Wine

Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).

16th century wine press

oînos. Others. such as barley wine and rice wine (i.[3] The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine. Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented.e. "wine" or "(grape) vine.[1] The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. acids. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol.[5][6] Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans.Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage.woinos). while ginger wine is fortified with brandy.(cf. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. Hittite: wiyana. typically made of fermented grape juice. and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. Thrace and Rome. sake). In these cases. Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam. enzymes or other nutrients. apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Lycian: Oino." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. Ancient Greek . Aeolic Greek ..[9][10][11][12] . the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example.[2] Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content. written in Linear B inscriptions. rather than production process." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum. and was very common in ancient Greece.[4] Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran.[7][8] The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden".

[19] A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC. a royal chief vintner. made by fermenting grapes.[15] Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. dating from the second and first millennia BC. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e.[14] [edit] History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine.g. included grapes rather than other fruits. other fruits indigenous to the region.[20][21] If these beverages. took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. rather than from Vitis vinifera.[17] Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine.As explained in the History section below. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". from as early as 6000 BC.[20] In medieval Europe. but possibly composed even earlier). Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e.[23] .[5][6] These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. could not be ruled out. hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin.[13] Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic. and others. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu.[15][16] The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. Alkman (7th century BC). the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Monks in France made wine for years.[22] There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine.g. The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece.[18] Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC. such as hawthorn. Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection. Russian vino). However. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China. storing it underground in caves to age. In his writings. In Ancient Egypt.

but sometimes made into wine. influencing the fermentation. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. and aging processes as well. Chardonnay. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. jam. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. type and chemistry of soil. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. such as Pinot Noir. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. finishing. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. Vitis rupestris. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using . vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. or jelly. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines.[24] In the context of wine production. In the late 19th century. Gamay and Merlot.[citation needed] Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. created by the genetic crossing of two species. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. the Canary Islands and Chile. elevation and shape of the vineyard. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage.[25] However. climate and seasonal conditions. the result is a varietal. a root louse that eventually kills the vine. as opposed to a blended. wine. where consistency is more important. some of the world's most expensive wines. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. Cabernet Sauvignon.[edit] Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. and the local yeast cultures. Vitis aestivalis.

and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. Some blended wine names are marketing terms.production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. Pinot Noir and Merlot). Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association". Petit Verdot. while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California. and Malbec. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia. and may also include Cabernet Franc. Columbia Valley in Washington. and spinning cones. tannin filtration. Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil.g. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. . Willamette Valley in Oregon. Rioja and Chianti).[26] [edit] Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world.g. Central Valley in Chile. More and more. Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. For example. market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. European wines tend to be classified by region (e. however. Bordeaux. thin film evaporation. cross-flow filtration.

[33][34] [edit] Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. In the United States. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption.[edit] European classifications Moscato d'Asti. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality.[30][31] Spain. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. depending on the region.[29] Germany did likewise in 2002. for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"). body and development. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product. and labelled as such. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar.[1] Consequently.[32] [edit] Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. nose. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir. it must contain at least 95% of . in fact. palate. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade.[27][28] Portugal has something similar and. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage.

from reputable producers and regions. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making. Superior vintages. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation.[35] Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. relative to the acidity present in the wine. Individual flavors may also be detected.[40] . like Brunellos.[39] [edit] Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. has only a small amount of residual sugar. and spices.[37][38] One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. vegetables. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer.[36] Thus. for example. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. vanilla. Some vintage wines.its volume from grapes harvested in that year. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. chocolate. are only made in betterthan-average years. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency.[35] If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. Dry wine.

like Chinon and Beaujolais. A drinking window plateau (i.. cult wines from Europe and elsewhere.[44] [edit] Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux.[43] Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3. though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. is highly collectible. as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty. and Vintage port.[42] Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone). barnyard.Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. many people prefer them chilled.[41] and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide).[45] "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). Burgundy. For red wines that are already highly aromatic. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air.e. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle.

410. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.000 1.012. proper research is essential before investing.711.333 4. [edit] Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006[46] Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007[46] Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5.483 1.000 1.550.000 1. Sweden. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions. including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.600 1.[47] and the northernmost are in Flen.050.000 4.539.980 977.050.232.600 827.643. Like any investment.666 2.[48] .450.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.300.665 3.000 2.4.645. just north of the 59th parallel north.000 961.400.746 891. Rigorous production methods at every stage.711.972 891.000 1. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south.349.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.000 1.600 3.

353 New Zealand 1.9% 2006 export market shares[49] Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure.0% France 34. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.6% Chile 4.4% Portugal 3.0% Germany 3.[50] [edit] Uses .8% South Africa 2.5% United States 3. semi-official or estimated data.7% Australia 9.793 1 1.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8.3% Spain 8. ** May include official.[edit] Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006[49] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1.3% Italy 18.462 2 1.

More than 30 litres. from 15 to 30 litres. but as a flavor agent.[51] During aeration. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. white. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. and sparkling wines are the most popular. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine. from 1 to 7 litres. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. from 7 to 15 litres. texture. while others recommend drinking it immediately. with extended aeration. Older wines generally fade. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol. or lose their character and flavor intensity. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. [edit] Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. and flavor. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume. if at all. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. In addition to aeration.[52] Despite these general rules. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. Christianity and alcohol. primarily in stocks and braising. Red. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines.

A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. Libations often included wine. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord. . King of the universe.[edit] Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery.[54] Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state.[53] In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel. our God." [edit] Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana. Creator of the fruit of vine. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. [edit] Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions.

Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. In Christianity.[55] There remains an ongoing debate between some American . but especially in Persia. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented. there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament.

[edit] Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) .[56] Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan. However.Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage. people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so. Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years.[57] In Greater Persia. [edit] Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law.

Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2.[59] The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. although the association is considerably stronger for wine. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French.[58] In the United States.[60] Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure. though other studies have found no difference. but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited.6 g 10. and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine.1 g 10. to be more health conscious. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more. Specifically.[58] A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies.0 g 0.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary.4 fl oz. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. and additional news reports on the French Paradox.6 g 0. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. Also.[58] Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric .6 g 0. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease.6 g alcohol is 13%vol.

[68] the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. However. counters that two small glasses . and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease.[67] While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke.restriction .[74] This has led the lead author of the study. Biomarkers and Prevention. concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers. to have adverse reactions. author of The Red Wine Diet. "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you.[72] Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. and flavonoids. The level of added sulphites varies. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. pharynx and liver cancer. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. Professor Valerie Beral.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet.[65] A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. particularly those with asthma. and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer.[64] Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins. called The Million Women Study." Professor Roger Corder."[69] Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men.[66] Also. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism.[61] Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical. absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol.[62] Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. including breast. it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines. most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation.[63] To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines.[73] Sulphites in wine can cause some people. when sipping slowly. A study of women in the United Kingdom. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. antioxidants.[70][71] Another study concluded that among alcoholics. and is quoted as saying.

and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal). although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol. Box wine.of a very tannic.[citation needed] . Closure (bottle). procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit. alternative closures prevent cork taint. In addition to being less expensive. or synthetic plastic "corks"."[75] [edit] Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material). Alternative wine closures. Wine bottle.[76] An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps. although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction.

being lighter in package weight.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. even though possibly recyclable. its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. a student of oenology. and are called box wines. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. However. as it is completely recyclable. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. or cask wine. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. but often hires a consultant instead. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. and is considerably degraded within a few days. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name.[77] Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. An amateur wine maker. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation. A wine merchant. And while a wine box is recyclable. Boxed wine plastics. Wine scientist or wine chemist.

When properly stored. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. usually under 50%.and wine grape quality or wine character. irrigation. Wine is a natural. perishable food product. all types of wine. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. and assisting customers with their wine selections. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. climate and topography . They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. others 59 °F (15 °C). and so must be carefully located. when exposed to heat.also known as terroir . educating the staff about wine. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Winemaker A wine producer. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma. light. Terroir specialist Vintner.[79] Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. Wine cellars. and complexity as they age. including red. sparkling. Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. flavor. white. a person who makes wine. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C). or wine rooms if they are above-ground. In an active wine cellar. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. and fortified. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. Oak wine barrels . can spoil. and pest control. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil.Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list.

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