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Teaching Shell Programming in a GUI Environment

J D Newmarch
School of Network Computing
Monash University, Australia
http://jan.newmarch.name
jan@newmarch.name

Abstract

Scripting and command languages are important programming paradigms that many computing students need to
learn. However, they are usually presented in a terminal-based environment, which is foreign to students used to a
windows GUI environment. This paper discusses "scriptlets" - small windows applications that are designed to be
used in shell scripts. It shows how these can be used to teach shell programming constructs, while giving a GUI
flavour to the lessons. Student reaction is also discussed.

Scripting and command languages

Students in technically-oriented computing courses such as Computer Science or Software Engineering need to learn a variety of
programming languages and language paradigms. Two of the major paradigms are that of scripting and command languages, and one
of the Unix shells (typically the Bourne shell) is often used for this. (It must be noted that there are no generally accepted definitions
of either scripting or command languages, or the differences/similarities between them. What follows is the author's viewpoint, with
carefully selected references.)

Scripting languages introduce students to the ideas of weakly typed languages, where the programs are often substantially shorter than
a corresponding program in a strongly-typed language[1]. Languages in this category include tcl [2] and Perl [3]. They are often
oriented towards text processing, with strong regular expression capabilities.

Command languages additionally add in the feature that "statements" can actually be commands that may have substantial side-effects
and will return exit values giving indications of success or failure [4]. The Unix shells (and Microsoft's simple COMMAND.COM) are
common examples, where programs are built up from a mixture of built-in commands and any other commands available on the
system. Nearly all command languages are also scripting languages, although there was once an Ada command language shell [5]
which was quite unusable due to its requirements for strongly-typed variable declarations.

The commands developed for Unix are often designed specifically for use in shell programs: commands such as expr and test are
of little use outside of shell programs. Most of the common commands such as ls have a variety of option switches and general
behaviour that also makes them useful in shell programs.

There are a few commands such that perform badly when used in shell scripts. The ftp client usually doesn't work at all - it insists on
talking to a user terminal and will not suffer I/O redirection. Systems such as Expect [6] have been developed to handle these poorly
behaved programs and bring them back into being controllable by scripting languages.

The Unix shell languages have worked to produce a philosophy of small programs with clearly defined and limited scope which can
be used by shell scripts to build more substantial applications [7].

GUI environments

Kosma [] proposes a model of technology, educational activity and outcome. Prosser [] refines this by adding in the student
background in approaching the technology. Until ten years ago, many students did all their work in a Unix environment where they
were familiar with command-line interfaces and with the common Unix tools. Teaching shell programming in this environment could
be done as an extension to a familiar background.

Now, most students are more familiar with a windowing environment, and a command window is often unfamiliar. In teaching shell
programming, while the outcome, the educational activity and the technology have not changed, the student background has. This has
been a change that distances the student from the technology being used.

Traditional teaching of shell programming


Most shell programs are run from a console window, such as an xterm. Typical programs do some text processing, file
manipulations and process management [9]. These tasks are a long way from the student's background in graphical commands, and
many students find the command-line environment difficult to adjust to.

The environmental aspects of working within terminal windows and of dealing with terminal I/O tend to interfere with the concepts
being taught, of small applications glued together with command language constructs such as the pipeline. In the "old" days, before
windowing environments became ubiquitous this was not an issue, since the shell programs were run in the same environment that
students were used to.

Scripting languages and X

A common way of handling X applications from scripting languages is to map the low-level C function calls into script functions.
The tclMotif system is a typical example: the C function calls to create and manage Motif widgets are mapped into tcl commands [10].
The Desktop Korn Shell does the same with Motif widgets mapped onto Korn shell commands [11]. The tcl/Tk system does
essentially the same, mapping Tk widgets into tcl[2] (the Tk widgets were essentially designed to work with tcl, unlike Motif or most
other X widgets).

All of these bindings treat the scripting language as a "short cut" into the underlying C widgets. The programmer has to adopt the
windows object style of programming: create widgets, insstall event handlers and then wait for these event handlers to be called. This
is a valid and important programming style; however, it is not the paradigm of command language programming.

XScript

For some years the author has been using small graphical applications originally proposed in the XScript system [12]. This consists of
a number of commands that are often modelled on shell commands, but adapted to a graphical environment. For example, the
command ask presents its command line arguments in a question dialog box. If "yes" is selected, it acts like expr and writes a "1" to
standard output and terminates with an exit code of "0". This can be used in a shell script by e.g.

if ask Remove $file? > /dev/null


then
rm $file
fi

The "scriptlets" (to coin a phrase) are designed to work in shell programs, and conform to the Unix philosophy of small cooperative
programs. Where appropriate they read from standard input and write to standard output, so they can be placed in pipelines or in
command substitution. They return suitable exit codes so they can be used in conditional expressions.

The current set of scriptlets includes

scriptlet function example image

if ask Remove
file "$file"?
ask Ask a question then
rm $file
fi

if [ ! -f $file ]
then
warn Post a warning dialog warn File
"$file" not found
fi
Display a list of lines read from standard
input. When a line is selected, write it to ls *.java | list
list
standard output and exit. An option can | read file
make this persistent

choice=`echo "Yes
Display a text line above a set of buttons. No
buttons When a button is pressed, write its label to
Maybe" | buttons
standard output "Make a choice"`

echo "Line 1
cat Display lines of text in a text box Line 2
Line 3" | cat

Example use

A (traditional) simple and common shell program is a restricted interpreter that can provide a menu system for naive users

while true
do
ls
echo Enter file name
read file
case $file in
*.txt) vi $file;;
*.java) javac $file;;
*.class) java $file;;
esac
done
This script uses a command line interface, writing to standard output and reading from standard input. It requires the user to type file
names.

A GUI based version can use the scriptlets above, and any other X Window applications that are suitable (such as xterm)

while true
do
file=`ls | list`
case $file in
*.txt) xterm -e vi $file;;
*.java) javac $file 2>&1 | cat;;
*.class) java $file;;
esac
done
This uses the scriptlets list to show the files in the current directory, cat to show the results of the compilation, and and
ordinary xterm to run an editor (vi).
An image dump of this running is

Shell features

As can be seen from the examples above, the scriplets can be used in common shell constructs such as

• Error reporting
• Conditional statements and while loops
• I/O redirection
• Pipelines
• Command substitution (the "grave" command)

The shell interpreter examples also show that using scriptlets results in programs similar in structure to character-based shell
programs, so that there is no need to learn additional programming techniques apart from those needed by the scripting/command
paradigms. In particular, there is no need to learn any of the X Window programming techniques (while there is value in learning such
techniques, they belong to a different paradigm, not appropriate to scripting or command languages).

The command interpreter example can also be used to show more subtle aspects of shell programming. The example given above
maps stderr onto stdout (2>&1) in order to pass error output from a java compile through a pipeline into the cat scriptlet.

It also shows that an xterm can be used to run ordinary character-based commands. In the example, the vi editor is persistent, so the
terminal window sticks around. If however the students try something like

xterm -e /bin/cat file


to show the contents of a file, then they discover that once the /bin/cat process terminates, the xterm window disappears! Some
will discover the recently added xterm option of -hold (at least, in XFree86). Others will use another shell script such
as run_and_wait:

# run_and_wait
# run a command and then wait for the user
# to press return

shift
eval $*
echo 'Press <return> to exit'
read x
which can be called by
xterm -e run_and_wait /bin/cat $file
A drawback of the example scriptlet interpreter is that the list is recreated on each loop iteration, which will result in "flashing" of
repeated scriplets (a similar effect happens with the character-based version, which in practise would call clear to redraw the list in
an empty screen). However, the while loop itself is a command, and can be part of a pipeline: this allows a persistent source to feed
values into a loop:

ls | list -persistent |
while read file
do
case $file in
*.txt) xterm -e vi $file;;
*.java) javac $file 2>&1 | cat;;
*.class) java $file;;
esac
done
This shows a consistency of approach by the shell language designers (the while construct is just another command with redirectable
I/O) which may be hard to demonstrate otherwise.

Implementation

The scriptlets have been implemented in a variety of languages. Originally they were written in tclMotif, a tcl binding of the Motif
widgets [10]. They have also been written in tcl/Tk, as a more open-source system [2]. The current versions are written in Java [13],
using the Swing widgets [14]. In all languages, they are small: the Java version of list is less than 200 lines of source code,
including comments and blank lines.

The original scriptlets used X-Window and tcl/Tk specific mechanisms to extend the communication mechanisms beyond those
available in the Unix shells. For example, the tcl/Tk send command could be used to overcome the uni-directional nature of
pipelines. However these move beyond the accepted canon of shell programming techniques.

The desire for such extensions arises quite naturally. For example, if the file manager is extended to include a "change directory", then
it would be necessary to show the list of files in the new directory. This is not hard wherels | list is shown each time within a
loop. However, with the persistent version ls | list | while read file ... the question arises of how to refresh
the list display. The pipeline communication cannot do this, as it is unidirectional. This shows both the power of the pipeline in
doing some things simply, and it weakness in not allowing others. The only reasonable (and quite valid) solution is to call the
application recursively in the new directory, resulting in an extra new directory window.

Student reaction

The reaction of students to the scriptlets is generally positive. The scriptlets are easy to visualise and the students can always "see"
how their implementation is running. They report that programming using scriptlets is more fun than working in just a terminal
window. The examples given earlier show that this "fun" element is not gained at the expense of standard shell programming
techniques, but enhances them.

In some years, the source code of the scriptlets has been made available. When they were in tclMotif or tcl/Tk this was generally not a
problem as the students did not know tcl. However, the students did know Java, and making the Java source code available was
generally a mistake: a large set of students would prefer to modify the Java code instead of finding an appropriate shell construct. This
year, only the class files were made available. This forced them to treat the Java programs as opaque applications, just like any other
Unix command. Some students discussed the possibilities of de-compiling the class files, but decided it was more interesting to find
shell constructs instead.

This approach led some students to find mistakes in the current implementation, such as incorrect behaviour when the window
manager "close" button was pressed, forcing me to fix the scriplets for everyone. Although I am an open source advocate, I have to
admit that in this case closed source led to better software and student lessons!