as saying.restriction . One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. author of The Red Wine Diet. pharynx and liver cancer. antioxidants.
or synthetic plastic "corks". Alternative wine closures. procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit. alternative closures prevent cork taint. and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal). Box wine."  Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material). In addition to being less expensive. . although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol. Wine bottle. An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps. Closure (bottle). although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction.of a very tannic.
and are called box wines. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. being lighter in package weight. A wine merchant. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. Wine scientist or wine chemist. even though possibly recyclable. most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name. or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . and is considerably degraded within a few days. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize. as it is completely recyclable. its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation. or cask wine. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. And while a wine box is recyclable. An amateur wine maker. Boxed wine plastics. but often hires a consultant instead. Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. However. a student of oenology. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations.
and assisting customers with their wine selections. flavor. In an active wine cellar. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. when exposed to heat. white. When properly stored. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Oak wine barrels . Wine is a natural. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. all types of wine. Wine cellars. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. usually under 50%. a person who makes wine. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C). but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. Winemaker A wine producer.also known as terroir . irrigation. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. others 59 °F (15 °C). Terroir specialist Vintner. and fortified. perishable food product.Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. light. including red. can spoil. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma. and pest control. sparkling. and so must be carefully located. Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. educating the staff about wine. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil. climate and topography . or wine rooms if they are above-ground.and wine grape quality or wine character. and complexity as they age.
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