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Revised Edition
&tfienarum ffiregg
GINN AND COMPANY PRO
PBIETOKS BOSTON U.S.A.
PREFACE
The alterations in the text in this revision consist of verbal
changes in the details of some of the proofs and discussions, and in
the addition of a chapter on Hyperbolic Functions. This chapter
has been written with the same attention to clearness and com
pleteness that marks all other sections of the book. Also, cylindrical
coordinates have been employed to broaden the applications of
double integration.
The problems have in general been completely revised, and in
some respects their appeal and interest have been increased. Some
applications to the mathematics of economics will be found in the
problems.
Additional problems for the use of superior students have been
added at the end of most chapters.
Answers to a good many of the problems are given in the text.
Some of the answers are purposely omitted in order to give the
student greater selfreliance in checking his work. Teachers who
desire answers to the other problems should communicate with the
publishers.
The labor of the authors will be amply repaid if this revised edition
meets with the generous and wellnigh universal favor accorded Gran
ville's Calculus since its first appearance.
PERCEY F. SMITH
WILLIAM R. LONGLEY
CONTENTS
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
PAGE
CHAPTER I. COLLECTION OF FORMULAS 1
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
CHAPTER XII. INTEGRATION; RULES FOR INTEGRATING
STANDARD ELEMENTARY FORMS . . . 187
Differential of the area under a curve, 237 The definite integral, 237
Calculation of a definite integral, 239 Change in limits corresponding to
change in variable, 240 Calculation of areas, 241 Area when the equa
tions of the curve are given in parametric form, 242 Geometrical repre
sentation of an integral, 244 Approximate integration trapezoidal rule,
;
series, 340 General theorems, 341 Comparison tests, 342 Cauchy's test
ratio test, 345 Alternating series, 347 Absolute convergence, 348
Summary, 348 Power series, 350 The binomial series, 353 Another

Taylor's series, 371 Approximate formulas derived from Taylor's series, 372
Hyperbolic sine and cosine, 414 Other hyperbolic functions, 415 Table 
of values of the hyperbolic sine, cosine, and tangent. Graphs, 415 Hyper
bolic functions of v + w, 417 Derivatives, 420 Relations to the equi
lateral hyperbola, 420 Inverse hyperbolic functions, 423 Derivatives
(continued), 425 Telegraph line, 428 Integrals, 430 Integrals (con
tinued), 432 The gudermannian, 435 Mercator's Chart, 438 Relations
between trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, 440
CONTENTS xi
PAGE
CHAPTER XXIII. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 444
Functions of several variables. Continuity, 444 Partial derivatives, 445
*
normal plane to a skew curve, 480 Law of the Mean, 482 Maxima and
minima of functions of several variables, 483 Taylor's theorem for func

nates, 498 Volume under a surface, 501 Directions for setting up a double
integral, 503 Moment of area and centroids, 503 Theorem of Pappus,

INDEX 553
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
CHAPTER I
COLLECTION OF FORMULAS
1. Formulas from elementary algebra and geometry. For the con
(2) Logarithms
log ab = Jog a f log b. log a
7
= n log a.
'
log 1=0.
Jog ^ = log a log b. 'a =  log a.
log v'a log a a = 1.
(3) Binomial theorem (n being a positive integer)
called a degree.
Circular measure. The unit angle is an angle whose subtending arc is
ctn .r
1
sec x .
csc r
~
tan cos JT sin x
, sin x , cos x
tan j* ; ctn .r
cos x sin x
sin 2 x f cos 2 x = 1 ; 11 tan 2 x = sec 2 .r ; 1 f ctn 2 x = esc 2 x.
cos (.r
 #) = cos .r cos f sin .r sin
// ?/.
 
tan (jr + y} ^L^^UL
1 tan tan jr
//
.
tau ^ __
*
} = _lan
1 f
.r
tan .r
tan y .
tan y
1 tan 2 x

; cos

=,
fl^L' : tun =
\  2
sin' j'  i  1 cos 2 .r ; COS L>
.r  + .1 cos 2 j.
J
.sin x sin //
. 2 cos .1
(.> f //)sin ! (.r //).
sin (/> 4 T)
 a) where ,s (a f b
(a />)(.; r), ?, f r).
(1) Distance between two points /*i(xi, yi) and P2(x2, yz)
Slope of P^Pz.
1 f mim2
(For parallel lines, wi = W2 ;
for perpendicular lines, mint = 1.)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(3) Equations of straight lines
Pointslope form. y y\ = m(x xi).
Slopeintercept form. y mx + b.
"" ~^
Twopoint form.
y yi = yz
'
x x\ x% Xi
Intercept form.
 f
~ = 1.
2
(x h}' 2 p(y k}, axis x /i.
2
Axis ///r yaxiii. y ylj^ f C.
Hyperbola with center at the origin and with foci on the xaxis.
^1 _ 111 ~ i
a2 b2
Equilateral hyperbola with center at the origin and with the coordinate
axes for asymptotes.
xy = C.
See also Chapter XXVI.
4. Formulas from solid analytic geometry. Some of the more impor
tant formulas are given.
(1) Distance between PI(XI, yi, z\) and P2(*2, 1/2, 22)
d= V(xi  x2 )
2
h (yi
 l/ 2 )
2
+ (21
 z2 )
2
.
COLLECTION OF FORMULAS
(2) Straight line
Direction cosines cos a, cos:
(3, cos 7.
Direction numbers: a, b, c.
Then
a 6 r
a
cos a =
i
2
+ b'
2
+ r2
 b
cos ft
Va 2
f h2
cos 7 = r
Vu 2
~+ 6 + r2
For the line joining (jc\, ?/i, cO and (j 2 , ?/ L., .,)
cos = cos a cos <V f cos ft cos ft' f cos 7 cos 7',
= c/a' 4 W/ f re'
cos t/
2
+ b + r2 Va /2
"f //
2
f r'
2
Perpendicular lincx. aa
r
f 6/>' f rr' ~ ().
a b c
x = p cos 0, y P sin 0, 2
p
2  + 9 arc tan 
x
f
* =: 6 = arc tan > </>
= arc tan
^
LETTERS NAMES
P p Rho
Z d s Sigma
T r Tau
T i>
Upsilon
<f> Phi
X x Chi
^ i/'
Psi
12 a Omega
* For a discussion of cylindrical and spherical coordinates see Smith, Gale, and
Neellry's "New Analytic Geometry, Revised Edition" (Ginn and Company), pp. 320322.
CHAPTER II
tion only of the number system. For example, we may restrict our
variable so that it shall take on only values lying between a and b.
Also, a and b be included, or either or both excluded. We shall
may
employ the symbol [a, 6], a being less than b, to represent the num
bers a, b, and all the numbers between them, unless otherwise stated.
u
This symbol [a, 6] is read the interval from a to b."
8. Continuous variation. A variable x is said to vary continuously
a to the
through an interval [a, 6] when x increases from the value
value b in such a manner as to assume all values between a and 6
in the order of their magnitudes, or when x decreases from x
= 6 to
x = a, assuming in succession all intermediate values. This may be
illustrated geometrically by the diagram on page 8.
8 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
The origin being at O, lay off on the straight line the points A
and B corresponding to the numbers a and b. Also, let the point
P correspond to a particular
value of the variable x. Evi 
g ^ ^
dently the interval [a, b\ is rep
resented by the segment AH. As x varies continuously through
the interval [a, the point P generates the segment AB when x
H
increases, or the segment BA when x decreases.
9. Functions. When two variables are so related that the value of
the first variable is determined when the value of the second variable
is given, then the first variable is said to be a function of the second.
J(x) =r j2
 9 .r + 14,
then f(y)
= y2 9 y + 14.
VARIABLES, FUNCTIONS, AND LIMITS 9
Also /(&+l) = (6 + l) a
9ifc + l) + 14 = & 2 7& + 6,
/(0)=0 9. 0+1414, 2
number times zero equals zero, we see that .r (ioes not exist unless
a = 0. But, in this case, jc may be any number whatever. The forms
a
()' ()'
Assume that a b.
Dividing by a b, l> a + b.
But a  b ;
therefore b 2 />,
or 1  2.
PROBLEMS
1. Given =  5 s
f(s) jr* that  20, show
1 .r }
2. Itfis) = 4
 2 s f r find /(O ),/(!),/( l),/(2 ),/( 2).
1
,
5. Given /(//) ?/
2
2 y f 6, show that r
f(y f //) = ?/
L>  2 ?/ f f> f 12 O/
~ 1 J/' + h2 
Jf J^ ~T" X/
1 x
10. Given 0(x) = log show that
and let
(1) y = x'2 .
point a 2 ) to (h, />). Also, a and b may have any values. We then
(a,
(2) y = 
The variable area then approaches a limit, and this limit is defined
as the area of the circle. In this case the variable v (the area) in
creases constantly, and the difference a r, where a is the area of
the circle, diminishes and ultimately becomes less than any preas
signed number, however small.
The relation illustrated is made precise by the
DEFINITION. The variable r is said to approach the constant / as
a limit when the successive values of r are such that the numerical
value of the difference r /
ultimately becomes and remains less
than any preassigned positive number, however small.
The relation defined r ~ /. For convenience, we shall
is written lim
use the notation r
/, read, "r approaches / as a limit," or, more
briefly, "r approaches Z." (Some authors use the notation v == /.)
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE. Lot the valuer of r be
2 + 1, li t i. 12 f .... 2 + 1, 
f
,
small, then the points determined by \\ill ultimately all lie within /'
tion, the following theorems may be applied. Proofs are given in Art. 20.
(1) lim (u + v  w) = A f B C.
jc a
(3) lim
u
"
= A 9 if B is not zero.
jta V B
12 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Briefly, in words, the limit of an sum, of a product, or
algebraic
of a quotient is equal, respectively, to the same
algebraic sum, product,
or quotient of the respective limits, provided, in the Last named, that the
limit of the denominator is not zero.
JT *
Solution. The given function is the sum of .c and 4 jc. We first find the limit
ing values of these two functions. By rji,
lim jr'
2 = 4, since j :
'
= x x.
X li
~ '
r
9
~ ~
:
2. Prove lim  t
the denominator, lim '.: 1 U)  4. Hence, by '.'}), we have the re<juired result.
J x '
*>
X
For z =1, f(x) = /(I) =
3. Moreover, if x as a limit,
approaches 1
the function f(x) approaches 3 as a limit Hence the
(Art. 16).
function is continuous for x = 1.
CASE II. The
definition of a continuous function assumes that
the function already defined for xo. If this is not the case, how
is
lim f(x) = B,
x a
and lim (x + 2) = 4 ;
therefore lim
In these cases does not approach a limit as defined in Art. 14. The
v
"
notation lim v = QO, or v > oo, must be read v becomes infinite/'
lim  = oo,
x *<)
lim/(.r) = 00,
x  a
lim i = 0.
X oc X
And, in general, if /O) approaches the constant value A as a limit
when x >
oo, we use the notation of Art. 17 and write
lim /(*) = A.
x 
oc
Certain special limits occur frequently. These are given below. The
constant r is not zero.
r V OO
/o\
(o) Jim  = oo. = oo.
r 
oo C C
* On
account of the notation used and for the sake of uniformity, the expression
"
p sometimes read P approaches the limit plus infinity." Similarly, r *
* f oo is oo is
"
read "r approaches the limit minus infinity," and v is read r, in numerical value,
These special limits are useful in finding the limiting value of the
quotient of two polynomials when the variable becomes infinite.
The following example will illustrate the method.
"*" ~
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE. Prove lim "L
5 x 
tS
x 
.
7 x*
 _.
7
Solution. Divide numerator and denominator by x*\ the highest power of x
present in either. Then we have
J*
 J*  < X*
lim u = A, lim r = 0,
x * a a  (i
This notation provides for the exceptional case of (3), Art. 16,
when B = and A is not zero. See also Art. 20.
PROBLEMS
Prove each of the following statements,
X
2. lim = 2.
3
r 4 t
2
+ 3 + 2 = "" / 1
+2 6

J ja / 3*
2
. ,. r 2 /? 4 3 x/z f h*
= x
4. lim r . _ ,
2
16 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
4j/ 3 _
M 3 h + 2 xh* + s'W 2
_
.
 1 ~_
43*A2^ = 27 7
,. ,.
2i^ + 3* ',!
"
lim
ft'****' 4 = 8. Km
+ =
6
 **'' 1. ! */*/* 3.
A.O 2 z(2z /r;
J
x,* 2^* + 4z 7
9 jj m ft"7
"'
f Qi^"
]
+ + a, <
= ao
', . ' &./" I h.r" '+ + & 60
f
r ar
11. 11 in 
,
.
4
f ^^ f r
 r = :
 r
A
0.
=
, . , (L'" 4 cs* f
^^ 4 kr f '
1 l
lim 
r ^
,
12. 7 ;
oo.
.1 fj (if f f'J"
. f JS f {/
13. lim *

 ~
.s . a a
ir.
lc.
i:
m
11 III
S* 4
........
S
..... "
5
(>_ ~*
.7
.
*  4 4
16. r
i
lim
\ __x f h  \_JT \ jr f // f \ J J f ^  .r
]_
\

JT
TT
J Ten ce
,.
lim +  =
\ .r //

\ r ,.
lim 
:
1
== 1
2v
/* *> /z
/*o\ j f h + \ x
/j * W
*~o h
lim r = or r 0,
fixed number.
For the numerical value of the product will become and remain
less than e when the numerical value of each infinitesimal becomes
and remains less than the r/th root of e.
IV. If lim v = /, and I is not zero, ihen the quotient of an infinitesimal
i by v is also an infinitesimal.
For we can choose a positive number r, numerically less than /,
such that the numerical value of v ultimately becomes and remains
greater than r, and also such that the numerical value of i becomes
and remains less than ce. Then the numerical value of the quotient
will become and remain less than .
(1) u A i, v B = j, w C = k.
18 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Then i, j, k are functions of x, and each approaches zero as x
>
a\
that is, they are infinitesimals (Art. 19). From equations (1), we
obtain
(2) u f v w ( A+B C) = i +j k.
f("\ 1* _ 1 A \ i
_A_
~ Bi Aj m
DIFFERENTIATION
21. Introduction. We shall now proceed to investigate the man
ner in which a function changes in value as the independent variable
changes. The fundamental problem of the differential calculus is to
establish a measure of this change in the function with mathematical
precision. It was while investigating problems of this sort, dealing
with continuously varying quantities, that Newton* was led to the
discovery of the fundamental principles of the calculus, the most
scientific and powerful tool of the modern mathematician.
22. Increments. The increment changing from one
of a variable in
numerical value to another is the difference found by subtracting the
first value from the second. An increment of x is denoted by the
symbol Ax, read "delta x." The student is warned against reading
this symbol "delta times :r."
Evidently this increment may be either positive or negative t
according as the variable in changing increases or decreases. Similarly,
x
Suppose decreases to x = 9, that is, Ax = 1 ;
reverse ;
in either case Ax and A// will then have opposite signs.
23. Comparison of increments. Consider the function
(1)
= 32.
y + Ay/ = x + 2 x Ax +
2 2
or (Ax) .
Subtracting (1 ) //
=x 2
illustrating the fact that the value of '( can be brought as near to
lim = 8.
Az0 ^'
AJ
24. Derivative of a function of one variable. The fundamental
definition of the ditlerential calculus is as follows.
The derivative* of ct
function /,> //,v limit of the ratio of the increment
When the limit of this ratio exists, the function is said to be differ
cntiable, or to possess a deriralire.
The above definition may be given in a more compact form sym
bolically as follows. Given the function
0) ?/
= /U),
and consider x to have a fixed value.
Let take on an increment A.r then the function y takes on an
;
To find the increment of the function, subtract (1) from (2), giving
symbol Therefore
^
,,, dy = rhm /(x + A*)/(*)
(A)
dx AXO Ax
defines the derivative of y [or f(n)] with respect to x.
Ax
is really a fraction. The symbol
dv
ax
!/=/(*),
(2 x
2
+ 5) indicates the derivative of 2 x 2 + 5 with respect to x.
dy
y' is an abbreviated form of ?
ax
The symbol Dc is used by some writers instead of 
If, then,
ax
DIFFERENTIATION 23
Solution. Applying the successive steps in the General Rule, we get, after placing
= 3 4 5.
y x''
4_5
A?/ = fix Ax 4 3(Ax)*
'/Vnrd
~ 6x43 Ax.
S/f'/).
Or y'
 (3 x 4 5) = 6 x.
A//  3 x :
Ax 4 3 x ( Ax)
2
4 ( Ax)'  2 Ax
Third Step.   3 x
"
4 3 x Ax 4 (Ax)
'
 2.
Or y'
 (x'
!
 2 x 4 7) = 3 x  2.
j
, c _ c Ax (2 x 4
(x 4 Ax) x x j (x 4 Ax)
2
dr x\x) x <!
DIFFERENTIATION 25
PROBLEMS
Use the General Rule in differentiating each of the following functions.
1. = 2 3 An*. r. =  3.
i/ //'
12. ?/
= 
4;
2. # = mx f 6.
3. //
= ax 2
.
<ty
s = 2t
2
4. t' .
y = ex
3
5. .
6. y = 3 J
 3 j .
M = 4 r f 2 r*
2
7.
8. //
=x 4
.
li_
9.P^ ; 1 (.r
j
f a :>
)
2
3
10. y =
10,, 8.T
11. s = 2
lo. // 

/ I' 4 s*
19. ?/
= 3 a  4  5. ar j 26. x  (r;
20. 8 = a/ + + r. 2
ft/
27.

w = 2r*  3 r 2
//
21. . a + t>x'
2
22. ?/
 ar + bx' f r.r s 2
d.
2
23. p=(abOY .
29. //
=
25. i/= a f
of the
}
^
necessary to recall the definition
tangent line to a curve at a point P on
the curve. Let a secant be drawn through
P and a neighboring point Q on the curve
(see figure). Let Q move along the curve
and approach P indefinitely. Then the
secant will revolve about P, and its limiting position is the tangent
line at P. Let
(1) y=f(?)
be the equation of a curve AD. This curve is the graph of /(r)
(see figure).
26 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Now differentiate
(1) by the General Rule and interpret each step
geometrically from the figure (p. 25). We choose a point P(x, y)
on the curve, and a second point Q(x + Ax, y + Af/) near P, also
_
on the curve.
FIRST STEP. y + Ay = f(x + Ax) = NQ
SECOND STEP. y + Ay = f(x + Ax) = NQ
y =/(x)
= inclination
(/> of the secant line PQ,
r = inclination of the tangent line PT.
Then lim </>
= r. Assuming that tan is a continuous function (see
Ar~
Art. 70), we have, therefore,
FOURTH STEP. ^~
ttX
/'(x) = lim
Ar^O
tan <t>
= tan r,
giving dy
dx~'
Therefore the tangent at the vertex has the slope zero that ;
is, it is parallel to the xaxis and in this case coincides with it.
that is, the tangent at the point P makes an angle of 45 with the xaxis.
PROBLEMS
Find by differentiation the slope and inclination of the tangent line to
each of the following curves at the point indicated. Verify the result by
drawing the curve arid the tangent line.
l.y = x'
2  2, where x = 1. Am. 2 ;
63 26'.
2. y = 2 x \ x
2
, where x 3. 4. y 3 + 3 x x \ where x
:
1.
4
3. y = ~, where x = 2. 5. y = .r
;<
3 x2 ,
where x 1.
X L
In each of the three following problems find (a) the points of intersection
of the given pair of curves (b) the slope and inclination of the tangent
;
line to each curve, and the angle between tbe tangent lines, at each point
of intersection (see (2), p. 3).
8. y =1 x 2
,
Ans. Angle of intersection = arc tan $ = 53 8'.
y = x 2 1.
9. y = x
2
,
10. y= x*3x,
z2/ + 2 = 0. 2z + = 0. ?/
written by Newton were already in existence, and from these some claim Leibnitz got the
new The decision of modern times seems to be that both Newton and Leibnitz
ideas.
invented the calculus independently of each other. The notation used today was intro
duced by Leibnitz.
CHAPTER IV
dx
dx
II 7 = 1.
dx
d du dv dw
+ 3dx T
...
III
,
(U +
,
V W)
.
=
dx dx dx
_ d . .
^ dv
IV j (ci>) c
dx dx
_. d dv du
v
VI
Via
v
du __ u _
dv
dx dx
() =
dx\v/
28
RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATING ALGEBRAIC FORMS 29
du
VHa
E(i?)=T'
VTTT
VIU ^=^ dv
" '
u 
k emS a *function
.
of v.
5x 5U 5J J'
dy
30. Differentiation of a constant. A function that is known to have
the same value for every value of the independent variable is con
stant, and we may denote it by
//
= c.
But lim ~ ~
dx
0.
AX .
oA.r
~~ *
dx
The derivative of a constant is zero.
Let y = x.
THIRD STEP. ~ = 1.
FOURTH STEP.
(
~ = 1.
dx
!=
The derivative of a variable with respect to itself is unity.
unity.
30 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
32. Differentiation of a sum
Let y =u+ v w?.
THIRD STEP.
Now (Art. 24),
^^
Ax Ax
+ Ax
^___^.
Ax
:
<to,
e/x
lim
A/  o
^!
Ax
== ^,
dx
]
AX 
im
o
^^.
Ax dx
Hence, by
FOURTH STEP.
(1), Art. 16,
^
c/x
^ dx
^ _ ^_
+ rfx dx
;
.
m
HI .'.
d ,
(u + v
.
w)
.
= du
+
dv  dw
dx dx dx dx
A
similar proof holds for the algebraic sum of any number of
functions.
,.i(, = c.
The derivative of the product of a constant and a function is equal to
THIRD STEP. ^
Ax
 ^+
Ax
w r
^~
Ax
+ Aw Ax ^
Applying (2) and (4), Art. 16, noting that lim A// = 0, and hence
that the limit of the product A. 
is zero, we have
FOURTH STEP. ^= ?/ + r
ax rfx dx
d dv du
V '
.
* ~
dx dx dx
The derivative of the product of tiro functions is equal to the first
function titnes the derivative of the second, plus the second function
times the derivative of the first.
we may write
"
flr
^ _ df dx
Vn
ZJ
n)
dp
ax ,
f(r;^...,
ax
' ' *
Vi V'2 /'.'jr/i vn
dv dux dv:\ (
_ dx ,
dx dx_ ,
+ (V\V2 '
32 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
The derivative of the product of n functions, n being a fixed number,
is equal to the sum of the n products that can be formed by multiplying
the derivative of each function by all the other functions.
36. Differentiation of a function with a constant exponent. The
Power Rule. If the n factors in the above result are each equal to v,
VI
"dx*" dx
When v x, this becomes
Via
dx
We far proved VI only for the case when n is a positive
have so
integer. In Art. 65, however, it will be shown that this formula
holds true for any value of n, and we shall make use of this general
result now.
The derivative of a function with a constant exponent is equal to the
+ Ay/ = v + ^A?;
u u
FIRST STEP. y

+
SECOND STEP. Av = ^M^   = **/*?;**.
+ Ac v 0(0 + A)
A?/  Ar A *
THIRD STEP.
Ax '(( + At')
Applying il)(4), Art. 16,
FOURTH STEP.
RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATING ALGEBRAIC FORMS 33
The derivative of a fraction is equal to the denominator times the
derivative of the numerator, minus the numerator times the
derivative
of the denominator, all divided by the square of the denominator.
du
d / u\ 1 du dx
'
dx V c c dx c"
PROBLEMS*
Differentiate the following functions.
1. y = x*.
Solution. = ~r (x
<{
)
= 3 x'2 . Ans. By VI a
/~
In = 3.]
2. y = ax 4  bx 2 .
Solution.
^ = (ax 4  bx 2 ) =~ (ax
4  f (bx
2
by III
dx f
) )
dx dx dx
= a (x
1
)
6 (x*') by IV
=4 ax :i  2 6 x. A ns. By VI a
3. y = x* + 5.
=
4. y
ig^ + 8>^.
Solution. ^ =~ (3 x ^)
1
~ (7 x~^) f (8 x*) by III
ax dx ax dx
= : y
V x^ + I xJ + V ~^ An * By IV and VI a
* When learning to differentiate, the student should have oral drill in differentiating
simple functions.
34 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
5. y
 (x
2  3)
5.
= 5(x
2  3) 4
2 x= 10 x(x 2  3)
4
. An*.
Solution. = (a
2  *  (<*  by VI
7. y = (3 r2 + 2) l + 5 jc
2
.
Solution. ^ = & + 2) y
dx
(3
c/x
(1 + 5 a*)* 4 (1 + 5 x^i f
dx
(3 x* +2) by V
[u  3 a'
1
_ __
)~^y
= (3 x 2 42H1 f 5x 2 )' 2 5x + 6x(l f 5x 2 )2

g
V1 f 5 x2 v 1 f 5 x2
. r///
Solution. ~
A.
dx
=
_
;;
 
"
x
H hv
DV VIT
v X1
_2 r((7
2  :r
2
) f xfa 2 f T2 )
2
[Multiplying both numerator and denominator by (a
(a
2  x 2 )^
9. ~ (3 .r
4  2 x 2 f 8) = 12 a
3  4 x.
dx
10. 4 (4 + 3 x  2 jfi)
= 36 x2 .
dr
11. 4 (a/
6 ~ 5 W3 = ) 5 a/ 4  15 fa
2
.
ar
RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATING ALGEBRAIC FORMS 35
16. 
(2j
J
f 4
'
= f. JT
'  X
8
a ;=s. s
17.^U
i Q
d i a f bx f <~.r~
18 '
d? i 7
v; _
4V.r
=a+ + 2
bt r/
20. ;
2V?
= a
21. V
p=
Vaj
23. /(/) = (2
 3 /)
:l
.
(4
 9 ,
<f/?/ __ .r
^r~ /., 2 .2 J
(2  5
^= 2
(a  ~
dj:  I ^*
dy _ 2 a h 3 bx
ds< 2 Va 4 ^
2
ds _ a2 2
30. s = <Va + 2
<
z. f f
2 a
31. =o x
36 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
dy __ 4 a 2x
*
dx~~ (a
2
x 2
)
2
= Va +
2
d?/ _ a2
33. y
X ^ x 2
Va 2
f x2
X rfjy _ a2
d:r
(a
2  x 2 )*'
dr _6 6  10 2
35. r =
de~
36. = d^ r
//
^~ (l+rx)Vr
37. ~
,__ /a
2
+ x'
2
'
<// 2 a 2r
Va'2 x'2 ^ (a
2
o 2 )Va 4
38. ,_ 3/2+in.
' d,s 4
\^TJn Ul
(2h30 (2~ a
39. 77

do: ?/
40.
dx ay
41.
44. =
Va 
//
bx
45. ,s
V f ft/ .
50. 2/=
46. r = 
V^H3 JT
52. y = (x
2  o) ; .r = 3. Am. 540.
53. //
= VJ ; x = 64.
RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATING ALGEBRAIC FORMS 37
;
j = L\
,_
57. 7/
= Vl6 f Ii .r
58. ?/
= jr\/8  .r
2
;
.r = 2. 0.
59. //
= .rVl + .*; .r = 2. 20.
60. //
= (4
 .rV ; .r = U. 63. = jN/.S f 2 .
//
61 //
= ;
* r ^  64. =
rri~7~> //
j= J. 65. //
=
and
then ?/ is a function of a function. P>y eliminating v we may express y
JT, but in general this
is not the best plan
directly as a function of

when we wish to find
dx
If y = f(v) and v =
<(JT), then is a function of # through 0. Hence, '//
(A)
v '
*y = dJL.Q. By (2), Art. 16
dx dv dx
This may also be written
(B)
^=/'00f.
// y =/(?;) and v </>(x), tlie derivative of y with respect to x equals
the product of the derivative of y with respect to v by the derivative of v
with respect to x.
y =/(*).
It is often possible in the case of functions considered in this book
to solve this equation for x, giving
and the second one the inverse function. Thus, in the examples which
follow, if the second members in the first column are taken as the
direct functions, then the corresponding members in the second
column will be respectively the inverse functions.
y = x 2 + 1, x = \ly  1.
y = a
x
, ar= loga y.
y = sin x, x = arc sin y.
RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATING ALGEBRAIC FORMS 39
_
simultaneously by the General Rule.
FIRST STEP. y+Ay=f(x + Ax) x + Ax = 4)(y + Ay).
SECOND STEP, y + Ay = f(x + Ax) x + Ax = (y + Ay)
JL
=f(x + Ax)f(x) Ax
THIRD STEP Ay^f(x+Ax}.f(x) r
AT ^ <(?/ + A?/)
Ax Ax Ay Ay
Taking the product of the lefthand forms of these ratios, we get
AJ/ AT
'
Ax Ay
A//
FOURTH STEP. When Ax  0, then also, in general, Ay  0. Pass
ing to the limit,
(C) r = dx
dx
' by (3), Art. 16
dy
or
+ 2 .r'ty
 ix = 10.
Then ^+^)^
I
(
) /V.M >' I C . '2. 7 ^ . T> .' __ /I
/ O *'} T , () \ //
"*
^*
'
/? >
7
rf//__ ?/ 6aj e>
G^ 1
'//
The student should observe thai in general the result will contain
both j
1
and v/.
PROBLEMS
'
Find for each of the following functions.
An*. <^ = ^.
dr V
2. y = 2  ?/
2
, ?( = ja  .r.  1).
5. 15 .r = 15 y + 5 ?/
: <
+ 3 y fi
.
6. ,= V + \/ A
RULES FOR DIFFERENTIATING ALGEBRAIC FORMS 41
7. y
2 = 2 px. 13. .r
3
4 3 =r
.r
2
?/ f ?/
:< 1
.
8. x 2
+ 2  r2 14. JT f = a. ?/
?/ .
2V^7/_+
9. 6
2
x2 f a =a 6
2
?/
2 2 2
.
15 ' J
' 2
+ a ^ r + = .'
/ ?/
2
ft3 
V# = Va.
*
Vx f
' '
' *
10.
o
3
17. r;.r
:l
3 />
2
.r// f r?/
3 = 1.
18
12. ^  3 arj/ + j/
3 = 0.
'
Find the slope of each of the following curves at the given point.
19. jc'
2
f jry + 2 y'
2 = 28 ; v. '*). Awx.  }.
20. .r<
~ 3 xy' + 2
?/'
= 1 ; (2,
 1 ).  J.
VlTjy =
21. V2~7 f 5 ; (2, 3). 23. .r'
1
 a.n/ f 3 a// =3a :t
; (a, a).
22. jc
2  2V7//  ir = 52 ; (8, 2). 24. .r''
 .r \fxlj
 2 /r'=6 ; (4, 1).
28. If f(x) and </>(//) are inverse functions, show that the graph of </>(.r)
may be found as follows: construct the graph of fix) and rotate it
around the origin 9(T counterclockwise.
ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS
The vertex of the parabola y 2 = 2 px is the center of an ellipse.
1.
The focus of the parabola is an end of one of the principal axes of the
ellipse, and the parabola and ellipse intersect at right angles. Find the
equation of the ellipse. Ans. 4 x 2 + 2 y 2 2
p .
2. A circle is drawn with its center at (2 a, 0) and with a radius such
that the circle cuts the ellinse b'
2
x2 + a 2 ?/ 2 = a 2 b 2 at right angles. Find the
radius. AUK. r2  2 2
2(3 a f b ).
3. From any point P on an ellipse lines are drawn to the foci., Prove
that these lines make equal acute angles with the normal at P.
in the ratio at the point of contact. Ans. myiix x\) + nx\(y #,) = 0.
n
2 2 
the slope of a tangent to the hyperbola b x
6. If A* is a 2 ?/ 2 = a 2 b 2 ,
2 
prove that its equation is y  kx Va^k b 2
and show that the locus of ,
2 =
the points of intersection of the perpendicular tangents is x 2
f y a2 b2 .
CHAPTER V
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE
42. Direction of a curve. It was shown in Art. 28 that if
=/(*)
is the equation of a curve (see
figure), then
r = ; therefore
^ = 0.
ax
At points such as A, B, G, where the direction
of the curve is perpendicular to the xaxis and
the tangent line is vertical, I o
T = 90; therefore
& becomes
infinite.
x = 1 VS = 2.29 and
0.29, giving the 
abscissas of the points F and E where
the direction of the given curve (or tangent^ is parallel to the line AB.
Since a curve at any point has the same direction as its tangent
line at that point, the anglebetween two curves at a common point
will be the angle between their tangent lines at that point.
(A) x 2 + y 2 4;r = l f
(B) x2 + y*
 2 y = 9.
The formula for finding the angle between two lines whose slopes are m\
and m2 is
tan
f
= 7^
1 f
^
7W1///2
(2), Art. 3
3
Substituting, tan 6 = ^ 1 ; /. = 45". Arw.
and its projection on the raxis is called the length of the subtangent
(= TM). Similarly, we have the length of rite, y\
normal (= P\K) and the length of the sub
r
normal (= yi/A ). i) /i f
The
length of the tangent (TPi) and the length of the normal
(PjAO may then be found directly from the figure, each being the
hypotenuse of a right triangle having two legs known.
When the length of subtangent or subnormal at a point on a curve
is determined, the tangent and normal may easily be constructed.
PROBLEMS
1. Find the equations of tangent and normal and the lengths of sub
tangent, subnormal, tangent, and normal, at the point (a, a) on the cissoid
^a x
Solution.
dx y(2 a
 x)~
Substituting x a, ?/
= a, we have

rr 2 = slope of tangent.
* If the
subtangent extends to the ritrht of 7\ we consider it positive; if to the left,
negative, If the subnormal extends to the right of M, we consider it positive, if to the
Jeft, negative.
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 45
Find the equations of the tangent and normal at the given point.
2. y = ar
3  3 x; (2, 2). .4//,s. 9 .r
 //
 16 = 0, .r f 9 ?/
 20 = 0.
9 T 4 1
3. T/
= ^L1. (2, 5). 7 j
 y 9 = 0, .r + 7 <//
 37 = 0.
o X
4. 2x 2 xy + y = 16; (3, 2).
5. 7/
2
+ 2 ?/4 jrf 4 = 0; (1, 2).
6. Find the equations of the tangent and normal at (x\, y\) to the
2 2 2 2
ellipse b' x f a a~b'2 ?/ .
7. Find the equations of the tangent and normal, and the lengths of
the subtangent and subnormal, at the point u*i, ?/i on the circle s f ir T~. )
Find the equations of the tangent and normal, and the lengths of the
subtangent and subnormal, to each of the following curves at the points
indicated.
10. x 2  4 ?y
2 = 9 ; (5, 2). f> .r
 8 ?/
= 9, 8 x + 5 ?/
= 50, V, J.
11. 9x + 4 2= 72; 2/
2
(2, 3).
12. xy +
2
+ 2 = 0; ?y (3,
 2).
13. Find the area of the triangle formed by the jaxis and the tangent
and the normal to the curve y = 6 jr  .r'2 at the point (5, 5). A us. A p.
14. Find the area of the triangle formed by the //axis and the tangent
and the normal to the curve // = 9 j at the point (5, 2).
15. y = x 4
2
1, x2 + y
2 = 13. Am. 109 39
r
.
16. y =6 a*
2
,
7 x 2
+ y
2 = 32.
Ans. At ( 2, 2), 5 54'; at ( 1, 5), 8 58'.
at the points where it meets the parabola y 2 = ax are parallel to the //axis.
(See figure in Chapter XXVI.)
32. Show that the sum of the intercepts on the coordinate axes of the
tangent line at any point to the parabola x^ + ifi = a* is constant and
equal to a. (See figure in Chapter XXVI.)
'> 10 or'
and when = ON ~~
x 4\ in.,
its point, of contact T is greater than any other ordinate. Hence this
observation One of the inscribed rectangles has evidently a greater area
:
than any of the others. In other words, we may infer from this that
the function defined by (1) has a maximum value. cannot find We
this value (= 7/7") exactly by measurement, but
very easy to it is
find by the calculus. We
observed that at T the tangent was
horizontal hence the slope will be zero at that point
;
(Art. 42). To
find the abscissa of T we then find the derivative of A with
respect
to x from (1), place it equal to zero, and solve for x. Thus we have
(1) = arVlOO  2
.4 jc' ,
432

and Area of four sides = 4 .r// sq. ft. Hence
(2) M= x'
2
+
isa formula giving the number of square feet required in any such box
having a capacity of 108 cu. ft. Draw a graph of (2), as in the figure.
50 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
What do we learn from the graph ?
(2) has a minimum value. Let us find this point on the graph ex
actly, using the calculus. Differentiating (2) to get the slope at any
point, we have
dM 9r 
432
+' *
j
<<"
rr
ax x2
The fact that a least value of M exists is also shown by the follow
ing reasoning. Let the base increase from a very small square to a
very large one. In the former case the height must be very great and
therefore the amount of lumber required will be large. In the latter
case, while the height is small, the base will take a great deal of
lumber. Hence M
varies from a large value, grows less, then in
creases again to another large value. It follows, then, that the graph
must have a "lowest" point corresponding to the dimensions which
require the least amount of lumber and therefore would involve the
least cost.
We will now proceed to the treatment in detail of the subject of
maxima and minima.
45. Increasing and decreasing functions.* Tests. A function y =f(x)
is said to be an increasing function if y increases (algebraically) when
x increases. A
function y f(x) is said to be a decreasing function
if y decreases (algebraically) as x increases.
The graph of a function indicates plainly whether it is increasing
or decreasing. For instance, consider the graph in Fig. a, p. 51.
increasing ;
(b) from x = 1 to x = 2 the function is de
creasing ;
negative.
f (x] is positive.
We may then state the conditions in general for maximum and
minimum values of /Or).
/(jc) is a maximum if /'(*)
= and /'(*) changes sign from + to .
sliglitly less than the corresponding critical value, and then one
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 53
slightly greater. If the first sign is and the second then the + ,
When x <  +.
1, /'(*) = ()()
When
x 1, f'(jr) (+)()  .
> 
Hence /(r) has a maximum value when x ~ 1. By the
table, this value is ?/=/(!)
= 2.
Next, test y = 2. Proceed as before, taking values of x now near
the critical value 2.
W henf
< 2, /'(/)  (+)()  .
.r
47. First method for examining a function for maximum and mini
mum values. Working rule.
SECOND STEP.
are the critical values of the variable.
equation for real roots. These roots
THIRD STEP. Considering one critical value at a time, test the first
*
derivative, first for a value a trifle less and then for a value a trifle greater
than the critical value. If the sign of the derivative is first and then , +
the has a maximum value for that particular critical value of the
function
variable; but if the reverse is true,
then it has a minimum value. If the
has neither.
sign does not change, the function
"
* In this connection the term "little less/' or trifle less," means any value between the
"
next smaller root (critical value) and the one under consideration and the term little ;
A = xVlOO x 2
that the rectangle of maximum area inscribed in a circle of radius 5 in. con
tained 50 8(4. in. This may now be proved analytically as follows by applying the
above rule.
100  2 X2
r, ,
First Step.
a, ///
f'(x)
N
=
VI 00 x 2
Second Step. Setting f'(x) 0, we have
x^r 5 \ '2 = 7.07,
which is the critical value. Only the positive sign of the radical is taken, since,
from the nature of the problem, the negative sign has no meaning.
Third Slcp. When x < 5\"2, then 2 x' < 100, and /'(x) is K
When x > 5\ then 2 x 2 > 100, and f (xj is .
,
Since the sign of the first derivative changes from + to the function has a ,
Second Step, (x
 l)(x + 1) (5 x  1) = 0. 2
= 5()(+) = .
"
When x < 1, /'(x)
2
(f )
Therefore, when x \ the function has a maximum value /(J) =1.11 (= ordi
nate of B).
Examine lastly the critical value = 1 (A in
x figure).
FIG. d
f(x) is continuous and has a maximum value, but /'(a*) becomes in
finite,since the tangent line at B is parallel to the //axis. At E, f(x)
has a minimum value, and /'(/) again becomes infinite. In our dis
cussion of all possible maximum and minimum values of /(j), we
must therefore include as critical values also those values of x for
which /'(x) becomes infinite, or, what is the same thing, values of x
satisfying
The Second Step of the rule of the preceding section must then
be modified as indicated by (1 ). The other steps are unchanged.
In Fig. d above, note that /'(/) also becomes infinite at A, but the
function is neither a maximum nor a minimum at A.
2b
Hence, when x = c = OM, the function has a maximum value /(c) = a = MP.
56 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
PROBLEMS
Examine each of the following functions for maximum and minimum
values.
1. r {
6 x2 + 9 x. Ans. x = 1, gives max. = 4.
x = 3, gives min. = 0.
2. 10 + 12 .r
 3 jr
2  2 jr
1
. a = 1, gives max. = 17.
x 2, gives min. = 10.
3. 2 :r
{
+ 3 j*
2
f 12 .r 4. No max. or min.
4. /< + 2.r 2  15 j* 20.
5. 2 .r
2
.r
4
. a* = 0, gives min. = 0.
x 1, gives max. = 1.
7. r4  j'
2
+ 1.
8. 3 .r
4  4 ^  12 .r
2
. a= 1, gives min. = 5.
x = 0, gives max. = 0.
x = 2, gives min. 32.
9. x* 5 r 4
. x = 0, gives max. = 0.
x = 4, gives min. = 256.
10. 3 JT*
 20 jr
3
.
2 rr*
11. j2 + ^__. x a, gives min. = 3 a2 .
12. 2,
g
a4
13. r2 + a: = a, gives min. = 2 a2 .
a*
22
4 a x = a, gives max. = .
15.
16 
^+ a*
T 2 4 rr
"
17.
x ,
+ ^
1Q /O
ID. v^2/1 I o*^2 .
^~T~Uy ^JL U^
19. (2 + x) 2
(l
 x)*.
2
20. ?> + r(j* a) . x = a, gives min. = 6.
23. a(a +
2
(a
 x)*.r) =  a, gives max. = 0. .r
= \ a, gives min. = ~ jj a .r ft
.
j* o, gives neither.
24. (2 a:
 a)*(j
 a)*. x  gives max. =
J a, J a.
r = a, gives min. = 0.
* i <*> gives neither.
25 '
3* + 2
'
x ~ 0, gives max.  J.
:r
2
f 2 j + 4 J =  4, gives min. = J.
26
^2 + ^ + 4 T gives
.'i, max. ~  5.
^ ~f~ 1 u* 1, gives min. ,'{.
^ 2 f r + 4 a = *J,gives max. =
27 *
.3.
(.r 
_
a f />
.
/>
 >
. .
a f b a
.
(a 
gives max. =
a
3
on
30. ^(a x)
_^_. x = a .
givers mm. =
. .,
*? a
7
2
o
.
a 2 x
x2 x f 1
General directions
(b) // tho resulting expression contains more than one variable, the
conditions of the problem will furnish enough relations between the vari
ables so that all may be expressed in terms of a single one.
58 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(c) To the resulting function of a single variable apply the above rule
(p. 53) for finding maximum and minimum values.
from a square piece of tin whose side is a, by cutting equal squares out
of the corners and then folding up the tin to form the sides. What should
be the length of a side of the squares cut out ?
and volume is V= (a 2 x) 2 j,
which is the function to be made a maximum by varying x.
rtV
First Step. ~ = (a
 2 x) 2  4 x(a  2 x} = a2  8 ax + 12 x 2 .
It is evident from the figure that x =  must give a minimum, for then all the
tin would be cut away, leaving no material out of which to make a box. By the usual
test, x is found to give a maximum volume  Hence the side of the square to
jj
Depth = \ j{
of diameter of log,
2(hx)y.
But since P lies on the parabola y 2 = 2px, the function to
be tested is
f(x) = 2(hx)\f2px.
AUK. Width =  h.
TT A\
f(y) ^ y*(2 r y).
2
f(y)=y2 y(hy}
.
Ans. Altitude =  h.
60 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
6. If three sides of a trapezoid are each 10 in. long, how long must the
fourth side be if the area is a maximum? Ans. 20 in.
8. A
rectangular garden to be laid out along a neighbor's lot and is
is
to contain 432 sq. rd. If the neighbor pays for half the dividing fence,
what should be the dimensions of the garden so that the cost to the owner
of inclosing it may be a minimum? Ans. 18 rd. x 24 rd.
JT= 1001:
Show that the manufacturer should produce only about 25 instruments per
week for maximum profit.
T2 = 2500  20 p.
How many instruments should be produced each week for maximum profit?
2
12. The producing x articles per week is (ax
total cost of f bx f c)
_ Va 2
f 3aqi b)
 a
x
3 a
by the government. The manufacturer adds the tax to his cost and de
termines the output and price under the new conditions.
(a) Show that the price increases by a little less than half the tax.
(b) Express the receipts from the tax in terms of / and determine the
tax for maximum return.
(c) When the tax determined in (b) is imposed, show that the price is
government, and the price (p dollars) at which each can be sold is p = p ax.
Show that the tax brings in the maximum return when t = J(/3 b) and
that the increase in price is always less than the tax.
A
steel
15. steel plant is
n 1
18. What should be the diameter of a tin can holding 1 qt. (58 cu. in.)
and requiring the least amount of tin (a) if the can is open at the top?
(b) if the can has a cover?
Ans. (a) vV
v = 5.29 in. ; (b) ; = 4.20 in.
\ 7T \ 7T
19. The lateral surface of a right circular cylinder is 4 TT sq. ft. From
the cylinder iscut a hemisphere whose diameter equals the diameter of
the cylinder. Find the dimensions of the cylinder if the remaining volume
is a maximum or minimum. Determine whether it is a maximum or a
minimum. .4//s. Radius 1 ft., altitude = 2 ft. ; maximum.
20. Find the area of the largest rectangle with sides parallel to the
coordinate axes which can be inscribed in the figure bounded by the two
12  s and 6 //  s  12.
2
parabolas 3 //
Ans. 16.
21. Two vertices of a rectangle are on the .raxis. The other two vertices
are on the lines whose equations are y 2 jr arid 3 jc f y 30. For what
value of y will the area of the rectangle be a maximum? Am. y 6.
 mx  m
"
x
26. The equation of the path of a ball is y ", where
800
the origin is taken at the point from which the ball is thrown and is the m
slope of the curve at the origin. For what value of m will the ball strike
(a) at the greatest distance along the same horizontal level? (b) at the
greatest height on a vertical wall 300 ft. away? Ans. (a) 1 (b) $. ;
light when the sides of the rectangle are equal to the sides of the right
triangle.
28. The sum of the surfaces of a sphere and a cube being given, show
that the sum of their volumes will be least when the diameter of the sphere
is equal to the edge of the cube. When will the sum of the volumes be
greatest ?
29. Find the dimensions of the largest rectangle which can be inscribed
30. Find the area of the largest rectangle which can be drawn with
its base on the .raxis and with two vertices on the witch w hose equation r
*
8ff>
is ?/
= .,
(See figure in Chapter XXVI.) Ans. 4 a 2 .
ir* f 4 a2
31. Find the ratio of the area of the smallest ellipse that can be cir
cumscribed about a rectangle to the area of the rectangle. The area of an
ellipse is irab, where a and b are the semiaxes. Ans.  TT
( and (6, 0). The two upper vertices lie on the curve jc 2 + 4 y
6, 0) 36.
Find the area of the largest trapezoid which can be drawn in this way.
Ans. 64.
33. The distance between the centers of two spheres of radii a and b,
36. Prove that a conical tent of agiven capacity will require the least
amount of canvas when the height is V2 times the radius of the base.
Show that when the canvas is laid out flat it will be a circle with a sector
of 152 9' cut out. How much canvas would be required for a tent 10 ft.
high? Ans. 272 sq. ft.
2
37. Given a point on the axis of the parabola 2 px at a distance a ?/
from the vertex find the abscissa of the point on the curve nearest to it.
;
A HK. JT = a p.
38. Find the point on the curve 2 y = x2 which is nearest to the point
(4, 1). Am. (2, 2).
h f tan
is the angle of friction and h is the pitch of the screw. Find // for maximum
efficiency. 4ns. h = sec tan 6.
The distance between two sources of heat A and /?, with intensi
41.
tiesa and b respectively, is I. The total intensity of heat at a point P
between A and B is given by the formula
~ \" /
where x is the distance of P from A. For what position of P will the tem
perature be lowest ? a ij 
Ans. x = T
(1) y = r2
gave as the ratio of corresponding increments
(3. .
Then, we say, the average rate of change of y with respect to x
when jr increases from x
equals 8.5 4 to x = 4.5.
In general, the ratio
(B) f
= instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x for a
definite value of x.
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 65
(o) ,
^ Z x.
When x = 4, the instantaneous rate of change of y is 8 units per
unit change in x. The word "instantaneous" is often dropped in (B).
(6) #=/(*)
be drawn, as in the figure. When x in
creases from OM
to OA7 then y increases ,
of P when the point moves from P to P', during the time interval A.
If P moves with uniform motion (constant velocity), the above ratio
will have the same value for every interval of time and is the velocity
at any instant.
66 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
For the general case of any kind of motion, uniform or not, we
define the velocity (timerate of change of s) at any instant as the limit
of the average velocity as At approaches zero as a limit ; that is,
<o .
The velocity at any instant distance (= space)
is the derivative of the
Our notion of velocity tells at once that (3) does not give us the
actual velocity at the end of two seconds for even if we take At very ;
small, say o y or nuio of a second, (3) still gives only the average
, (
locity at the end of two seconds is, from (3), 64.4 feet per second.
Thus even the everyday notion of velocity which we get from experi
ence involves the idea of a limit, or, in our notation,
/ As\
v = lim )= 64.4 ft. per second.
AioVAt/
VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 67
PROBLEMS
1. A man is walking at the rate of 5 mi. per hour toward the foot of
a tower 60 ft.high. At what rate is he approaching the top when he is
First Step. Draw the figure. Let x distance of the man from the foot, and
y = his distance from the top, of the tower at any instant.
y
y = x2 + 3600.
**%=**%'<*
m
U '
4y
dt
= xdx
y dt'

This means that at any instant whatever
& = _ JjL
80f
dt~3
.. dt
Fourth Step. x = 6.
~2 ft. per second.
dt
^ = ~o x 2 = 4
at
ft. per second. Ans.
From the first result we note tliat at the point / J (G, 6) the ordinate changes twice
as rapidly as the abscissa.
If we consider the point /"( t>, 6) instead, the result is = 4 ft P^r second,
the minus sign indicating that the ordinate is decreasing
as the abscissa increases.
3. A
circular plate of metal expands by heat so
that radius increases at the rate of 0.01 in. per
its
That is, at any instant the area of the plate is increasing in square inches 2 ?nr
times as fast as the radius is increasing in linear inches.
Substituting in (U),
lengthening when he is walking away from the light at the rate of 168 ft.
per minute?
Solution. Let x = distance of the boy from a point directly under the light L,
and y length of boy's shadow. From the figure,
y :
y + x =5 :
12,
or y = 8 x.
T^. .. ,. t/v 5 dx
Differentiating, '
d/ 7 d/
5. A
point moves along the parabola //' 12 jc in such a way that its =
abscissa increases uniformly at the rate of 2 in. per second. At what point
do the abscissa and ordinate increase at the same rate? Ans. (3, 6).
6. Find the values of .r for which the rate of change of
^ 12 jc
2
+ 45 .r
 13
is zero. /b/.s\ 3 and 5.
A
barge whose deck is 12 ft. below the level of a dock is drawn up
7.
to it by means
of a cable attached to a ring in the floor of the dock, the
cable being hauled in by a windlass on deck at the rate of 8 ft. per minute.
How fast is the barge moving towards the dock when 10 ft. away?
Ann. 10 ft. per minute.
above the which the rope is attached to the boat. The boat is
level at
drifting away at the rate of 8 ft. per second. How fast is it unwinding the
rope when 30 ft. from the point directly under the windlass?
Ann. ().Gf) ft. per second.
10. One ship was sailing south at the rate of 6 mi. per hour; another
east at the rate of 8 mi. per hour. At 4 P.M. the second crossed the track
of the first where the first was 2 hr. before, fa) How was the distance
between the ships changing at 3 P.M. ? fb) How at 5 P.M. ? (c) When was
the distance between them not changing ?
Ans. (a) Decreasing 2.8 mi. per hour; (b) increasing
8.73 mi. per hour; (c) 3.17 P.M.
70 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
11. The side of an equilateral triangle is o in. long, and is increasing at
the rate of k in. per hour. How
fast is the area increasing?
12. The edges of a regular tetrahedron are 10 in. long and are increasing
at the rate of 0.1 in. per minute. Find the rate of increase of the volume.
13. If at a certain instant the two dimensions of a rectangle are a and 6
and these dimensions are changing at the rates ra, n respectively, show that r
the rate at which // must change to keep the volume of the solid fixed at
the instant when r is 10 in. and Jt is 20 in.
19. A stone is dropped down a' deep shaft and after t sec. another stone
is dropped. Show that, the distance between the stones increases at the
rate of ty ft. per second.
20. A
gas holder contains 1000 cu. ft. of gas at a pressure of 5 Ib. per
square inch. If the pressure is decreasing at the rate of 0.05 Ib. per square
inch per hour, find the rate of increase of the volume. (Assume Boyle's
Law pv = c.)
: Ans. 10 cu. ft. per hour.
21.The adiabatic law for the expansion of air is PV IA = C. If at a
given time the volume is observed to be 10 cu. ft. and the pressure is
50 Ib. per square inch, at what rate is the pressure changing if the volume
is decreasing 1 cu. ft. per second?
^ ?r/r
!
the segment.)
24. Gas is escaping from a spherical balloon at the rate of 1000 cu. in.
per minute. At the instant when the radius is 10 in., (a) at uhat rate is the
radius decreasing? (b) at what rate is the surface decreasing?
AUK. (b) 200 sq. in. per minute.
25. If r denotes the radius of a sphere, tf the surface, and V the volume,
x, , ,. dV = rdS
prove the relation
dt 2 dt
60 mi. per hour. An automobile is 500 ft. from the intersection and moving
toward it at the rate of 30 mi. per hour. What is the rate of change of the 1
27. A horizontal trough 10 ft. long has a vertical section in the shape of
an isosceles right triangle. If water is poured into it at the rate of H cu. ft.
per minute, at what rate is the surface of the water rising when the water
is 2 ft. deep? Aws. I ft. per minute.
28. In Problem 27, at what rate must water be poured into the trough
to make the level rise I ft. per minute when the water is 3 ft. deep ?
29. A horizontal trough 12 ft. long has a vertical cross section in the
shape of a trapezoid, the bottom being 3 ft. wide and the sides inclined to
the vertical at an angle whose sine is ;?. Water is being poured into it at
the rate of 10 cu. ft. per minute. How fast is the water level rising when
the water is 2 ft. deep?
30. In Problem 29, at what rate is water being drawn from the trough
if the level is falling 0.1 ft. per minute when the water is 3 ft. deep ?
31. ^intercept of the tangent line to the positive branch of the
The
hyperbola xy = 4 is increasing 3 units per second. Let the //intercept be
OB. Find the velocity of B at the end of 5 sec., the xintercept starting at
the origin. Am. f unit per second.
32. A
point P moves along the parabola y x so that its abscissa in 2
through the fixed point (//, k). Find the equation of the ellipse if its area
is a minimum. Am. k 2 jr 2 + h'2 y 2 2 h 2k 2 .
$52,500 for the second, $55,000 for the third, and so on. Other expenses
(lot, plans, basement, etc.) are $350,000. The net annual income is $5000
for each story. How many stories will give the greatest rate of interest on
the investment? Am. 17.
6. For a certain article the increase in the number of pounds consumed
which is perpendicular to the wall. A man 6 ft. tall is walking on the path
toward the wall at the rate of 2 ft. per second. When he is 4 ft. from the
wall, how fast is the shadow of his head moving up the wall ?
Am. f ft. per second.
CHAPTER VI
V  3 r>,
<LM ._ 19
i^
~3
x
, ,
ax
dx\ drv/.r
= , _
 ,
. . .
,
 .
dxn
I/''
= 36 x 2 T/'" = 72 r, ?y w = 72 is most convenient.
,
= a2 62
(1) b 2x 2 a 2 ?/ 2 .
73
74 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Differentiating with respect to x (Art. 41),

2 b*x 2 a'2 y
^= 0,
(9)
^L ^ 
dx ay
_
d~y
dx*
^ its
^ dx
., ,i, /fcVN
4
a 4 '// r/ v/
;{
PROBLEMS
Prove each of the following differentiations.
2. = >/" + W. ^~
"'*
8(af6/)^
iL^!___.
2
\LJ.y^. .
d
*j< // __
__
4 a?>
3_ y
(i bx dx'2 (a b.
2
d~u a
4. //
_/~~
Va 2
;
f r .
r;

fi\~
=
dl
(a' + r
2
5. //
= dy _ 2 a'
(i + r dx'2 (a + x)
3
6. =
'2 t h 1
r< *?
7. f(s) =
8. y =
.rfl
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION AND APPLICATIONS 75
9. j*
2
f */
2 = r 2.
<ir 2 y3
2
= d' 4 a2
10. y
2
4 ru*. y __ _
dx'2 //*
11. fc.r
2
f a 2
//
2 = a' b 2 2
.
a 4 ?/'
12. or' f 2 Jixy f fy/ 2 1.
(//.r f by)*'
13. JT* + ?/
:{
^ 1.
djr
14. .r + 2 T2^2 
= 
a4 .
V
2
</.r
In Problems 15 25 find the values of //' and //'' for the given values of
the variables.
16. ;//
= V25  3 x j = 3. ;
17. ?/
= x Vx 2 + 9 = 4. ;
j*
18. j
24 2=9 = 5, = 2.
?/ ;
j ?/
x2 f 3 = x = 2, =
2
19. f 4 xy 4 z/ ; ?/
21. ?/
= Vl 4 2 J; j =
22. ?/
= 4 ;
x = 2. 24. ?/
2
+ 2 .r/y
= 1 G ; .r = 3, y ^ 2.
23. ?/
= 2 ; x = 25. .r'
{  .r/y
2
f //"
= 8 ;
x 2, y = 2.
In each of the following problems find
29. y jVr/"' x 2
.
30. //
2  4 xy
 If).
27. ?/ 2
a 2 31. x :i  3 ajry f ?y
:{
= ?>
3
.
a: H
28. T/
= V2  3 a:.
56. Second method for testing for maximum and minimum values.
At A a of the preceding section, the arc is concave upward,
in Fig.
and the ordinate has a minimum value. That is, /'(x) = and /"(/)
is positive. At B in Fig. b, f'(x) and f"(x) is negative.
We may then state the sufficient conditions for maximum and
minimum values of f(x) for critical values of the variable as follows
M = x~ f
x
found in the example worked out on page 49.
Solution. /(;r)=.r
2
+
439
First Step. f(x)=2x~>
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION AND APPLICATIONS 77
Second Step. ;
^=.
x = 6, critical value.
Third Step.
Second Step. 3 x2  6 x  9 = ;
PROBLEMS
Examine each of the following functions for maxima and minima.
1. x 3
4 3 x 2  2. An*. JT  2, gives max. 2.
x ~ 0, gives min. 2.
2. x3  3 x + 4. x 1 gives max.
,
6.
x = 1, gives min. = 2.
3. 2 x3  3 ox 2 4 a 3 .
(a ; 0) x 0, gives max. a3 ,
x = a, gives min. = 0.
5. 3 x  2 x 2   x \, gives max. = \.
jr  gives min.
,
= $.
6. 3 x 4  4 x 3  12 x 2
4 2. x = 0, gives max. = 2.
x = 1, gives min.
=
3.
7. x4  4 x2 f 4. x = 0, gives max. 4.
11. x 2 (x4) 2 .
13. x
78 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
14. A rectangular box with a square base and an open top is to be made.
Find the volume of the largest box that can be made from 1200 sq. ft. of
material. Ans. 4000 cu. ft.
15. A
water tank is to be constructed with a square base and an open
top, and to hold 125 cu. yd. If the cost of the sides is $2 a square yard,
is
and of the bottom $4 a square yard, what are the dimensions when the
cost is a minimum? Ans. A cube of edge 5 yd,
16. A rectangular flower bed
is to contain 800 sq. ft. It is to be sur
rounded by a walk which wide along the sides and 6 ft. wide across
is 3 ft.
the endtt. If the total area of the bed and walk is a minimum, what are the
dimensions of the flower bed? Ans. 20 ft. x 40 ft.
17. A rectangular field to contain a given area is to be fenced off along
the bank of a straight river. If no fence is needed along the river, show that
the least amount of fencing will be required if the field is twice as long as
it is wide.
18. A trough is to be made of a long rectangular piece of tin by bending
piece is 14 in., how deep should the trough be made in order that its carry
ing capacity may be a maximum? Ans. 3.5 in.
mum amount of light. An*. Rectangle is 3.51 ft. wide and 2.23 ft. high.
20. A solid wooden sphere weighs ?/> Ib. What is the weight of the
heaviest right circular cylinder which can be cut from the sphere?
Ans. r^lb.
V3
21. The slant height of a right circular cone is a given constant a.
Find the altitude if the volume is a maximum. A a
ri/io. 7^
V3
22. An oil can is to be made in the shape of a cylinder surmounted by a
cone. for a given capacity the least material is required
Show that if the
altitude of the cylinder is equal to the altitude of the cone.
23. Ciiven the parabola // = 8 jc and the point P(6, 0) on the axis, find
2
the coordinates of the points on the parabola nearest to P. Ans. (2, 4).
25. A
miner wishes to dig a tunnel from a point A to a point B 200 ft.
below and 600 ft. to the east of A. Below the level of A it is bed rock and
above A is soft earth. If the cost of tunneling through earth is $5 and
through rock is $13 per linear foot, find the minimum cost of a tunnel.
Ans. $5400.
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION AND APPLICATIONS 79
26. A sheet of paper for a poster is to contain 16sq. ft. The margins
at the top and the bottom are to be (\ in., and those on the sides 4 in.
What are the dimensions if the printed area is to be a maximum?
.4 MS. 1.90ft. x 3.27 ft,
The student should observe that near a point where the curve is
concave upward (as at A) the curve lies above the tangent, and at
a point where the curve is concave downward (as at C) the curve
lies below the tangent. At a point of inflection (as at B) the tangent
bending.
1. 77
=3 j
4  4 x3 + 1.
Third Step.
. x 3 and x
/"(x) =36T(x
are the roots.
I).
tl
When x < 0,/"(x) = +.
When 3 >x> 0,/"(x) = .
Therefore the curve is concave upward to the left and concave downward to
the right of x (A in figure).
When ()<x < 3,/"(x) = .
When x > l,f"(x) = f.
Then^fore the curve is concave downward to the left and concave upward to
the right of x = (/ in figure).
rj
Hence the points .4(0, 1) and B($, \\] are points of inflection.
Th*> curve is evidently concave upward everywhere to the left of 4, concave
downward between ,4(0, 1) and (, A}), and concave upward everywhere to
the right of B.
2. (y2}*= (jr4).
Solution. y =2 f (x  4)*.
Second Step. When x = 4, both first and second derivatives become infinite.
W hen x >
T
4, ^=
dr 2
.
8. 2/=24x 2
x4
. 9. ?/^x +
1
.
'
* x
the second derivative determines the intervals within which the curve
isconcave upward or concave downward, and the points of inflection
separate these intervals; the maximum points are the high points,
and the minimum points are the low points on the curve. As a guide
in his work the student may follow the
FIRST STEP. Find the first derivative; place it equal to zero; solve
to find the abscissas of the maximum and minimum points. Test these
values.
SECOND STEP. Find the second derivative; place it equal to zero;
solve to find the abscissas of the points of inflection. Test these values.
THIRD STEP. Calculate the corrcspomling ordinates of the points
whose abscissas were found in the first two steps. Calculate as many
82 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
more points as may be necessary to (jive a good idea of the shape of the
curve. Make a table such as is shown in tlie problem worked out below.
FOURTH STEP. Plot the points determined and sketch in the curve to
correspond with the results shown in the table.
reduce the scale on the ?/axis so that the general shape of the curve
will be shown within the limits of the paper used. Coordinate plot
PROBLEMS
Truce the following curves, making use of the above rule. Also find
the e([iiations of the tangent and normal at each
point of inflection.
1. y rr .r
:{  9 jr
2
4 1M x  7.
Fourth Step. Plotting the points and sketching in the curve, we get the figure
shown.
To find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve at the point of
/V3,
inflection 11), use formulas (1), (2\ Art. 43. This gives 3 x + y 20 for the
tangent and 3 ?/ x 30 for the normal.
2. ;] //
= .r<
 3 x'2  9 x f 11.
J
An*. Max. ( 1, /); min. (3, \f)point of inflection,
;
(1, 0) ;
tangent, 4 jc + y 4 ; normal, .r 4 // 1 = 0.
3. 6 y = VI  24 x  15 :r
2  2 j\
A//S. Max. ( 1, ^) min.: ( 4,
 5) ; point of inflection,
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION AND APPLICATIONS 83
4. y = x4  8 x2 .
*?Ti
Am. Max. (V3, V3) ; min. ( ~ V3,  V3 )
; points of inflection,
(3, ij), (0, 0), (3, H).
7. ?/
=
+6 /< .T
2
. 18. (I If ^ .r + 
8. ?/
=
4 + 3  .r .r<.
9. 3 = 4 .r<  18 r 2 +
?/ 15 x. 19 ''//
^ .'"' f ~
10. ?/
= O  a) f b. :*
11. 12 =  I)  24
// (.r
1
(.r 1)2. 20. a'//
^ .r< f
^,.
12. //
= r (9  2
r
L>
).
13. ?/
=2  5 2 .r> .r . 21. //
=   "' 
.,
.r 1 1 a
14. //
= 3  5 .r\ .r>
15. ?/
= .r  5 r>
.r
1
. 22. ?/
  '' 
(.r f <i)
16. y = jr(s  4)
2
.
4 23. 1
.r '//  (.r' { 1 )'.
(h
From (C), Art. 51, we obtain also, since v *
Referring to Arts. 45, 47, and 56, we have the following criteria
which apply to a definite instant / = / :
8 = 16.1 1
2
,
v = = 32.2 t, <* = = 32.2.
PROBLEMS
1. By experiment it has been found that a hody falling freely from rest
in a vacuum near the earth's surface follows approximately the law
s
~ 16.1 t 2 where = space (height) in feet, t time in seconds. Find
,
=
the velocity and acceleration (a) at any instant; (b) at end of the first
second (c) at end of the fifth second.
;
(a) Differentiating,
~ = 32.2
ds
t,
or, from (C), Art. 51, (2) v  32.2 / ft. per second.
which us that the acceleration of a falling body is constant in other words, the
tells ;
velocity increases 32.2 ft. per second every second it keeps on falling.
(b) To find and </ at the end of the first second, substitute / 1 in (2) and (3).
(c) To find rand a at the end of the fifth second, substitute t = 5 in (2) and (3).
2. * 4 1 ~ (> t ;
f 2. AUK. * 4, r 10, a = 8.
3. .s
= 120 {
 lf> t' ; / = 4. * =   8, a = 
224, r 32.
4. .r
 32 /
 8 /' ; / = 2. s = 32, r = 0, a =  16.
5. //
= (J /'
 2 t'
{
;
t = 1. y = 4, r = 6, a = 0.
7. / = 16 t'
2  20 / f 4; / = 2.
8. //
= 100  4 /
 8 /
2
; / = 3.
9. * = V5/ f ; ^ = 5.
V5f
10. * = \
7
3 / 4 2 ; / = 2.
SUCCESSIVE DIFFERENTIATION AND APPLICATIONS 85
In the following problems find the acceleration at the instant indicated.
= !()/; = 2. +
2 1
12. r 4 / / 6. /
14. * = 16  64 + 04.
/
2
/ AHS. s = 0, a = 32.
15. *= 120 / 16 /
J
.
Pt 20 ~.
17. ,s 5/4
16. * = 3 c*t  /'. * + 1
,s
= 80 / If) /.
Find (a) its position and velocity after 2 sec. and after 3 sec. ; (b) how
high it will rise; (c) how far it will move in the fourth second.
moved during the fourth second and during the sixth second.
A car makes a trip in 10 min. and moves according to the law
22.
,s =
250 f2 t\ where is measured in minutes and
:\
in feet. Ca) How far
/
does the car go? (b) What is its maximum speed? (c) How far has the
car moved when its maximum speed is reached?
Anx. (a) 12,500 ft.; (b) 1924 ft. per minute; (c) 0944 ft.
ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS
Trace the curve (4  2 x + s)tj
1. 2 x  s 2 arid find the equations ,
normal, 2 x y 4 = 0.
2. A certain curve (the tractrix) is such that the length of every tangent
from point of contact Pur, y} to
its its intersection A with the xaxis is
\ 4lL V x
d 2 ij _ c 2y
( /
4V2
CHAPTER VII
XI ^(a")
= a"lna^
dx dx
XI a
f <"> = ?
dx dx
XII 4. <!")
= 1*1"
1^ + inu.u*^.
dx dx dx
d dv
XIV
, , = sin v 
^ (cos v)
XV (tan v) sec 2 v
c?x dx
dx clx
86
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 87
dv
XXII 4 (a1
"
^n v) = 7^
dx 1 f ^
dv
XXV ~
(arc csc ") =
(1) Km
x >
(1 + ar = 2.71828 .
exists is beyond the scope of this book. For the present we shall
content ourselves with plotting the locus of the equation
(2) y=(l + xf
and showing graphically that as x the function (1 + x) x (= y) +
If .r ==
0, A =
r
1, and In 1  0. If x = 1, AT = e, and In e = 1.
If j,
_._ _ oo^ (h en ,\
T

0, and we write In = oo.
(4) 10" = A or //
= log N. T
_ log W
~~
log e
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 89
(c = 2.718 )
(2) y = In y.
f
The functions e and In y are inverse functions
(3) y  In y,
(4) lim In x = In a.
x*a
When x >
0, then y *
oo, as remarked above. The ?yaxis is an
asymptote in the graph.
The functions a x and log,, x (a > 0) have the same properties as
r
e and In x and graphs similar to the above.
90 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
63. Differentiation of a logarithm.
Let y = In v. (v > 0)
By(2),p.l
THIRD STEP. ^=
A?'
iin
A/?
A
\
+ r /
)
L r J
P,v(2),p.l
FOURTH STEP. ~ ^  in r = 
a." r /;
When Ar*0,
r
 0. Honco lim
Ar(A
fl + '
V
/
}?
= r, by]
(1), Art. 61. FsiiiK (1), Art. (>2, wo havc the result. J
dy_ _ dy_
(ir
<7,r dv di
we
Substituting the value of ^ from the result of the Fourth Step,
get
dv
d
v
X ,.
(In v)
.
= dx
= 1 dv
dx v v dx
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 91
v
Xa
dx v dx
Let //
=a 1
.
(a > 0)
r = lM = L.ln V .
In a In a
^^_La .1. In
(/// y
*="*
or
(1) ^ = lnaa".
tfV
r
Since ?? is a function of .r and
required to differentiate a with
it is
dv
dii
~ = In a
i
a'
.,
y
aa* ax
XI /. (a^)lna^ ax 
ax
product of the natural logarithm of the constant, the constant with the
variable exponent, a,nd the derivative of the exponent.
92 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
65. Differentiation of the general exponential function. Proof of the
Power Rule
Let y = u''. (n > 0)
In '//
= v In u t
Differentiating by formula XI a,
^ = <'"" 4 ("ton)
ax ax
to
u
+ nw.rfr\
l byVandX
(Ijr (Is/
<' s+""s 1
sum of the two results obtained bij first differentiating by VI, regarding
the
the exponent as eonstant, and ayam differentiating by XI, regarding
f (,,")
= WM "
i^.
rf.r rf^
Thus we have shown that the Power Rule VI holds true for any
value of the constant n.
2
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE 1. Differentiate y In (:r 4 a).
Arts.
x2 + a
2 x '
2,
= log 2 r  log (1 + J 2 ).
Then
lhen ^= o j.
_ EJL (i + a2) bylllandXfl
dx 2 j dx l+x 2
<te
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 93
= 6 x In a a**'. Ans.
4 z2
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE 4. Differentiate y be^ .
Solution. &= b 4 (c
r
*
* * 2
) J IV
by
dx dx
= be
fy
+**(c*+x 2
) by XL a
T
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE 5. Differentiate y = .r' .
T
Solution. 3^ = fz'' '  (.r) + r' In z (r
1
) by XII
dx dx dx
= (^x^ l
f x'
J
In a* <'
Ans.
Solution. By using (2), p. 1, we may write this in a form free from radicals, as
follows :

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE 2. Differentiate y In
'
y = i [In (1 + *2 )  In (1
 ;
A
Then i*
=   I
by III and X
dx J
In y = e r In x. By (2), p. 1
or
dx
In y  (2 4 vV~'  5 ) In (4 xj  7 ).
rfj:
= ( 2 f V^^5) L

4 j i
f l n (4 r2  7)
4 j'
 7
In y = i[ln (J
 1) + In (x  2)  In (x  3)
 In (x  4)].
i^/ = ir_i_ ,
_! i
L
ydx 2[arl j2 x3 x~4
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 95
PROBLEMS
Differentiate each of the following functions.
2. ?,
= In (a.r> + 6). 'A' = _JL_.
dx ox + 2
ft
3. ?/
= ln(ax + ft)'.
^ 2fl 
dx ax +
4. ?/
= In ax n .
dx
.] ..
5. y = In x :?
.
dx x
n2 x
6. y=\ri*x\= (Inx)
3
].
(
lli ~^ ^
dx x
7. = In (2 ^  x 2
+ dy __ 6 x(x 1)
ij :>>
</.r~2.r :{  3^ 2 f 4"
8. //log.
J"
^
dc
:
2
9. ?/
= In >r
d?/.
s2 dx x(l h a
2
)
^= ~
10 ln V9  ^>
.r
2 2 J
dx 92 x 2
Vl
i
>
__ i^
in /u r (// a,L r aft
.
^ (// a2  ft
2 2
/
15. f(x) = .r
2
In x 2
. = 2 y(l
f'(jc) f 2 In x).
16. y = <>"*.
^ = w .
dx
17. j/
= 10 ^ = w 10 In 10.
dx
.
y e _ xe r .
19. ?/
= .J ^ = _1. z
^ dx e
20 <? e^ ^s . f
dt 2^/1'
21. r = ft
2
''.
^=2 ft
2"
In ft.
d//
96 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
22. u = se".
dv e"(u 1)
23. v = du
u
24. /,

^
25. In (.rV)
= .
/y
ds JT
= dy _ 2 c
26. ?/
~~ry
27. 7/
= .rY '.
g= c "(2 ,**).
28. = ~(c'
1  t
a= + < :) 
// (,'
fir U"
2  4 InJ
30.*^. ^
3Lf(j )== in^il^:.
.
/'(,)=

7
==
V J f 1 f JT Vx 2
f 1
32. y == s
r
.
^^ s
'
// = r
r
'
= .r \/3 .r + a
35. ?/
3 s + a 2 x
J
= V4 +
2 1 ,
>r
36. y
mb
37. //
= .r"
^^a
In Problems 38 47 find the value of ^ for the given value of x.
39. /y
= log (4  3); .r J
= 0.3474.
'
40. y  In V.r f 3
JT ; r y'
= 1.4319.
41. y = xe
2r = J. \
.r 7/'
= 0.
.
42.
rt
7/
= In .r
2
.r = 4.4
t/'
= 0.0483.
y ;
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 97
43. y =
48. In
\i
cjc.
52. //
= In
49. ?/
= f". .r f a
50.
51.
//
= <'
x In
r
'.
a*.
53. y = ~ 
2/
54. In
58. (^
:
In V
59. 10' log/.
55.
In Va 2
jc
2
60. (ttf)'".
s 2
61. 2 ,s .
'
57. In 6$
Vl> / f 3
(1) y = sin x
i T 2
y = l
graph on page 97 : The portion of the curve for values of x from Oto2w
(arc OQBRC in the figure) may he displaced parallel to either to OX
the right or left a distance equal to any multiple of the period 2 TT, and
it will be part of the locus in its new position.
(B) hm
,.
= 1.
x > %
sin x
Therefore when x is small, the value of lies between 1 and cos x.
But when x *
0, lim cos x = cos = 1, since cos x is continuous for
x = (see Art. 17). Thus we have proved (B).
It interesting to note the behavior of this function from
is its
Let y = sin v.
By the General Rule, Art. 27, considering v as the independent
variable, we have
FIRST STEP. y + A//= sin (v + Ar).
SECOND STEP. Ay = sin (v + A?0 sin r.
Then ?, ( ( ?>
Substituting,
sin + A/0 sin v = 2 cos (v + *> Ar) sin ?, A?;.
\ \n
Hence A//
~ 2 cos
/
( ?'
+
\
sin
7^ j
sin
THIRD STEP.
Av
,2
FOURTH STEP. p = cos v.
dv
/sinf\ 
Since lim I

] 1, by Art. 68, and lim cos
V (M '
f )
coi
Ar .Ol Ar I A,. .0
(
~ in we
Substituting this value of (4), Art. 38, get
a t/
dv
~
r/v/
= cos z;
ax ax
Let y = cos v.
= sin
d du
XIV .'.
f
(cos u)
.
= .
sin v
dx dx
72. Proofs of formulas XVXIX.
These formulas are readily de
rived by expressing the function concerned in terms of other functions
whose derivatives have been found, and differentiating.
Proof of XV. Let y = tan v.
cost?
Differentiating
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS
by formula
rf^_
dx
_
cos
VII,
cos 2
dr
r
dx
r 7
dx
_ (sin r)
+ sin 2
cos
v r~
dx
sin
v
r r 1
do*
(cos r)y
101
 ^  sec 2 f
;

Using (2), p. 2
cos r dx
XV . .
dx
VM ^ ,
 ^ .
dx
To prove XVIXIX, differentiate the form as given for each of
the functions below.
XVI. ctn v = ^
XVII. sec /?  ^ XVIII. esc v = ^
tan ?> cos /> sin v
sary to apply the General Rule, Art. 27, only for the following.
TTT d f
 </'// <]P (I'M" 1
Al
III
dx
(u +v w)
^
T
as
+ d.r ,
T
dx
1
Algebraic sum.
d dv dvx
TT
V r
,
(uv)
^
=w 7 + ,
'
T"
*
,>
Product,
, ,
dr ax ax
dn dr>
VII ()=
dxv
\
'
v'
2
Quotient.
IX ~ = r  
Inverse functions,
ax ax
7
a ?/
cfe
X 4 HOK 1 = Logarithm.
ax ?;
XIII Sine,
jLfein^^eos,,^.
dx dx
Not only do all the other formulas deduced depend on these, but
all we shall deduce hereafter depend on them as well. Hence we see
102 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
that the derivation of the fundamental formulas for differentiation
involves the calculation of only two limits of any difficulty, namely,
I
and lim (1 + v) = e. v
By Art. 61
PROBLEMS
Differentiate the following functions.
1. y = sin u.r 2 .
2. ?/ tan Vl x.
x~  x)*
Solution.
^ sec' \ 1 (1 by XV
= sec \ 1
x \ ( 1 x)~ *( 1)
2 \ 1  x
3. y = cos x.3
y (cos.r)
:{
.
4. ?/
= sin ?u: sin" jc.
Solution. ^
= sin nx ~ (sin x)
n
4 sin" r ~ (sin wx) by V
Cw* fix ax
[?<
= sin ??T and r sin" a.]
5. y sin ax. y
r
= a cos or.
dn
=2 ctn  
= o ?'
esc 
dv 2
y
f
= 4 sec 4 .r tan 4 x.
c/.s
 sin 2 /
dp _ SOC L>
.H ^
d ^? S
(tan30)
dx V sec .r
/'(0) = tan 2 0.
_ cos sin
17. P  (jj) ""
To 0
19. ?/
= In sin ax. y' a ctn ax.
20. ?/
= In Vcos 2 x. T/ = tan 2 x.
21. y e
a<f
sin frx. y' = c" r
(a sin bx 4 fo cos ?>x).
22. s f
'
cos 2 /.
'
= c '(2nm 2 / f cos 2 0
X 9 X
In tan  ctn  sec 2 
/ i A
23. y 7/' .
24 . ?/
= .
/
= .
\ 1 sin x
25. f(0) = sin r0 + a) cos (6
 a). f'(0) = cos 2 (9.
29. = x
V' = ?/On cos x
 x tan x).
i/ (cos x) .
104 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Find the second derivative of each of the following functions.
2
d
~ y
30. ?/
= sin kx. Arts. k 2 sin kx.
dx 2
= =

'
33. ?/
=x cos x. ~^( 2 sin j* .r cos j.
<ir
*>/i
J^ ?/
_ sin r *
L
c/ '//
i _ 
2 x cos r
2 sin x 
x2 sin .r
.
x dx 2 x
{
d '
fc
~ 2 r' sin /.
a/
36. = r
'
sin 2 /.
^=
<//
r '(3 sin 2/44 cos 2 /).
37. y/ c
nr
sin ftj. ^
</j*"
c"
r
\
(a  />'') sin bx 4 2 a?> cos
Find 
from each of the following equations.
38. 7,
 cos (.r

sin (x //) 1
dn  1
40. cos // In (x 4 //).
dx I 4 (x 4 //) sin //
In Problems 4150 find the value of ~ for the given value of x (in
radians).
41. //
=x cos .r ; x = I. Ans. y' 1.841.
45. ?/
= sin cos 2 j1. .r ; .r ?/' 1.754.
46. ?/
= In Vtan \ :r ; .r TT. y' = 1.
48. t/
= 10c'cos TTX; x = 1. ?/'
= 3.679.
49. y = 5 f 2 s in ^ ; .r = 2. ?/'
= 21.35.
(1) ?/
= sin x.
we may read "x is the measure of an angle in radians whose sine
equals //." For a central angle in a circle with radius unity, x equals
also the intercepted arc (see Art. 2). The statement in quotation
marks is then abbreviated thus
"
read x equals an arc whose sine is //." Interchanging x and y in (2),
we obtain
and arc sin x is called the inverse xine function of :r. It is defined
for any value of x numerically less than or equal to 1. From (1)
and (2), it appears that sin x and arc sin // are inverse functions
(Art. 39).
therefore
~ By (C), Art. 39
^~
Since r is a function of .r, this may be substituted in (A), Art. 38,
_
dx cos '//
dx
os y \ 1 sin'// \ 1 rH ,
the positive si^n of tho radical bpinpf)
dx Vl  v2
dy
, . dx
XXI .. (arc cos in
dx
1
If y = arc cos J, then y' When x increases from
(2)
v = tan ?/.
Or, symbolically,
arc tan (+ oo)  \ TT,
arc tan (00) = \ IT.
(3)
sec~ y ,
dy
By (C), Art. 39
and dv sec 2 y
be substituted in (A), Art. 38,
Since v is a function of x, this may
giving dy ^
"~
1 <fo
= _j_jg..
1 + v' dx
2 2
c/x sec ?y dx
[sec
2
?/
= 1 + tan'' y = 1 + '.] *'
L
dv
XXII
108 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
y arc tan 
1 f i^
if ^^> 7T.
// ^>
therefore .
Byy (C),
v '' Artu 39
Ot7
sec y tan y
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 109
giving
^ 1 dr _ 1 (h
dx sec y tan y dx v~ 1
I sec y = r, and tan y = V sec 2 y 1 = \ r' 1, the plus sign of the radical being taken,"!
since tan y is positive for all values of y between and and between  and ~
I
^ 7T
dv
XXIV /. 
(arc sec v) =
2/
= arc esc v ;
XXV  arc
( v) =
dx  1
The function y = arc esc r is defined for all values of v except those
lying between 1 and + 1, and is manyvalued. To make the func
tion singlevalued (see figure above),
then v = vers y.
Differentiating with respect to y by XIX,
dv a v
\
* Defined only for values of r between and 2 inclusive, and manyvalued. To make
the function single valued, y is taken as the smallest positive arc whose versed sine is 0;
that is, y lies between and TT inclusive. Hence we confine ourselves to arc OP of the graph.
110 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Since v is a function of x, this may be substituted in (4), Art. 38.
K ivin 1 dv 1 dv
dji =
~ = t
Ax sin y dx V2 c
2
r' dx
~ V'l  COR
~ V]  <
1
 versv/^ = V'J r r a the plus sign of the radical!
ffjin y // ,
dv
PROBLEMS
Differentiate the following functions.
1. y arc tan ax'2 .
<((ax \ "
}
. dx byXXn
Solution.
dx 1 f (
[r

. Ans.
2. ?/
= arc sin (3 jr 4 X H
).
Solution. by XX
\ 1
 9 .r' f 24 x 4  16 x r '
vl x' 2
3. y = arc sec
~ *"
./* JL
Solution. by XXIV
x 4 1 ix + 1\
i .r^'l I
x*  1)2 j (r= 4 O2 a;
__ __ = _. __!!_. Ans.
x2 + 1
4. i/
= arc cos
a dx a2
5. y = arc sec 2! .
c
lu a
a dx xVx 2 a2
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 111
dy 1
7. y = arc sec 
__
~
dx Vl  .r
2

8. = arc esc 2 x.
</?/ 1
?/
<k* .rV4 x'2  1
.r
2
2
10. 6 = arc vers p 2 .
N? =
</p V2 p
2
dy
<iy
 o
Vl 
I .
</x 4 x2
112 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Differentiate each of the following functions.
x 
01 arc ctn 2
31.
x
0/,
36. V / :
arc sin 2 x.
arc cos V^
32. arc versa*). 37
Vx
PROBLEMS
Sketch the following curves, and find the slope at each point where
the curve crosses the axes of coordinates.
4.
?/
//
=
=
In (4
In V4 
_  JT).
x'
2
.
At
at x
(3, 0),
= 0,
m=1
m =  J.
;
5. Show that if ?/
= J,
a(r"' f c
a
), then ?/" = $
a*2
6. //
= In (.r + 1 ), y = In (7  2 x). Ans. 127 53'.
7. ?/
= In (JT + 3), y = In (5  x'2 ).
8. //
 sin xjy  cos j. 109 28'.
9. y tan j% ?/
= ctn jr. 53 8'.
10 ?/
= cos j*, ?/
= sin 2 x.
In x inflectional point, (e 2 , J e 2 ).
13. ?/
= In (8 x  x 2 ). Max. (4, In 16).
14. y = xe x . Min. ( 1,
);
inflectional point, ( 2, V
15. y =
TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 113
the speed of signaling varies as .rln Show that the greatest speed
J
is attained when JT = 1
p
Vf
17. What is the minimum value of // ac kj + be Ax
? Anx. 2Vob.
18. Find the maximum point and the points of inflection of the graph
of y = f~J
~, and draw the curve. f
Find the maximum, minimum, and inflectional points for the range
indicated, and sketch the following curves.
An*. Alax. (
1
AW.S. Min. f;
1
, TT,
 2.457); max. (J TT,
 10.11);
inflectional points, (0, 0), (TI, 4 TT).
23. i/
= 3 sin x 4 cos x ; (0 to 2 TT).
AUK. Max. (2.498, 5); min. (5.G40,  5);
inflectional points, (0.927, 0), (4.069, 0).
25. ?/
= sin TTJC cos TTJ ; (0 to 2).
m sin jc + cos jr
where m
denotes the coefficient of friction. Show that the pull is least
when tan x = m.
35. If a projectile is fired from (> so as to strike an inclined plane which
makes a constant angle cv with the* horizontal at (>, the range is given
by the formula
A ^
2 _
,,, (
.
O[
(/
,
cos

cv
(Q (v)
where ?> and y are constants and is the angle of elevation. Calculate the
value of giving the maximum range* up the plane. AHX. 9 } TT + CY. I
36. For a squareheaded screw with pitch and angle of friction </>
the
efficiency is given by the formula
__ tan
p
tan (0 + 0) +/
where / is a constant. Find the value of for maximum efficiency when
is a known constant angle.
ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS
1. The curves ?/
= jr In .r and // jr In (1 jc} intersect at the origin and
at another point A. Find the angle of intersection at .4. Ans. 103 30'.
2. Sketch the following curves on the same axes and find their angle
of intersection. , 
{
x ( 2 x
?/
= In ('  1
), ?/
= In (:*
.r
 '
 1
).
Am. 32 28'.
The AB y = e + 1
x
3. line is tangent to the curve whose equation is
(1)
[_//
= rsin/
are parametric equations of the circle in the
figure,t
being the parameter. For if we elim
inate t by squaring and adding the results, we
have .>.,,.>
3
.
f =
?/
,
sin
JN
r(cos / + /) r~,
by (A), Art.
dx dt rfx
'
dj J_. y by (C), Art. 39
dt' dx
dt
that is,
04)
dt
COS
Substituting in (A),
# = /J
=  ctn = slope at any point = m.
dx a sm ff
a
Substituting (/>
45" in the given equations (13), we get xi = \ a\ 2, y\ ^ b\'2
as the point of contact, and the slope m becomes
a a
\ b^ / \ = 2
x  = length of subtangent,
~
V "
i &V2I  i
= J
length of subnormal.
\ a/ 2 a
4
f
v )
'
l# = cos v),
* As in the figure, draw the major and minor auxiliary circles of the ellipse. Through
two points /* and C on the same radius draw 7>M parallel toOY'and DP parallel to OA'.
These lines will intersect in a point / (j, //) on the ellipse, y >
because _
y = OH = OB
.
.,
cos 4>
= a cos />
and l/
= AP = OD = Or sin <jf>
= 6 sin <,
or  = cos and
j
= sin </>.
f
% cos 2 </) + sin 2 (/>
= 1,
o2 ft
ellipse.
fThe path described by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls without
sliding line is called a cycloid. Let the radius of the rolling circle be a, P
on a fixed straight
the tracing point, and M
the point of contact with the fixed line X, which is called the
PARAMETRIC AND POLAR EQUATIONS 117
dy sin
=  = m = slope .
at
,
any polnt
dx 1 cos
Horizontal and vertical tangents. From (4), and referring to Art. 42,
we see that the values of the parameter / for the points of contact of
these tangent lines are determined thus :
^ y = a sin  \ a sin 2 0.
Solution. 73
dx = a( sin i
+ sin 2 0) ;
= a(cos  cos 2 0).
du ^
Horizontal tangent*. Then cos  cos 20 = 0. Substituting (using (5), p. 3)
cos 20 = 2 cos 1
'
PROBLEMS
Find the equations of the tangent and normal, and the lengths of the
subtangent and subnormal, to each of the following curves at the point
indicated.
7\inynit \ormal Subt. Subn.
1. j = ,7/ = 2/f t1. Am.
/
2
1 ; .r?/ +2= (), :r + ?/4 = 0, 3, X.
2. x = f\ y = 3 =1 / ;
/ . .r
  2 = 0,
?/ .r f y f 4  0,
 3,
 3.
= 0,  1,
 9.
6. x rr /a,
= 2  = //
/ ;
/ 1 . 11. j* = tan 0, //
= ctn =4 ;
TT.
7. 3 =
j y = t'\
= '1 /'' ; /
4
J!. 12. jr = ,'{ r ', //
= 2 r' = 0. ;
/
8. j=6  = 2 + 3  0.
/ /'*, ?/ / ;
t 13. .r m 3 cos n', ?/
 5 sin a=J a ; TT.
9. r = r,
,
= f 3 t; = 1.
?/ /
:{
1 14. j = sin 2 0, ?y
= cos  J ; TT.
In each of the following problems plot the curves and find the points
of contact of the horizontal and vertical tangents.
16. JT =3 t /\ ?/
= + / !. Ann. Horizontal tangents, none ; vertical
tangents, (2, 2), ( 2, 0).
17. x = 3  4 sin 0, //
=4+3 cos 6.
19. s = + r cos 0,
1i
.y
A + r siri 0. 21. .r = cos 4
0, y = sin 4 0.
?/ a (sin / / cos n.
x = a c OR '
23. The hypocvcloid / (astroid) = f4 .
''f (Figure, p. 533)
I// sin*/.
.4?js. (a)
 // ctn t, ( ?/ tan t, (c)
~ (d)
^
sin / cos t
_, r
The
.
, fx~ rcos/,
24. circle ^
[^/
= r sin / .
/.
nc rm. j j f x
= </( cos/ cos2 /), (Figure,
h
25. The cardioid \ sin
= a (2 . . . ./' ..
{
^ // / sm J () P 11
r  COS /,
^
27. The hyperbolic spiral !
(Figure, p. 534)
i
?/
= yf
sin <.
=
(1) V'
To find the second derivative y", use this formula (A) again, re
placing y by y'. Then we have
dt
ifx=/(0,asin (1), Art. 81.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE. Find y" for the cycloid (see Illustrative Example 2,
Art. 81)
c^_' __ (1
^~
 cos 6) cos
lcos^) 15
sin 2 __ cos
(lcoc0J
,j_. __L__.
(lcos(9)
Substituting in (),
  Ans.
PROBLEMS
. _ _._
/^ _
 o 
__ (e) x = a cos = b sin
/, f.
^c; T
/
x L , 7
y
.
<_!.
i,
3 (f) x
= 2(1 sin 0, = 4 cos *.
P 2 = sin = sin 2
T _ = (K) x '> ?/ <
/<ix; (_ .
v y
>)J
= cos 2 y = sin
6 2 (h) x /, ?.
3. In each of the following examples plot the curve and find the maxi
mum, minimum, and inflectional points :
m *J.'
Lay off the vectors vx and v v from P as in the figure, complete the
rectangle, and draw the diagonal from P. This is the required vector
PARAMETRIC AND POLAR EQUATIONS 121
velocity v. From the figure, its magnitude and direction are given
by the formulas .
vx dx
~dt
Comparing with (4), Art. 81, we see that tan r equals the slope
of the path at P. Therefore the direction of v lies along the tangent
line at P. The magnitude of the vector
velocity is called the speed.
84. Curvilinear motion. Component accelerations. In treatises on
mechanics it is shown that in curvilinear motion the vector accelera
tion a
not, like the vector velocity, directed along the tangent, but
is
at
_dv t
a _?/2
~dt' "~jT
(R isthe radius of curvature. See Art. 105.)
The acceleration may also be resolved into components parallel to
the axes of coordinates. Following the same plan used in Art. 83
for component velocities, we define the component accelerations
paral
lel to OX and OY,
/m
(F) , = dvXm ,
av  dv,, 
PROBLEMS
1. Neglecting the resistance of the air, the equations of motion for a
projectile are
= vi cos
x y = 0i sin
<t> t,
16.1 2 <t>
t 1 ;
(c) r
= arc tan 
v*
arc tan
8(j
^' 6
11" 37' = angle of direction of motion with
the horizontal.
x  50 /V3, y  50 /
 16.1 /.

Eliminating /, the result is y ^ x~, a parabola.
\ 3 <5
(1 + tan 2 0).r
2
.
direction inclined 45 with the horizontal, find (a) the component velocities
at the end of the second and fourth seconds ; (b) the velocity and direc
tion of motion at the same instants.
Ans. (a) When t 2, ?v 113.1 ft. per sec., v = 48.7 ft. per sec., y
level from which it started, find the time of flight and the angle of impact.
5. A
projectile with an initial velocity of 160 ft. per second is hurled
at a vertical wall 480 ft. away. Show that the highest point on this wall
that can be hit is at a height above the o*axis of 253 ft. What is </> for
this height? Ans. = 59.
I
.r = at,
\ u b sin a/,
show (a) that the .rcomponent of the velocity is constant; (b) that the
acceleration of the point at any instant is proportional to its distance from
the /axis.
(a) Show that the moving point oscillates on an arc of the parabola
4 ?/  9s  18 0. Draw the path, (b) Draw the acceleration vectors
at the points where r 0. (c) Draw the velocity vector at the point
where the speed is a maximum.
11. x = t
2
, y = 2t; = 2. /
12. x = 2 /, ?/
= /<; t= 1.
13. x = P, y = = 2. /'; ?
14. x = 3 /, y =
3 = 2
t' ; / 3.
85. Polar coordinates. Angle between the radius vector and the tan
gent line. Let the equation of a curve in polar coordinates p, 6, be
CD p
124 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
We proceed to prove the
Theorem. // \f/
is the angle between the radius vector OP and the
(H) tan $=
where .
dd
Proof. Through P and a point
Q(p + Ap, + A0) on the curve near
P draw the secant line AB. Draw PR
perpendicular to OQ.
Then (see figure) OQ = p+ Ap, angle POQ = A0, PR = p sin A0,
and OR = p cos A0. Also,
"
PR ~ PR __
~~ p sin A0
(2)
RQ OQ OR p + Ap p cos A0
Denote by ^ the angle between the radius vector OP and the
tangent line PT. If we now let A0 approach zero as a limit, then
(a) the point Q will approach P ;
(b) the secant AB will turn about P and approach the tangent
line PT as a limiting position and ;
Hence
, rtx , .
= vhm p sin A0
(3) tan ^
Y
v }
o p + Ap p cos A0
p sin A0 ~ p sin A0
Pd
sin A0
p.
A0
A0
A0
and dd
(7),
i P = (i(l
^
tan \I/
t
P a si 2 a sin \ cos J
= tan J 0. ((5), p. 3)
line PT is produced to cross the axis OX, forming with it the angle T, we have
angle XOP = 180
 angle OPT + r.
Therefore r = i  180, and tan r = tan 0, as above ((3), p. 3).
NOTE. Formula (H) has been derived for the figure on page 124. In each prob
lem, the relations between the angles i/s T, and 6 should be determined by examin
ing the signs of their trigonometric functions
and drawing a figure.
126 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
To find the angle of intersection (/>
of two curves C and C" whose
equations are given in polar coordinates, we may proceed as follows :
or <j)
= \//' \[/.
Hence
n tan  tan
/
(7)'
*
tan^
JL
= ^r' t/r
zp
1 + tan t/r'
tan r/r
tan </>
= * f
= $. /. </>
= arc tan
do
* When increases with p,

is positive and i/'
is an acute angle, as in the above figure.
tip
Then the subtangent OT is positive and is measured to the right of an observer placed at O
and looking along OP. When 
is negative, th^ subtangent is negative and is measured
dp
to the left of the observer.
PARAMETRIC AND POLAR EQUATIONS 127
The length of the polar tangent (= PT) and the length of the polar
normal ( PN) may be found from the figure, each being the hypotenuse
of a right triangle.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE. Find the lengths of the polar subtangont and polai
subnormal to the lemniscate p~ = a 2 cos 2 (figure in Chapter XX YJ).
Solution. Differentiating the equation of the curve, regarding p as an implicit
function of 6,
Substituting in (1)
dO
and
, (2), we get
dO
= " L>
Length of polar subnormal ff.
P
If we wish to express the results in terms of 0, find p in terms of from the given
equation and substitute. Thus, in the above, p = i </ \ cos 20; therefore the
length of the polar subtangent = a ctn 2 Veos~2~0.
PROBLEMS
1. In the circle p a sin 0, find \p and r in terms of #.
3. Show that t/' is constant in the logarithmic spiral p e< Since the l
.
tangent makes a constant angle with the radius vector, this curve is also
called the equiangular spiral. (Figure, p. 534)
4 w.s'.
^^ 80 57' and 85 27'.
5. p = a(l
 cos 0)', = ~ Am. 1.
p = a sec
2
6. p 2 a.
; 3.
7. p = a sin 4 origin. ; 0, 1, oo , 1.
p = a sin 4
2 2
8. origin. ; 0, 1 ,
oo , 1.
13. p =
128 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Find the angle of intersection between the following pairs of curves.
28. p  a0, p0 a.
30. p 2 sin 20 = a 2
, p cos 20 = 62 .
32. Find the lengths of the polar subtarigent, subnormal, tangent, and
normal of the spiral of Archimedes, p = aO.
subnormal = a, normal = Va 2
f p
2
.
The student should note the fact that the subnormal is constant.
33. Find the lengths of the polar subtangent, subnormal, tangent, and
normal in the logarithmic spiral p = a ft
.
subnormal = p In a, normal = p Vl f In 2
a.
34. Show that the reciprocal spiral p0 = a has a constant polar sub
tangent.
(2) 0=/fr)
is constructed, following Art. 58, the intercepts or? the xaxis are the
roots. From the figure, therefore, we know at once the number of
roots and their approximate values.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE. Locate all real roots of
is done.
10
'
20" '10
'"
Id
'
(1) ctnjj = 0,
ctri x x.
(2)
If we draw the curves
(3) y ctn x and y x
on the same axes, the abscissas of Ihc points of in
tersection will be roots of (1\ For, obviously,
eliminating y from (3) gives equation (1), from
which the values of x of the points of intersec
tion are to be obtained.
PARAMETRIC AND POLAR EQUATIONS 131
In plotting it is well to lay off carefully both scales (degrees and radians ^ on OX.
Number of solutions. The curve y  ctn .r consists of an infinite number of branches
(4) /iWMO.
Plot the curves
on the same axes, choosing suitable scales (wot necessarily the same on
both axes).
The number of points of intersection of these curres equate the num
ber of real roots of f(x) = 0, and the abscissas of these points are the roots.
The terms selected in (4) can often be chosen so that one or both
of the curves in (5) are standard curves.
.r
: <
+ 4 x  5 = 0,
y = A
JC' , y ~ f> 4 x,
y = \ (**
~l
and the parabola )
xo, x^a'\ j
X [
/ = &' =& X
(,
FIG. a FIG. 6
0) yf(a)^f'(a)(xa).
Putting ?/ = and solving for x(= a') gives Newton's formula for
approximation
,aM.
Having found a' by (K), we may substitute a' for a in the right
hand member, obtaining f ,, ,
<<$&
as a second approximation. The process might be continued, giving
a sequence of values , ,
* ' '
U, U ,
u/ ,
Li )

6', 6", 6'",
/'(x) = csc'
J
x  1 = 2  ctn 2 x.
PARAMETRIC AND POLAR EQUATIONS 133
By the illustrative example of Art. 88, we take a = 0.855. Then, by the table in
Art 88
' '
Afl>= 0.014.
From the figures on page 132 we observe that the graph crosses
the o>axis between the tangent PT and the chord PQ. Hence tlie exact
root lies between the value found &// Newton's method and that found by
PROBLEMS
Determine graphically the number and approximate location of the real
roots of each of the following equations. Calculate each root to two decimals.
1. JT* + 2 jr

= 0. 8 A //*. 1 .07.
2. .r'  4 + 2 = 0.
.r
 2.21, 0.54, 1.07.
3. .r
3  8 x  5 = 0.  2.44,
 0.00, 3.10.
4. .r
a  3  1 = 0.
.f
 1.53,
 0.35, 1.88.
6. ^+ 3 x 2  10 = 0. 1.49.
7. .r
3  3 x'
2  4 .r + = 0.
7  1.71, 1.14, 3.57.
9. 2 x*  14 .r
2
f 2 x f 5 = 0.  0.51, 0.71, 0.80.
10. x* f 8 JT
 12 = 0.  2.30, 1.22.
11. x 4  4 ^  6 x + 20 2
.r f 9 = 0.
 2.10,
 0.41, 2.41, 4.16.
equations. Calculate the smallest root (different from zero), using both
18. cos x  2 x = 0. 2
Two roots ; x = 0.635.
19. ctn x f x = 0. 2
Infinite number of roots ;
x = 3.032.
20. 2 sin 2 x  x 0. Three roots ; x = 1.237.
23. c'
x
cos j* = 0. Infinite number of roots ;
x 1.29.
25. (
'
f .r
 3 = 0. One root ;
x = 0.792.
31. The quantity of water Q cu. ft. per second flowing over a weir of
width 7> ft. is given by Francis's formula
where 77 is the height of the water (the head) above the crest of the weir.
Given Q 12.5, H= 3, find 77. (Solve the formula for the factor 77^ and
then plot.) Ans. II = 1.23.
V= 0.6490 ^~~4?.
P PS *
 2
24
34. The area u of a circular segment whose arc s subtends the central
is u = % r' (x Find the value of x if r = 8 in.
2
angle x (in radians) sin x)
and u = 64 sq. in. Ans. x = 2.554 radians.
(See Problem 35.) Find x for a maple ball for which S 0.786.
Ans. 0.702.
38. Find the smallest positive value of for which the curves p cos
and p =
e~ e intersect. Find the angle of intersection at this point.
Ans. = 1. 29 radians; 29 (>
.
ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS
4. A
square, one of whose diagonals
lies along the polar axis, is cir
cumscribed about the cardioid p a(l =  cos 0). Show that its area is
fi(2 + V3)o 2 .
dx~
We have taken special pains to impress on the student that the
symbol
d/n
dx
(B) dy=f'(x)dx*=^dx.
dx
* On account of the position which the derivative f'(x) here occupies, it is sometimes
called the differential coefficient
136
DIFFERENTIALS 137
(1, V=l*x\
volume is the difference AV between the
of the shell
Obviously, the exact
Since
volumes of two solid spheres with diameters 10 in. and 9J in. respectively.
is required, we find dV. From (1)
an value of AV and (),
only approximate
worthless otherwise.
y f dy 1.0350 ~
approximately. Anx.
tan 46 ",
(Fourplace tables give tan 46 = 1.0355.)
r
(1) A \
TTX". (x diameter)
Relative and percentage errors. If di( is the error in u, then the ratio
T~
A

dA = 2dx
x
PROBLEMS
1. If A is the area of a square of side x, find dA. Draw a figure show
ing the square, dA, and A A. Aus. dA = 2 x dx.
rate to 0.01 in.? (b) what is the maximum percentage error in each case?
Ans. (a) S, 0.24 TT sq. in. V, 0.36 TT cu. in.; ;
L (approximately).
x f djc x x2
How accurately must the inner edge be made so that the volume will
be correct to within 3 cu. ft.? Ans. Error ^ 0.01 ft.
8. If ?/
= a:
5
and the possible error in measuring x is 0.9 when x = 27,
what is the possible error in the value of ?/? Use this result to obtain ap
expressions.
V51
17. If In 10 2.303, approximate In 10.2 by means of differentials.
Ans. 2.323.
that the area shall be correct to within 1 per cent? Arts. Error ^ '
;
.
22. Show that the relative error in the volume of a sphere, due to an error
in measuring the diameter, is three times the relative error in the radius.
23. that the relative error in the ?rth power of a number is
Show
n times the relative error in the number. 
 times
24. Show that the relative error in the nth root of a number is
the relative error in the number.
25. When block of metal is heated, each edge increases
a cubical
increase in temperature. Show that the surface
r^ per cent per degree
increases fa per cent per degree, and that the volume increases f\ per cent
per degree.
for finding differentials are the same as those for finding derivatives
II d(j)  dy.
III d(u f v ?r) du + dv dw.
IV d(r/) = fd/>.
V d('ur) u dv + v du.
VI d(v
n
)
= wn ~ }
dv.
Via d(jr")
= nj? n  }
dx.
vn
Vila rf(") =
y
dp
X v
XI d(a
!
')
= a In a dv.
r
XI a d(e*) = e*dv.
XII d(w.") = vu ~ du + In u
r }
ur dv.
Solution. = X +*  (
x* + :
dy d(
\ar
a
+ 3/}
( x'
2
+ 3 )dx (x .
+ 3 )2 .r (te ( 3  G j:
 .
J
1
(x
2
+ 3) (x f 3)
Solution. 2 6 2 x dx  2 a'
2
y dy ~ 0.
, bjc j 4
/. aij
2
a/. Ans.
<*'
y
Solution. 2 p dp = a'
2
sin 202 <i#.
.". op =
,
 a'
2
sin 2
P
, n
(/. >inK.
\ 1
 (3 /
 4 /')' \lr 4
PROBLEMS
Find each of the following differentials.
1. y x* 3 x.
ax
3.
.

4/00
T/
y
Vax
= xv a ,
2
f 6.
x 2
.
ay
7 _
= C/I2
'
'*
__
a2
f 6
O Ar2
tt
5. s = ae bt
. ds abc ht dt.
dv
6. u = In rr.
i j
aw =
v
12. v = VV f 1.
10
lo. ,,, r==r
// /
Va~ ~ x
19. If jr
2
f ?r = a, show that f/?/
=
Find in terms of .r, //, and dx from each of the following equations.
2 = __ (4 jr4 3 ?/)dx
20. 2 JT'~ f 3 .r?/ f 4 ?/ 20.
3x48//
21. x :{
+ 6 x/r 4 2 = 10. //" 24. x: '
f /' = a\
22. x f 4 Vx// 4 = a.
12 //
25. x  ?/
= r
j4
^.
arc
2
Multiplying and dhdding by (As) in the lefthand member and
dividing both members by (Ax)
2
we get ,
222
/Chord As V_
PQV\ //A8\ _
~
(2)
V As / VAx/
DIFFERENTIALS 143
(C) ds 2 = dx 2
+ dy
2
.
Or, if we extract the square root in (3) and multiply both members
by dr, i
we obtain = sec T
r/,s djc, assuming the angle r to be acute. Hence
we may easily prove
dx du
(F) = cos r, ~ = sin r.
ds ds
^ tan T COB r = sin r.
f/8 I
i
= y
2
(G) COST j>
sinr p
(1 f y' )"
2 2
(1 + y
r2
)*
If the angle r is obtuse (?/' < 0), a negative sign must be placed before
the denominators in (G) and before cos r in (F). y j
Then /> 7
1
= W/r + 2
rf?/
 rfs. By (C)
dO.
But tan ^
/
= p 7
P
Therefore = pp
dp
hence PT = Vrfp + L>
= rfs.
Solution. Differentiating, ^ = _.
aj: y
To find rfs in terms of a* we substitute in (/)), giving
Solution. Differentiating,
Substituting in (C)
ds'2  a" (I  cos 6}~d6" f a 2
sin dO*  2 a(l  cos 0}dQ'2 .
Solution. Differentiating,

(
= a sin 6.
du
Substituting in (/) gives
cte = LaHlcos0j + a 2
sin 0]adt? = a^
PROBLEMS
For each of the following curves find ds in terms of jr and dr.
1. 2 y = .r
2
. Ans. ds = Vl + j* dr.
2. 7/
2 = 2 px. (/.s  ^ dr.
3. &
2
x2 f a2 //
2  a 26 2 . ds  \
\
>,
4.
c
6 x?y = a*
4 ,
f 3.
o ;
d^ = 
(^ f

5. ?y
~ In sec jr. ds = sec jr djc.
6. a 2 // = JT\ 9. 2 ?/
= c
j
f
J
.
7. a?/
2
a*
:?
. 10. //
= sin jr.
For each of the following curves find ds in terms of ?/ and dy.
:j?y
= <is =
J J
14. x^ 4 ?y^ a*. d?/.
^J~
2
15. a ?y = x3 .
16. ?y
2  2 .r
 3 ?/
= 0. 17. 2 x// 2  y
2
4 = 0.
For each of the following curves find ds, sin r, and cos r in terms of
t and dt.
18. x =2 f f 3, y t
2
2. 20. x a sin /, y a cos J.
19. x = 3 /
2
, ?y
= 2 P. 21. x = 4 cos f, ?/ 3 sin /.
146 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
For each of the following curves find dx in terms of 6 and dO.
4
27. p^sec 2 ^ 32. p =
+
'
Z 1
1 cos i
3 cos i
4
29. p = 2 4 3 sin 0. 34. p =
1
 3 cos 6
 = d%
By (C) and (D) in Art. 83, r, >
r,
a/ a/
Substituting in (1), using differentials and (C), Art. 95, the result is
(1) lim^l.
JLXO W?/
we may write
^=
AT
/'(.r) + /, if lim
Aj .0
i = 0.
A// = dy + i A.r.
dy _ 1

AJ
i ^
_^
A?/ A//
Hence lim
Ar ,
^=
A'//
1 ,
or also lim
Ax0"?/
^= 1 Q. E. D.
by i.
Chord PQ by PQ
arc  As, and As by ds A// by ety and Ax by dx. ; ;
2  2
Then (1) becomes ds dx + d?y that is, (C). ,
148 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
99. Order of infinitesimals. Differentials of higher order. Let i and
= = 1 =
[hm(^) Iim^l) hmj O.j
Therefore, by division,
1 < "
chord PQ chord PQ chord PQ
Now chord PQ = sec </> A.r, PT = sec r AJ, TQ = Ay  dy,
PT A//
 dy
and hence
chord PQ sec <' chord PQ Ax
lim /_Z^_\ = lf TQ \ = . / PQ \
=L
^limj ^
Jim ^rc
defines the second differential of //. If //" neither vanishes nor becomes
dy is of the same order as Ax and therefore of higher order
2
infinite,
than dy. In a similar manner d*y,
 
,
d ny may be defined.
PROBLEM
In triangle ABC the sides a, b, c are infinitesimals which simultaneously
ordinates, then
(B) /; = __,,
where y' and //" are, w>/w/?/W//, the Jirst and second derivative* of y
with respect to jr.
()
Y (1 h //''' A l>.v (o>, Art. 95
 "*"
(O A' ,
2
(1 4 *' )*
j
where and jc" are, respectively, the first and second derivatives
j
Solution. ii' v
' ^(:) 2
// dx\ij/ y
(a) When x = 1 and // ^ 2, then //'
= !, y" =L Substituting in
"
= 8 \2~ 0.177. Hence at (1, 2) the curve is concave downward and the
RADIUS AND CIRCLE OF CURVATURE 151
inclination of the tangent is changing at the rute 0.177 radian per unit arc. Since
0.177 radian = 10 7', the angle between the tangent lines at P( 1. 2) and at a point
Q such that arc PQ ~ \ unit is approximately 10 .
(b) At the vertex (0, 0), //' becomes infinite. Hence use (C).
'
I '
" I Jll ( 1
r 1
2 2 dy 2 2
Hence 
1 +?/' T
1 cos
_ 1
'
c(} ~ (>(>s 0)
~
Substituting in (B),
1 1
2 a\ 2 2 cos 4 a sin \
djr dy
dtdf2 dtdl'2
f
, dy "^^ '
(lj ~j
(ft)
Whence, using (B), Art. 82, and substituting in (B), Art. 102, and
reducing, we obtain
2
dx d x di/ ,, ~ dy~
'?'
w*
,
Ti
. x ,,
** lj'
t II
'*
,
]i
11
' 7i'>
dt dt 2 di dt~
(E) K= P
p2 ^^
.
2 P' 2 PP"
*f,
(P
2
+ P'
2 2
)"
152 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
where p' and p" are, respectively, the first and second derivatives of p
with respect to 0.
Hence
Then, by (1),
Substituting in (),
p\ 1 f a
from (),
(F) Jf =I == (l2l.
y
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE. Find the radius of curvature at any point of the
/ _ i\
catenary y = \r a f r / (figure in Chapter XXVI).
2
  r
/ \ / \
'
= I\ ._ " = J_ \ = JL.
Solution.
a .
?/ (
,
,,
uj
.
y ffl ^_ tf a)
2 2 a a
1 fl/' 2 ^ 1
+7\f"f / =Mfa+f = 
Ans.
a
circular track. This curve should have zero curvature at its point
of junction with the straight track and the curvature of the circular
track where it joins the latter. Arcs of cubical parabolas are generally
employed as transition curves.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE. The transition curve on a railway track has the shape
of an arc of the cubical parabola // = J ,r At what rate is a car on this track
l
.
changing its direction (I mi. = unit of length) when it is passing through (a) the
point (3, 9)? (b) the point (2, J)? (c) the point (1, J)?
Solution. ^
dx
= ^. ^=
dx 2
2x.
(a) At (3, 9), K= radian per mile = 28' per mile. ATM.
(812)2
(b) At (2, 5), K = ~ radian per mile = 3 16' per mile. Ans.
(17)3
 Am.
(c) At (1 ,
I \ K = ^ = U radian per mile 40" 30' per mile.
(2)2 V2
107. Circle of curvature. Consider any point /' on the curve (\
The tangent line drawn to the curve at P has the same slope as the
curve itself at P (Art. 42). In an analogous /0
manner we may construct for each point of the
curve a tangent circle whose curvature is the /
**
which also equals the curvature of the curve itself at P. The circle
so constructed is called the circle of curvature for the point P on
the curve.
In general, the circle of curvature of a curve at a point will cross
the curve at that point. This is illustrated in the above figure.
(Compare with the tangent line at a point of inflection (Art. 57).)
Just as the tangent at P shows the direction of the curve at P, so
the circle of curvature at P aids us very materially in forming a geo
metric concept of the curvature of the curve at P, the rate of change
of direction of the curve and of the circle being the same at P.
154 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
In a subsequent section (Art. 114) the circle of curvature will
be defined as the limiting position of a secant circle, a definition
analogous to that of the tangent
given in Art. 28.
~ i * dy
  d^y
~~l  2 v
*.
Solution.
ax dx jr*
For W. 4).
ix .'J dx'2 9
.
K Jl^lLi*j=5..v
4 M
Hence, by (F), U  ?
\/5. .\.s.
of .r) can often be used to advantage when only the numerical values of ?/' and y"
are required, and not general expressions for them in terms of x and y.
PROBLEMS
Find the radius of curvature for each of the following curves at the
point indicated. )raw the curve and the corresponding circle of curvature.
I
1. 2 //
 .r
j
; i(), 0). An*. 7i = 1.
2. 6 //
= .r
;
; (1, 1).
4. // sin .r ;
^ TT, 1).
5. //
= r
j
; (0, 1).
6. .r
2 4 =9 //
2
; (5, 2). 8. y = 2 sin 2 x ; ( J TT, 2).
7. //
2 = ^f8; (1,8). 9. y = tanx; ( TT, 1).
RADIUS AND CIRCLE OF CURVATURE 155
10.,, = ^. A,:,. K=
(>
11. jr'
= 2 JU.
15. j3 + 2/
S = aI A* = 3 (an //,)*.
17. ?y In sec x. A*
~ sec jv
18. If the point of contact of the tangent line at (2, 4) to the parabola
?/* 8 x moves along the curve a distance As ().l, through what angle,
approximately, will the tangent line turn? (Use differentials. )
 K=
21. The spiral of Archimedes p ad. (Fig., p. 5:M)
^ _^ 2 ^
22. The cardioid p = a (I  cos 0). (Fig., p. 5153;
#= 3^ a Pi
a2
23. The lemniscate p 2 =a 2
cos 2 0. (Fig., p. 5.'52) A' =
^^
24. The parabola p = a sec 2
J 0. (Fig., p. f>:J7) R = 2a sec 3 J 0j.

25. J 0. 4
j
26.
m
The tnsectnx p = 2 a cos a. ^r> _flf54cos0,)
7
(
fi
.3
27. The equilateral hyperbola p
2
cos 2 = a2 .
 e 2 )' aft
oo
28.
TU
The

conic p =  a(l p

1 e cos fl ' cos L )
{
156 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Find the radius of curvature for each of the following curves at the
point indicated. Draw the curve and the corresponding circle of curvature.
29. jr = 2 /, ?/
= t
2  1 ;
/ = 1. A MS. ft = 4>/2.
30. jr = 3 t
2
, //
= 3 /
 /
: <
;
t = 1. tf = .
31. .r = 2 r ', //
= 2 f '
;
/ = 0. 72 = 2 V2.
33. jr
~ 2 /, ?/
= ;
/  1 . 36. jr = 2 sin /, ;//
= cos 2 /
;
t = TT.
34. .r  / f 1, //
= t
'  1 ;
/ = 1 . 37. x  tan /, //
= ctn / ;
/  \ IT.
35. x 4 cos /, ?/
= 2 sin /;// = !. 38. r / sin /, //
1 cos /
;
/ TT.
/, // a sin :!
/. ,4//,s. ft ;i a sin /i cos /i.
//
~ a (sin / t cos /). An*, ft at\.
point on the curve // ~ x Draw the curve and the circles of cur
4
2 .r L>
.
vature. Find the points on the curve where the radius of curvature is a
minimum.
46. Show that at a point of minimum radius of curvature on the
curve y = f(x] we have
'^Vl
,dx) \
erty; namely, x, y, y', and //" have the same values at P for the
circle of curvature and the curve.
DEFINITION. The center of curvature (a, /j) for a point P(x, y) on
a curve is the center of the circle of curvature.
Theorem. The coordinates (a, /j) of the center of curvature for
P(x, y) are
y y
Proof. The equation of the circle of curvature is
(1) Cra^+fojCO^/i',
\\here K is given by (F). Differentiating (1),
/ x a ,,
= R~
(2) "
?/"
yP (y
 '
,
y* I
/3
=y f R cos r, etc.)
EXERCISE 2. If x' and x" are, re
a ~
x" x"
j
Therefore (a) (
3 x f 2 p, ~~~^ }
t
Ls the center of
V 4 p/
curvature corresponding to any point on the curve.
(b) (2 p, 0) is the renter of curvature corresponding
to the vertex (0, Oj.
Formulas (G) and (77), Art. 108, give the coordinates of any point
(a, /3) on the evolute expressed in terms of the coordinates of the
corresponding point (x, y) of the given curve. But y is a function
of jc ; therefore these formulas give us at once the parametric equation
of the evolute in terms of the parameter x.
RADIUS AND CIRCLE OF CURVATURE 159
tangular coordinates.
of a and /3.
First Step. a= 3 ar + 2 p, =
Second Step.
Third Step. (4
1
./ <* \*
Second Step, x
"\a
2  b' )
z
Find the equation of the evolute in parametric form, plot the curve and the
evolute, find the radius of curvature at the point where / = 1, and draw the cor
responding circle of curvature.
By (B), Art, 82
(2) ^^^1 f 3 t
calculate x, ^ from (1) and a, j8 from
(2), and tabulate the results.
Now plot the curve and its evolute.
point (J, 0) is common to the
The
given curve and its evolute. The given
curve (semicubical parabola) lies en
tirely to the right and the evolute
entirely to the left of x J.
The circle of curvature at A ( ) Ji ,
Jl
,
AA' = "
By (1), Art. 3
COS/).
2
d// _ sin / d' y 1
2
dx 1 cos/ dx~ a(\ cos/)
equation of the evolute OO'Q* referred to the axes O'a and O'fi.
The cocirdinates
of with respect to these axes are (~ mi,  2 a). Let us transform equations (4) to
the new set of axes OX and OY. Then
a x ?ra, ft
= y 2 a.
given cycloid.
162 DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
110. Properties of the evolute. The evolute has two interesting
properties.
Theorem 1. The normal at P(x, y) to the given curve is tangent to
the evolute at the center of curvature C(a, p) for P. (See figures in the
preceding article.)
We show now that the slope of the evolute equals the slope of PC.
Note that j/j
Slope of evolute =
da
since a arid fi are the rectangular coordinates of any point on the
evolute.
l^et us choose as independent variable the length of arc on the
given curve then ; x, //, R, T, a, are functions of 8. Differentiating
(1) with respect to s gives
(8)
da d'jr
 # cos r dr __ sin T dR
)
J
as ds as ds
= dy . dr rf/2
(4)
rf/i
j j
~~ ^ sm T T" H cos r ~T~'
,
ds ds ds ds
But ~r
(
= cos T, ^ = sin r, from Art. 95 : and  = .
rf.s ds ds R
Substituting in (3) and (4), and reducing, we obtain
(5)
da =
rfs

sin r
dR
r/.s*
~ = COSTT
rf/J dR
(6)
=  ctn T   = slope of PC. Q.E.D.
da. tan r
fer erne between the radii of curvature of the given curve which are tangent
to this arc at its extremities, provided tfiat along the arc of the given curvt
R increases or decreases.
RADIUS AND CIRCLE OF CURVATURE 163
<"
(DXiNff
But if s' = length of arc of the evolute,
ds'~ da + dfi,
by (C), Art. 95, if s = s', x = a, y = /i Hence (7) asserts that
dff
(8)
= ^T ' or i =
ds
= w = 
(9)
dR~ 41^ or ' ,~
dtf
That is, Jfee rate of change of the arc of the evolute with respect to R
i s __ i or _ i. Hence, by Art. 50, corresponding increments of s' and
R are numerically equal. That is,
V
Tfce length of one arch of the cycloid (as OO'Q )
/ eight times the
PROBLEMS
Find the radius and center of curvature for each of the following
curves at the given point. Check your results by proving (a) that the
center of curvature lies on the normal to the curve at the given point,
and (b) that the distance from the given point to the center of curvature
is equal to the radius of curvature.
1. 2py = x'
2
; (0, 0).
Am. (0, p).
= ~
2. x'
2
+ 4 y' 2
25 ; (3, 2). (iVb H)
3. r i/ '=
j ;
19 ; (3, 2). (W, 5?)
5. //
= <"; (0, 1). ( ~ 3 )
6. y = cosr ; (0, 1). (0, 0).
= 3 ~ 2) 
7. ?/ lnr; (1, 0). (
13. ?/
= tan2o; ?, J). (J TT,
4
15 4
a 4 ?/  9
15. ^ = a^. a= a f
2
?/

.
,.
P= 4
16. 6 2 x
2 