Você está na página 1de 61

f 0 Design Consider ons

Jim Wodehouse - S8M ATLANTIA



March 25, 2008 - ASME FPSO Conference, Houston

. @ Project & Product Development Manager. for SBM Atlantia in Houston, USA office of Single Buoy Moorings

® SBM designs, supplies and operates FPSO's

worldwide (25 currently operating or in construction)

® Degree in Mechanical Engineering

@25 years experience in offshore engineering projects ® 10 years experience in the design and operation of

Floating Production Storage & Offloading (FPSO) units

Espadarte FPSO - Petrobras - Brazil

'I) Over 130 FPSOs in every other regions of the world from West of Africa to Northern Atlantic Margin;

'I) Water depths from 13 meters (Oidon) offshore Tunisia to 1,853 meters (Seillean) offshore Brazil;

'I) Vessel sizes from 50,000 bbl to 2,200,000 bbl

storage;

'I) Production rates from 11,000 bbl/d to 250,000 bbl/d; 'I) Maximum number of risers up to 75, (75 for P53)

o FPSO has been proven to be a versatile system for all regions and conditions.

I!) FPSO has storage capacity and can operate independently in areas without pipeline networks.

I}) FPSO can have cost advantage over other floating production platforms.

I!) FPSO utilizes the tanker hull form that can be newly constructed in one of the many experienced shipyards or converted from a large pool of supply of tanker fleet.

I}) FPSO provides ample deck space for topsides processing equipment and crude storage capacity that makes it independent of pipelines.

I}) FPSO is highly mobile and can be re-deployed to another field without extensive modifications.

Owned Working, 49

Leased Working, 38

Ow ned Bidding, 6

3

198519061987198819891990199119921993199419951996 1997 1990199920002001200220032004200520062007

I!l LearedfromContractor III Owned by Client

200
180
160
:a 140
CI.
.J:I
(;) 120
(;)
(;)
:!:. 100
»
.... 80
'0
CiJ 60
CI.
CiJ
o 40
(5 20 •

-
V
/.
v ~
.«:
~ •
... ~
------ .--' ~
• o 1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

200
180
:e 160
c.
.Q
0 140
0
0
z, 120
:>t
.... 100
'u
ro
c. 80
ro
(J
0 60
40
20
1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 l2JO
1000
800
!
.c 600
....
c.
CIl
Q
... 400
CIl
...
ro
3:
200 •
10 (3300 tt) .;
II
500 rn (1650 ft) .:
._/ V •

.. ~ !-V
L 1985

2000

2005

1990

1995

2010

5

2500
Vi 2000
:a
J:l
0 1500
0
0
z,
<Ii
m 1000
fIl
..
0
"..
(f)
0 500 + •
'"
~ ~
.. ~
'"
~ -r"" • ~ • •
~ +

o 1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

MME

P{fEHflll!tuti,\ll'lTliOlLW.l nrHNOUlr,)' 1~;5T1T\ln

@ Early (1980/90's) and Small Field FPSO

l> 30,000 to 60,000 BOPO - 1,000 to 3,000 tonnes topsides

~ 3 - 5 modules mounted on vessel, minimal refurb/conversion ~ Aframax or Suezmax vessel (Vessel sizes explained later)

Il> 5 - 10 year design life

@ Typical Large Field FPSO

Il> 80,000 to 160,000 BOPO - 5,000 to 9,000 tonnes topsides l> 13 - 20 small modules installed on vessel

IJ> VLCC or Suezmax vessel conversion (Vessel sizes explained later) l> 10 - 20 year design life

Typical Mega Field FPSO

Il> 200 to 250,000 BOPO - 15,000 to 30,000 tonnes topsides IJ> 5 - 10 large modules installed on vessel

l> ULCC or Newbuild vessel, 2,000,000 bbls storage IJ> 15 - 25 year design life

2010

~ HULL

TOPSIDES

~ TURRET MOORING

® Three phase oil production train,

. (Typical value from 50,000 to 120,000 BLPD)

® Gas compression and drying for gas lift, and gas injection or export for gas distribution. Flowrate depends on gas lift plus GOR, and pressure on depths,

(Typical design value from 2500 to 3000 psi)

e Sea water injection for reservoir pressure maintenance.

Flowrate depends on oil production rate, and pressure on depths,

(Typical design value of 1.2 to 1.5 BWPD per BOPD)

e Produced water treated to 20 ppm oil in water, and disposed overboard. Flowrate depends on reservoir performance,

(Typical design value of 50 to 70% of BOPD)

18

FLARE

GAS TO COMPRESSION

ELECTROSTATIC TREATER

CRUDE TO STORAGE

CRUDE PUMP

WATER TO

2ND STAGE SCRUBBER'

3RDSTAGE SCRUBBER

1ST STAGE , SCRUBBER

GAS IN

1ST STAGE COMPRESSOR

2ND STAGE COMPRESSOR

3RD STAGE COMPRESSOR

CONDENSATE OUT

OUT

19

DRY GAS OUT

TEG CONTACTOR

CONDENSATE OUT

GAS INJECTION SCRUBBER

GAS INJECTION COOLER

INJECTION GAS OUT

GAS INJECTION COMPRESSOR

CONDENSATE OUT (NNF)

20

COARSE FILTER (2Xl00%)

: SULFAT-E REDUCTION- - - - ~ TO DEARATOR

(if required) (3X33%) I

OVERBOARD

VACUUM DEAERATOR

BOOSTER PUMPS (3X50%)

WATER INJECTION PUMPS (2Xl00%)

© Maximal separation distance between HP hydrocarbons and accommodation

Low risk utility modules as buffer in between

© Adequate space between topsides modules to reduce risk of escalation in case of accident

@ Topsides facilities on raised platforms

Limit length of modules to 30 meters in relation to tanker deflection (Hogging and sagging)

21

@! Accommodation forward:

I» Pro:

® Upwind of topsides (smoke / gas) Cons:

More difficult to evacuate

e Closer to turret, having a large contribution to risk ., Larger vessel motions

@ Accommodation aft:

Pros:

e Easier to evacuate

e Better weathervaning behavior of FPSO I» Con:

e Potential for smoke/gas ingress

e However protection possible with dampers / overpressurizing accommodation

Oil Separation LP

Oil Separation HP

Gas Process

Gas Compression

Flare Stack

Gas Dehydration

HP/LP Flare Knockout

Fire Water Ring Main

Escape Route

Life Boat \,

Temporary Refuge

Life Boat

Fire Water Pump

23

Supporting the topsides modules on the hull by transferring the loads safely into the hull.

Minimizing the effect of hull deformations on the topsides.

@! Providing space for all deck piping and hull equipment. ~ Providing space for safe (tank) access and mechanical handling operations on hull deck.

~ Allowing for sufficient natural ventilation of the upper deck to prevent build-up of explosive gaseous mixtures.

® Creating a fire division / barrier between the topsides and hull upper-deck.

Creating a division in the hazardous area classification for electrical equipmentselection.

24

Typical HulilTopsides interfaces include:

~ Multi-column supports

Cruciform support stools

A-SME

JiHUINAiIOfj.\L I'Ulll)(,I,tp,\ nnlf;(]UI(iY uevnrun

25

The Supports and Topsides structures are generally designed for the following load conditions:

Lifting Condition -Modules have to be lifted from the quayside or transport barge and installed onto the FPSO.

e Transit Survival Condition - Occurs once in the design life during transit from the integration yard to the field.

Design Environmental Condition Extreme condition with a specific combination of wind, waves and current for which the system is to be designed.

@ STEAM FOR POWER GENERATION

" Steam generation plant on deck

@ Steam turbines for power generation e E-motor driven rotating machinery

MECHANICAL HANDLING

e Two main cranes with piperack trolley or

e One offloading crane plus traveling crane

26

Piperack Trolley

Traveling Crane

MlYIt:

Irlll'lflllllWNAI. I'FIHOLEII\l lTr;I~;010r.~· 1~;5'mlITi

HUll

TOPSIDES

TURRET MOORING

1

Conversion or

Global Strength Local Strength Fatigue Life

Field or Hull Design Life

Storage Volume

Tank Arrangement (Double or Single Hull)

Design Crite or Benign or Low Maintenance Specs)

New build hulls represent on average 43% of FPSO fleet This was increasing with greater number of large fields With long lives, but current lack of shipyard capacity is Increasing percentage of conversions vs. new builds

Leased Vessels

Owned Vessels

New Build

45.2%

54.8%

Conversion

Schedule:

Cost:

Arrangement:

Faster

Less expensive

Single skin vs. double hull

Pump room + in-tank piping

Greater than 20 years dependent on field location

Dependent on field location must be assessed at conversion

Key issue (good for West Australia, Brazil, S.E. Asia, less suitable for harsh environment, N. Sea)

More difficult to apply low maintenance specifications

Decreasing number of pre-1978 tanke~~{ailable

Design life:

Fatigue life:

@ Metocean:

@ Design specs:

~ General:

I!jTEHn·'llO~·\L I'UIIOLLW,1 IlCW',Ol.OGY lN51HlHl

1970's tankers

~ Very restricted availability 1980's tankers

~ Few built and experiencing fatigue damage e 1990's tankers

~ Double hull and thin optimised scantlings (structural members) ~ Quantity of high strength steel

New Build

~ Dry dock slot availability (2011 now)

Price and Schedule (very volatile now with good conversion hulls in high demand reducing price differential with new builds)

~ Thin optimised scantlings

~ Improved fatigue design

Intercepts

~ Double hull and thin optimised scantlings ~ Price

MMI

!~nUif'l"!IUN.\L I'FIHOULJ'.\ nClINOl_Or,Ylt,STITUl1

!il! Aframax Tanker

~ Size: 80,000 to 120,000 dwt (deadweight) ~ Storage Capacity: 400,000 to 650,000 bbls

Suezmax Tanker

~ Size: 120,000 to 200,000 dwt

~ Storage Capacity: 650,000 to 850,000 bbls

I@> VLCC Tanker (Very Large Crude Carrier) ~ Size: 200,000 to 350,000 dwt

~ Storage Capacity: 850,000 to 2,000,000 bbls

® ULCC Tanker (Ultra Large Crude Carrier) ~ Size: Greater than 350,000 dwt

~ Storage Capacity: Greater than 2,000,000 bbls

All oil storage volumes are approximate since volume available depends on topsides and turret weight, oil density, and ballast requirements.

MMI

l!lftIINAllOli,\\.)'UnOLtlJ',\ rrruurnnm u-srmm

~ Single skin

typical for 1970's tanker

10

Double sides Single bottom

Complete double hull

<II GLOBAL STRENGTH (Refer to Marin Presentation)

}- HULL GIRDER IN ACCORDANCE WITH CLASS RULES TRADING TANKER GOOD FOR MOST SEA AREAS

}- CHECK FOR VARIOUS CARGO LOADING CONDITIONS

CHECK IN SURVIVAL CONDITIONS FOR WAVE LOADING

}- INFLUENCE OF TURRET LOCATION (MOON POOL OR EXTERNAL)

Ii) Cargo Loading Conditions

~ Different for FPSO compared to trading tanker

LongltudlnnlStreng!hAtSaaCondlUon

12

<1iJ Impact of Turret Moonpool

LOCAL STRENGTH (Refer to Marin Presentation)

~ MAIN DECK LOADING - TOPSIDES & TURRET ~ SLOSHING IN CARGO TANKS

~ BOW / STERN SLAMMING

GREEN WATER IMPACT - BULWARK/BREAKWATER

13

MAIN CONSIDERATIONS

~ FATIGUE LIFE ASSESSMENT IS A CLASS REQUIREMENT

~. ABS SAFEHULL A & B ANALYSES (Typical software)

r> FPSO IN FIELD FOR DURATION - NO REPAIRS

IJ> MINIMAL HIGH STRENGTH STEEL PREFERRED

P> TYPICAL CONNECTION DETAIL PROBLEM AREAS

e SIDE SHELL / LONGITUDINAL STIFFENERS TO TRANSVERSE FRAMES/BULKHEADS

e BOTTOM / DECK LONGITUDINAL STIFFENERS TO

TRANSVERSE FRAMES/BULKHEADS

I FPSO DESIGN BASIS I

[ SURVEY I

I HULL CONDITION I

STEEL RENEWAL PLAN

HULL STRENGTH ANALYSIS

I BUILD QUALITY

[ TRADING HISTORY I ,.

I BUILD QUALITY I STEEL GRADE

CORROSION PROTECTION PLAN

14

OBJECTIVE:

e Design life of 15 years minimum

@ Design service requirements are met

Availability requirements are met for full life Serviceability in future (availability of spare parts)

HOW:

e Standard approach which equipment to: - Remove and replace with new

- Refurbish for design life

- Refurbish for transit to site

® Documented Inspection/Renewal criteria

@ ACCOMMODATION

rn Complete refurbishment

rn Extension to accommodate 75-100 POB rn Standard typically exceeds ILO

@ ASBESTOS REMOVAL

~ Detailed survey and register

~ Approved contractor working to UK HSE standards ~ All asbestos removed

~ - where likely to be damaged during conversion

fjj - where likely to be disturbed in future ~ Independent analyst

15

OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

~ SIMULTANEOUS LOADING ('" 100 000 bpd continuous) AND OFFLOADING ('" 900 000 bpd periodic)

§ MAINTAIN HULL SHEAR STRESS within allowable (predetermined) limits by continuous cargo & ballast load distribution management

m TANK ENTRY DURING PRODUCTION for annual inspection or repair requires ability to maintain a pattern of tanks empty

OPTIONS

Ii> RE-USE EXISTING CARGO PUMPING SYSTEM <!J Pump room

e Bottom lines

SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS <!J No pump room

@ Pumps per tank Deck lines

16

HUll

TOPSIDES

TURRET MOORING

Ill> Concept Type:

.~ Fixed Spread Mooring

e Passive or Thruster Assisted ~ Weathervaning

e Tower Soft-Yoke

• External Turret

Internal Turret (Roller bearing & Bogie bearing)

e Disconnectable (Riser Turret, RTM & Buoy Turret, BTM)

Mooring System Type

~ Catenary or Taut Leg

Mooring Leg Components:

ti> Chain

Steel Wire ~ Polyester

Typical Internal Turret Construction Sequence

28

Iii> Fixed heading, no weathervaning @ Additional mooring lines required

<If; Suitable for mild and uni-directional environments =Tandem offloading difficult, often requires offloading

buoy & pipeline or multiple support vessels

Very suitable for shallow water conditions

29

Internal Turret e Pros:

~ Large load carrying capability Iii> Turret protected

'" Cons:

~ Higher ship conversion cost ~ Loss of cargo space

External Turret Pros:

Iii> Ease of installation/inspection Iii> Lower integration cost

~ Increase of effective water depth e Cons:

~ Large vertical motion

Iii> Design load limit ~"':"::"';:; .. '-';':,";::,:.:';"" Iii> Wave slamming

EXTERNAL TURRET

Example for 18 risers / deep water

INTERNAL TURRET

Example for 47 risers / deep water

30

31

Large external turret for 12 - 18 production! injection! export risers on FPSO

Small external turret for 4-6 import/export risers on FSO

(~ASHE

INHHtl'i"!I(l~'.\L PJ;'iliOU:lJo',\ TFCHf;'{I\{j(jY 11·:snTl!H

32

Up to 75 risers in deepwater, example above for 75 risers in 1200 m water depth

Challenges:

@! Must be able to accommodate large mooring loads Should reduce the loads apply to the bearings due to deflections of vessel, or system misalignment

@1 Must be able to accommodate large number of product lines

Proposed solution: @ Dual bearing system

~ Horizontal force transferred to bottom bearing ~ Vertical force transferred to top bearing

@ Vessel deflections and system misalignment absorbed by upper spherical support and elastomeric pads

33

Main

!.lpper Spherical /Support

1 I

Low:rj..ate al Bearing

.>

34

35

Chain Table

ASHE

IYIEH1I.YII(),';·'LI'I'IH01HJ!.' rFnl~i{lU)(j'l 1t;~T1nIH

36

Axial Bogies

Vessel Insert

Radial Wheels

Turret Collar

31

A-';lVJI

1'1T!'IINA,[WN,',LI'HHOLLlI'.1 TfCIlWllfiGYlhSTITlITl

Bogie wheel bearing has no maximum ID to limit number of risers (75 - 100 risers possible)

® No limiting ID enables riser connection deck to be located above vessel main deck, resulting in safer design

Bogie wheel bearing easier to integrate into vessel due to no lower bearing support assembly below water line

Bogie wheel bearing easier to repair in the field, however, slightly higher maintenance

® Roller bearing lower friction reducing torque required for rotation

38

BEARING LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY

@!J Single piece roller bearing for external raised turret; 8m diameter is the current fabrication limit;

Bearing design is usually governed by the large vertical mooring/riser load in deepwater;

@!J Most critical condition is in vessel compartment flood condition. Mooring/riser vertical load cause large bending moment to bearing.

SPACE LIMITATIONS

@ Hard pipes to pass through bearing 1.0.

Chain table size allowing connection of mooring lines and risers;

Sufficient space for pulling arrangement of mooring lines and risers.

@ Manifold deck space for equipment, pig receivers/launchers, chemical injection

a9

Disconnectable Mooring

® Autonomous evacuation from site

" No abandonment of unit/oil storage " Riser motions reduced during

hurricane

e Safe: possibility to avoid hurricane e Disconnect system required

Permanent Mooring @ Simpler turret mooring system

e Smaller mooring size

e Permanent riser connection

e Must survive hurricane ® Heavy mooring system e Offshore modifications e Insurance for total loss

40

External Turret Riser Turret Mooring (RTM)

Internal Turret

Buoy Turret Mooring (BTM)

41

42

43

Safety

The need to access confined spaces in the BTM and the having hydrocarbon connections in enclosed spaces

Operating Experience

The RTM has a long track record in Australian waters. The BTM has a good record n the South China Sea and East Coast Canada but with different operating philosophies.

Complexity

The complexity of the concepts is generally on a par, but the RTM is considered more favorably in that critical systems are positioned in a safer area (non-enclosed space).

Hull Integration

The integration scope is considered of similar intensity. However the RTM is less disruptive on available deck space and oil storage capacity

Both system are typically designed for the same disconnection criteria (100 year non-cyclonic) based on the similar procedures and components

Reconnection

Reconnection sea-state is less for RTM than the BTM. The RTM concept is a sensitive operation in respect to dynamic behavior of the riser column (Resonance scenario)

Disconnected System

BTM has the advantage of being submerged and out of the weather

Availability

The maximum reconnection sea-state is lower for the RTM and could constitute increased down time waiting for calm seas. However, the sea state immediately following a hurricane is generally very calm which would minimize this difference.

Flexibility to add risers

ered in the initial design phase itself.

A-';MI

WMI(Jfi,\L!'UHmLlIM nC1INlll(I{;Y 1r,<;fJTlITl

-""===~-o.~<

44

---I! 11-

EXTRUSION GAP UNDER PRESSURE

45

P>O

INITIAL GAP =j===j====

EXTRUSION GAP =l===j=====rUNCHANGED UNDER PRESSURE

lsolalion fluid

Isolation fluid

Leakage recuperation

46

HIGH PIU:SSUUI': SWIVET ..

F.INAI. REPOH'l'

Prepared by IMODCO February, 1990

41

80
70
60
m
i 50
e 40
:J
en
en 30
e
a.
20
10
0 Seal Diameter (m)

A-SME

INlElll1A'flor;:,!.I'UIIOI.!:U\1 lTCW;OlOGY I~SrITV[!

Sanha 111

Serpenlina 851

Marlim Sui 1041

Espadarle 1401

While Rose 2531

P-53 2671

48

49

50

Swivels

Arms

51

© Reduced Cost of Mooring System (shorter lengths) ®J Reduced Excursions (taut system)

e Reduced Cost of Riser System (catenary profile)

@ Reduced Anchor Radius => Simplified Subsea Layout @ Reduced Vertical Load (smaller structure and bearing) @J Reduced Hazard to Subsea Equipment

®J Easier Handling during Installation

52

Stretch and Creep Requires Retensioning Capability and Operation During Project Life

I® Increased Cost per Length

Taut Mooring Leg Prevents Use of Drag Anchors

® Susceptible to Sand Ingression if it Contacts the Seabed

53

Moonpool Cylinder integrated in Vessel

Lifting of Moonpool Cylinder

(24th of September)

Chain Stopper

54

Lifting of l-Tube into Internal Turret

(9th of October)

55

Lifting of Upper Bearing Support

(2nd of November)

56

51

Lifting of Driving Column

(26th of November)

58

59

Environmental and Regulatory Requirements ~ First FPSO project in Gulf of Mexico New combination of existing, proven technology

@) large Pipeline Infrastructure

~ Tie-in to pipeline network or storage onboard and offload to shuttle tanker

Deepwater Fields

~ Vessel Station Keeping Flexible Riser and SeR Limits ~ Flow Assurance

i@ High Pressure and Temperature Reservoirs ~ Disconnection Equipment

~ Flexible Riser Limits

@ Hurricanes

'" PermanentJDisconnectable Mooring ~ Riser Design

'" Pipeline Infrastructure Ii> Disconnection

@j Currents

~ Loop and Eddy Currents

Jones Act

Ii> Not applicable to FPSO

60

61