This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).
16th century wine press
such as barley wine and rice wine (i. Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans. Lycian: Oino. while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. . Aeolic Greek . The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden".Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. acids." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. "wine" or "(grape) vine. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. written in Linear B inscriptions. rather than production process.woinos). The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum. enzymes or other nutrients. and was very common in ancient Greece. Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented. Others. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.. sake). Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. Hittite: wiyana. typically made of fermented grape juice. Ancient Greek . apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. Thrace and Rome. and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history.oînos.e. In these cases. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.(cf. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content.
The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. Monks in France made wine for years. storing it underground in caves to age.g. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. If these beverages. Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic. Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. other fruits indigenous to the region. Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia.As explained in the History section below. could not be ruled out. Alkman (7th century BC).g. made by fermenting grapes. included grapes rather than other fruits. . In Ancient Egypt. dating from the second and first millennia BC. from as early as 6000 BC. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC. Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC. hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. Russian vino). took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. such as hawthorn. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". and others.  History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. However. In his writings. a royal chief vintner. rather than from Vitis vinifera. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In medieval Europe. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine. some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e. but possibly composed even earlier).
are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. influencing the fermentation. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. the Canary Islands and Chile. In the context of wine production. In the late 19th century. some of the world's most expensive wines. but sometimes made into wine. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. the result is a varietal. or jelly. finishing. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. type and chemistry of soil. Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. Chardonnay. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. elevation and shape of the vineyard. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. However. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. Cabernet Sauvignon. Vitis rupestris. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. created by the genetic crossing of two species. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines. such as Pinot Noir. and aging processes as well. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). and the local yeast cultures. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. as opposed to a blended. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. where consistency is more important. wine. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. Gamay and Merlot. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. Vitis aestivalis. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using . jam. climate and seasonal conditions. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting.
however. Rioja and Chianti). Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California.production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. thin film evaporation.  Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. tannin filtration. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association". and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. . and spinning cones. Petit Verdot. and Malbec. cross-flow filtration. For example. Some blended wine names are marketing terms. Pinot Noir and Merlot). European wines tend to be classified by region (e. Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil.g. More and more. Central Valley in Chile. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. and may also include Cabernet Franc. Willamette Valley in Oregon. Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.g. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. Bordeaux. Columbia Valley in Washington.
 Consequently. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. palate. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage. depending on the region. European classifications Moscato d'Asti. it must contain at least 95% of . a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir.  Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"). it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. in fact. Portugal has something similar and. body and development. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade.  Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar. nose. In the United States. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. and labelled as such. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality. Germany did likewise in 2002. Spain.
or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it.  Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Some vintage wines. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. are only made in betterthan-average years. chocolate. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. Dry wine. Thus. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. and spices. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Individual flavors may also be detected. relative to the acidity present in the wine. . from reputable producers and regions. vegetables. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought.its volume from grapes harvested in that year. for example. has only a small amount of residual sugar. like Brunellos. Superior vintages. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. vanilla.
Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism.. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . For red wines that are already highly aromatic. and Vintage port. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. is highly collectible. goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). like Chinon and Beaujolais.  Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux. cult wines from Europe and elsewhere. many people prefer them chilled. Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle.e. Burgundy. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1. a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3. Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone). as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty. barnyard. and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). A drinking window plateau (i.
232.643.550.665 3.600 1. proper research is essential before investing.000 2.980 977.645. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions.012.483 1. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.410.050.666 2.539. . Like any investment.349. Rigorous production methods at every stage.300.000 1.450.400.000 1.746 891.972 891.600 827.  Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007 Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5.600 3. and the northernmost are in Flen.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.000 961.050.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.000 4.000 1.000 1.711.4. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south.333 4. just north of the 59th parallel north.711. including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.000 1. Sweden.
353 New Zealand 1.0% France 34.7% Australia 9.0% Germany 3.8% South Africa 2.462 2 1.3% Spain 8.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8. ** May include official. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.9% 2006 export market shares Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure. semi-official or estimated data.5% United States 3. Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1.  Uses .6% Chile 4.793 1 1.3% Italy 18.4% Portugal 3.
Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. but as a flavor agent. or lose their character and flavor intensity. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. and flavor. from 15 to 30 litres. Despite these general rules. while others recommend drinking it immediately. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol. Red. white. if at all. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine. During aeration. from 7 to 15 litres. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. In addition to aeration. with extended aeration. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. More than 30 litres. Older wines generally fade. texture.  Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. primarily in stocks and braising.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. from 1 to 7 litres. Christianity and alcohol. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. and sparkling wines are the most popular.
. Creator of the fruit of vine. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. King of the universe. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord.  Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. Libations often included wine. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam."  Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana. a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. our God.
many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). but especially in Persia. pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law. In Christianity. While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament. There remains an ongoing debate between some American . Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice.
 Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) . Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years.  Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law.Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage. Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan. However. people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so. In Greater Persia.
1 g 10. although the association is considerably stronger for wine. Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. Also.4 fl oz.6 g 0. to be more health conscious. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited. though other studies have found no difference. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet.6 g 10. In the United States. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French. A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric . Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease.0 g 0.6 g 0. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine. and additional news reports on the French Paradox. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk. Specifically.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary.6 g alcohol is 13%vol.
A study of women in the United Kingdom. and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. This has led the lead author of the study. author of The Red Wine Diet." Wine's effect on the brain is also under study." Professor Roger Corder. the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver. most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation. called The Million Women Study. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. Sulphites in wine can cause some people. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. The level of added sulphites varies. Biomarkers and Prevention. Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. when sipping slowly. to have adverse reactions. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols. To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. Professor Valerie Beral. particularly those with asthma. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers. and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. However. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. Another study concluded that among alcoholics. antioxidants. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. pharynx and liver cancer. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. including breast. Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins. and flavonoids. "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. counters that two small glasses . and is quoted as saying.restriction . Also. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol.
or synthetic plastic "corks". and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal)."  Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material). Alternative wine closures. although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction. procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit. In addition to being less expensive. although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol. alternative closures prevent cork taint.of a very tannic. Wine bottle. . Closure (bottle). An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps. Box wine.
most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name. and are called box wines. Wine scientist or wine chemist. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . An amateur wine maker. or cask wine. And while a wine box is recyclable. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. as it is completely recyclable. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. However. A wine merchant. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. a student of oenology. its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. and is considerably degraded within a few days. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. but often hires a consultant instead. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation. being lighter in package weight. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. even though possibly recyclable. Boxed wine plastics. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize.
and wine grape quality or wine character. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil. Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C). When properly stored. others 59 °F (15 °C). usually under 50%. or wine rooms if they are above-ground. In an active wine cellar. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. white. Terroir specialist Vintner. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. and fortified. are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Winemaker A wine producer. can spoil. including red. Wine cellars. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. all types of wine. flavor. Wine is a natural. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. and complexity as they age. and assisting customers with their wine selections. educating the staff about wine. and pest control. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Oak wine barrels . sparkling. but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. perishable food product. and so must be carefully located. light. irrigation. when exposed to heat. a person who makes wine.also known as terroir .Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list. climate and topography .