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Edition No.

29 January 2008

ENGINEERING
S Y S T E M S O L U T I O N S
The International Mechanical Code
E
dition 29 of Engineering
System Solutions provides a
brief tutorial on the
ventilation rate procedure (VRP)
And ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
62.1-2004 and examines its impact
62.1-2004
on energy savings and indoor air For nearly 20 years, the International minimum ventilation rates in the
quality. Mechanical Code (IMC), published revised ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
In May 2007, the VRP was by the International Code Council 62.1-2004 (Standard 62.1-2004) is
adopted into the International (ICC), has used ANSI/ASHRAE that the rates are lower than those
Mechanical Code, replacing Standard 62.1-1989 (Standard listed in Standard 62.1-1989 for
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-1989), Ventilation for Acceptable most applications. This change
62.1-1989 to define minimum Indoor Air Quality, to define the provides opportunities for energy
outdoor air ventilation rates. This minimum outdoor air ventilation savings in treating outside air,
change reduces the ventilation rates required for commercial, improved indoor air quality and
requirements for many applications, institutional and high-rise residential equipment cost reductions.
providing an opportunity for energy buildings. Using advancements in In May 2007, the ICC adopted the
savings. At the same time, the VRP indoor air quality (IAQ) research,
provides for improved indoor air ventilation rate procedure (VRP)
and the experience gained in from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
quality by better defining outdoor
designing ventilation systems, the 62.1-2004 into the IMC. The new
air required to dilute contaminants
originating from occupants ASHRAE Standing Standard Project requirements will be included in the
(cfm/person) and the building Committee 62.1 (SSPC 62.1) 2007 IMC Supplement. The IMC is
environment (cfm/ft2). introduced new minimum used as the mechanical code at the
ventilation rates in breathing zones state or local level in 47 states and
This article was prepared by Duane and calculation procedures in 2004.
Rothstein, Applications Engineer for Washington D.C. (Figure 1).
Most notable about the new
McQuay and a Member of SSPC
62.1. For more information on the Figure 1 – State-by-state adoption of the IMC1
equations presented in this
newsletter, we encourage you to
refer to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
62.1-2004. For help in designing
your next ventilation system,
contact your local McQuay
representative or visit
www.mcquay.com.
Jay Eldridge
Applications Manager
McQuay International
1Map courtesy of the International Code Council. For updates, visit
http://www.iccsafe.org/government/adoption.html.
What does this mean? air ventilation rates in Standard copy of Standard 62.1-2004 to find
Designing with the VRP can provide 62.1-2004 have been lowered out more about each of these items.
improved ventilation and indoor air compared to Standard 62-1-1989. An
quality in buildings. How can a exception is the retail category, which Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow,
building have improved ventilation was increased by adding a cfm/person Vbz
and indoor air quality with lower rate. In all other categories, the drop The heart of the ventilation rate
ventilation rates? The simple answer is in the cfm per person rate is modified procedure is the equation used to
that Standard 62.1-1989 defined by adding a cfm per area rate, known calculate the breathing zone outdoor
ventilation rates only as cfm per as the Area Outdoor Air Rate (Ra). airflow. It calculates the design
person based on an estimated outdoor airflow required in the
maximum occupancy and the Ventilation Rate Procedure breathing zone for the occupiable
application. These rates could be Standard 62.1-2004 defines the VRP space or in a zone. The equation is as
excessive, causing many buildings to as a prescriptive procedure to follows:
be over-ventilated. The VRP in determine minimum outdoor airflow Vbz = Rp Pz + Ra Az (6-1)
Standard 62.1-2004 fixed two factors rates based on the application,
where:
in determining minimum ventilation occupancy and floor area. The
minimum ventilation rates prescribed Az = zone floor area: the net occupiable
rates – people and area – which
by the VRP are based on contaminant floor area of the zone ft2 (m2)
account for contaminants originating
from occupants (cfm/person) and the sources and strengths that are typical Pz = zone population: the largest
building environment (cfm/ft2). Thus, for the occupancy categories listed in number of people expected to
the new procedure does a better job Table 6-1 in Standard 62.1-2004. occupy the zone during typical
of defining where buildings need The VRP can be found in Section 6.2 usage. If the number of people
ventilation. (Ventilation Rate Procedure) of expected to occupy the zone
Standard 62.1-2004. The following is fluctuates, Pz may be estimated
Comparing Ventilation Rates a brief tutorial of the VRP based on averaging approaches
Table 1 lists commonly referenced calculations. It is important to note described in Section 6.2.6.2.
occupancy categories with their that there are a number of items to Rp = outdoor airflow rate required per
corresponding outdoor air ventilation address when determining minimum person as determined from Table
rates (additional occupancy categories ventilation requirements, including 6-1.
are listed in Table 6-1 of the outdoor air treatment, particulate Ra = outdoor airflow rate required per
Standard). In most cases, the outdoor matter and contaminants. Obtain a unit area as determined from
Table 6-1.
Table 1: Comparison of Standard 62.1-1989 and -2004 ventilation rates2 The first part of the equation (RpPz) is
62.1-1989 62.1-2004 the per-person ventilation rate. It
Outdoor Air
Estimated People Area
Occupant coincides with the ventilation rates
Maximum Outdoor Air Outdoor Air
Occupancy Category Requirements
Occupancy Rate Rate
Density used in the IMC before Standard
Rp Ra
62.1-2004 was adopted, although the
rates in Standard 62.1-2004 are
cfm/person cfm/ft2 #/1000ft2 cfm/person cfm/ft2 #/1000ft2
generally lower. The second part of the
Classrooms (ages 5-8) 15 - 50 10 0.12 25 equation (Ra Az) is new and represents
Classrooms (age 9+) 15 - 50 10 0.12 35 the per-area ventilation rate. Referring
Laboratories 20 - 30 10 0.18 25 to Table 1, the per-area ventilation rate
Office Space 20 - 7 5 0.06 5 is relatively small compared to the per-
Reception Areas 15 - 60 5 0.06 30
person rate. It is intended to more
accurately address the amount of
Conference Rooms 20 - 50 5 0.06 50
outdoor ventilation air required to
Restaurant Dining Rooms 20 - 70 7.5 0.18 70
dilute building contaminants from the
Hotel Multipurpose Assembly 15 - 120 5 0.06 120 occupied space.
Retail Mall - 0.2 20 7.5 0.06 40
Auditorium 15 - 150 5 0.06 150

22004 ASHRAE Standard—62.1. © American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., www.ashrae.org.
Zone Air Distribution space at ceiling level, some of it will Outdoor Air Intake Flow, Vot
Effectiveness, Ez exit through the return grill and not Once the zone outdoor airflow has
The zone air distribution effectiveness reach the breathing zone. This short- been calculated for each zone, the
is determined using Table 2 (Table 6-2 cycled or bypassed warm supply air outdoor air intake flow (Vot) can be
in Standard 62.1-2004). Depending results in an effectiveness value of 0.8. calculated for the entire system. The
on the zone air distribution As a result, it is important to ventilation rate procedure accounts for
configuration (diffuser and return grill remember that the zone air three types of systems – single-zone,
location and supply air temperature), distribution effectiveness value needs 100% outdoor air and multiple-zone
not all supply air will be distributed to be determined for both the cooling recirculating systems. The process
evenly throughout the breathing zone and heating modes. Note that the varies for calculating the outdoor air
in a given space. For example, if both values for Ez in Table 2 are default intake flow for each of these systems.
the supply diffusers and return grills values and can be adjusted by the Single-zone systems supply a mixture
are located in the ceiling, the supply design engineer. of outdoor air and recirculated air to
air will be colder and denser in the only one ventilation zone. The
cooling mode than the air in the Zone Outdoor Airflow, Voz
outdoor air intake flow for single-zone
occupied space, causing it to fall into Once the zone air distribution
systems is calculated using the
the breathing zone. Once in the effectiveness has been determined, the
following equation:
breathing zone, its temperature will zone outdoor airflow, Voz, can be
calculated for each ventilation zone Vot = Voz (6-3)
increase, causing it to rise to the
ceiling and exit the space via the using the following equation: Simply put, the outdoor air intake
return grill. This is an example of Voz = Vbz / Ez (6-2) flow for single zone systems it equal to
good zone air distribution with an the zone outdoor airflow.
Voz represents the outdoor airflow that
effectiveness value of 1.0. However, must be supplied to the zone by the 100% outdoor air systems contain an
during the heating mode, the supply supply air distribution system, air handler supplying only outdoor air
air is usually less dense than the air in regardless of whether the system is in (no recirculated air) to one or more
the space. As the warm air enters the heating or cooling mode. zones. These systems are also known as
dedicated outdoor air systems
Table 2: Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness3 (DOAS). The outdoor air intake flow
for this system is calculated by adding
Air Distribution Configuration Ez all zone outdoor airflow requirements
Ceiling Supply of Cool Air 1
together.
Ceiling Supply of Warm Air & Floor Return 1
Vot = Σall zones Voz (6-4)
Ceiling Supply of Warm Air 15°F (8°C) or More Above Space Temperatures & Ceiling Return. 0.8
Multiple-zone recirculating systems
Ceiling Supply of Warm Less Than 15oF (8°C) Above Space Temperature & Ceiling Return Provided contain an air handler supplying
That The 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) Supply Jet Reaches To Within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of Floor Level. Note: For 1
Lower Velocity Supply Air, Ez = 0.8.
outdoor air and recirculated return air
to more than one zone. The
Floor Supply of Cool Air & Ceiling Return Provided That The 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) Supply Jet Reaches
4.5 ft (1.4 m) or More Above The Floor. Note: Most Underfloor Air Distribution Systems Comply 1
calculation for outdoor air intake flow
With This Provisio. is a bit more complex due to system
Floor Supply of Cool Air & Ceiling Return, Provided Low-Velocity Displacement Ventilation Achieves
ventilation efficiency. For multi-zone
1.2
Unidirectional Flow & Thermal Stratification. systems, there will always be a critical
Floor Supply of Warm Air & Floor Return 1
zone, which requires the highest
amount of outdoor air in its supply air
Floor Supply of Warm Air & Ceiling Return 0.7
stream. Since multi-zone systems
Makeup Supply Drawn In On The Opposite Side of The Room From The Exhaust &/or Return. 0.8 provide the same mixture of outdoor
Makeup Supply Drawn In Near To The Exhaust &/or Return Location. 0.5 air and return air to each zone, the
1. "Cool air" is air cooler than space temperature.
required ventilation in the critical zone
2. "Warm air" is air warmer that space temperature. can result in other zones being over-
3. "Ceiling" includes any point above the breathing zone. ventilated.
4. "Floor" includes any point below the breathing zone.
5. As an alternative to using the above values, Ez may be regarded as equal to air change effectiveness
determined in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 129 for all air distribution configurations except
unidirectional flow.
32004 ASHRAE Standard—62.1. © American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., www.ashrae.org.
Two things can happen to the extra the approach in Appendix A of the calculate population diversity, provided
outdoor air in over-ventilated zones. It Standard must be used to determine the alternative method does not produce
can exit the zone via the return air the value. Interpolation is allowed a value for the uncorrected outdoor air
stream, mix with the incoming within the table. intake less than equation 6-6.
outdoor air and re-enter the supply air For multiple-zone systems, it is usually Now that diversity has been factored
stream, causing the outdoor air safe to assume that people are not at in, the uncorrected outdoor air intake
demand to decrease, or it could exit peak occupancy in every space at the rate can be determined using equation
the zone via the exhaust and same time. For example, in an office 6-6. The uncorrected outdoor air
exfiltration air streams, causing the building, if all the occupants were in intake is the minimum outdoor air
outdoor air demand to increase. their offices, the conference rooms required by all zones before adjusting
There are multiple steps required to would be below design occupancy. for system ventilation efficiency.
calculate the outdoor air intake flow The same can be said for schools; if all Vou = D Σall zones Rp Pz + Σall zones Ra Az
for multiple-zone recirculating of the students are in the classrooms,
(6-6)
systems. First, the primary outdoor air the multipurpose assembly room or
fraction, Zp, needs to be determined auditorium are more than likely Finally, the designer can determine the
using the following equation: unoccupied. Diversity is more likely to outdoor air intake, Vot, for the
happen in larger systems. To account multiple-zone recirculated system
Zp = Voz / Vpz (6-5)
for occupant diversity, D, the using the following equation:
The zone primary outdoor air fraction
following equation is used: Vot = Vou / Ev (6-8)
is the ratio of zone outdoor air to zone
primary air for each zone served by D = Ps / Σall zones Pz (6-7)
VRP Summary
the system. Zp must be calculated for Ps is the system population and Table 4 summarizes the steps for
each zone and the highest value must represents the total population in the determining the required minimum
be chosen among all zones; this will be area served by the system. Pz is the zone outdoor air intake using the VRP for
the value of Zp that represents the population which is defined as the single-zone, 100% outdoor air
primary outdoor air fraction for the largest number of people expected to (DOAS) and multiple-zone
system. Within the equation, the occupy the zone during typical use. recirculating systems.
variable Vpz represents the zone Alternative methods can be used to
primary airflow or the total amount of Table 4: Steps to determine outdoor air intake using the VRP
supply air (both outdoor and return
air) from the air handler. Single-Zone Systems 100% Outdoor Air Systems Multiple-Zone Systems
1 Determine Zone Population, Pz Determine Zone Population, Pz Determine Zone Population, Pz
Once the zone primary air fraction has
been determined for the system, the 2 Determine Zone Floor Area, Az Determine Zone Floor Area, Az Determine Zone Floor Area, Az

system ventilation efficiency, Ev, can Calculate Breathing Zone Outdoor Calculate Breathing Zone Outdoor Calculate Breathing Zone Outdoor
also be determined in one of two 3 Airflow, Airflow, Airflow,
ways. The first is to use the default Vbz = Rp Pz + Ra Az (Use Table 6-1) Vbz = Rp Pz + Ra A (Use Table 6-1) Vbz = Rp Pz + Ra Az (Use Table 6-1)

maximum value in Table 3 below and Determine Zone Air Distribution Determine Zone Air Distribution Determine Zone Air Distribution
4
the second is to calculate the value Effectiveness, Ez (Use Table 6-2) Effectiveness, Ez (use Table 6-2) Effectiveness, Ez (use Table 6-2)
using Appendix A located in the back 5
Calculate Zone Outdoor Airflow, Calculate Zone Outdoor Airflow, Calculate Zone Outdoor Airflow,
Voz = Vbz / Ez Voz = Vbz / Ez Voz = Vbz / Ez
of the Standard. Note: if Zp is greater
Calculate Primary Outdoor Air
than 0.55, Table 3 cannot be used and 6
Calculate Outdoor Air Intake Flow, Calculate Outdoor Air Intake Flow,
Fraction,
Vot = Voz Vot = Σall zones Voz
Zp = Voz / Vpz
Table 3: System Ventilation Efficiency4
Determine System Ventilation
(Table 6-3 Standard 62.1-2004) 7 N/A N/A Efficiency, Ev (Use Table 6-3 or
Appendix A)
Max (Zp) Ev
Calculate Occupant Diversity,
≤ 0.15 1 8 N/A N/A
D = Ps / Σall zones Pz
≤ 0.25 0.9
Calculate Uncorrected Outdoor Air
≤ 0.35 0.8 9 N/A N/A Intake; Vou = D Σall zones Rp Pz + Σall
≤ 0.45 0.7 zones Ra Az

≤ 0.55 0.6 Calculate Outdoor Air Intake Flow,


10 N/A N/A
≤ 0.55 Use Appendix A Vot = Vou / Ev

42004 ASHRAE Standard—62.1. © American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., www.ashrae.org.
Calculating Energy Savings 2006 IMC. The zone outdoor airflow eQuest for this same office building
The reduction in outdoor airflow that for the Standard 62.1-2004 example located in Minneapolis, MN, and
can result from using Standard was derived using the steps outlined in Houston, TX.
62.1-2004 to design a ventilation Table 4. The zone outdoor airflow for What is surprising from Table 6 is that
system (versus the 2006 IMC or the IMC example was derived using the bulk of the energy savings result
Standard 62.1-1989) can have a the ventilation rates in Chapter 4 of from reduced energy consumed in the
significant impact on the energy use of the 2006 IMC. heating mode. In fact, in the
an HVAC system. To illustrate the As Table 5 demonstrates, there is a Minneapolis example, the electric cost
potential energy savings, we will 37% reduction in the total amount of for cooling was actually higher for the
examine an office building and a outdoor airflow required for the office Standard 62.1-2004 example. This is
school, each in two different climate building when it is designed using the most likely due to the free cooling
zones (Minneapolis, MN and VRP in Standard 62.1-2004. The total effect of the outside air. The gas
Houston, TX). zone outdoor airflow of this system is savings in Houston were significantly
4,660 cfm for the cooling mode and less due to its warmer climate zone.
Office Building 5,825 cfm for the heating mode. In
The first example is a 39,000 square In both locations, there are energy
order to avoid underventilating, the savings resulting from bringing in less
foot office building with seven zones. higher value (5825 cfm in the heating
The building uses seven single zone outdoor air during the heating and
mode) should be used to size the cooling seasons. While it is not
rooftop systems, with each zone system. The same system designed
containing a constant volume rooftop addressed in this newsletter, further
using the 2006 IMC will require a total cost savings may be available in the
unit with gas heat. Table 5 shows the zone outdoor airflow of 9280 cfm.
office zone details, population density form of reduced installed costs (i.e.
and zone outdoor air comparison Table 6 compares the electric and gas smaller equipment, smaller ducts).
using Standard 62.1-2004 and the consumption of each system using

Table 5: Office building ventilation design


Standard 62.1-2004 2006 IMC
Cooling Heating (Standard 62.1-1989)
Breathing
People Area Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone
Zone Zone Floor Zone Outdoor
Ventilation Zone Outdoor Air Outdoor Air Ventilation Outdoor Ventilation Outdoor Outdoor
Population Area Outdoor Air
Rate Rate Efficiency Airflow Efficiency Airflow Airflow
Airflow
Rp Ra Pz Az Vbz Ez Voz Ez Voz
cfm/per cfm/ft2 people ft2 cfm cfm cfm cfm/per cfm
West Offices 5 0.06 30 5000 450 1 450 0.8 563 20 600
North Offices 5 0.06 27 4000 375 1 375 0.8 469 20 540
North Conference Room 5 0.06 75 1500 465 1 465 0.8 581 20 1500
East Offices 5 0.06 30 5000 450 1 450 0.8 563 20 600
South Offices 5 0.06 27 4000 375 1 375 0.8 469 20 540
South Conference Room 5 0.06 75 1500 465 1 465 0.8 581 20 1500
Interior Offices 5 0.06 200 18000 2080 1 2080 0.8 2600 20 4000
Total Zone-Level Outdoor Airflow 4660 5825 Total 9280
Single-Zone Systems Total Intake Air 5825*
* 37% reduction

Table 6: Office building energy use comparison in Minneapolis, MN and Houston, TX.
Minneapolis, MN Houston, TX

Electric ($) Gas ($) Total ($) % Savings Electric ($) Gas ($) Total ($) % Savings

IMC $ 40,161.00 $ 10,564.73 $ 50,726.00 –– $ 51,394.00 $ 1,179.97 $ 52,574.00 —

Std 62.1-2004 $ 40,218.00 $ 7,560.63 $ 47,779.00 5.81% $ 50,336.00 $ 997.15 $ 51,333.00 2.36%
School Building resulting in a total system volume of unit. To avoid under-ventilating any
The second example is a 24,000 17,225 cfm. particular zone, the larger value for the
square foot elementary school building Designing the school using the VRP zone outdoor airflow between the
using a constant volume single zone in Standard 62.1-2004 involves several heating and cooling mode should be
system. The classrooms each have a variables depending upon the zone. used to size the ventilation system for
floor-mounted unit ventilator. The For example, the zones containing that particular zone. These values are
offices, multi-use assembly room and rooftop units will use ceiling supply shown in bold italic font in Table 7.
other zones each have a dedicated diffusers and return grills in the same Added together they total 14,521 cfm
rooftop unit. Table 7 shows the school manner as the office example. of outdoor air for the school. This is a
zone details, population density and Therefore, during the cooling season 16% reduction in total outdoor air for
zone outdoor air comparison using Ez will have a value of 1.0. In the the school compared to the 2006 IMC
Standard 62.1-2004 and the 2006 heating mode Ez will have a value of rates.
IMC. 0.8. For the classrooms using floor Table 8 compares the electric and gas
As in the office building example, the model unit ventilators, Ez will have a consumption of each system using
ventilation system was designed using value of 0.8 in the cooling mode due eQuest for this same school located in
the rates found in the 2006 IMC for to the short cycling of cool dense air. Minneapolis, MN, and Houston, TX.
each ventilation zone of the school. In the heating mode, the classrooms As the table indicates there are
Depending on the zone type, the will have an Ez of 1.0 due to the warm minimal energy savings (~1%) using
ventilation requirement is 15 air rising in the space and the cooler Standard 62.1-2004 ventilation rates.
cfm/person or 20 cfm/person, return air entering at the base of the

Table 7: School building ventilation design


Standard 62.1-2004 2006 IMC
Cooling Heating (Standard 62.1-1989)

People Area Zone Zone Zone Zone Zone


Zone Zone Floor Breathing Zone
Ventilation Zone Outdoor Air Outdoor Air Ventilation Outdoor Ventilation Outdoor Outdoor Air Outdoor
Population Area Outdoor Airflow
Rate Rate Efficiency Airflow Efficiency Airflow Airflow
Rp Ra Pz Az Vbz Ez Voz Ez Voz
cfm/per cfm/ft2 people ft2 cfm cfm cfm cfm/per cfm
Wood/Metal Shop 10 0.18 30 1575 58445 1.0 584 0.8 729 20 600
Library 5 0.12 35 2500 475 1.0 475 0.8 594 15 525
Laboratory 10 0.18 35 2100 728 1.0 728 0.8 910 20 700
Music Room 10 0.06 100 1575 109545 1.0 1095 0.8 1368 15 1500
East Classroom #3 10 0.12 40 1500 580 0.8 725 1.0 580 15 600
East Classroom #2 10 0.12 30 900 408 0.8 510 1.0 408 15 450
East Classroom #1 10 0.12 30 900 408 0.8 510 1.0 408 15 450
South Offices 5 0.06 20 2700 262 1.0 262 0.8 328 20 400
West Classroom #1 10 0.12 30 900 408 0.8 510 1.0 408 15 450
West Classroom #2 10 0.12 30 900 408 0.8 510 1.0 408 15 450
West Classroom #3 10 0.12 40 1500 580 0.8 725 1.0 580 15 600
Multi-Use Asssembly 7.5 0.06 700 7200 5682 1.0 5682 0.8 7103 15 10500
Total Intake Air Total 14521* 17225
* 16% reduction

Table 8 - Energy usage: school single zone rooftops and unit ventilators
Minneapolis, MN Houston, TX
Electric ($) Gas ($) Total ($) % Savings Electric ($) Gas ($) Total ($) % Savings
IMC $ 23,741.00 $ 14,537.60 $ 3,8279.00 – $ 26,868.00 $ 3,978.92 $ 30,847 –
Std 62.1-2004 $ 24,791.00 $ 13,134.00 $ 37,925.00 0.92% $ 26,743.00 $ 3,781.58 $ 30,525 1.04%
Table 9: Ventilation air for school zones total building cfm results from the ventilation rate procedure found in
compared VRP versus IMC in lower cfm/person in the offices and ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004
cfm/person. multi-use assembly room/auditorium. into the IMC, ASHRAE has
62.1-2004 IMC For these zones, the designer can published the ANSI/ASHRAE
Ventilation Zone
cfm/person cfm/person investigate using smaller equipment Standard 62.1-2007. Standard
Wood/Metal Shop 24 20 sizes to reduce installed costs. The net 62.1-2007 incorporates 62.1-2004
Library 16 15 result of designing a school ventilation and Addenda a, b, c, d, e, f, g, and h
Laboratory 26 20 system using 62.1-2004 is that to 62.1-2004. To purchase a copy of
Music Room 13 15 classrooms will receive more ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007
East Classroom #3 18 15
ventilation to provide a better learning go to www.ashrae.org.
East Classroom #2 17 15
environment without raising the
operating or installed cost expenses for Conclusion
East Classroom #1 17 15
the school building. The minimum ventilation rates in the
South Offices 16 20
breathing zone and the ventilation rate
West Classroom #1 17 15
Installed Cost Savings procedure from ANSI/ASHRAE
West Classroom #2 17 15
The analysis performed in this article 62.1-2004 can have a positive impact
West Classroom #3 18 15
is solely focused on energy savings and on energy savings, indoor air quality
Multi-Use Asssembly 10 15 improved indoor air quality. The and first/installed costs. The
decrease in minimum ventilation rates ventilation rate procedure also allows
However, there is an important benefit may result in first cost and installed designers to properly ventilate for
to using Standard 62.1-2004 cost savings due to smaller equipment pollutant sources from the building
ventilation rates. Table 9 shows the sizes, smaller duct sizes, etc. Further and the building’s occupants while
cfm per person using Standard analysis would need to be performed taking into account system efficiencies
62.1-2004 ventilation rates versus in order to validate these potential for different ventilation systems such
the cfm/person rate used in the 2006 savings. It appears that the largest as single-zone, 100% outdoor air and
IMC. savings will result from systems that multiple-zone systems.
The amount of fresh outdoor air being are built-to-order and systems that This article only analyzed the effect of
brought into the classroom has clearly can save material costs with smaller Standard 62.1-2004 rates for single-
been increased over the 2006 IMC duct sizes. zone systems. Further analysis would
rates. This increased ventilation will need to be performed to demonstrate
improve the classroom indoor air ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2007
the impact on 100% outdoor air
quality and the learning environment Since the ICC has adopted the
systems and multiple-zone systems.
for the students. The reduction in the minimum ventilation rates and the
The data and suggestions in this document are believed current and accurate at the time of publication, but they are not a substitute for trained, experienced
professional service. Individual applications and site variations can significantly affect the results and effectiveness of any information. The reader must satisfy
him/herself regarding the applicability of any article and seek professional evaluation of all materials. McQuay disclaims any responsibility for actions based
on this document.
For comments or suggestions, please call or write:
Chris Sackrison, Editor
McQuay International
13600 Industrial Park Boulevard
Minneapolis, MN 55441
Phone: (763) 553-5419
E-mail: chris.sackrison@mcquay.com
For more information on McQuay products and services, or to speak with your local representative, call (800) 432-1342, or visit our web page at www.mcquay.com.
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