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Learning takes place through observations as well as through direct experiences
Simplify the process of career selection; based primarily on life events influential in determining career
4 factors of career development
 Genetic endowments and special abilities
Inherited qualities that may set limits on individual career opportunities
 Environmental conditions and events
Factors of influence that are often beyond the individual’s control
Certain events and circumstances influence skills development, activities, and career preferences
 Learning experiences
Instrumental learning experiences and associative learning experiences
Negative and positive reactions to pairs of previously neutral situations
 Task approach skills
 Sets of kills the individual has developed, such as problem-solving skills, work habits, metal sets,
emotional response, and cognitive responses
 Modified as a result of desirable or undesirable experiences
Individual learning experiences over the life span develop the primary influences that lead to career
 Generalization of self derived from experiences and performance in relation to learned standards
 Sets of developed skills used in coping with the environment
 Career-entry behavior such as applying for a job or selecting an education or training institution
Assisting individuals to understand fully the validity of their beliefs is a major component of the social
learning model
Counselors should address the following problems:
 Failure to recognize that a remediable problem exists
 Failure to exert effort needed to make decisions or solve problems
 Eliminated potentially satisfying alternative for inappropriate reasons
 Choosing poor alternatives for inappropriate reasons
 Suffering anguish and anxiety over perceived inability to achieve goals

HAPPENSTANCE (Krumboltz, Mitchell, & Levin)

Chance events over one’s life span can have both positive and negative consequences
Unpredictable social factors, environmental conditions, and chance events over the life span are to be
recognized as important influences in clients’ lives
Counselors assist clients respond to conditions and events in a positive manner
Critical client skills:
 Curiosity
Explore learning opportunities
 Persistence
A way of dealing with obstacles
 Flexibility
Learn to address a variety of circumstances and events
 Optimism
Positive attitude when pursuing new opportunities
 Risk taking
May be necessary during unexpected new events
Counselor can enable the client to transform these past experiences into opportunities for learning
Clients have developed barriers to actions resulting from chance events- they have difficulty taking positive
Theory suggests clients learn to approach future with a positive attitude and the curiosity and optimism
that produces positive result