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4.

5 Method for Preparing Process Flow Chart

The identification and drawing up a unit operation/process is prerequisite for energy and
material balance. The procedure for drawing up the process flow diagrams is explained
below.

Flow charts are schematic representation of the production process, involving various
input resources, conversion steps and output and recycle streams. The process flow may
be constructed stepwise i.e. by identifying the inputs / output / wastes at each stage of the
process, as shown in the Figure 4.4.

PROCESS Wastes
Inputs STEP – 1

Wastes
Inputs PROCESS
STEP – 2

Output

Figure 4.4: Process Flow Chart

Inputs of the process could include raw materials, water, steam, energy (electricity, etc);

Process Steps should be sequentially drawn from raw material to finished product.
Intermediates and any other byproduct should also be represented. The operating process
parameters such as temperature, pressure, % concentration, etc. should be represented.
The flow rate of various streams should also be represented in appropriate units like m3/h
or kg/h. In case of batch process the total cycle time should be included.

Wastes / by products could include solids, water, chemicals, energy etc. For each process
steps (unit operation) as well as for an entire plant, energy and mass balance diagram
should be drawn.

Output of the process is the final product produced in the plant.


Example: -Process flow diagram - raw material to finished product: Papermaking is a
high energy consuming process. A typical process flow with electrical & thermal energy
flow for an integrated waste paper based mill is given in Figure 4.5
Trees
Used Paper
Bark ( fuel)
Barking
Electricity

Wood Preparation
Chipping

Steam
Pulping Electricity Mechanical Waste Paper
Chemical Pulping
Pulping Pulping

Bleaching Steam
Electricity
Bleach Plant Bleach Plant Kneading

Chemical Recovery
Electricity
Steam
Liquor concentration
Electricity Refiner

Steam
Energy Recovery
Electricity

Fuel
Recausticization
Electricity

Steam
Paper making Stock Preparation
Electricity

Electricity Forming

Steam
Pressing
Electricity

Steam
Drying
Electricity

Paper

Figure 4.5: Process Flow Diagram of Pulp & Paper Industry

4.6 Facility as an Energy System

There are various energy systems/utility services provides the required type of secondary
energy such as steam, compressed air, chilled water etc to the production facility in the
manufacturing plant. A typical plant energy system is shown in Figure 4.6. Although
various forms of energy such as coal, oil, electricity etc enters the facility and does its
work or heating, the outgoing energy is usually in the form of low temperature heat.
Raw material

Energy Facility/Utility Production Facility

Energy Transformer Electricity Heat


Input DG Set Output
Steam
(Coal, oil, gas, Boilers
Chillers Chilled Water
electricity)
Water Supplies Water (Waste Stream
Air -Flue gas,
Compressed Air Water vapour,
compressors heat and
emissions)

Energy Conversion Energy Utilisation

Figure 4.6: Plant Energy System


Product

The energy usage in the overall plant can be split up into various forms such as:

• Electrical energy, which is usually purchased as HT and converted into LT supply


for end use.
• Some plants generate their own electricity using DG sets or captive power plants.
• Fuels such as furnace oil, coal are purchased and then converted into steam or
electricity.
• Boiler generates steam for heating and drying demand
• Cooling tower and cooling water supply system for cooling demand
• Air compressors and compressed air supply system for compressed air needs

All energy/utility system can be classified into three areas like generation, distribution
and utilisation for the system approach and energy analysis.

A few examples for energy generation, distribution and utilization are shown below for
boiler, cooling tower and compressed air energy system.
Boiler System: Boiler and its auxiliaries should be considered as a system for energy
analyses. Energy manager can draw up a diagram as given in Figure 4.7 for energy and
material balance and analysis. This diagram includes many subsystems such as fuel
supply system, combustion air system, boiler feed water supply system, steam supply and
flue gas exhaust system.
5 Bar, Comp. air/steam for
atomisation Steam
HP Dosing
12 Bar/190o C
(Phosphate)

3 Bar
Fur.Oil 180o C
Tank
4.5 KL Heater/3.5 kw
Filter units
BOILER
Bio Gas from ETP 30 TPH Economiser 160o C

12 Bar
FD Air 66m
Fan 170o C
75 KW
35640m3
Chimney
540mm WC
LP dosing
125o C
(Oxytreat)
Condensate return

Deareator
Condensate
10m3
tank 25m3

Blowdown
tank
8.95 KW
4.5 KW
36 m3/hr
48.1 m3/hr
1.5m
21.5m
Cooling DM water tank
Tower Drain
250 m3
& 2.8 KW
48.1 m3/hr
Cooling 21.5m Figure 4.7 Boiler Plant System Energy Flow Diagram Water
Supply
System: Cooling water is one of the common utility demands in industry. A complete
diagram can be drawn showing cooling tower, pumps, fans, process heat exchangers and
return line as given in Figure 4.8 for energy audit and analysis. All the end use of cooling
water with flow quantities should be indicated in the diagram.

M3/hr
Fan 4 Nos. x 30 kw 2000 VAHP
- Condensor

10 Instrument Air Compressor


Pump - Inter cooler
Cooling Tower
5000 m3/hr - After cooler
Flow Meter Process Air Compressor
600 Cooler
3000 m3/hr - Hot air cooler
370 kw 32o C
170 Brine Plant
Heavy Blow 2500 m3/hr - Condenser
drain 41.5 m
- Oil Cooler

Solvent Recovery
220 - Column Condenser
- Product Cooler

Soft Water 1.5 Boiler Plant


Tank - FW Pump
200 m3 -Gland Cooling Drain
40 m3/hr
Fermentor
Continuous Blow down - Germinator
15 m3/hr (0.3%) - Pre fermentor
38.5 - Fermentor
Pump 30 kw - Continuous Steriliser

Iron Corrosion
Test DG Set
Cooling Tower
Drain, 2m3/hr
Figure 4.8 Cooling Tower Water System
Compressed air System
Compressed air is a versatile and safe media for energy use in the plants. A typical
compressed air generation, distribution and utilization diagram is given in Figure 4.9.
Energy analysis and best practices measures should be listed in all the three areas.

GENERATION DISTRIBUTION UTILISATION/


END USE APPLICATIO

Extraction
Filter Press

110 kw Activated
850 m3/hr. Alumina Drier Instrumentation
& Controls

110 kw Fermenter
Air Receiver

850 m3/hr. 530 Nm3/hr for Filter Press


150 minutes/day
7 Bars

Boiler
Atomisation
225 Nm3/hr
110 kw
850 m3/hr.
Vent
Compressor - 3 No. Westfalia
Chilled
Two stage, double Receiver N2 Plant 5 Bars (Extraction)
Water Heat
acting, reciprocating, Exchanger
water cooled non- 630 Nm3/hr 150 Nm3/hrN2
lubricated, heavy duty Moisture Air N2 Receiver
Centrifuge
Drain
(Extraction)

Figure 4.9 Instrument Air System

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