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(Edexcel) SNAB Unit 1 – Topic 1 and Topic 2 RESIT 2010

1. The table below refers to the formula and structure of some biological molecules.

Complete the table by writing in the name, the formula or the structure of the molecule where
appropriate in the empty boxes.

Name Formula Structure

Water H2O

NH2RCHCOOH

H H H H H O
H C C C C C C
Fatty acid
H H H H H O H

C H 2O H

C O
H H
H
C C
O H H
H O O H
C C
H O H
(Total 6 marks)

2. (a) Explain what is meant by the primary structure of a protein molecule.

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(b) Explain the role of hydrogen bonding in maintaining the structure of a globular protein
such as insulin.

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(c) Describe how the structure of a fibrous protein, such as collagen, differs from the
structure of a globular protein.

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(Total 8 marks)

3. Urease is an enzyme which catalyses the breakdown of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide.

An experiment was carried out into the effect of pH on the activity of urease. 10 cm3 of pH 3
buffer solution was mixed with 1 cm3 of urease solution. This mixture was then added to
10 cm3 of urea solution and the concentration of ammonia in the mixture was measured after 60
minutes. This procedure was repeated using buffer solutions of pH 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.

The results are shown in the graph below.

100

80

60
C o n c e n tra tio n
o f a m m o n ia /
a rb itra ry u n its
40

20

0
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
pH
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(a) What do these results suggest is the optimum pH for urease activity?

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(1)

(b) Suggest how the experiment could be modified to determine the optimum pH more
accurately.

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(c) Explain why no ammonia was produced at pH 3.

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(d) Explain why less ammonia is produced at pH 9 than at pH 8.

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(e) Describe how this experiment could be modified to determine the effect of enzyme
concentration on the activity of urease.

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(4)
(Total 11 marks)

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4. Give an account of the ways in which molecules and ions move into and out of cells.

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(Allow 2 lined pages)


(Total 10 marks)

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5. The diagram shows a section through the heart of a mammal

B C
A

(a) Name the parts labelled A, B and C.

A ................................................................................................................................

B ................................................................................................................................

C ................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Each time the heart beats, the atria contract first and then the ventricles contract. Explain
how this sequence of events is coordinated.

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(4)
(Total 7 marks)

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6. The chart below shows the number of deaths from cardiovascular disease per 100 000
population for men and women in four countries.

1 0 0 0 –

8 0 0 –

N u m 6 b 0 e 0r –
o f
W o m e n
d
e a t h s
p e r
1 0 0 0 0 0 M e n
p o p u 4l a 0 t 0i o n–

2 0 0 –

0 –



F r a n c e S p R a ui n s s i a E n g l a n d
a n d W a l e s

(a) Describe the differences in the death rates shown in the chart above.

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(b) One possible reason for the differences in the death rates due to cardiovascular disease
between the different countries is the quantity of fruit and vegetables eaten.

Write a suitable null hypothesis that could be tested by an epidemiologist investigating


the effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on deaths from cardiovascular disease.

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(1)

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(c) Suggest and explain two other reasons for the differences in the death rates between the
countries due to cardiovascular disease.

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(Total 8 marks)

7. The diagram below shows part of a DNA molecule.

Z
X
A d e n i n e

W C y t o s i n e

(a) (i) Name the parts of the molecule represented by each of the following letters.

V ……………………………………………………………………………..

W ......................................................................................................................

X ......................................................................................................................

Y ......................................................................................................................

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(5)

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(ii) Name the type of bond that holds the two strands of DNA together.

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(1)

(b) The table below shows the amino acids coded by mRNA codons.

S e c o n d b a s e
U C
U U UP h e n y lU a lC a UnS i e n r e i n Ue A UT y r o s i Un eG UC y s t e i nU e
U U U CP h e n y lU a lC a CnS i e n r e i n Ue A CT y r o s i Un eG CC y s t e i nC e
U U AL e u c i nU e C AS e r i n Ue A AS t o p U G AS t o p A
U U GL e u c i nU e C GS e r i n Ue A GS t o p U G GT r y p t o Gp h a n

C U UL e u c i n C e C UP r o l i Cn eA UH i s t i d Ci n G e UA r g i n i nU e
C U CL e u c i n C e C CP r o l i Cn eA CH i s t i d Ci n G e CA r g i n i nC e
C

T h ird b a s e
C U AL e u c i n C e C AP r o l i Cn eA AG l u t a m C iGn eA A r g i n i nA e
F irs t b a s e

C U GL e u c i n C e C GP r o l i Cn eA GG l u t a m C iGn eG A r g i n i nG e

A U UI s o l e u cA i nC e UT h r e Ao n A i n UA e s p a r aA g G i n US e e r i n e U
A A U CI s o l e u cA i nC e CT h r e Ao n A i n CA e s p a r aA g G i n CS e e r i n e C
A U AI s o l e u cA i nC e AT h r e Ao n A i n AL e y s i n eA G AA r g i n i nA e
A U GM e t h i oA n Ci n GT e h r e Ao n A i n GL e y s i n eA G GA r g i n i nG e

G U UV a l i n e G C UA l a n Gi n Ae UA s p a r tG i c G a UG c i l dy c i n Ue
G U CV a l i n e G C CA l a n Gi n Ae CA s p a r tG i c G a CG c i l dy c i n Ce
G G U AV a l i n e G C AA l a n Gi n Ae AG l u t a m G i Gc AGa c l iy d c i n Ae
G U GV a l i n e G C GA l a n Gi n Ae GG l u t a m G i Gc GGa c l iy d c i n Ge

(i) Name the process by which mRNA is formed in the nucleus.

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(1)

(ii) Reading from left to right, what is the sequence of amino acids coded by the
following length of mRNA?

G A U C G U U G U A A G

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(1)

(iii) A mutation occurred so that the base cytosine was replaced by guanine in this
mRNA. Using the information in the table, explain why this mutation could affect
the tertiary structure of the protein formed from this mRNA.

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(3)
THE END (Total 11 marks)

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