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Ship Shape Production Systems

n FSO - Floating Storage Offloading


n FPSO - Floating Production Storage & Offloading
n FPDSO - Floating Production Drilling Storage & Offloading

n New Build
n Tanker Conversion

n Own
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n Lease

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Growth in the World’s FPSO Fleet

80
FPSO Fleet in 70
Service at Year
End 60
50
40
30
20
10
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0
1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001

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Drivers - FPSO Selection
Major Factors Favor FPSO Selection
n Oil Production
n Wet Tree Development
n Lack of Pipeline/ Infrastructure
n Requirement of Early Production System
n Client Looking for Leased Solution
n Greater Water Depth

Factors Favor Other System


n Local Regulations in Some Countries
n Gas Production
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n Harsh Environment
n Cost

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Conversion vs New Build

Conversion – Hull Availability Driven By:


Topside Definition (Weight)
Changes to Hull and Ship Systems are Detrimental
Age/Life Extension – Structural Work
Maintenance

Purpose Built:
Delivery Time Driven by Ship Yard Slot Availability
Flexibility Only During Basic Engineering

Conversion of New-Builds:
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Complete Hull at Shipyard, No Carry-over Work


Don’t Integrate Ship Systems with Topside Systems
Minimise Ship System Changes

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FPSO Problem Areas & Lessons Learned
UNDERESTIMATES:
Immaturity (Norms, Cost Factors)

SCOPE DEFINITION (Customer/Contractor)


Fit For Purpose Expectation
Process Design Incomplete
Control of Changes
Layout Incomplete - Maintenance/Operations

INTERFACE WITH MARINE SYSTEMS:


What is Topside / What is Ship

OPERATOR INTERFACE:
Topside Process Differs from Ship System
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SCHEDULE - OVER OPTIMISTIC EXPECTATIONS


Topside
Hull
Integration

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TOPSIDES - ENGINEERING/PROCUREMENT
DESIGN/ENGINEERING
Invest in Basic Engineering
Establish / Define Basis }Process/Controls
}Safety
}Layout
Review Construction / Integration Method
Rigorous Weight Monitoring

PROCUREMENT
Early Commitment Major Equipment
Avoid Delivery of Equipment to Site with Punch List
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INTERFACE CONTROL
Ship / Hull / Topsides
Engineering / Fabrication
Management of Change

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Fabrication & Integration

Construction Method – Topside Package Sizing

Complete Fabrication at Fab Yard

Execute Pre Commissioning at topsides Fab Yard

Simplify hook-up

Fix interfaces with Marine Systems

Maximise inshore Pre Commissioning at Integration Facility


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Operational Input into the Design

OPERATIONAL
Process start up and operating philosophies
Offshore vessel inspection philosophies

MAINTAINABILITY
Maintenance philosophies
Accessibility
Transport and mechanical handling
Spare philosophy

SAFETY
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HAZOPs
System isolation philosophies
Escape and evacuation

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Success Factors
n Comprehensive Role by Topsides Engineer:
n Utilization of experienced personnel and
lessons learned

n Process design for the entire complex


n Perform detailed design for topsides
integration and commissioning
n Value Engineering
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Success Factors
Construction:
n Construction management supported by Engineering staff
through completion of fabrication and commissioning

n Constructability reviews early and across all interfaces

n Participants exchange execution procedures

n Minimize and simplify participant interfaces


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Critical Issues To First Oil

n Concept Selection
n Critical Path Determination
n Shipyard Slot Reservation
n Process Facilities Definition
n Realistic Schedule Expectation
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Drivers for Contracting

• Early Partner Selection


• Contractors Selected for “Best-in-Class”
• Agreed Execution Strategy
• Agreed Division of Work
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Success Factors
Project Controls

• Estimating
• Scheduling
• Cost Management
• Interface Management
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Bonga Project
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Dry Tree Unit with a FPSO
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Conventional FPSO Processes

CrudeOil
OilSeparation
Separation AssociatedGas
Associated GasCompression
Compression
Crude

Gas Dehydration
Gas Dehydration OilyWater
Oily WaterClean-up
Clean-up
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WaterInjection
Water Injection ProcessSupport
Process SupportUtilities
Utilities

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FPSO Components

COMPONENT BREAKDOWN
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FPSO Topside Module Layout
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Trading Tanker Conversion to a FPSO
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Motion Analysis at FPSO

Akpo size FPSO - Extreme Regular waves : H = 6.6 m, T = 11.4 s, Offshore Nigeria
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Note : Animation speed is 5 times actual for clarity !


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Export Options: Traditional Offloading from an FPSO

1) Side by Side H

2) Tandem Standard Tanker


H

Tug
Spread or Turret Moored
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3) CALM Standard Tanker

Tug
Spread Moored

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Offloading with a D.P. Tanker

Approaching an FPSO
with a Dynamically
Positioned tanker:

Shown here in North


Sea, may be
attractive for more
remote & deeper
waters, e.g. GoM.
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 48

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Offloading with a D.P. Tanker

Use of an air gun


for to carry a
messenger line
to the D.P.
tanker
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 49

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Offloading with a D.P. Tanker

Transfer hose
visible is at left on
FPSO stern.

Mooring hawser (for


safety backup) at
a dedicated bow
loading station on
a D.P. tanker
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 50

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Offloading with a D.P. Tanker

No tugs
No hose/hawser
handling vessel
Able to hookup in
rough weather.
Waves up to 5.5m

Brazil & GOM


deepwater?
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 51

Sec12_FPSO_All.ppt
Deep Water Offloading System
Function
n Oil transfer from production vessel to tanker

Objectives
n Reduce loads on FPSO from offloading system
n Efficient loading, i.e. low pressure loss
n High reliability at low maintenance and inspection
requirements
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n Competitive price

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Motion Analysis at Offloading Side

Bluewater CALM buoy. Extreme Regular Wave: H = 6.6 m, T =11.4 s, Offshore Nigeria
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Station Keeping Methods

n Catenary moored
n Taut wire moored
n Turret - Internal vs. External
n Tendons
n Dynamically positioned (DP)

n Suction or driven pile


n Chain wire chain
n Chain polyester chain
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Mooring System

n Temporary Mooring
n Drilling Rig/ Vessels
n Permanent Mooring
n Single Point / Turret Mooring
n Spread Mooring ( SPAR/ SCF/ FPSO/ Barge)
n Taut Mooring
n Foot Print is Small
n Anchors are closely spaced and has higher vertical load
n Catenary Mooring
n Foot Prints are Larger
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n Anchors are spread out and installed primarily for


horizontal load

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Spread Mooring

n Chain Only
n Huge load on vessel
n Preferably shallow water
n Chain Wire Chain
n Used traditionally
n System weight becomes a challenge in deepwater
n Chain Polyester Chain
n Reduces system weight in deepwater and ultra deepwater
n May increase installation cost
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Deepwater Characteristics Related To Mooring

n Vessel Offset determines mooring selection

n Length/elasticity of lines is significant for optimization

n Taut systems are most often advantageous solutions

n Permanent and large vertical loads on anchors


© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 6

n Soft or very soft soils

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Mooring Components

n Anchors

n Mooring Lines and Tethers

n Connecting Components and Details

n Installation Aids
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Spread Mooring

n Design Code
n API RP 2SK - Regular Mooring
n API RP 2SM- Synthetic Mooring
n DNV
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Mooring Layout
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W. Africa Mooring System Layout

Figure 6-2 BONGA FPSO MOORING CATENARY PLOT


CATENARY MOORING SYSTEM
Base Case Configuration @ pretension = 136 tons
1050
1,496 m fairlead to anchor
horizontal distance
900
46 meters long
92mm K4 chain
Height above Seabed (m)

750

600
1340 meters long
86mm w ire rope
450

457meters long
90mm K4 chain
300
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 11

150

0
-1500 -1250 -1000 -750 -500 -250 0 250
X from Fairlead (m)

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Mooring Line Assembly/ Make Up
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Comparison of Anchors for Taut Moorings
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BUCKET ANCHOR HICAP ANCHOR HIVEL ANCHOR


W = 100% W = 55% W = 25%

Equal Capacity and Soil Conditions

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Anchor Pile Installation
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Suction Anchors
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Subsea Connector
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HiCap Anchor ® - Installation
1. MATING 2 LOWERING AND POSITIONING

3. EMBEDMENT BY SUCTION 4 RETRIEVAL OF INSTALLATION LID


© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 18

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Anchor - Installation
1 Lowering to Seabed 2. Weight Penetration

3. Embedment by Suction 4. Retrieval of Installation Lid


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Pile Installation
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TLP Anchors

Decisive factors selecting the optimum type


n Soil conditions (strength, layering)
n Acceptable/Required transfer of loads into the seabed
(dynamic loads - ‘suction’, permanent loads weight and
shear or weight only)
n Total logistics thus installation method
Main types
n Soft clay (e.g. GoM, West Africa)
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n Layered, ‘difficult’ soil profile

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TLP Anchor Soft Clay (e.g. GoM, West Africa)

Composition of
the Cylindrical Shell

LWA Concrete
200 mm

Steel Plate
10 mm
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TLP Anchor for Layered Seabed (e.g. N. Sea)

Soft

Stiff/hard
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Anchor - Installation Method

40 m
120 ft

Thrust 35 t Thrust 35 t

Tension 250 t

100 m
300 ft
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 24

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Mooring Lines

Types considered in optimization of the mooring


systems
n Steel Wire Ropes (sheathed)
n Polyester Ropes
n Stiff Fiber Ropes (Aramid, Kevlar, …)
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Asgard ‘A’ FPSO
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 19

ASGARD A

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West Africa New Build FPSO Shape

External Turret
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Petrobras 37 FPSO
11 path swivel
serves:
• Oil
•Gas
•Water

Plus
• hydraulic
• chemical injection
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• signal/optical

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Petrobras 37 FPSO

Turntable and Swivel


installed on top of
turret to serve
43 risers
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Tendons
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 27

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Deepwater Tendon Options
n Pressurized Tendons
n Technology Exists
n Design and Safety Concerns

n Staggered Wall Tendons

n Step Diameter Tendons

Composite Tendons
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n
n Requires New Technology (Under Development)
n Extensive Test Program

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TLP Tendons - Stresses Due Water Pressure

CONVENTIONAL DESIGN ABB DESIGN


Alt. A Alt. B

pinne r(z)

pout er(z)
pout er(z) pout er(z)
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Price 100% Price 70%

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Tendon Systems

n Top Tendon Connector


n Bottom Tendon Connector
n Tendon Pipe Connector
n Tendon Weight vs Depth
n Deepwater Tendon Options
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Pivot Latch Top Tendon Connector

n Auto Length Adjustment


n Ratcheting Design
n Pre- or Co-Installed
n Threaded or Grooved Load
Segment
n Synchronized & Centralized
n No Rotation Required
n Remote Hydraulic Operation &
Installation W/Manual Override
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Tendon Porch
© ABB Lummus Global Inc. - 32

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TG-5 Bottom Tendon Connector

n No Rotation to Install
n Few Moving Parts
n Simple Stab/Release
n Integral Centralizer
n Resets on Removal
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Tendon Pipe Connector

n Optimized Profile to
Balance Load Transfer
n Improved Fatigue Design
n Easy Installation
n Stab to Preset
n Pressure to Release
n No Rotation Required
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J Lay Tower for Tendon Installation
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J Lay Tower for Tendon Installation
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Saibos J Lay
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ROV to Monitor Pile Installation
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TLP Tendons - Tow Method

Trail ing tug


Leading tug

Towline

Leading towing Tendon


gear Trailing
Clump weight
tow gear
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Arranged as a fail-to-safe system

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Upending of Tendon by Lowering

Trailing
Lead tug Auxiliary towline tug

Leading
tow gear

Towline

Clump weight
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Installation - Dragging to Target and Pull-in

Le ad tug Tr ailing tug

Towline

Tendon
Tugge r
l ine
Upended
tendon

Towline

Pull-in
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line
Anchor Clump Anchor
Tow gear weight

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Installation Vessel
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