Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. Textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents"[1] where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.[2] John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956,[3] defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."[4] AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other.[10] Subfields have grown up around particular institutions, the work of individual researchers, the solution of specific problems, longstanding differences of opinion about how AI should be done and the application of widely differing tools. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[11] General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still a long-term goal of (some) research.[12]

The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into a number of specific sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers would like an intelligent system to display. The traits described below have received the most attention.[11]


reasoning, problem solving

Early AI researchers developed algorithms that imitated the step-by-step reasoning that humans were often assumed to use when they solve puzzles, play board games or make logical deductions.[39] By the late 1980s and '90s, AI research had also developed highly successful methods for dealing with uncertain or incomplete information, employing concepts from probability and economics.[40] For difficult problems, most of these algorithms can require enormous computational resources ² most experience a "combinatorial explosion": the amount of memory or computer time required becomes astronomical when the problem goes beyond a certain size. The search for more efficient problem solving algorithms is a high priority for AI research.[41] Human beings solve most of their problems using fast, intuitive judgments rather than the conscious, step-bystep deduction that early AI research was able to model.[42] AI has made some progress at imitating this kind of "sub-symbolic" problem solving: embodied agent approaches emphasize the importance of sensorimotor skills to higher reasoning; neural netresearch attempts to simulate the structures inside human and animal brains that give rise to this skill.

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g.[55] Knowledge like this informs. there tend to be a huge number of exceptions. properties. supports and provides a context for symbolic. For example.[46] causes and effects. Almost nothing is simply true or false in the way that abstract logic requires. of which the most general are called upper ontologies.[48] and many other. conscious knowledge. sings.[51] The breadth of commonsense knowledge The number of atomic facts that the average person knows is astronomical. A complete representation of "what exists" is an ontology[49] (borrowing a word from traditional philosophy).[55] [edit]Planning Main article: Automated planning and scheduling 2|P ag e . if a bird comes up in conversation.[edit]Knowledge representation Main articles: Knowledge representation and Commonsense knowledge Knowledge representation[43] and knowledge engineering[44] are central to AI research. AI research has explored a number of solutions to this problem.. categories and relations between objects. Among the things that AI needs to represent are: objects. states and time. Research projects that attempt to build a complete knowledge base of commonsense knowledge (e.Cyc) require enormous amounts of laborious ontological engineering ² they must be built. Many of the problems machines are expected to solve will require extensive knowledge about the world. As with the related problem of sub-symbolic reasoning. a chess master will avoid a particular chess position because it "feels too exposed"[53] or an art critic can take one look at a statue and instantly realize that it is a fake. people typically picture an animal that is fist sized. by hand. None of these things are true about all birds. less well researched domains. and thus be able to add to its own ontology.[52] A major goal is to have the computer understand enough concepts to be able to learn by reading from sources like the internet.[45] situations. it is hoped that situated AI or computational intelligence will provide ways to represent this kind of knowledge. The subsymbolic form of some commonsense knowledge Much of what people know is not represented as "facts" or "statements" that they could actually say out loud. Among the most difficult problems in knowledge representation are: Default reasoning and the qualification problem Many of the things people know take the form of "working assumptions. one complicated concept at a time." For example. events.[47] knowledge about knowledge (what we know about what other people know).[54] These are intuitions or tendencies that are represented in the brain non-consciously and subsymbolically. John McCarthy identified this problem in 1969[50] as the qualification problem: for any commonsense rule that AI researchers care to represent. and flies.

[58] However. Supervised learning includes bothclassification and numerical regression.[62] Unsupervised learning is the ability to find patterns in a stream of input. after seeing a number of examples of things from several categories. These can be analyzed in terms of decision theory. [edit]Natural language processing ASIMO uses sensors and intelligent algorithms to avoid obstacles and navigate stairs.[60] [edit]Learning Main article: Machine learning Machine learning[61] has been central to AI research from the beginning. Emergent behavior such as this is used by evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. if this is not true.[59] Multi-agent planning uses the cooperation and competition of many agents to achieve a given goal. the agent can assume that it is the only thing acting on the world and it can be certain what the consequences of its actions may be. requiring the agent to reason under uncertainty. Regression takes a set of numerical input/output examples and attempts to discover a continuous function that would generate the outputs from the inputs. Classification is used to determine what category something belongs in. using concepts like utility.[57] In classical planning problems. The mathematical analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is a branch of theoretical computer science known as computational learning theory. In reinforcement learning[63]the agent is rewarded for good responses and punished for bad ones.[56] They need a way to visualize the future (they must have a representation of the state of the world and be able to make predictions about how their actions will change it) and be able to make choices that maximize the utility (or "value") of the available choices. it must periodically check if the world matches its predictions and it must change its plan as this becomes necessary. Main article: Natural language processing 3|P ag e .Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them.

[72] [edit]Social intelligence Main article: Affective computing Kismet. an intelligent machine also needs to display emotions. by understanding their motives and emotional states.[65] [edit]Motion and manipulation Main article: Robotics The field of robotics[66] is closely related to AI. it must be able to predict the actions of others. sonar and others more exotic) to deduce aspects of the world. At the very least it must 4|P ag e . (This involves elements of game theory. Some straightforward applications of natural language processing include information retrieval (or text mining) andmachine translation. as well as the ability to model human emotions and the perceptual skills to detect emotions. and Speech recognition Machine perception[69] is the ability to use input from sensors (such as cameras. First. Computer vision.) Also. a robot with rudimentary social skills Emotion and social skills[73] play two roles for an intelligent agent.[68] [edit]Perception Main articles: Machine perception. decision theory. Many researchers hope that a sufficiently powerful natural language processing system would be able to acquire knowledge on its own. Computer vision[70] is the ability to analyze visual input. microphones.Natural language processing[64] gives machines the ability to read and understand the languages that humans speak. for good human-computer interaction.[71] facial recognition and object recognition. mapping (learning what is around you) and motion planning (figuring out how to get there). with sub-problems of localization (knowing where you are). Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle such tasks as object manipulation[67] andnavigation. by reading the existing text available over the internet. A few selected subproblems are speech recognition.

In the 1940s and 1950s. a number of researchers explored the connection between neurology. [edit]Creativity Main article: Computational creativity TOPIO. developed by TOSY. and cybernetics. Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence. a robot that can play table tennis. it should have normal emotions itself. At best. [edit]Cybernetics and brain simulation Main articles: Cybernetics and Computational neuroscience There is no consensus on how closely the brain should be simulated.appear polite and sensitive to the humans it interacts with. Grey 5|P ag e . A related area of computational research is Artificial Intuition and Artificial Imagination. A sub-field of AI addresses creativity both theoretically (from a philosophical and psychological perspective) and practically (via specific implementations of systems that generate outputs that can be considered creative). information theory. such as W.

in the work of Walter Pitts and Warren McCullough. has many important applications. akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain. and has suggested a model (Hierarchical Temporal Memory) that is loosely based on neurological research. Many of these researchers gathered for meetings of the Teleological Society at Princeton Universityand the Ratio Club in England. who invented the perceptron and Paul Werbos who developed thebackpropagation algorithm. a form of attractor network. using such techniques asHebbian learning and competitive learning. this approach was largely abandoned.[137]AI researchers have developed several specialized languages for AI research. the most famous is the Hopfield net.[135] Jeff Hawkins argues that research in neural networks has stalled because it has failed to model the essential properties of the neocortex. the grandchild of cybernetics.[139] [edit]Evaluating progress Main article: Progress in artificial intelligence 6|P ag e .[136] [edit]Control theory Control theory. The study of artificial neural networks[125] began in the decade before the field AI research was founded. Other important early researchers were Frank Rosenblatt. which was first described by John Hopfield in 1982. [edit]Neural network A neural network is an interconnected group of nodes.[134] Neural networks can be applied to the problem of intelligent control (for robotics) or learning. Among the most popular feedforward networks are perceptrons.[132] The main categories of networks are acyclic or feedforward neural networks (where the signal passes in only one direction) and recurrent neural networks (which allow feedback). although elements of it would be revived in the 1980s. especially in robotics.[133] Among recurrent networks.[24] By 1960. multi-layer perceptrons and radial basis networks.Walter's turtlesand the Johns Hopkins Beast. including Lisp[138] and Prolog.

Alan Turing proposed a general procedure to test the intelligence of an agent now known as the Turing test. robot soccer and games. Examples of these kinds of tests start in the late nineties devising intelligence tests using notions from Kolmogorov Complexity and data compression. This procedure allows almost all the major problems of artificial intelligence to be tested. A quite different approach measures machine intelligence through tests which are developed from mathematical definitions of intelligence.[144] [edit]Competitions and prizes Main article: Competitions and prizes in artificial intelligence There are a number of competitions and prizes to promote research in artificial intelligence. this phenomenon is described as the AI effect.In 1950. it is no longer considered artificial intelligence. conversational behavior.[140] performance at chess is super-human and nearing strong super-human. The main areas promoted are: general machine intelligence.[141] and performance at many everyday tasks performed by humans is sub-human. it is a very difficult challenge and at present all agents fail. Such tests have been termed subject matter expert Turing tests. [edit]Platforms 7|P ag e .[142] [143] Two major advantages of mathematical definitions are their applicability to nonhuman intelligences and their absence of a requirement for human testers. driverless cars. when a technique reaches mainstream use. handwriting recognition and game-playing. Frequently. However. performance at draughts is optimal. data-mining. Artificial intelligence can also be evaluated on specific problems such as small problems in chemistry. [edit]Applications Artificial intelligence techniques are pervasive and are too numerous to list. Smaller problems provide more achievable goals and there are an ever-increasing number of positive results. The broad classes of outcome for an AI test are: Optimal: it is not possible to perform better Strong super-human: performs better than all humans Super-human: performs better than most humans Sub-human: performs worse than most humans For example.

A platform (or "computing platform")is defined as "some sort of hardware architecture or software framework (including application frameworks)[145]expert systems[146] 8|P ag e .

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