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SID 65-1317

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
COMMAND AND SERVICE MODULE.
SPACECRAFT 012

Prepared Under Direction of NASA-MSC MISSION OPERATIONS BRANCH FLIGHT CREW SUPPORT DIVISION /-

N O R T H A M E R I C A N A V I A T I O N , INC. SPACE and INFORMATION SYSTEMS DIVISION

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APOLLO OPERATIONS H A N D B 0 0 k COMMAND AND SERVICE MODULE SPACECRAFT 012

SM2A-03-SC012

C o n t r a c t NAS9- 1 5 0 E x h i b i t I; P a r a g r a p h 1 0 . 3

tifli.

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\ THIS P U B L I C A T I O N S U P E R S E D E S SM2A-O3_SCO12 D A T E D I 16 S E P T E M B E R 1966.

PREPARED BY NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, INC. SPACE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS DIVISION TRAINING AND SUPPORT DOCUMENTATION DEPARTMENT 671

A C R E W A B B R E V I A T E D C H E C K L I S T , S M 2 A - 0 3 - S C 0 1 2 / CL, IS PUBLISHED AS A S E P A R A T E DOCUMENT.

PUBLISHED U N D E R A U T H O R I T Y

OF THE N A T I O N A L A E R O N A U T I C S A N D SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

SID 65-1317

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12 NOVEMBER 1966

SM2A- 03-SCOlL

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

NOTE: The portion of
indicated by
a

the text alfrcted by the current chanRcs i s \enical line a the outer marlins of the page. n

TOTAL N U L I B E R O F PAGES I N THIS PUBLICATION IS 816, CONSISTING O F T H E FOLLOWING: Page Title A thru E i thru xii 1 - 1 t h r u 1-20 2-1 t h r u 2 - 2 2.1- t h r u 2 . 1-10 2.2- t h r u 2. 2-48 2.3t h r u 2 . 3-72 2.4- t h r u 2.4-38 2.5- t h r u 2 . 5-44 2. 6 - t h r u 2. 6-48 2.7- t h r u 2. 7-48 Page

2.8- 1 t h r u 2.8-70 L. 9 - 1 t h r u 2.9- 38 2. 10-1 t h r u 2. 10-10 2. 1 1 - 1 t h r u 2. 1 1 - 6 3 - 1 t h r u 3-212 4 - 1 t h r u 4-50 5-1 t h r u 5-20 6-1 t h r u 6-52 7-1 t h r u 7-2 8-1 t h r u 8 - 2 A- 1 t h r u A - 6

CHANGE INFORMATION

T h i s handbook i s s u b j e c t t o continuous c h a n g e o r r e v i s i o n , on a p r i o r i t y b a s i s , t o r e f l e c t c u r r e n t e n g i n e e r i n g o r m i s s i o n c h a n g e s , o r to i m p r o v e content o r a r r a n g e m e n t . The c o n t e n t a n d the c h a n g e s a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e a b o v e L i s t of Effective P a g e s , a n d b y the following m e a n s : R e c o r d of P u b l i c a t i o n : The publication d a t e of e a c h b a s i c i s s u e and e a c h c h a n g e i s s u e is l i s t e d on page B as a r e c o r d of all e d i t i o n s . P a g e Change D a t e : E a c h page in t h i s handbook h a s s p a c e f o r e n t e r i n g a change d a t e . T h e l a t e s t publication d a t e w i l l b e e n t e r e d in t h i s s p a c e e a c h t i m e a page is changed f r o m the b a s i c i s s u e .

*The asterisk indicates pager changed. added. or dclctrd by the current change.

M a n u a l s will be distributed as directed by t h e NASA Apollo Program Office. All requests for manuals should be directed to t h e NASA Apollo SpacecraH Program Office at Houston, Texas.

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shl2A - 0 3 - sc 0 1 2
A P O L L O O P E R A T I O N S HANDBOOK

RECORD O F PUBLICATION

T h i s i s s u e of t h e Apollo O p e r a t i o n s Handbook, S p a c e c r a f t 0 12, d a t e d 12 November 1966, c o n s t i t u t e s a r e v i s i o n of t h e handbook, d a t e d 16 S e p t e m b e r 1966. Subsequent c h a n g e s m a y be i s s u e d t o m a i n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n c u r r e n t with s p a c e c r a f t c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h r o u g h c o m p l e t i o n of t h e m i s s i o n . T h i s r e c o r d will r e f l e c t the publication d a t e of any r e l e a s e d c h a n g e s .

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S.M2A -03-SCO 1 2

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

LATE TECHNICAL CHANGES

The i t e m s l i s t e d below r e p r e s e n t t e c h n i c a l c h a n g e s which have been a p p r o v e d too l a t e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e 12 November 1966 p r i n t i n g of t h e Apollo O p e r a t i o n s Handbook. Source MCR A1735 MCR 1591 REV 3 .
FEO M-53025 ( 10 - 13 -66)

D e s c r i p t i o n of Change Change S / M RCS fuel f r o m blended h y d r a z i n e m i x t u r e to m o n o m e t h y l h y d r a z i n e Addition of i n v e r t e r s y n c h r o n i z e r power panel which p r o v i d e s c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s f o r t h e c o n t r o l of power t o t h e p h a s e s y n c h r o n i z e r unit. T h i s is a n o m e n c l a t u r e c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e S - B a n d s w i t c h on t h e MDC p a n e l s No. 13, 2 3 a n d 26. T h i s c h a n g e is r e q u i r e d due t o w i r i n g c h a n g e s . T h e S-Band s w i t c h w a s m a r k e d " P T T " , "OFF" a n d "VOX". T h e s w i t c h is now m a r k e d "OFF", "OFF" a n d " T / R " . Modification of C r e w Couch Lockouts. T h i s MCR r e m o v e s t h e lockout s o l e n o i d a c t u a t o r and wire harness f r o m the X - X axis s t r u t lockout m e c h a n i s m . Add an a d a p t e r t o t h e lockout m e c h a n i s m a s s e m b l y t o f i x in t h e locked position. T h e s w i t c h on p a n e l No. 9 a n d t h e w i r e h a r n e s s a s s e m b l y on t h e s t r u t s will b e r e m o v e d .

Section Affected
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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYNOPSIS O F SIGNIFICANT CHANCES

T h i s tabulation d o e s not l i s t all c h a n g e s , a d d i t i o n s , , a n d / o r d e l e t i o n s i n t h e handhook. Its p u r p o s e is to a s s i s t the r e a d e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n i c a l c h a n g e s i n e a c h system. P A R T I. Hand book Section( s ) Aff e c t e d TECHNICAL CHANGES Handbook S y s t e m (s ) Aff e c t e d
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Description Updated lockout m e c h a n i s m s on s h o c k s t r u t s . Updated f o r w a r d h a t c h c o v e r . R e v i s e d RCSC c i r c u i t d i a g r a m to i n c l u d e e n t r y b a t t e r y backup p o w e r to p y r o b u s .

GEN GEN SE Q

H2 p u r g e l i n e h e a t e r
F u e l cell H2 a n d 0 2 r e a c t a n t shutoff v a l v e s holding voltage control C r y o g e n i c s y s t e m r e s p o n s e and o p e r a t i o n
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EPS

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R e v i s e d , u p d a t e d , and a s s e m b l e d e n d - t o - e n d c i r c u i t and s y s t e m d i a g r a m s . Added e l e c t r i c a l power d i s t r i b ution d i a g r a m s and p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s . Added o p e r a t i n g r a n g e s and p a n e l r e f e r e n c e s to m e a s u r e m e n t lists. Added t a b u l a r d a t a f o r c o l o r m a r k i n g s contained on i n d i c a t o r d i s p l a y s a n d updated a r t . Added t y p i c a l c h a r t s f r o m MMDB t o d e t e r m i n e S / C consumable data. Added d a t a on S / C a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s , Updated S P S Delta V a n d E n g i n e G i m b a l Angle c h a r t s .

PROP

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A P O L L O O P E R A T I O N S HANDBOOK

FOREWORD

This handbook and its contents a r e r e s t r i c t e d to the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S p a c e c r a f t 012. It p r e s e n t s , i n o n e d o c u m e n t , d e s c r i p t i o n s of the s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s and e q u i p m e n t , and l i s t i n g s of t h e flight c r e w o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s n e c e s s a r y f o r the s a f e and e f f i c i e n t function of the s p a c e c r a f t throughout its planned m i s s i o n . T h i s handbook i s d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r u s e by t h e flight c r e w , and s e c o n d a r i l y f o r u s e by the m i s s i o n flight c o n t r o l l e r s , flight p l a n n e r s , and t r a i n e r o p e r a t o r s .
NASA c o m m e n t s o r s u g g e s t e d c h a n g e s to t h i s handbook s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d to the F l i g h t Planning Section, FCSD, MSC, Office Code C F 32, Telephone HU3-4271.

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

TABLEOFCONTENTS

Section 1 GENERAL INFORMATION. 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.2.1 1.1.2.2 1.1.2.3 1.1.2.4 1.1.2.5 1.1. 2 . 6 1. 1 . 2 . 7 1. 1. 2. 8 1.1.2.9 1. 1 . 3 1. 1 . 4 1. 1 . 5 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 1.4 2

Title

Page 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-4 1-6 1-6 1-6 1-6 1-12 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-15 1-16 1-16 1-16 1-16 1-19 1-19 1-19 1-19 2- 1

S p a c e c r a f t 012 Configuration . LES A s s e m b l y . Command Module . Forward Compartment Crew Compartment . S / C C o n t r o l s and D i s p l a y s C / M Mechanical Controls C r e w E q u i p m e n t and E q u i p m e n t B a y s Food and W a t e r . Waste Management Su r v iv a1 E q u i p m e n t Aft C o m p a r t m e n t . S e r v i c e Module Spacecraft L E M Adapter Spacecraft Systems Launch Vehicle Configuration . S-1B Booster S-IVB Second S t a g e M i s s i o n 209A Weight Status P o s t l a n d i n g and R e c o v e r y

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SYSTEMSDATA 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2. 1 . 3 2. 1.4 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.2. 1 2.2.3 2. 2 . 3 . 1 2.2.3. 2 2.2.3.3 2. 2 . 4 2.2. 5 2.2. 5.1 2.2.5.2

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Guidance and C o n t r o l S y s t e m s I n t e r f a c e , Guidance and C o n t r o l Coasting Flight Powered Flight Atmospheric Flight Guidance and Navigation S y s t e m s ( G & N ) Introduction Functional Description . Operational Modes Major Component/Subsystem Description Inertial Subsystem Optical Subsystem , C o m p u t e r Sub s y s t e m P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a Ope r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s S I C Attitude IMU O p e r a t i o n

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2.1-1 2.1-1 2.1-1 2.1-2 2.1-2 2.2-1 2.2-1 2.2-1 2.2-7 2.2-11 2.2-11 2.2-13 2.2-16 2.2-40 2.2-40 2.2-40 2.2-41

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SMZA-03-SCO12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section 2.2.5.3 2. 2 . 6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.2.1 2 . 3 . 2. 2 2. 3 . 2 . 3 2.3.3 2.3.3. 1 2.3.3.2 2.3.3.3 2. 3. 3 . 4 2.3.4 2 . 3 . 4. 1 2.3.4. 2 2.3.4.3 2.3.4.4 2.3.4. 5 2. 3.4.6 2.3.4.7 2. 3.4. 8 2.3.4.9 2 . 3 . 4 . 10 2 . 3 . 4 . 11 2.3. 5 2.3.6 2.3.6. 1 2.3.7 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.2. 1 2.4.2. 2 2.4.2.3 2.4.2.4 2.4.2.5 2.4.2.6 2.4.2. 7 2.4.2.8 2.4.2.9 2 . 4 . 2 . 10 2.4.3

Title Optics Operation Telemetry Measurements G&N P o w e r Consumption . Interface Signals S t a b i l i z a t i o n and C o n t r o l S y s t e m (SCS) . Introduction Functional Description Control Capabilities . Apollo R e f e r e n c e A x e s Sub s y s t e m s Flight Control P r o f i l e s . Ascent . Coasting Flight ( E a r t h Orbital) . Powered Flight ( E a r t h Orbital) . Entry , Major Component/Subsystem Description Rate Gyro Assembly Attitude G y r o A c c e l e r o m e t e r A s s e m b l y P i t c h , Roll, and Yaw E l e c t r o n i c C o n t r o l Assemblies . Auxiliary Electronic Control Assembly D i s p l a y and Attitude G y r o A c c e l e r o m e t e r As*sembly Electronic Control Assembly Rotation C o n t r o l s Translation Controls Flight D i r e c t o r Attitude Indicator Attitude S e t / G i m b a l P o s i t i o n I n d i c a t o r . Velocity C h a n g e I n d i c a t o r Electrical P o w e r Distribution P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s S / C Attitude Change Telemetry Measurements . S e r v i c e P r o p u l s i o n S y s t e m (SPS) Functional Description Major Component/Subsystem Description P r e ss u r ization Subsystem Propellant Subsystem B i p r o p e l l a n t Valve A s s e m b l y . Engine Injector Ablative C o m b u s t i o n C h a m b e r . Nozzle Extension Flight Combustion Stability Monitor (FCSM) SPS E l e c t r i c a l H e a t e r s . T h r u s t Mount A s s e m b l i e s P r o p e l l a n t Utilization and Gauging S u b s y s t e m (PUGS) . P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a

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Section 2.4.3. 1 2.4.3.2 2.4. 3. 3 2.4.3.4 2.4.4 2.4. 5 2.5 2.5.1 2. 5 . 2 2.5.3 2. 5 . 3 . 1 2.5.3.2 2.5.3.3 2.5.3.4 2.5.3.5 2.5.4 2. 5 . 4 . 1 2.5.4.2 2.5.4.3 2. 5 . 4 . 4 2.5.5 2. 5 . 6 2.5.7 2. 5. 8 2. 5. 8. 1 2.5.8. 2 2.5.8.3 2 . 5. 8 . 4 2.5.9 2. 5.9. 1 2. 5 . 9 . 2 2. 5 . 9 . 3 2.5.10 2 . 5. 10. 1 2.5.11 2.6 2.6. 1 2.6.2 2.6.2.1 2.6.2. 2 2.6.2.3 2.6.2.4 2.6.3 2 . 6. 3. 1 2. 6. 3. 2 2 . 6 . 3. 3 2.6.3.4

Title Design Data Performance Data P o w e r Consumption Data SPS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s Telemetry Measurements R e a c t i o n C o n t r o l S y s t e m (RCS) Introduction S / M RCS F u n c t i o n a l D e s c r i p t i o n S / M RCS M a j o r C o m p o n e n t / S u b s y s t e m D e s c r i p t i o n P r e s sur i z a t i o n S u b s y s t e m Propellant Subsystem Engine A s s e m b l i e s P r e s s u r e Versus Temperature Measuring System Engine Thrusting Logic S / M RCS P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a Design Data Performance Data P o w e r C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a S / M RCS and G / M RCS S / M RCS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n S / M RCS O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s S / M RCS T e l e m e t r y M e a s u r e m e n t s C / M RCS F u n c t i o n a l D e s c r i p t i o n C / M RCS M a j o r C o m p o n e n t s / S u b s y s t e m D e s c r i p t i o n Pressurization Subsystem Propellant Subsystem Engine Assembly . Propellant Jettison C / M RCS P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a Design Data Performance Data Power Consumption Data C / M RCS O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s C / M RCS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n C / M RCS T e l e m e t r y M e a s u r e m e n t s E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r S y s t e m (EPS) . Introduction Functional Description Energy Storage . P o w e r Generation Power Conversion P o w e r Distribution Majo r Component / S u b s y s t e m De s c r iption Cryogenic Storage Batteries F u e l C e l l P o w e r Plants Inverters .

Page 2.4-30 2.4-33 2.4-33 2.4-35 2.4-35 2.4-35 2.5-1 2. 5 - 1 2. 5 - 1 2.5-4 2.5-7 2. 5 - 8 2.5-9 2.5-13 2.5-15 2. 5 - 1 6 2.5-16 2. 5-18 2.5-18 2.5-19 2.5-19 2.5-19 2.5-23 2.5-24 2.5-27 2. 5 - 2 8 2.5-30 2.5-34 2.5-39 2.5-39 2.5-41 2.5-41 2.5-41 2.5-41 2.5-41 2.6- 1 2.6-1 2.6-1 2.6-1 2.6-2 2. 6 - 2 2.6-2 2.6-5 2.6-5 2.6-6 2.6-12 2.6-17

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Section 2.6.3.5 2.6. 3.6 2.6.4 2 . 6 . 4. 1 2.6.4.2 2.6. 5 2 . 6 . 5. 1 2. 6. 5. 2 2.6.6 2.7 2.7.1 2.7. 2 2.7.3 2.7.3.1 2.7.3. 2 2.7.3.3 2. 7. 3 . 4 2.7.3. 5 2.7.3.6 2.7.3.7 2.7.4 2.7.4.1 2.7.4.2 2.7.4.3 2.7.4.4 2.7.4.5 2.7.4.6 2.7.4.7 2.7.4.8 2.7.5 2.7.5.1 2. 7. 5 . 2 2.7. 5.3 2.7. 5.4 2 . 7 . 5. 5 2.7.6 2.8 2.8. 1 2.8.2 2.8.2. 1 2.8.2. 2 2.8.2.3 2 . 8. 2. 4 2.8.3 2.8.3. 1 2 . 8 . 3. 2

Title Battery Charger P o w e r Distribution P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a . AC and DC D a t a Power Requirements O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s Fuel Cell Power Plants . Cryogenic Storage Subsystem . Telemetry Measurements Environmental Control System (ECS) In t r od uc t 1on Functional Description . M a j o r Component/ S u b s y s t e m De s c r i p t i o n Oxygen Supply S u b s y s t e m . P r e s s u r e Suit C i r c u i t S u b s y s t e m C a b i n P r e s s u r e and T e m p e r a t u r e C o n t r o l S u b s y s t e m Water-Glycol Coolant Subsystem . W a t e r Supply S u b s y s t e m ECS- W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e m I n t e r f a c e Electrical Power Distribution P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a Metabolic Data Oxygen Supply S u b s y s t e m . P r e s s u r e Suit C i r c u i t S u b s y s t e m C a b i n P r e s s u r e and T e m p e r a t u r e C o n t r o l Subsystem Water-Glycol Coolant Subsystem . W a t e r Supply S u b s y s t e m Waste Management System . ECS Power Consumption Data . O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s E C S Caution P l a c a r d s . ECS Caution Notes E C S General Data Cabin D e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n R a t e s . Cabin Repressurization R a t e s . T e 1em e t r y i e a s u r e m e n t s M Telecommunication System . Introduction Functional Description . Voice C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Data Operations T r a c k i n g and Ranging Unified S - B a n d O p e r a t i o n s M a jo r Component / S u b s y s t e m De sc r ipt ion Instrumentation Equipment Group . Voice and D a t a E q u i p m e n t G r o u p .

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l2

1966 C h a n g e Date

Page

vi

SM2A -03-SCO 1 2 A P O L L O O P E R A T I O N S HANDBOOK

Section 2.8.3. 3 2.8.3.4 2.8.3. 5 2.8.4 2.8.5 2 . 8 . 5. 1 2 . 8 . 5. 2 2 . 8. 5. 3 2.8.5.4 2. 8. 6 2.9 2.9.1 2.9. 2 2 . 9 . 2. 1 2.9.2.2 2. 9 . 2 . 3 2.9. 2 . 4 2.9. 3 2.9.3.1 2 . 9 . 3. 2 2.9.3. 3 2.9.3.4 2.9.4 2 . 9 . 4. 1 2.9.5 2.9.6 2.10 2.10.1 2.10.2 2. 1 0 . 3 2 . 10.3. 1 2. 10.4 2. 10.4. 1 2.10.5 2 . 10.5. 1 2.10.6 2.11 2.11.1 2.11.2 2.11.3 2. 1 1 . 4 2. 11. 5 2.11.5.1 2. 1 1 . 6 2. 1 1 . 6 . 1 3

Title
R F Electronics Equipment Group . Antenna E q u i p m e n t Group . Electrical P o w e r Distribution . P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s Antennas . Data S t o r a g e E q u i p m e n t Unified S-Band S y s t e m . General Telemetry Measurements Sequential S y s t e m s . Introduction Functional Description Sequential E v e n t s C o n t r o l S y s t e m (SECS) E m e r g e n c y Detection System . Launch Escape System . E a r t h Landing S y s t e m Major Component/Subsystem Description Sequential Events Control System . E m e r g e n c y Detection S y s t e m . Launch E s c a p e System . 9 . E a r t h Landing S u b s y s t e m P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a Power Requirements O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s Telemetry Measurements Caution and W a r n i n g S y s t e m (C&WS) . Introduction . Functional Description . Major Component/ Subsystem Description Electrical Power Distribution . P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a . C&WS P o w e r C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s C&WS G e n e r a l D a t a Telemetry Measurements . M i s c e l l a n e o u s S y s t e m s Data Introduction Clocks Digital E v e n t T i m e r s Accelerometer (G-Meter) C o m m a n d Module I n t e r i o r - L i g h t i n g Functional Description C o m m a n d Module Uprighting System . Functional Description

Page

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. . .

2.8-42 2.8-57 2. 8-62 2.8-62 2.8-b7 2.8-67 2. S-67 2.8-08 2.8-68 2.8-69 2.9-1 2.9-1 2.9-1 2.9-1 2.9-4 2.9-10 2.9-11 2.7-14 2.9-14 2.9-24 2.9-32 2.9-33 2.9-33 2.9-35 2.9-35 2.9-36 2.10-1 2.10-1 2.10-1 2. 1 0 - 3 2.10-3 2. 1 0 - 3 2. 1 0 - 3 2.10-3 2.10-3 2.10-10 2.11-1 2.11-1 2.11-1 2.11-1 2.11-1 2.11-1 2.11-2 2.11-2 2.11-2
3-1

CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS 3.1

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.

C o n t r o l s / D i s p l a y s L o c a t o r Index

3-3

Mission

B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

vii

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section 4 PERFORMANCE

Title

Page 4- 1 4- 1 4- 1 4- 3 4-4 4- 5 4-11 4 - 13 4-15 4-16 4-18 4-18 4-25 4-27 4-30 4-34 4-34 4-34 4-39 4-39 4-39 4-43 5-1 5- 1 5- 1 5- 1 5- 1 5-5 5-5 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-7 5-9 5- 10 5- 10 5-10 5- 10 5-11 5-1 1 5-11 5-11
-

. I -

4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4. 1.4 4.1.5 4. 1 . 6 4.1.7 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4. 2 . 3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 5

Introduction . C r e w D i s p l a y I n s t r u m e n t M a r k i n g s and A c c u r a c y Data Service Propulsion System Indicators . Reaction Control System Indicators Electrical Power System Indicators . Environmental Control System Indicators Telecommunication System M e t e r s . Sequential S y s t e m s Indicators Miscellaneous Indicators . Consumable Requirements S / M RCS P r o p e l l a n t C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a C / M RCS P r o p e l l a n t C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a SPS P r o p e l l a n t C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a EPS and ECS C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a . RCS and SPS T h r u s t i n g D a t a RCS T r a n s l a t i o n C o n t r o l RCS Rotation C o n t r o l SPS E n g i n e T h r u s t P e r f o r m a n c e . S / C O p e r a t i o n a l C o n s t r a i n t s and L i m i t a t i o n s Operational Constraints . Operational Limitations .

.

.

.

..

E X P E R I M E N T S AND SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT DATA Introduction Scientific Equipment M e d i c a l D a t a Acquisition S y s t e m (MDAS) E l e c t r i c a l C a b l e s and A d a p t e r s Octopus Cable Cobra Cable T-Adapter . PGA and CWG E l e c t r i c a l A d a p t e r C a b l e s H a r d w a r e P o w e r and Signal C a b l e s M e d i c a1 E x p e r i m e n t s I n - F l i g h t E x e r c i s e r ( M - 3 A ) (M003) . Equipment Description Experiment Procedures . Crewman Participation . Recovery Requirements . I n - F l i g h t P h o n o c a r d i o g r a m ( M - 4 A ) (M004) Equipment Description . Experiment Procedures Crewman Participation Recovery Requirements . Bone D e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ( M - 6 A ) (M006)

5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.2.1 5.1.2.2 5. 1. 2.3 5. 1 . 2 . 4 5.2 5.2.1 5 . 2 . 1. 1 5.2.1.2 5.2.1.3 5.2.1.4 5.2.2 5.2. 2. 1 5.2.2.2 5.2.2.3 5.2. 2 . 4 5.2.3

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Mission

B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

viii

~

S M 2 A - 0 3 SC 0 12

-

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section 5.2.3. 1 5 . 2 . 3. 2 5.2.3.3 5 . 2. 3. 4 5. 2 . 4 5. 2 . 4 . 1 5.2.4. 2 5. 2 . 4 . 3 5.2.4.4 5.2.5 5 . 2 . 5. 1 5 . 2 . 5. 2 5 . 2 . 5. 3 5 . 2 . 5. 4 5.2. 6 5. 2 . 6 . 1 5.2.6. 2 5. 2. 6. 3 5.2.6.4 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.1.1 5.3.1.2 5.3.1.3 5.3.1.4 5.3.2 5.3. 2. 1 5.3.2.2 5.3.2.3 5.3.2.4 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.1.1 5.4.1.2 5.4. 1 . 3 5.4. 1.4 6

Title Equipment Description Experiment Procedures Crewman Participation Recovery Requirements . Human Otolith F u n c t i o n ( V e s t i b u l a r E f f e c t s ) (M-9A) (M009) Equipment Description . Experiment P r o c e d u r e s . Crewman Participation . Recovery Requirements . . Cytogenetic Blood S t u d i e s ( M - 1 1 ) ( M o l l ) Equipment Description . Equipment P r o c e d u r e s Crewman Participation . Re cove r y O p e r a t i o n s C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Reflex Conditioning ( M - 4 8 ) (M048) . Equipment Description Experiment P r o c e d u r e s Crewman Participation . Recovery Requirements . Scientific E x p e r i m e n t s Synoptic T e r r a i n P h o t o g r a p h (S-5A) (S005) Equipment Description Experiment Procedures . Crewman Participation . Recovery Requirements Synoptic W e a t h e r P h o t o g r a p h y (S-6A) (S006) Equipment Description Experiment Procedures Crewman Participation Recovery Requirements . Technical Experiments . In- F l i g h t N e p h e l o m e t e r ( T - 3 ) ( T 0 0 3 ) Equipment Description Experiment Procedures Crewman Participation Recovery Requirements

Page

. . .

5-11 5-11 5-12 5-12 5- 12 5- 12 5-12 5-13 5-13 5-13 5-13 5-13 5-14 5-14 5-14 5-14 5-15 5-15 5-15 5-16 5-16 5-16 5-16 5-16 5-17 5-17 5-17 5-17 5-17 5-17 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-18 5-19 6- 1

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. .

.

. .

.

. . . . . . . .

.

.

C R E W PERSONAL EQUIPMENT

.

6.1 6. 2 6.2. 1 6. 2. 2 6.3 6.3. 1

Introduction C r e w C o m p a r t m e n t Configuration and C r e w Environment Mirrors I n t e r n a l Viewing M i r r o r s ( C F E ) . E x t e r n a l Viewing M i r r o r s ( C F E ) C r e w m a n O p t i c a l A l i g n m e n t Sight (COAS) Operational Use

6- 1
6-1 6-2 6-2 6-3

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.
~~

6-4
6-5

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

Page

ix

S M Z A - 0 3 - sc 0 12

.
-

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section 6.4 6.4. 1 6 . 4 . 1. 1 6 . 4 . 1. 2 6 . 4 . 1. 3 6.4. 1 . 4 6.4. 1.5 6.4.2 6.4.2. 1 6.4.2.2 6.4.3 6.4.3.1 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6. 6 6.6. 1 6.6. 2 6.7 6.7. 1 6. 7. 2 6.7.2. 1 6.7.2.2 6.7. 3 6.7.3. 1 6.7.3.2 6. 7.3.3 6.7.3.4 6.7.3.5 6.7.4 6.7.4. 1 6.7.4.2 6.7.4. 3 6. 7 . 4 . 4 6.7.4. 5 6. 7 . 4 . 6 6. 7 . 4 . 7

Title S p a c e Suit A s s e m b l y ( G F P ) . S p a c e Suit Off o r S h i r t s l e e v e E n v i r o n m e n t . . Constant Wear Garment Flight Coveralls C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Soft H a t . Constant Wear G a r m e n t Electrical Adapter E l e c t r i c a l U m b i l i c a l "Sleep" A d a p t e r . S p a c e Suit On E n v i r o n m e n t . PGA U n p r e s s u r i z e d o r Ventilated . PGA P r e s s u r i z e d PGA D e s c r i p t i o n PGA Components PGA Stowage T o r s o and Glove Stowage . H e l m e t Stowage PGA Connecting E q u i p m e n t P r e s s u r e Garment Assembly (PGA) Electrical Adapter ( G F P ) Oxygen H o s e ( U m b i l i c a l ) ( G F P ) . C r e w Couches C r e w Couch S t r u c t u r e C r e w Couch P o s i t i o n s Occupied P o s i t i o n s Unoccupied P o sit i o n s C r e w Couch Component D e s c r i p t i o n Headrest . B a ck r e st Armrests . S e a t P a n and F o o t r e s t C r e w Couch P a d s . Mechanical Adjustments Headrest Adjustments A r m r e s t Adjustments . Seat P a n Adjustment Directions F o o t r e s t and F o o t s t r a p A d j u s t m e n t s . D-Ring Handle E x t e n s i o n Docking P o s i t i o n A d j u s t m e n t Shoulder S t r a p Adjustment . Crewman Restraints High G-Load R e s t r a i n t s Crewman Restraint Harness . Weightless Restraint . Guidance and Navigation Station R e s t r a i n t C r e w m a n Sleeping R e s t r a i n t s F l i g h t Data F i l e ( G F P ) C o m m a n d e r ' s F l i g h t D a t a File Senior P i l o t ' s Flight Data F i l e P i l o t ' s F l i g h t D a t a File

Page 6-6 6-6 6-6 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-9 6-12 6-12 6-12 6-13 6-13 6-13 6-13 6-14 6-15 6-15 6-16 6-17 6-17 6-18 6-18 6-18 6-19
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. . .

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6-19
6-19 6-19 6-21 6-22 6-22 6-22 6-23 6-23 6-23 6-23 6-24 6-25 6-26 6-27 6-28 6-28 6-29

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6.8
6.8. 1 6 . 8 . 1. 1 6.8. 1 . 2 6.8. 1.3 6.8. 1.4 6.9 6.9. 1 6.9. 2 6.9.3

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.

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.

M i s s ion

B a s i c Date

'

l2

1966

C h a n g e Date

Page

X

Sh12A-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

~~

Section

Title

Pagc

10. 1 10. 2 10.3 6.10.4 6.10. 5 6 . 10.6 6. 10.7 6. 10.8 6 . 10.9 6 . 10. 10 6. 10. 11 6.10.12 6. 10. 13 6 . 1 0 . 13. 1 6 . 1 0 . 13. 2 6. 10. 14 6. 10. 14. 1 6. 11 6. 12 6 . 12. 1 6. 12. 2 6. 12. 2 . 1 6. 1 2 . 2 . 2 6. 12.2.3 6. 13 6. 13. 1 6 .13. 2 6. 1 3 . 3 6. 1 3 . 4 6 . 13. 5 6. 14 6.14.1 6. 14. 1. 1 6. 14. 1 . 2 6. 14. 1 . 3 6. 1 4 . 1 . 4 6. 14. 1. 5 6. 1 4 . 2 6. 14. 2.1 6. 1 4 . 2 . 2 6 . 14. 2. 3 6.15 6. 15. 1 6. 1 5 . 2 6. 1 5 . 3

6. 6. 6. 6.

10

C r e w m a n I n - F l i g h t Tool S e t and Workshelf ( G F B ) T o r q u e Wrench ( T o o l A) . A d a p t e r Handle ( T o o l E) . 10-Inch D r i v e r ( T o o l H) . 4-Inch D r i v e r ( T o o l L ) . E m e r g e n c y Wrench ( T o o l B) . T-Handle (Tool C ) . End Wrench ( T o o l F) ( 2 ) . 5/32-Inch Short Driver (Tool J) . 4-Inch T o r q u e S e t D r i v e r ( T o o l R ) . I n - F l i g h t Tool Set T e t h e r D-Ring E x t e n s i o n Handle ( T o o l N ) . Operational Use Stowage I n - F l i g h t Tool Set Stowage P o u c h and Tool S e t Drawer . M i s c e l l a n e o u s Stowage W o rkshelf A s s e m b l y Usage . Drinking W a t e r S u b s y s t e m . Food Use Stowage L E B F o o d Stowage C o m p a r t m e n t RHEB A u x i l i a r y Food C o m p a r t m e n t D r a w e r L H E B F o o d Stowage C o m p a r t m e n t P e r s o n a l Hygiene ( G F P ) . C l e a n s i n g of T e e t h - O r a l Hygiene A s s e m b l y . Wet C l e a n s i n g Cloth D r y Cleaning C l o t h Towels Tissue Dispensers . M e d i c a l Supplies ( G F P ) Monitoring E q u i p m e n t C l i n i c a l P h y s i o l o g i c a l Monitoring I n s t r u m e n t S c t Personal Biomedical Sensors Instrument Assembly Biomedical P r e a m p l i f i e r Instrument Assembly . . B i o i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n A c c e s s o r i e s Kit P e r s o n a l Radiation Do s i m e t e r s M e d i c a l Kit ( G F P ) . Packaging Stowage M e d i c a l Kit Additional U s a g e S u r v i v a l Kit ( G F P ) Stowage S u r v i v a l Kit C o n t a i n e r O p e r a t i o n C o n t e n t s of t h e S u r v i v a l K i t s

.

6-30 6-31 6-31 6-3 1 6-31 6-31 6-32 6-32 6-32 5-32 6-32 6-32 6-32 6-32 6-35 6-35 6-35 6-36 6-37 6-38 6-38 6-38 6-38 6-39 6-39 6-39 6-39 6-40 6-40 6-41 6-41 6-41 6-41 6-41 6-42 6-42 6-42 6 -43 6 -43 6 -44 6-44 6-44 6-44 6-44 6-46 6-46

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Mission

B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

xi

SM.! -4 0 3 - S C 0 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section 6.15.4 6. 15.4. 1 6. 1 5 . 4 . 2 6. 15.4. 3 6. 1 5 . 4 . 4 6. 15.4. 5 6. 1 5 . 4 . 6 6. 15.4. 7 6. 1 5 . 4 . 8 6. 1 5 . 5 6 . 16 7

Title D e s c r i p t i o n and U s e of S u r v i v a l Kit Components L i f e r aft s Beacon/Transceiver . Survival Lights ( 2 ) . Survival G l a s s e s ( 3 ) . Survival Knives ( 2 ) Water Cans ( 3 ) . D e s a l t i n g K i t s ( 2 ) Plus T a b l e t s ( 1 6 ) . E m e r g e n c y M e d i c a l S u r v i v a l Kit Sea Water Pump (CFE) Stowage

Page

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6-47 6-47 6-47 6-48 6-48 6-49 6-49 6-49

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6-49
6-49 6-50 7- 1

SYSTEM SCHEMATICS

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__
Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 C h a n g e Date Page
xii

SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
t

GENERAL INFORMATION

SECTION 1 GENERAL INFORMATION

INTRODUCTION. This s e c t i o n contains i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the Xpollo s p a c e c r a f t 012 configuration, and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the launch v e h i c l e and b o o s t e r u s e d f o r the m i s s i o n .
1.1

SPACE C RA F T 0 12 CONFIGURA TION. S p a c e c r a f t 012 ( f i g u r e 1 - 1 ) c o n f o r m s to a Block I CSM configuration c o n s i s t i n g of a launch e s c a p e s y s t e m ( L E S ) a s s e m b l y , c o m m a n d m o d u l e ( C / M ) , s e r v i c e module ( S / M ) , a n d the s p a c e c r a f t l u n a r e x c u r s i o n module a d a p t e r (SLA). T h i s s p a c e c r a f t , designed f o r a n e a r t h o r b i t a l m i s s i o n , d o e s not contain a l u n a r m o d u l e ( L M ) within i t s a d a p t e r . ( F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the launch vehicle u s e d with s p a c e c r a f t 012, r e f e r to p a r a g r a p h 1 . 2 )

NOTE T h e Block I configuration m i s s i o n s f o r the Apollo
p r o g r a m provide the following:
0

C o m m a n d m o d u l e and s e r v i c e m o d u l e development f o r e a r t h orbital missions D e m o n s t r a t i o n of s y s t e m s o p e r a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s including a l l types of a b o r t s , land a n d w a t e r r e c o v e r y , S a t u r n IB and S a t u r n V o p e r a t i o n and c a p a b i l i t y , and s y s t e m s operation during e a r t h o r b i t Development of qualified t e a m s f o r checkout, launch, m a n n e d s p a c e flight n e t w o r k ( M S F N ) , r e c o v e r y , a n d flight a n a l y s i s .

0

0

1.1.1

LES ASSEMBLY. T h e LES a s s e m b l y ( f i g u r e 1-1) p r o v i d e s t h e m e a n s f o r s e p a r a t i n g the C / M f r o m the launch v e h i c l e d u r i n g pad o r s u b o r b i t a l a b o r t s . T h i s a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a Q - b a l l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a s s e m b l y ( n o s e c o n e ) , b a l l a s t c o m p a r t m e n t , c a n a r d s u r f a c e s , pitch c o n t r o l m o t o r , t o w e r j e t t i s o n m o t o r , launch e s c a p e m o t o r , a s t r u c t u r a l s k i r t , a n o p e n - f r a m e t o w e r , and a b o o s t p r o t e c t i v e c o v e r ( B P C ) . T h e s t r u c t u r a l s k i r t a t the b a s e of the housing, which e n c l o s e s the r o c k e t m o t o r s , is s e c u r e d to the u p p e r portion of the t o w e r .

S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION M i s s ion B a s i c Date
l 2 N o v 1966

Change Date

Page

1-1

SMZA -03-SCO12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK GENERAL INFORMATION

--.Q-BALL (NOSE CONE) PITCH CONTROL MOTOR

JETTISON MOTOR

LAUNCH ESCAPE MOTOR

STRUCTURAL SKIRT

LAUNCH ESCAPE

TOWER

TOWER ATTACHMENT (4) C O W N O MODULE

C/M TO SM FAIRING /

SERVICE MODULE

EPS RADIATOR

ECS RADIATOR

SPACECRAFT LEM ADAPTER (SLA)-

S f 5 ENGINE EXPANSION NOZZLE

S I A PANEL JUNCTION (BETWEEN FWD AND A f l PANELS)

5-IVB INSTRUMENT UNIT ( S H W N AS REFERENCE)

F i g u r e 1-1.

S p a c e c r a f t 012 Configuration (Sheet 1 of 2)

S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
1-2

s1M2L1-03-sc012

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK GENERAL INFORMATION

XI

= 138

WO

x1

= 11s 300

XA

- 1133

503

x c = 131 503

xA

--

1083 176

83 476

AS<
C M-S M SEPARAl1ON PLANE

.

S/M

1
APOLLO I C RtFtRfNCt STAIIUNI = L f S REFfRENCf SlAllONS Xc = C/M IEFfRENCE SlAllONS XI S/M IEFCRENCE SlAlIONS
XA

X,

-

NOTE A U A l I M PMlEIIAL DlMfNSlONI A E NOT INCLUDED ON C/M R

= 583 3w

= M2.m
SM-21-70711

F i g u r e 1-1.

S p a c e c r a f t 0 1 2 Configuration ( S h e e t 2 of 2 )

S P A C E C R A F T 0 1 2 CONFIGURATION Mission B a s i c D a t e ' 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page

1-3

-~-

-

SMZA -03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK GENERAL INFORiMATION

T h e B P C ( f i g u r e 1 - 2 ) i s a t t a c h e d to the l o w e r end of t h e t o w e r t o p r o t e c t the C / M f r o m t h e r m a l h e a t d u r i n g b o o s t a n d f r o m e x h a u s t d a m a g e by the l a u n c h e s c a p e and t o w e r j e t t i s o n m o t o r s . E x p l o s i v e n u t s , one in e a c h t o w e r w e l l l e g , s e c u r e the t o w e r to the C / M s t r u c t u r e . ( F o r additional i n f o r m a t i o n , r e f e r to t h e s e q u e n t i a l s y s t e m s in s e c t i o n 2 . ) 1.1.2 COMMAND MODULE. T h e C / M ( f i g u r e 1 - 3 ) f o r m s t h e s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l c e n t e r , contains n e c e s s a r y a u t o m a t i c a n d m a n u a l e q u i p m e n t to c o n t r o l a n d m o n i t o r t h e s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s , a n d c o n t a i n s t h e r e q u i r e d e q u i p m e n t f o r s a f e t y and c o n f o r m of the c r e w . T h e module i s a n i r r e g u l a r - s h a p e d , p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r e e n c o m p a s s e d by t h r e e h e a t s h i e l d s ( c o a t e d with a b l a t i v e m a t e r i a l a n d j o i n e d o r f a s t e n e d to t h e p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r e ) f o r m i n g a c o n i c a l - e x t e r i o r s h a p e . T h e C / M c o n s i s t s of a f o r w a r d c o m p a r t m e n t , a c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t , and an aft compartment.

_..-

t-I
H O N E Y C O M B CORED-IAMINATED FIBERGLASS PANEL

0 3" THICK CORK ABLATOR

TRANSITION R I N G

FIBERGLASS R I N G (HARD C O N S T R U C T I O N )

C/M HEAT SHIELD ABLATOR TEFL0 N IMPREGNATED G I A S SC L T H O

RCS PITCH MOTOR PORTS

SILICONE SPONGE SEAL

- Xc14
M O T O R PORTS RCS ROLL MOTOR P O R T S RCS PITCH M O T O R PORTS SM-24-1031

F i g u r e 1-2.

Boost Protective Cover

S P A C E C R A F T 0 1 2 CONFIGURATION M i s s ion B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
1-4

SM2A 0 3 -SC 0 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK GENERAL INFORMATION

-

r

BREAKOUT PLUG (FOR APEX COVER PILOT PARACHUTE) LAUNCH ESCAPE TOWER ATTACHMENT (TYPICAL) NEGATIVE PITCH

FORWARD HEAT SHIELD (APW COVER) OPTICAL SIGHTING PORTS 1

ENGINES
FWD VIEW1 N G (RENDEZVOUS) WINDOWS

CREW

POSITIVE PITCH

AFT HEAT SHIELD

SIDE W I N D OW (TYPICAL 2 PLACES)'

\ I
\ I

u

^.. ..... .- ^...

UMBI LI;AL'

nATCn W""UW ROLL ENGINES
(TYPICAL)

NOTE: CENTER COUCH REMOVED FOR CLARITY.

SM-2A-642F

Figure 1- 3.

S p a c e c r a f t 0 12 Command Module

S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

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SMZA-03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

G E N E R A L INFORMATION

1.1.2. 1

Forward Compartment. The f o r w a r d c o m p a r t m e n t ( f i g u r e 1 - 3 ) i s the a r e a o u t s i d e the f o r w a r d a c c e s s tunnel, f o r w a r d of the c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t f o r w a r d bulkhead and i s c o v e r e d b y the f o r w a r d h e a t s h i e l d . F o u r 9 0 - d e g r e e s e g m e n t s around the p e r i m e t e r of the tunnel contain the r e c o v e r y equipment, two negative-pitch r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m e n g i n e s , and the f o r w a r d h e a t shield r e l e a s e m e c h a n i s m . Most of the equipment in the f o r w a r d c o m p a r t m e n t c o n s i s t s of e a r t h landing ( r e c o v e r y ) s y s t e m components. The f o r w a r d h e a t s h i e l d , o r a p e x c o v e r , i s m a d e of b r a z e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l honeycomb and c o v e r e d with ablative m a t e r i a l . It contains four r e c e s s e d fittings which p e r m i t the launch e s c a p e t o w e r to be attached to the C / M i n n e r s t r u c t u r e . Jettison t h r u s t e r s s e p a r a t e the a p e s c o v e r f r o m the C / M a f t e r e n t r y o r a f t e r the launch e s c a p e a s s e m b l y i s s e p a r a t e d during a n a b o r t . ( F o r additional i n f o r m a t i o n , r e f e r to the sequential s y s t e m s in s e c t i o n 2. )

1.1.2.2

Crew Compartment. T h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t o r i n n e r s t r u c t u r e ( f i g u r e - 1-3) i s a s e a l e d cabin with p r e s s u r i z a t i o n maintained by the e n v i r o n m e n t a l control s y s t e m ( E C S ) . The c o m p a r t m e n t , p r o t e c t e d by a heat shield, contains c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s f o r o p e r a t i o n of the s p a c e c r a f t and s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s ; contains m e c h a n i c a l a d j u s t m e n t s f o r the c r e w c o u c h e s , r e s t r a i n t h a r n e s s a s s e m b l i e s , hatch c o v e r s , window s h a d e s , e t c . ; and i s provided with c r e w equipment, food and w a t e r , w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t p r o v i s i o n s , s u r v i v a l equipm e n t , and scientific e x p e r i m e n t s equipment. A c c e s s h a t c h e s , o b s e r v a t i o n windows, and equipment b a y s a r e attached a s p a r t of t h e c o m p a r t m e n t s t r u c t u r e . The c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t h e a t s h i e l d , l i k e the a p e x c o v e r , i s m a d e of b r a z e d s t a i n l e s s - s t e e l honeycomb and c o v e r e d with ablative m a t e r i a l . T h i s h e a t shield, o r o u t e r s t r u c t u r e , contains the S / C umbilical connector o u t l e t , ablative plugs, and a c o p p e r h e a t sink f o r the o p t i c a l sighting p o r t s in the l o w e r equipment bay, two s i d e o b s e r v a t i o n windows, two f o r w a r d viewing windows, and t h e o u t e r c o v e r f o r t h e side a c c e s s hatch which a l s o contains a n o b s e r v a t i o n window.

1. 1 . 2 . 3

S / C C o n t r o l s and Displays. Information r e l a t i n g t o c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s f o r o p e r a t i o n of the s p a c e c r a f t and i t s s y s t e m s i s provided in s e c t i o n 3 .

1.1.2.4

C / M Mechanical Controls. Mechanical c o n t r o l s ( f i g u r e 1 - 4 ) a r e provided in the c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t f o r m a n u a l o p e r a t i o n of the c r e w couch a s s e m b l y , s i d e a c c e s s hatch c o v e r s , f o r w a r d a c c e s s hatch c o v e r , and m a n u a l o v e r r i d e l e v e r s f o r the

S P A C E C R A F T 0 1 2 CONFIGURATION Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 1-6

S M 2 A - 0 3 -SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL INFORMATION

CONTROL

VIEW0 ECS CABIN AIR PRESSURE CONTROLS

VIEW

@

RELIEF VALVE A N D LINKAGE (2 PLA$ES)

/

X-X AlTENUATION STRUT LOCKOUT MECHANISM (4 PLACES)
ATTENUATION

/ STRUT

VIEW Y-Y ATlENUATlON STRUT (2 PLACES 1

0

COUCH

, BEARING

CORE

W N W L RELEASE

NYLON HOOK FASTENER TAPE GRIP

YNW
5 M- 24-75 X

F i g u r e 1-4.

C / M M e c h a n i c a l C o n t r o l s ( S h e e t 1 of 3 )

S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION
' -

Mission

B a s i c Date

l2

1966

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SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK GENERAL INFORMATION

INNER WINDOW

SEALED DWVE SHAFT (BOTH SIDES) RACKDRIVE &4R LATCH (6 PLACES)

CREW ACCESS HATCH (LOOKING INBOARD) PUSH-PIPE PLUNGER (INTERNAL RELWE FO B o o s HATCH COVER) OUTER WINDOW

LATCH DRIVE SHAFT (OUTER DRIVE COVERED BY ABLATIVE PLUG)

BOOST HATCH COVER

EXTERNAL

LATCH DRIVE ROO

noosi HATCH
COVER WINDOW

(TYPICAL) OUTER MATCH COVER EMERGENCY EXTERNAL RELEASE (VIEW ROTATED 180 DEG)

SM-ZA-753C

F i g u r e 1-4.

C / M Mechanical C o n t r o l s ( S h e e t 2 of 3 )

S P A C E C R A F T 011: CONFIGURATION Mission B a s i c Date l 2

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S M L A - 0 3 - S C O 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK GENERAL I N F O R M A T I O N

FORWARD ACCESS HATCH COVER
EPS RECEPTACLE

(AFT SIDE O MAIN F DISPLAY CONSOLE)

CONNECTOR RACHET WRENCH

AIR OUTLET VALVE (CLOSED POSITION)

CAUTION DECAL
LOCK PIN

OUTBOARD VIEW

@ FORWARD ACCESS HATCH
LOCK1 NC MECHANI SM
ACCESS HATCH BREECH-LOCK FWD ACCESS HATCH COVER

0 POSTLANDING VENTILATION SYSTEM (PLV)

IR I N L n P O R T

CROSS-SECTION VIEW
LANYARD (TO AFT iKAM MTIEMIN ON LEFT AND CENTER COUCH)

SM-ZA-856A

F i g u r e 1-4.

C / M M e c h a n i c a l C o n t r o l s ( S h e e t 3 of 3)

SPACECRAFT 012 CONFIGURATION
Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

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SIM2A - 0 3 - SC 0 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
G E N E RA L I N F 0R h4A T IO N

s o c k e t a t one end) i s mounted on t h e c o v e r and will b e a r a g a i n s t a b r a c k e t on t h e tunnel w a l l . When t u r n e d by a h a n d c r a n k o r t o r q u e w r e n c h with a 5 / 3 2 - i n c h d r i v e . the j a c k s c r e w will intend and allow the c o v e r to be r o t a t e d a n d r e m o v e d . T h e c o v e r i s r o t a t e d by u s e of the i n s i d e handholds o r the o u t s i d e by an i t e m of GSE a n d c a n only be r e t r i e v e d f r o m within the c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t end of the tunnel. 1.1.2.4.5 Windows and S h a d e s . FiL-e windows a r e p r o v i d e d through the i n n e r s t r u c t u r e and h e a t shield of the C / M : two f o r w a r d viewing, two s i d e o b s e r v a t i o n , and the c r e w a c c e s s h a t c h windows. ( S e e f i g u r e 1 - 3 . ) D u r i n g o r b i t a l flight, p h o t o g r a p h s of e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s will b e t a k e n t h r o u g h the viewing a n d o b s e r v a t i o n windows. T h e i n n e r windows ( i n c l u d i n g t h e c i r c u l a r i n n e r h a t c h window) a r e m a d e of t e m p e r e d s i l i c a g l a s s with 0. 2 5 - i n c h - t h i c k double p a n e s , s e p a r a t e d by 0 . 1 inch of s p a c e , and have a softening t e m p e r a t u r e point of 2 0 0 0 ° F . The o u t e r windows ( i n c l u d i n g the s q u a r e o u t e r hatch window) a r e m a d e of a m o r p h o u s f u s e d s i l i c o n with a s i n g l e 0. 7 - i n c h - t h i c k pane. E a c h pane c o n t a i n s a n a n t i r e f l e c t i n g c o a t i n g on the e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e , and h a s b l u e - r e d r e f l e c t i v e coating on the i n n e r s u r f a c e f o r f i l t e r i n g out m o s t i n f r a r e d a n d a l l u l t r a v i o l e t r a y s , a softening t e m p e r a t u r e point of 2 8 0 0 " F , a n d a m e l t i n g point of 31 1 0 ° F . S h a d e s a r e provided f o r c o n t r o l l i n g e x t e r n a l light e n t e r i n g the C / M through the t r i a n g u l a r f o r w a r d viewing windows, the s q u a r e s i d e o b s e r v a t i o n windows, and the c i r c u l a r i n n e r h a t c h window. T h e s e s h a d e s , individually d e s i g n e d f o r e a c h window c o n f i g u r a t i o n , a r e m a d e of m y l a r f i l m which h a s b e e n h e a t - t r e a t e d to r o l l up when not held flat. T h e s h a d e s a r e opaque f o r z e r o light t r a n s m i t t a l , have a n o n r e f l e c t i v e i n n e r a l u m i n i z e d s u r f a c e , two snap f a s t e n e r s and fabric handles for attaching o r removing f r o m a particu l a r window, and a 3 / 4 - i n c h s t r i p of V e l c r o hook m a t e r i a l a r o u n d the o u t e r s u r f a c e f o r holding the s h a d e a g a i n s t the V e l c r o pile a r o u n d the p e r i m e t e r of t h e window. If d e s i r e d , a s h a d e c a n be p e e l e d back f r o m t h e V e l c r o pile m a t e r i a l and stowed in p l a c e on one s i d e of !he window. 1. 1. 2 . 4 . 6 Cabin P r e s s u r e C o n t r o l s . Two c o n t r o l l e v e r s f o r m a n u a l l y o p e r a t i n g the ECS c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s a r e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e C / M left couch a n d left s i d e window. ( S e e f i g u r e 1 - 4 . ) T h e s e l e v e r s a r e p r o v i d e d a s a m e c h a n i c a l o v e r r i d e f o r opening a n d c l o s i n g t h e redundant s i d e s of the a u t o m a t i c c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r . (For additional i n f o r m a t i o n , r e f e r to the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l s y s t e m in section 2 . ) 1.1,2.5 C r e w Equipment and Equipment B a y s . Each c r e w m e m b e r h a s personal and a c c e s s o r y equipment provided for h i s u s e in t h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t . M a j o r i t e m s of p e r s o n a l e q u i p m e n t cons i s t of a p r e s s u r e g a r m e n t a s s e m b l y ( P G A ) with a t t a c h i n g h o s e and umbilical, a communications a s s e m b l y , a constant-wear garment, biom e d i c a l s e n s o r s , a n d r a d i a t i o n d o s i m e t e r s . lMajor i t e m s of a c c e s s o r y e q u i p m e n t s h a r e d by t h e c r e w c o n s i s t of a n in-flight tool s e t and a m e d i c a l k i t . ( F o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t of c r e w e q u i p m e n t , r e f e r to s e c t i o n 6 . ) ( S p e c i f i c i t e m s c o n t a i n e d in the C / M e q u i p m e n t and s t o r a g e b a y s a r e l i s t e d i n f i g u r e 1 - 6 . ) S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION Mission B a s i c Date l2

1966

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I

(inner corer)

I

I

FORWARD REFERENCE VIEW

1

LEFT-HAND FORWARD EQUIPMENT BAY (LHFEB) AND LEFf,
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2 3 4
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9 IO 1I I2
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29 30
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SMZA-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
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G E N E F A L INFORMATION
4

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F i g u r e 1-6.

C / M E q u i p m e n t and S t o w a g e B a y s

S P A C E C R A F T 0 1 2 CONFIGURATION

M s ion is

Basic D a t e l 2

1966

Change D a t e

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1-13/1-14

I

1

I

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1.2.6

F o o d and W a t e r . Food and w a t e r p r o v i s i o n s , including w a t e r d e l i v e r y a n d food p r e p a r a t i o n e q u i p m e n t , a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t LHEB a n d L E B ( f i g u r e 1 - 6 ) f o r t h e length of t h e m i s s i o n . Food m a y b e p r e p a r e d by adding w a t e r t o p l a s t i c b a g s containing the d e h y d r a t e d food a n d kneading t h e m i x t u r e . P r e p a r e d food c a n be s q u e e z e d d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e mouth of a n a s t r o n a u t . Hot o r cold w a t e r is a v a i l a b l e at t h e p o t a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y p a n e l f o r food r e c o n s t i t u t i o n . Chilled d r i n k i n g w a t e r is supplied t o t h e c r e w t h r o u g h a f l e x i b l e h o s e f r o m t h e w a t e r d e l i v e r y unit. T h e potable w a t e r is a b y - p r o d u c t of t h e E P S f u e l c e l l s .

1. 1 . 2 . 7

W a s t e Management. Waste m a n a g e m e n t p r o v i s i o n s i n the c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t R H F E B and AESB ( f i g u r e 1 - 6 ) c o n s i s t of e q u i p m e n t f o r c o l l e c t i n g , s t e r i l i z i n g , a n d s t o r i n g h u m a n f e c a l m a t t e r a n d p e r s o n a l hygiene w a s t e s ( s u c h a s u s e d c l e a n s i n g p a d s , t o w e l s , e t c . ). F e c a l m a t t e r a n d p e r s o n a l hygiene w a s t e s a r e c o l l e c t e d i n polyethylene b a g s , d i s i n f e c t e d , a n d s t o r e d i n a vented a r e a . U r i n e i s e x p e l l e d o v e r b o a r d into s p a c e .

1.1.2.8

S u r viva1 E q u i p m e n t . The s u r v i v a l k i t s stowed i n t h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t R H F E B ( f i g u r e 1 - 6 ) a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the postlanding p h a s e of the m i s s i o n ( l a n d o r w a t e r ) . The m a j o r i t e m s contained i n e a c h kit include 6 pounds of w a t e r , a d e s a l t e r k i t , a o n e - m a n life r a f t , r a d i o t r a n s c e i v e r , p o r t a b l e l i g h t , s u n g l a s s e s , and a m a c h e t e . Life v e s t s w o r n by the c r e w d u r i n g lift-off a n d e n t r y a r e stowed i n t h e s p a c e s u i t stowage bag d u r i n g the o r b i t p h a s e of the m i s s i o n . (See figure 1-6. )

1. 1 . 2 . 9

Aft C o m p a r t m e n t . T h e a f t c o m p a r t m e n t ( f i g u r e 1 - 3 ) is t h e a r e a e n c o m p a s s e d by the aft p o r t i o n of t h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t h e a t s h i e l d , a f t h e a t s h i e l d , and aft p o r t i o n of t h e p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r e . T h i s c o m p a r t m e n t c o n t a i n s 10 r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l e n g i n e s , a n i m p a c t a t t e n u a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , and s t o r a g e t a n k s f o r w a t e r , f u e l , o x i d i z e r , a n d g a s e o u s h e l i u m . ( F o u r c r u s h a b l e r i b s , along the S / C +Z a x i s , a r e provided a s p a r t of the i m p a c t a t t e n u a t i o n s t r u c t u r e t o a b s o r b e n e r g y during a l a n d i m p a c t . ) The aft h e a t s h i e l d , which e n c l o s e s the l a r g e e n d of the C / M , i s a s h a l l o w s p h e r i c a l l y c o n t o u r e d a s s e m b l y . It i s m a d e of the s a m e type of m a t e r i a l s as other C / M heat shields. However, the ablative m a t e r i a l on t h i s h e a t s h i e l d h a s a g r e a t e r t h i c k n e s s f o r t h e d i s s i p a t i o n of h e a t d u r i n g e n t r y . E x t e r n a l p r o v i s i o n s a r e m a d e o n t h i s h e a t s h i e l d f o r connecting the C / M t o the S / M .

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SERVICE MODULE The S / M is a c y l i n d r i c a l s t r u c t u r e f o r m e d by 1 - i n c h - t h i c k a l u m i n u m honeycomb p a n e l s . R a d i a l b e a m s , f r o m m i l l e d a l u m i n u m a l l o y p l a t e s , s e p a r a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e i n t e r i o r i n t o s i x unequal s e c t o r s a r o u n d a c i r c u l a r c e n t e r s e c t i o n . (See f i g u r e 1 - 7. ) Equipment contained within the s e r v i c e module i s a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h m a i n t e n a n c e d o o r s l o c a t e d s t r a t e g i c a l l y a r o u n d t h e e x t e r i o r s u r f a c e of the m o d u l e . Specific i t e m s , s u c h a s flight c o n t r o l s y s t e m (SPS a n d RCS) a n d m o s t of t h e S / C o n - b o a r d c o n s u m a b l e s ( a n d s t o r a g e t a n k s ) c o n t a i n e d i n the S / M c o m p a r t m e n t s , a r e l i s t e d i n f i g u r e 1 - 7 . R a d i a l b e a m t r u s s e s on the f o r w a r d p o r t i o n of the S / M s t r u c t u r e ( f i g u r e 1 - 7 ) provide a m e a n s f o r s e c u r i n g the C / M t o the S / M . A l t e r n a t e b e a m s , o n e , t h r e e , and f i v e , have c o m p r e s s i o n pads f o r s u p p o r t i n g the C I M . B e a m s two, f o u r , a n d s i x , have s h e a r - c o m p r e s s i o n p a d s , and t e n s i o n t i e s , A flat c e n t e r s e c t i o n i n e a c h t e n s i o n t i e i n c o r p o r a t e s redundant e x p l o s i v e c h a r g e s f o r S / M - C / M separation. These b e a m s and separation devices a r e e n c l o s e d within a f a i r i n g ( 2 6 i n c h e s high a n d 1 3 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r ) b e t w e e n the C / M and S/M.

1.1.4

S P A C E C R A F T L E M ADAPTER. The s p a c e c r a f t LEM a d a p t e r ( S L A ) i s a t r u n c a t e d c o n e which c o n n e c t s the CSM t o the S-IVB i n s t r u m e n t unit o n t h e l a u n c h v e h i c l e , (See f i g u r e 1 - 1 . ) T h i s a d a p t e r , c o n s t r u c t e d of e i g h t 2 - i n c h - t h i c k aluminum p a n e l s , is 154 inclies i n d i a m e t e r a t the f o r w a r d end ( C / M i n t e r f a c e ) a n d 260 i n c h e s a t the a f t e n d . S e p a r a t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t f r o m the S L A is a c c o m p l i s h e d by m e a n s of e x p l o s i v e c h a r g e s which p e r m i t the f o u r SLA f o r w a r d p a n e l s (above s t a t i o n 583, 3 ) . t o d i s e n g a g e f r o m the CSM a n d r o t a t e o u t w a r d 45 d e g r e e s f r o m v e r t i c a l . The f o u r aft p a n e l s r e m a i n a t t a c h e d t o the S-IVB i n s t r u m e n t unit. F o r m i s s i o n 2 0 4 A , a c r o s s - s h a p e d s t i f f e n e r is i n s t a l l e d within the S L A in p l a c e of a LEM. The S / M SPS n o z z l e e x t e n d s into the SLX which a l s o h o u s e s a n u m b i l i c a l c a b l e f o r connecting c i r c u i t s between the launch vehicle and t h e s pace c r a f t .

1. 1 . 5

S P A C E C R A F T SYSTEMS. Data r e l a t i n g t o the o p e r a t i o n a l s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s a n d i n t e r f a c e i n f o r m a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 2 of t h i s handbook.

1.2

L-4 UN CH VEHIC LE C OKFIGURX T ION.
-4 tnro-stage S a t u r n I B launch v e h i c l e , c o n s i s t i n g of a n S-IB b o o s t e r and a n S-IVB s e c o n d s t a g e , i s s c h e d u l e d to p r o v i d e the r e q u i r e d t h r u s t f o r i n s e r t i n g S I C 012 into o r b i t ( f i g u r e 1 - 8 . ) A n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n unit, l o c a t e d between the S-IVB a n d t h e SLA, c o n t r o l s e a c h of the two boost s t a g e s d u r i n g flight. T h e t o t a l length oi t h e S a t u r n IB launch v e h i c l e , including the s p a c e c r a f t , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 2 4 f e e t . .An e m e r g e n c y d e t e c t i o n s y s t e m s e q u e n c e r d i s p l a y p a n e l , in the C / h l , e n a b l e s the c r e w to m o n i t o r l a u n c h v e h i c l e engine p e r f o r m a n c e d u r i n g lift-off. ( R e f e r to t h e s e q u e n t i a l s y s t e m s in s e c t i o n 2 . )

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GENERAL INFORMATION

IDIZER T A N K

ECS SPACE

ECS SPACE RADIATOR

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SECTOR 4 (SKIN PARTIALLY REMOVED F O R CLARITY)

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SERVICE M O D U L E ITEMS

Sector 1 E l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m space radiator S u p e r - c r i t i c a l o x y g e n t a n k (two) S u p e r - c r i t i c a l h y d r o g e n t a n k (two)

Sector 5 Environmental control system space radiator S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m oxidizer tank Reaction control s y s t e m package ( - Y axis)

Sector 2 Environmental control system space radiator S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m oxidizer tank Reaction control s y s t e m package (+Y-axis) S p a c e r a d i a t o r i s o l a t i o n v a l v e (two)

Sector 6 S p a c e r a d i a t o r s e l e c t i o n v a l v e , (two) G l y c o l s h u t o f f v a l v e s (two) Reaction control system package (-Z axis) S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m fuel tank

Sector 3 S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m fuel tank Reaction control system package ( t Z - a x i s ) S e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m h e l i u m t a n k s (two)

Center section S e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m h e l i u m t a n k (two) S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m engine

Sector 4 E l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m s p a c e radiator Fuel cell power plant ( t h r e e ) Helium s e r v i c i n g panel Reaction control s y s t e m control unit E l e c t r i c a l p o w e r s y s t e m power c o n t r o l r e l a y box S e r v i c e m o d u l e j e t t i s o n c o n t r o l b a t t e r y (two) S e r v i c e m o d u l e J e t t i s o n c o n t r o l l e r s e q u e n c e r (two) Water supply tank (two)

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GENERAL INFOFGVIATION 1.2.1 S-IB BOOSTER. T h e S - I B b o o s t e r ( f i r s t s t a g e ) f o r S a t u r n IB i s m a n u f a c t u r e d by the C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n . T h i s b o o s t e r i s 2 5 7 i n c h e s in d i a m a t e r , 82 f e e t in length, a n d i s powered by e i g h t Rocketdyne H- 1 engines. E a c h engine, burning R P - 1 a n d liquid oxygen, p r o d u c e s 200,0 0 0 pounds of t h r u s t f o r a t o t a l s t a g e t h r u s t o v e r 1, 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 pounds. 1.2.2 S-IVB SECOND STAGE. T h e S-IVB s e c o n d s t a g e f o r S a t u r n IB is m a n u f a c t u r e d by t h e Douglas A i r c r a f t Company. T h i s s t a g e is 260 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r , 58 f e e t i n l e n g t h , a n d i s powered by a s i n g l e Rocketdyne 5 - 2 engine. T h e e n g i n e , b u r n i n g liquid h y d r o g e n and oxygen, p r o d u c e s a s t a g e t h r u s t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200, 000 pounds, D u r i n g flight, the J - 2 engine u s e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t m i x t u r e r a t i o s , r e s u l t i n g i n v a l u e s of t h r u s t r a n g i n g f r o m 190, 000 to 2 3 0 , 0 0 0 pounds. 1.3 MISSION 204A WEIGHT STATUS.

NOTE T h e NASA-MSC is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r providing a
d e t a i l e d weight s t a t u s f o r Apollo m i s s i o n 2 0 4 A a s a v a i l a b l e i n the iMSC R e f e r e n c e T r a j e c t o r y Document. 1.4 POSTLANDING AND RECOVERY, I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o postlanding r e c o v e r y a i d s is p r o v i d e d u n d e r s e q u e n t i a l s y s t e m s in s e c t i o n 2 . P o s t l a n d i n g ventilation f o r the c r e w i s supplied through two vent v a l v e s i n the f o r w a r d a c c e s s h a t c h c o v e r . ( S e e f i g u r e 1 - 4 . ) A handpump and flexible h o s e , s t o r e d u n d e r the r i g h t c r e w couch ( f i g u r e 1-6), i s u s e d to o b t a i n w a t e r f r o m the s e a f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o potable w a t e r . ( R e f e r to c r e w e q u i p m e n t i n s e c t i o n 6 . ) An Apollo R e c o v e r y O p e r a t i o n s Handbook w i l l p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of r e c o v e r y equipm e n t and r e s c u e p r o c e d u r e s .

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SECTION 2 SYSTEMS D.4TA

INTRODUCTION. S y s t e m s d a t a include d e s c r i p t i o n of o p e r a t i o n s , component d e s c r i p tion and d e s i g n d a t a , o p e r a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s , and t e l e m e t r y m e a s u r e m e n t s . Subsection 2 . 1 d e s c r i b e s the o v e r a l l s p a c e c r a f t navigation, g u i d a n c e , and c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t s and the r e s u l t a n t s y s t e m s i n t e r f a c e . S u b s e c t i o n s 2. Z t h r o u g h 2. 1 0 p r e s e n t data grouped by s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s , a r r a n g e d in t h e following o r d e r : guidance and navigation, s t a b i l i z a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l , s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n , r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l , e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r , enirironm e n t a l c o n t r o l , t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , s e q u e n t i a l , and c a u t i o n s a n d w a r n i n g s . Subsection 2. 1 1 d e a l s with m i s c e l l a n e o u s s y s t e m s d a t a .

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SECTION 2 SUBSECTION 2 . 1 GUID.4NCE .4ND CONTROL

2.1.1

SYSTEMS INTERFACE. GUIDANCE -4ND CONTROL. Apollo CSM a t m o s p h e r i c and s p a c e flight i s a c h i e v e d by a p p l i c a t i o n of c o n t r o l l e d t r a n s l a t i o n f o r c e s a n d r o t a t i o n a l f o r c e m o m e n t s . Guidance and c o n t r o l i n i t i a t e s and t e r m i n a t e s the t h r u s t a n d r o t a t i o n a l f o r c e s and f o r c e m o m e n t s a s a function of the m a g n i t u d e of the change r e q u i r e d . Guidance a n d c o n t r o l p r o v i d e s t h e following b a s i c functions: Attitude C o n t r o l Guidance Navigation Attitude c o n t r o l i s a function a s s o c i a t e d with s p a c e c r a f t o r i e n t a t i o n with r e s p e c t t o a n i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e o r a known c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m . G u i d a n c e i s a function r e q u i r i n g a combination of a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l with r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n and s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s f o r the p u r p o s e of modifying s p a c e c r a f t t r a j e c t o r y via m a j o r v e l o c i t y c h a n g e s . Navigation d e t e r m i n e s s p a c e c r a f t position a n d v e l o c i t y , and p r e d i c t s f u t u r e position. T o a c c o m p l i s h m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e guidance and navigation, s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l , s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n , and r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m s , p l u s the a s t r o n a u t s , a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a n a u t o m a t i c / m a n u a l c l o s e d loop control system. G u i d a n c e and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t y i s grouped into t h r e e p r o f i l e s of flight: c o a s t i n g , p o w e r e d , and a t m o s p h e r i c . T h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l l o o p s involved a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e s 2. 1-1 t h r o u g h 2 . 1 - 4 . F i g u r e 2. 1 - 1 i s an a b b r e v i a t e d i n t e g r a t i o n of all m a j o r e q u i p m e n t s n e c e s s a r y to a c c o m p l i s h t h e a c t i v i t i e s in a l l t h r e e flight p r o f i l e s . F i g u r e s 2. 1 - 2 t h r o u g h 2. 1 - 4 divide t h e e q u i p m e n t i n t o the p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e f o r e a c h p r o f i l e . It m u s t be noted that i n f i g u r e 2. 1 - 1 , the loops a r e c l o s e d t h a t r e p r e s e n t c o a s t i n g flight ( C F ) functions. F o r powered flight ( P F ) o r a t m o s p h e r i c flight ( A F ) , open t h e c o a s t i n g flight loops and c l o s e c o n t a c t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d e s i r e d loops.

2 . 1.7

COASTING FLIGHT T h e guidance and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s involved in c o a s t i n g flight a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e b a s i c functional l o o p s shown in f i g u r e 2 . 1 - 2 . GUIDANCE -4ND CONTROL

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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA T h e s e l o o p s p r o v i d e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e , a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , a t t i t u d e hold, and a u t o m a t i c and m a n u a l m a n e u v e r c a p a b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y to a c c o m p l i s h the s e v e r a l t a s k s involved d u r i n g c o a s t i n g flight. They a r e a l s o the c e n t r a l r e f e r e n c e and c o n t r o l l o o p s r e q u i r e d for a l l p h a s e s of flight.
A r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e f r a m e i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e G & N i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t unit (IMU), a n d / o r by the SCS body-mounted a t t i t u d e g y r o s ( B M A G s ) , a n d a t t i t u d e g y r o coupling unit (AGCU). I n e r t i a l s e n s o r s s e n s e S I C m o t i o n c o n t r a r y to t h e r e f e r e n c e f r a m e . T h e s e n s e d a t t i t u d e e r r o r s a n d r a t e s a r e conditioned t h r o u g h s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s and logic to i n i t i a t e c o u n t e r m o t i o n s v i a t h e r e a c t i o n j e t c o n t r o l (RCS) which nullifies the o r i g i n a l motion. T h e 4 G C i n s e r t s a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l a n d m a n e u v e r c o m m a n d s into t h e loop. T h e r o t a t i o n , t r a n s l a t i o n , and a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e c o n t r o l s i n s e r t m a n u a l c o m m a n d s into the loop. T h e flight d i r e c t o r attitude i n d i c a t o r (FDAI) i s the S / C attitude visual display.

2.1. 3

POWERED FLIGHT. P o w e r e d flight i s c o n s i d e r e d that which will u s e the S / M s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m ( S P S ) engine to i n i t i a t e a m a j o r v e l o c i t y change. F i g u r e 2 . 1 - 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h o s e b a s i c loops n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t a s k s invol\,ed. -4s shown, the loops a r e a n e x t e n s i o n of t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r c o a s t i n g flight. Added, a r e t h e ( S P S ) engine on-off t h r u s t l o g i c a n d the SPS g i m b a l c o n t r o l l o o p s . In c o a s t i n g flight, a l l a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is t h r o u g h the RCS. P o w e r e d flight, by t h e S P S engine, r e q u i r e s r o l l c o n t r o l through the RCS, a n d pitch a n d yaw c o n t r o l by g i m b a l i n g t h e SPS engine n o z z l e . P r i m a r y c o n t r o l of t h r u s t i n g i s by t h e -4GC. However, f i g u r e 2. 1 - 3 s h o w s how v a r i o u s manual c o n t r o l s c a n be u s e d i n s t e a d of o r t o backup a u t o m a t i c functions.

2.1.4

-4T MOSPHE RI C FLIGHT

A t m o s p h e r i c flight i s e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e e n t r y p h a s e of the m i s s i o n a t which t i m e the S / C e x p e r i e n c e s a e r o d y n a m i c f o r c e s . F i g u r e 2 . 1 - 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e b a s i c loops r e q u i r e d f o r c o n t r o l of the S / C d u r i n g t h i s p h a s e . T h e c e n t r a l loop i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t in f i g u r e 2. 1 - 2 . T h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t s e r v i c e m o d u l e / c o m m a n d module ( S / M - C / M ) s e p a r a t i o n h a s t a k e n p l a c e , a n d the c o m m a n d module RCS s y s t e m i s u s e d . A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e a e r o d y n a m i c f o r c e s will s t a b i l i z e the C / M in pitch and yaw, a n d the e n t r y g - l e v e l ( l i f t vecto:- c o n t r o l ) will i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e t h r o u g h r o l l c o n t r o l . P r i m a r y c o n t r o l i s a u t o m a t i c , with m a n u a l r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l a v a i l a b l e , in exrent of a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l m a l f u n c t i o n s . F o r d e t a i l e d o p e r a t i o n of the s e v e r a l loops involved i n guidance and c o n t r o l , r e f e r to the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the guidance and na\.igation s y s t e m , s u b s e c t i o n 2. 2 , and the s t a b i l i z a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l s y s t e m , s u b s e c t i o n 2 . 3.

GUIDANCE AND CONTROL Mission B a s i c Date l2

1966

Change D a t e

Page

2.1-2

PROGRAMSELECTANITIATE FROM NAVIGATIONS O UPLINK (MSFN) R

G

N
LI

VELOCITY pF
CHANGES

1 . T
I; I I 1; I 1; I

-----------

COASTING FLIGHT (CF)

POWERED FLIGHT (PF)
ATMOSPHERIC FLIGHT (AF)

L
i

AF

PR

NAVIGATION OPTICAL SIGHT ING ANGLES COWNDS (FCSM SENSING) DIRECT THRUST ON-OFF COMMANDS

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---ROLL ERRORS

DECOUPLING

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ATTITUDE ERRORS

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FROM AGC THRUST ON-OFF COMMANDS (GbN)

MANUAL A V SETTINGS MANUAL THRUST ON COWNDS

7 SPS ENGINE ON-OFF AND
VELOCITY SENSING LOOP

-

c

--c
c

AGC GUIDANCE A N D NAVIGATION CONTROL LOOPS (CF, PF, AF)

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PF
ATTITUDE A N D STEERING COMMANDS

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~~

ATTITUM CHANGES VELOCITY CHANGES

SM-2h-947

Figure 2. 1 - 1 .

Integrated Flight P r o f i l e Functional Flow Diagram GUIDANCE AND CONTROL

Mission

B a s i c Date

l 2 N?

1966 Change Date

I

Page 2.1-312.1-4

PROGRAM SELECT/INITIATE FROM NAVIGATIONS O UPLINK (MSFN) R

'+
I
I I
L--

-

ROTATION COMMANDS
1

DIREC

M N U M ROTATION COWNOS

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PROFORTIONb ATTITUDE

MANUAL TRANSLATIC COMMAND5

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DISAE.1

IMWLSE
CONTROL ATTITUDE COMMANDS

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ATTITUDE Df ADBAND AND LIMITING

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(SCS)

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PSEUDO PUL! MODh

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-------

ATTITUDE ERRORS

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PATES ATTITUDE REI DISPLAY, A b

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TOTAL AnlTU[W

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SMZA-03-SC012 A P O L m OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
/

RCS ATTITUDE CONTROL LOO? DIRECT CONTROL

1

I
MANUAL

I

JU .ION .UNDS

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MANUAL TRANSLATION CQMMANDS MANUAL DI SA0LE COMMANDS

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Figure 2. 1-2.
Cwsting Flight P r o f i l e Functional Flow Diagram GUIDANCE AND CONTROL Mission B a s i c Date-12 Nov 1966 Change Date

SM-ZA-VU

page, 2 . 1 - 5 / 2 . 1 - 6

I

1
N A V I G A T I O N CONTROL LOOP

I
ACCELEROMETER

FROM NAVIGATIONS OR UPLINK (MSFN)

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TIME

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VELOCITY HANGES

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MANUAL DIRECT THRUST ON-OFF

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ATTITUDE COMMANDS

FDA1 (SCS)7 ATTITUDE
41

VELOCITY CHANGES

--------:CEu RATION '1D VELOCITY ACCELEROMETER SENSOR
ps

MANUAl ROTATION 4 COMMANDS

ROTATION C O M R O LS (SCS)

DIRECT MANUAL COMMANDS

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MANUAL DIRECT THRUST ON-OFF COMMANDS

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Figure 2 .

Mission

Ba 8

' .

.

SM2A 0 3 - SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

-

- - - - - - - c - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1
ORTIONAL

DIRECT CONTROL MANUAL TRANSLATION COMMANDS TRANSLATION CONTROL (SCS)

RCS ATTITUDE C O N T R O ~ LOOP
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GUIDANCE AND CONTROL

Mission

Basic Date

12 Nov 1966 Change Date

page 2. 1 - 7 / 2 . 1 - 8

.

.

.

..

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AUTOMATIC AND N A V I G A T I O N CONTROL LOOP

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31
ATTITUDE

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SMZA-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

1
DIRECT CONTROL RCS AlllTUDE CONTROL LOOP

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SM-24-943

Figure 2. 1 - 4 .

Atmospheric Flight Profile Functional Flow D i a g r a m

M i s s ion

GUIDANCE AND CONTROL Basic Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date

Page 2 . 1 -9/2.1-10

" 3

...

SMZA-03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA SECTION 2 SUBSECTION 2 . 2 GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM ( G & N ) 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION. The guidance and navigation ( G & N ) s y s t e m m e a s u r e s s p a c e c r a f t attitude and velocity, d e t e r m i n e s t r a j e c t o r y , c o n t r o l s s p a c e c r a f t attitude, c o n t r o l s the t h r u s t v e c t o r of the s e r v i c e propulsion e n g i n e , and p r o v i d e s a b o r t information and display d a t a . P r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the s p a c e c r a f t velocity and position, and computation of the t r a j e c t o r y p a r a m e t e r s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by the manned s p a c e flight network ( M S F N ) . T h e G & N s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of t h r e e s u b s y s t e m s a s follows:
0 0 0

I n e r t i a l s u b s y s t e m (ISS) C o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m (CSS) Optics s u b s y s t e m (OSS)

T h e i n e r t i a l s u b s y s t e m is composed of a n i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t unit (IMU), p a r t of the power and s e r v o a s s e m b l y ( P S A ) , p a r t of the c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s , and t h r e e i n e r t i a l coupling d i s p l a y u n i t s (CDUs). The IlMU p r o v i d e s a n i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e with a gimbaled, t h r e e -degree -of-freedom, g y r o stabilized stable p l a t f o r m . T h e c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m is composed of a n Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r (AGC), and two d i s p l a y and keyboard p a n e l s (DSKY s ) , which a r e p a r t of the c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s . T h e AGC i s a digital c o m p u t e r which p r o c e s s e s and c o n t r o l s information t o and f r o m t h e IMU and optics, and s t o r e s p r o g r a m s and r e f e r e n c e d a t a . T h e optics s u b s y s t e m is composed of a scanning t e l e s c o p e ( S C T ) , a sextant (SXT), d r i v e m o t o r s f o r positioning the SCT and SXT, p a r t s of t h e PSA, p a r t of the c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s , and two optics CDUs. The SCT and SXT a r e used t o d e t e r m i n e the s p a c e c r a f t position and attitude with r e l a t i o n to stars and/or landmarks. T h e t h r e e G&N s u b s y s t e m s a r e configured s u c h t h a t the CSS and OSS m a y be operated independently. T h i s allows continued u s e of the CSS a n d / o r OSS in the event of a malfunction in one of t h e s e s u b s y s t e m s o r the ISS. S y s t e m power r e q u i r e m e n t s and r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l s a r e provided by t h e power and s e r v o a s s e m b l y ( P S A ) . Major components of the s y s t e m a r e located in the command module lower equipment bay ( f i g u r e 2. 2-1). S y s t e m c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s , caution and w a r n i n g i n d i c a t o r s , and one of the D S K Y s a r e located on the m a i n d i s p l a y console.
2.2.2

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION. T h e guidance and navigation s y s t e m p r o v i d e s c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r the f ol lowing:
0 0

I n e r t i a l velocity and position ( s t a t e v e c t o r ) computation Optical and i n e r t i a l navigation m e a s u r e m e n t s GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

SMZA - 0 3-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

GUIDANCE -4ND NAVIGATION S Y S T E M

Mission

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.2-2

SlM2A 0 3 -sco 1 2

-

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTE-MS D-4T.A
0

S p a c e c r a f t attitude m e a s u r e m e n t and c o n t r o l G e n e r a t i o n of guidance c o m m a n d s d u r i n g CSXI-powered flight and C / L I atmospheric entry.

0

T h e G & K s y s t e m i s initially a c t i v a t e d and aligned d u r i n g the p r e l a u n c h p h a s e . D u r i n g the a s c e n t p h a s e , the s y s t e m m e a s u r e s velocity and a t t i t u d e , c o m p u t e s position, c o m p a r e s the a c t u a l s p a c e c r a f t t r a j e c t o r y with a p r e d e t e r m i n e d t r a j e c t o r y , and d i s p l a y s p e r t i n e n t d a t a . The flight cre\v u s e s the d i s p l a y e d i n f o r m a t i o n a s a n a i d f o r d e c i s i o n t o a b o r t o r continue the m i s s i o n . H o w e v e r , s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l i s m a i n t a i n e d by the S-IVB guidance until CSM/S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n . Upon s e p a r a t i o n , the G&N s y s t e m a s s u m e s the guidance and navigation functions u s i n g the d a t a a c q u i r e d d u r i n g a s c e n t . D u r i n g p e r i o d s when o n b o a r d velocitv a n d / o r attitude change > e n s i n g i s not r e q u i r e d , the I l I U i s placed i n s t a n d b y o p e r a t i o n t o c o n s e r v e e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r . T h e -AGC i s u s e d m o r e extensivelx. t h a n the I U U , h o w e v e r , i t will a l s o be p l a c e d in standby o p e r a t i o n t o c o n s e r v e e l e c t r i c a l power. I\ hen t h e guidance and navigation function i s t o be r e s t o r e d , the I l l U and -AGC a r e r e a c t i v a t e d , with the .AGC u s i n g the l a s t c o m p u t e d velocitv a s the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r velocitL c o m p u t a t i o n s , New positional d a t a m u s t be a c q u i r e d i r o m o p t i c a l sightings or L I S F N t h r o u g h t e l e m e t r y o r voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . Initial position and attitude i n f o r m a t i o n a s well a s p e r i o d i c updating o i t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s m a d e t h r o u g h u s e of the o p t i c s . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by the n a v i g a t o r m a k i n g two o r m o r e l a n d m a r k a n d / o r s t a r s i g h t i n g s . The s i g h t i n g s a r e m a d e by a c q u i r i n g the s t a r - l a n d m a r k with the SCT a n d l o r S X T . When the viewed object i s c e n t e r e d , a m a r k c o m m a n d i s initiated. The -AGC r e a d s the optics a n g l e s , 11,lU a n g l e s , and t i m e , i n conjunction with i n t e r n a l p r o g r a m s ,to d e t e r m i n e the s p a c e c r a f t position. T h i s position i n f o r m a t i o n and the s p a c e c r a f t velocity a r e u s e d t o c o m p u t e a n e s t i m a t e d t r a j e c t o r y . T h e a c t u a l trajector:. i s c o m p a r e d with p r e v i o u s t r a j e c t o r \ . d a t a t o g e n e r a t e the t r a j e c t o r y e r r o r , i f a n y , f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e . O p t i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e a l s o u s e d i n aligning the IXIU t o a s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e o r i e n t a t i o n . The IMU (figure 2. 2 - 2 ) contains t h r e e inertial rate integrating gyros ( I R I G s ) , t h r e e a n g u l a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a c c e l e r o m e t e r s ( -ADAS), and t h r e e pulsed i n t e g r a t i n g pendulous a c c e l e r o m e t e r s (PIP-As). The IRIGs, PIP-As, and o n e -ADA a r e mounted o n t h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m which is g i m b a l e d to p r o vide t h r e e d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m . T h e two r e m a i n i n g -AD.As a r e mounted o n the m i d d l e gimbal. T h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e i s m a i n t a i n e d 12)the IRIGs and - l D - A s i n conjunction with e l e c t r o n i c s t a b i l i z a t i o n loops. -An!d i s p l a c e m e n t of the p l a t f o r m is s e n s e d by the IRIGs which produce output s i g n a l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of d i s p l a c e m e n t . T h e AD-As s e n s e the d i s p l a c e m e n t r a t e and p r o d u c e output r a t e c o n t r o l s i g n a l s t o m a i n t a i n c o r r e c t s t a b i l i z a t i o n loop c o n t r o l r e s p o n s e . The IRIG and -4D.A s i g n a l s a r e applied t o s e r v o a m p l i f i e r s , which condition the s i g n a l s t o d r i v e g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s . T h e g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s t h e n r e s t o r e the i n i t i a l p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n by d r i v i n g the g i m b a l s until the l R I G s i g n a l s a r e nulled.

GUIDANCE AND N.4VIG-4TIOK S Y S T E l l Mission B a s i c Date 12
~ O

1966 V

Change Date

Page

2. 2 - 3

SMZA-0 3 -SCO1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA T h e P I P A s a r e o r t h o g o n a l l y mounted and s e n s e c h a n g e s i n s p a c e c r a f t v e l o c i t y . An a c c e l e r a t i o n o r d e c e l e r a t i o n r e s u l t s in output s i g n a l s which a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the m a g n i t u d e and d i r e c t i o n of t h e velocity change. T h e output s i g n a l s a r e applied t o the ACC which u s e s the i n f o r m a t i o n t o update s p a c e c r a f t velocity d a t a . Continual updating of velocity i n f o r m a t i o n , with r e s p e c t t o the i n i t i a l s p a c e c r a f t position and t r a j e c t o r y , e n a b l e s the AGC t o p r o v i d e c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y , p o s i t i o n , and t r a j e c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e IMU a l s o p r o v i d e s a s p a c e s t a b i l i z e d r e f e r e n c e f o r s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e s e n s i n g a n d c o n t r o l . Attitude change s e n s i n g i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by m o n i t o r i n g the s p a c e c r a f t attitude with r e f e r e n c e t o the s t a b l e p l a t f o r m . R e s o l v e r s a r e mounted at the g i m b a l a x e s t o provide s i g n a l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the g i m b a l a n g l e s . I n e r t i a l CDUs c o n t a i n r e s o l v e r s which r e p e a t the p l a t f o r m a t t i t u d e . Attitude m o n i t o r i n g i s afforded by c o m p a r i n g the IXlU r e s o l v e r output s i g n a l s with t h e CDU r e s o l v e r s i g n a l s . If the a n g l e s d i f f e r , e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e + g e n e r a t e d and applied t o the s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s y s t e m . If the attitude e r r o r i s l a r g e r t h a n the s e l e c t e d deadband l i m i t s , the SCS f i r e s the a p p r o p r i a t e RCS e n g i n e s . T h e s p a c e c r a f t is r o t a t e d back t o t h e i n i t i a l r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e and t h e e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e nulled (within d e a d b a n d limits). T h e AGC p r o v i d e s a u t o m a t i c e x e c u t i o n of c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s , a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l of ISS and OSS m o d e s , a n d , i n conjunction with the DSKYs, m a n u a l c o n t r o l of ISS and OSS m o d e s and c o m p u t e r d i s p l a y s . T h e -4GC c o n t a i n s a t w o - p a r t m e m o r y which c o n s i s t s of a l a r g e n o n - e r a s a b l e s e c t i o n and a s m a l l e r e r a s a b l e section. Non-erasable m e m o r y contains mission and s y s t e m p r o g r a m s and o t h e r p r e d e t e r m i n e d d a t a which a r e w i r e d i n d u r i n g a s s e m b l y . D a t a r e a d o u t f r o m t h i s s e c t i o n i s n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e and cannot be changed d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n . T h e e r a s a b l e s e c t i o n of m e m o r y p r o v i d e s f o r d a t a s t o r a g e , r e t r i e v a l , and o p e r a t i o n s upon m e a s u r e d d a t a and t e l e m e t e r e d information. Data readout f r o m this section i s destructive, p e r m i t t i n g c h a n g e s i n s t o r e d d a t a t o be m a d e a s d e s i r e d . I n f o r m a t i o n within t h e m e m o r y m a y be c a l l e d u p f o r d i s p l a y on the two DSKYs. T h e DSKYs e n a b l e the flight c r e w t o e n t e r d a t a or i n s t r u c t i o n s into t h e AGC, r e q u e s t d i s p l a y of d a t a f r o m .4GC m e m o r y , and o f f e r an i n t e r r u p t c o n t r o l of AGC o p e r a t i o n . The AGC t i m i n g s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s t i m i n g s i g n a l s of v a r i o u s f r e q u e n c i e s f o r i n t e r n a l u s e and t o o t h e r o n b o a r d s y s t e m s which r e q u i r e a c c u r a t e or s y n c h r o n i z e d t i m i n g . Data within the AGC i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o ,MSFN t h r o u g h a "downlink" t e l e m e t r y function. T e l e m e t e r e d d a t a i s t r a n s m i t t e d a s a function of a n AGC p r o g r a m or b y r e q u e s t f r o m LMSFN. D a t a within the ACC m a y be updated through a n "uplink" telemetr:; f u n c t i o n c o n t r o l l e d by M S F N . The XGC p e r f o r m s guidance functions b y executing internal p r o g r a m s using predetermined trajectory p a r a m e t e r s , a t t i t u d e a n g l e s f r o m t h e i n e r t i a l CDUs, velocity c h a n g e s f r o m the PIPAs, and c o m m a n d s f r o m t h e DSKYs ( c r e w ) t o g e n e r a t e c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s . T h e navigation f u n c t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d by u s i n g s t o r e d s t a r - l a n d m a r k d a t a , o p t i c s a n g l e s f r o m the o p t i c s CDUs, and velocity c h a n g e s f r o m the PIPAS i n the e x e c u t i o n of navigation p r o g r a m s .

- ._-

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATIaG. SYSTEM ' r . . .

. ..-

..
'

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change DatB

'

Page

2 . 2-4

\

NOTES:

I.

AGC inpuh a d outpub shorn are
pment at variRn times, depcdinp upan mode of opemtion, but not
IMU INNER G POSITION CC

concurrently.

2.

There caponenh are phpically mounted om the IMU but illvrtmted a shown for clarity.

(ISS FINE ALIGN MC ONLY)
COUPLING DlSPuy UNlT

I I I I
VISUAL

Y-IRIG TO COMMAM

SHAFT

SHAFT DRIVE SIGNAL

I
A !

SHAFT CRIVE SIGNALC

I
4 4 -

SCANNING TELESCOPE AND SEXTANT

1
IXUNNION

DRNE YGTAL

I

MU MIDDLE G I OSlTlON COM

UPLINK DATA FROM MSFN

UNDMARKS A N D HORIZON

%: E '

MOLL0 GUIDANCE COMPUTER

I I I I I I

MU OUTER GIA OSlTlON COU

TRUNNION DRIVE

I

MANUALiMODE S I G N A U

Z-IRIG T o n COMMAM) (ISS FINE ALIGN MOI ONLY)

COUPLlNG DISPUY UNIT
-

I

TRUNNION DRIVE SIGNALS

DRIVE SIGNAL

I
ATTITUDE IMPULSE CONTROL

I
I
I

I

(*) AND (-) X AVELOCllY

1

+ DATA

DOWNU

TO MSFP

I I
I

THRUST C O W M S TO REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

X-IRIG TORC COMMANDS (IS FINE A U G N MOD

., ,

,. . . ... ...*-.).,<..* c .... . _._,:. .
I
'

.+

.

INNER GIMB4L RESOLVER SIGNAL

IMU INNER GIMBAL 'OSITION C O M M A M S .

c
ANALOG CONVERTER

4

I

GIMBAL POSITION

INNER GIMBAL

'OMMANE

COUPLING DISPUY UNIT

IMU/CDU DIFFERENCE SIGNAL

S/C BODY PITCH C AND OFFSET PITCt ATTITUDE ERROR S I

1

1
I

I

A SHAFT ANGLE

1
Y-IWG TORQUE GENERATOR

I

TO INNER
GIMML COAEE
ALIGN. ~. -

J

Y-IRIG TORQUE

S H A F l ANGLE SIGNALS

A U G N MODE ONLY)

WAFT CRIVE SIGNAL"

_INK DATA FROM MSFN

4

COMMANDS

AU MIDDLE GIMBAL

' COMMANDS-

A

CALIBRATION
SHAFT ANGLE

AMP

YAW~ITCH RESOLVER (GIMBAL

AXES T O
NAV BASE AXES)

(FUNCTI' AND MI[

MIDDLE G I W A L RESOLVER SIGNAL
I MU/CD U

OFFSET YAW ATTITUDE E R R m !

DlSPUY AND KEYBOARD (2 LOCATIONS)

MOLL0 GUIDANCE COMPUTER

i

'ANIJAL*MODE S I G N A U

I I

I 1
Z-IRIG TORQUE COMMANDS

I

I
T MIDDLE O G l M M L COARS A L I G N NAP

(IS5 FINE
ALIGN MODE ONLY)

UNNION ANGLE SIGNALS

I

Z-IRIG TORQUE GENERATOR T OTR O UE GIMBAL COARS A U G N AMP OUTER G l M M L RESOLVER SIGNAL

3T FIXED
RESOLVER (NAV EASE AXES

S/C BODY YAW AT ERROR SIGNAL

T S/C O
AXES)

ISUNNION DRIVE SIGNALS

MU OUTER GIMBAL QSlTlON COMMANDS

-I
DISPLAY SIGNAL

S/C W D Y ROLL ATTITUDE E R R SI RO

)

(FUNCTION MIDDLE, A h GIMIIALS)

16X-OFFSET ROLL ERROR SIGNAL (ENTRY

($ AND (-) Y AVELOCITY (*) AND (-)X AVELOC ITY
1

1
+ DATA
DOW NLI N K

b SHAFT ANGLE

J
X-IRIG TORQUE GENERATOU

I

TO MSFN

X-IRIG TORQUE COMMANDS

TERNARY SWITCH AND CALIBRATION

(ISS FINE

I

A U G N MODE ONLY)

SPS E N G I N E ON/OFF COMMANDS

I

1

s/c M)DY PITCH ATTITUDE AND OFFSET PITCH ATTITUDE ERROR SIGNAL

\
(FUNCTIONS O INNER F AND MICDLE GlMeALS)

I

I

I,

SUPPORT GI# PITCH A CORREC

B E
4 SIGNALS

OFFSET YAW ATTITUDE ERRCX SIGNAL

i
YAW

I

I
ECA

I

I

1 1 I

I

OUTER GM A , I BL

REACTION COMROL SYSTEM

STABLE MEMBER
IlhlhICD

r,....,,

fAW ATTITUDE CORRECTION SIGNALS

-I,
s/C BODYYAW ATTITWE SIGNU EYOR
(FUNCTIONS O INNER, F MIDDLE, AND OUTER GIMALS)

I I
I

A

I

!
I

I I
SIGNALS TCH GIMBAL OMMANCS

t
GIMWL RESOLVER ANGLE SIGNAL TO FLIGHT DIRECTOR AllITUDE INDICATOR
MIDDLE G I h U A L q

I I

I
AUXILIARY ECA

1
I

YAW GIMBAL

COMMANDS

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

THRUST ON/OFF

C0MMAN)s

(+) AND (-) 2

VELOCITY C H A I G E SIGNALS VELOCITY CHANGE SIGNALS VELOCITY CHANGE SIGNALS

(+) AND

(-1 X

(+) AND (-) Y

*

,

..

A. , ,:

&. -.

:. ' . - '
. ,
.

,A,'!

,

SMZA -03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

c

/

I
TORQUE MOTOR DRIVE SIGNAL

I

Figure 2. 2 - 2 .

G & N S y s t e m Functional Block Diagram

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date' . l 2

1966

Change Date

page 2 . 2 - 5 1 2 . 2 - 6

S M 2A 0 3 S C 0 1 2

- -

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS D.4T-4 T h e o p t i c s provide a c c u r a t e s t a r and l a n d m a r k a n g u l a r m e a s u r e m e n t s . Sightings a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by the navigator u s i n g the SXT and SCT. T h e o p t i c s a r e positioned by d r i v e m o t o r s c o m m a n d e d by the o p t i c s hand c o n t r o l l e r o r manually u s i n g a u n i v e r s a l t o o l , a s d e s i r e d . The shaft a x e s a r e p a r a l l e l . T r u n n i o n a x e s m a y be o p e r a t e d i n p a r a l l e l o r o f f s e t , a s d e s i r e d . T h e S C T is a unity power i n s t r u m e n t providing a n a p p r o x i m a t e 6 0 - d e g r e e field of view. I t i s u s e d t o m a k e l a n d m a r k s i g h t i n g s and t o a c q u i r e and c e n t e r s t a r s o r l a n d m a r k s p r i o r t o S X T u s e . The SXT p r o v i d e s 28-power m a g n i f i c a t i o n with a 1. 8 - d e g r e e field of view. The SXT h a s two l i n e s of s i g h t , e n a b l i n g it to m e a s u r e the included angle between two o b j e c t s . T h i s r e q u i r e s two l i n e s of sight which e n a b l e the two viewed o b j e c t s t o be s u p e r i m p o s e d . F o r a s t a r - l a n d m a r k s i g h t i n g , the l a n d m a r k line of sight i s c e n t e r e d along the S X T s h a f t a x i s . T h e s t a r i m a g e i s moved t o w a r d t h e l a n d m a r k by r o t a t i n g the shaft and t r u n n i o n a x e s until the two viewed o b j e c t s a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d . The s h a f t and t r u n n i o n a n g l e s a r e r e p e a t e d by t h e optic CDUs. When the n a v i g a t o r i s s a t i s f i e d with i m a g e p o s i t i o n s , he i s s u e s a m a r k c o m m a n d to the -4GC. T h e -4GC r e a d s the o p t i c s C D U a n g l e s , I M U CDU a n g l e s , and t i m e , and c o m p u t e s the position of the s p a c e c r a f t . T h e AGC b a s e s the computation on s t o r e d s t a r and l a n d m a r k d a t a which m a y a l s o be u s e d by the .AGC to r e q u e s t s p e c i f i c s t a r s o r l a n d m a r k s f o r navigational s i g h t i n g s . Two o r m o r e s i g h t i n g s , on two o r m o r e d i f f e r e n t s t a r s , m u s t be t a k e n t o p e r f o r m a c o m p l e t e position d e t e r m i n a t i o n .
2 . 2 . 2. 1

Operational Modes. T h e G&N s y s t e m i s o p e r a t e d in s i x b a s i c o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s . S e l e c t i o n of any one mode i s a c c o m p l i s h e d manual!y b y the flight c r e w o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y by the ACC. T h e b a s i c m o d e s a r e a s follows:
0

0
0

0
0

0

Xlonitor ( i n i t i a t e d by S C S mode s e l e c t i o n ) Z e r o encode C o a r s e align Fine align Attitude c o n t r o l Entry

T h e s y s t e m c o n f i g u r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o o p e r a t e in an)- of the m o d e s is e s t a b l i s h e d by r e l a y switching. The m o n i t o r mode is u s e d a t launch, a s c e n t , and d u r i n g o r b i t until C S M / S - I V B s e p a r a t i o n , t o p r o v i d e flight path d a t a f o r c r e w d i s p l a y s . The c o a r s e a l i g n , fine a l i g n , a n d z e r o encode m o d e s a r e u s e d to a l i g n the IXlU a f t e r standby p e r i o d s o r t o a c q u i r e a new s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e attitude c o n t r o l mode p r o v i d e s f o r s p a c e c r a f t attitude c o n t r o l and navigation c o m p u t a t i o n s t o m e a s u r e position and v e l o c i t y . The e n t r y mode p r o v i d e s c o n t r o l of t h e s p a c e c r a f t lift v e c t o r d u r i n g e n t r y phase.

C U I D A N C E 4 N D N AV I G =Z TI ON S YS T E 1 1
Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov l966 Change Date Page

2.2-7

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

--

T h e ISS a n d CSS w i l l b e o p e r a t e d i n on-standby c y c l e s t o c o n s e r v e e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r . During standby o p e r a t i o n , t h e ISS m a i n t a i n s IMU t e m p e r a t u r e , and the CSS m a i n t a i n s AGC t i m i n g functions. The OSS i s s h u t off when not i n u s e . Since s t a n d b y o p e r a t i o n t i m e v a r i e s f o r e a c h of the s u b s y s t e m s , standby is not c o n s i d e r e d a s b a s i c mode.

2 . 2 . 2 . 1. 1

M o n i t o r Mode, D u r i n g p r e l a u n c h o p e r a t i o n s , the G & N s y s t e m is a l i g n e d t o the d e s i r e d l a u n c h r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e a n d g y r o c o m p a s s e s t o m: i n t a i n t h i s a t t i t u d e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 m i n u t e s p r i o r t o l a u n c h , t h e g y r o c o m p a s s i n g i s stopped a n d t h e s y s t e m b e c o m e s i n e r t i a l l y r e f e r e n c e d . Upon lift-off the ACC b e g i n s m o n i t o r i n g the flight path a n g l e s by d r i v i n g the I n e r t i a l Coupling Display Units (ICDUs) through p r o g r a m m e d a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s . The ICDU a n g l e s a r e c o m p a r e d with the IMU g i m b a l a n g l e s to produce flight path e r r o r s i g n a l s which a r e d i s p l a y e d by the FDAI e r r o r n e e d l e s . T o t a l s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e , with r e s p e c t t o the IMU o r i e n t a t i o n , i s d i s p l a y e d by t h e FDAI b a l l . ( P r e l a u n c h FDAI r e a d i n g s a r e 164. 7 6 - d e g r e e r o l l , 5 8 . 3 0 - d e g r e e pitch, a n d 9. 6 9 - d e g r e e yaw, with r e s p e c t t o the navigation a x i s s y m b o l , Display a t o r b i t i n s e r t i o n is 0 - d e g r e e r o l l , 310. 5 - d e g r e e pitch, and 0 - d e g r e e y a w , a s s u m i n g a 1 8 0 - d e g r e e r o l l h a s b e e n p e r f o r m e d and launch pad 3 7 is u s e d . ) D u r i n g b o o s t p r i o r t o l a u n c h e s c a p e t o w e r ( L E T ) j e t t i s o n , the AGC d i s p l a y s t h e following: REGISTER 1

-

I n e r t i a l flight path a n g l e ; i n e r t i a l velocity with r e s p e c t to local horizontal i n d e g r e e s . I n e r t i a l velocity i n ft p e r s e c . Altitude above l a u n c h pad in n a u t i c a l m i l e s ( N M s )

REGISTER 2 REGISTER 3

Upon r e c e i p t of L E T j e t t i s o n s i g n a l s t h e d i s p l a y s change t o the following: REGISTER 1 Predicted G s for free-fall and entry a t 60-degree bank a n g l e .

REGISTER 2

- Altitude of p e r i g e e above the m e a n e q u a t o r i a l r a d i u s
in NMs.

REGISTER 3

- Time of f r e e - f a l l

t o 300, 000 i t above m e a n e q u a t o r i a l r a d i u s i n m i n u t e s and s e c o n d s .

T h i s d i s p l a y e d d a t a p r o v i d e s the flight c r e w with sufficient i n f o r m a t i o n to m a k e a b o r t o r continue d e c i s i o n s ; h o w e v e r , i f t i m e is not c r i t i c a l , the d e c i s i o n i s m a d e by the flight cre\v a n d MSFN jointly.

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Z e r o E n c o d e ;\lode. T h e z e r o encode mode e n a b l e s c o r r e c t i o n of the CDC d a t a s t o r e d i n -4GC. T h i s mode i s u s e d t o e n s u r e t h a t the r e f e r e n c e a n g l e s contained i n the CDU r e g i s t e r s of t h e XGC c o r r e s p o n d with the a c t u a l CDU a n g l e s . T h i s is a c c o m p l i s h e d by d r i v i n g t h e CDUs t o z e r o , t h e n c l e a r i n g the -4GC C D U r e g i s t e r s . T h i s s t a r t s the -4GC CDU r e g i s t e r s a t z e r o and e n a b l e s the r e g i s t e r s t o m a i n t a i n c o r r e c t CDU a n g l e s by counting p u l s e s f r o m the CDL' digital encoders.

2. 2. 2. 1. 3

C o a r s e -Align l l o d e . T h e c o a r s e a l i g n mode e n a b l e s s t a b l e p l a t f o r m a l i g n m e n t to witb.in a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 d e g r e e s of a d e s i r e d p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n . F r e r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o a c c o m p l i s h c o a r s e a l i g n m e n t c o n s i s t s oi the d e s i r e d plattorni o r i e n t a t i o n and p r e s e n t s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e . The d e s i r e d p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n a n g l e s a r e computed b y a n a1:gnm e n t p r o g r a m e x e c u t e d bb- the -4GC. T h e n a v i g a t o r d e t e r m i n e s the s p a c e c r a f t attitude immediatelb- p r i o r t o c o a r s e a l i g n m e n t b\- m a k i n g two o r m o r e sightings on s t a r s o r l a n d m a r k s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n of the s i g h t i n g s . the =IGC r e a d s the optic a n g l e s and c o m p u t e s the g i m b a l a n g l e s necessar!: t o a t t a i n the d e s i r e d p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e -1GC g e n e r a t e s dri1.e s i g n a l s t o position the CDU r e s o l v e r s t o the r e q u i r e d g i m b a l a n g l e s . The IlIL-CDU r e s o l v e r e r r o r s i g n a l s , g e n e r a t e d by r e p o s i t i o n i n g the C D U s , a r e applied t o the g i m b a l t o r q u e s e r v o a m p s Ivhich d r i l - e the g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s t o position t h e p l a t f o r m t o the d e s i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n .
(1

T h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n will normall>- be s u c h t h a t the X - a x i s l i e s alorlg the s p a c e c r a f t t h r u s t v e c t o r d u r i n g a l l powered p h a s e s , e x c e p t a s c e n t , and along the s p a c e c r a f t s t a b i l i t y axis d u r i n g e n t r y .
2 , 2 . 2 . 1. 4

F i n e -Align l i o d e T h e fine a l i g n mode c o m p l e t e s s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n t o the r e q u i r e d d e g r e e of a c c u r a c y . The n a v i g a t o r m a k e s two o r m o r e s t a r s i g h t i n g s , u s i n g o n - b o a r d d a t a and the o p t i c s t o a c q u i r e the d e s i r e d s t a r s . Upon r e c e i p t of the optic a n g l e s the -4GC c o m p u t e s the I l 1 U a n g l e s n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e the a l i g n m e n t . I n the fine align m o d e , the I l l U a n g l e s a r e r e p e a t e d by the i n e r t i a l CDUs which a r e m o n i t o r e d by the .AGC t o deterrr.ine t h e a c t u a l I;\\IU o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e =\GC g e n e r a t e s t o r q u i n g s i g n a l s t o c a n c e l an)- e r r o r between the a c t u a l I l l K o r i e n t a t i o n and the d e s i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e s e t o r q u i n g p u l s e s a r e applied t o the [RIG torquing c o i l s . The I R I G s i n conjunction with the s t a b i l i z a t i o n l o o p s , r e p o s i t i o n the s t a b l e platforni until the d e s i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n i s a t t a i n e d . Upon c o m p l e t i o n of fine a l i g n m e n t . the I M v / C D U r e s o l v e r s i g n a l s a n d the s t a b i l i z a t i o n loop s i g n a l s a r e a t null.
T h e s!-stem c o n i i g u r a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r fine a l i g n mode a l s o a p p l i e s I X l U r e s o l v e r s i g n a l s t o the SCS a s a p p a r e n t attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s . T o p r e v e n t t h e s e s i g n a l s f r o m a p p e a r i n g a s a c t u a l s p a c e c r a f t attitude e r r o r s the SCS m u s t be o p e r a t e d i n a n SCS mode which r e j e c t s G & K derirred s i g n a l s

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2 . 2 . 2. 1. 5

Attitude C o n t r o l Mode. The a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l mode p r o v i d e s s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e change s e n s i n g , g e n e r a t e s e r r o r s i g n a l s f o r s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , velocity change s i g n a l s f o r updating AGC velocity i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d s i g n a l s f o r t i m i n g SPS engine t h r u s t termination commands. D u r i n g s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , the IMU g i m b a l r e s o l v e r s s e n s e any d i s p l a c e m e n t of the s p a c e c r a f t with r e s p e c t t o the s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n a n d p r o d u c e c o r r e s p o n d i n g e r r o r s i g n a l s . The e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o the SCS-FDA1 b a l l f o r e r r o r d i s p l a y a n d t o the i n e r t i a l CDU r e s o l v e r s . The IMU-CDU e r r o r . s i g n a l s a r e d i s p l a y e d on the IMU c o n t r o l p a n e l , r e s o l v e d into s p a c e c r a f t a x e s , a n d a p p l i e d to the SCS. If the e r r o r s i g n a l s i n d i c a t e a n a t t i t u d e e r r o r l a r g e r t h a n the s e l e c t e d d e a d b a n d , a p p r o p r i a t e RCS e n g i n e s a r e f i r e d a n d the d e s i r e d s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e i s restored. F o r d e l t a V m a n e u v e r s , the G & N s y s t e m p r o v i d e s a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , velocity change s e n s i n g , and t o t a l velocity change c o n t r o l by g e n e r a t i n g t h r u s t t e r m i n a t i o n c o m m a n d s . P r i o r t o t h r u s t i n g , t h e IiMU i s aligned s o t h a t t h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m X - a x i s i s p a r a l l e l t o the t h r u s t v e c t o r . The XGC d e t e r m i n e s t i m e - t o - i g n i t i o n a n d t o t a l velocity change d e s i r e d , and p e r f o r m s mode v e r i f i c a t i o n r o u t i n e s . At ignition t i m e t h e AGC f l a s h e s the DSKY d i s p l a y s t o t h e c r e w f o r i n i t i a t i o n of ignition ( m a n u a l DSKY e n t r y is r e q u i r e d ) . During t h r u s t i n g , t h e CDU a p p l i e s attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s t o the SCS. Roll e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e RCS e n g i n e s ; h o w e v e r , pitch and ya\v e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d t o the S P S engine g i m b a l s r a t h e r t h a n RCS e n g i n e s . T h i s e n s u r e s a l i g n m e n t of t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r t h r o u g h the s p a c e c r a f t c e n t e r - o f g r a v i t y a n d a b n g the c o r r e c t t r a j e c t o r y . The P I P A s on the s t a b l e p l a t f o r m s e n s e t h e velocity c h a n g e s a n d apply p r o p o r t i o n a l output s i g n a l s t o the -4GC. The I G C c o m p u t e s and u p d a t e s s p a c e c r a f t velocity, a n d counts down a p r e s e t c o u n t e r xvith the P I P A s i g n a l s . IVhen the c o u n t e r r e a c h e s z e r o , a t h r u s t t e r m i n a t i o n s i g n a l i s g e n e r a t e d and a p p l i e d through the S C S e l e c t r o n i c s to t h e SPS e n g i n e .

2 . 2 . 2 . 1. o

Entry. The e n t r y mode p r o v i d e s f o r g e n e r a t i o n of a t t i t u d e e r r o r and s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s , s e n s i n g of d e c e l e r a t i o n , a n d c o m p u t a t i o n of velocity c h a n g e s d u r i n g t h e e n t r > - p h a s e of t h e m i s s i o n . The s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s pro\-ide f o r c o n t r o l of t h e s p a c e c r a f t lift \ - e c t o r t h r o u g h the SCS, t o inhibit excessilre G-loadings a n d h e a t buildup, a n d t o c o n t r o l the flight path t o enable landing a t a p r e s e l e c t e d s i t e . -4ttitude e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d to the FD-AI attitude e r r o r needles. E n t r y c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l lvith the e x c e p t i o n s t h a t the r o l l r e s p o n s e t i m e i s r e d u c e d , one s t e p of a x i s r e s o l u t i o n i s not n e e d e d , and the XGC will p r o d u c e s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s to the S C S by d r i v i n g the r o l l CDU. F r o m i n i t i a t i o n of e n t r y mode until 0. 05G switching, r o l l , pitch,

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a n d yaw e r r o r s i g n a l s provide a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . Upon 0 . OJG s w i t c h i n g , the pitch and yan- e r r o r s i g n a l s provide d i s p l a y only. P r i o r t o e n t r y , t h e IMU X - a x i s i s a l i g n e d along t h e s p a c e c r a f t e n t r y velocity v e c t o r . T h i s a l i g n m e n t e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r navigation b a s e - t o - s p a c e c r a f t body a x i s r e s o l u t i o n . D e c e l e r a t i o n i s s e n s e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e IMU X - a x i s PIP-A, although c h a n g e s i n lift v e c t o r o r i e n t a t i o n c a u s e s o m e l a t e r a l m o v e m e n t which i s s e n s e d by the Y a n d / o r 2 P I P X s . The o u t e r g i m b a l , o r r o l l , 1X r e s o l v e r i s connected t o the 16X r e s o l v e r i n the R O L L CDU, gil-ing a 1 6 : l i n c r e a s e in attitude e r r o r s i g n a l and r e d u c i n g the r e s p o n s e t i m e of the r o l l channel. The -IGC \vi11 produce s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s by executing a p r o g r a m m e d lift v e c t o r down e n t r y ( t o e n s u r e c a p t u r e ) , 1 8 0 - d e g r e e r o l l t o lift \vector u p , t h e n g e n e r a t e f u r t h e r s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s \vith r e s p e c t t o G f o r c e s , h e a t buildup, a n d r a n g e n e e d e d . T h e s e s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s a r e r o u t e d t o the r o l l CDU lvhere a n IMUCDU r e s o l \ - e r e r r o r i s g e n e r a t e d a n d r o u t e d t o t h e SCS f o r FD-41 disp1a)a n d / o r RCS engine c o n t r o l . The e n t r y m a y be p e r f o r m e d manually \vith the pilot fl\-ing t o the s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s a s d i s p l a y e d on the FD-AI, o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y \\-ith the -AGC s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s r o u t e d t o the r o l l RCS e n g i n e s f o r s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r 01.
2.2.3

iM-AJOR COMPOiVEST/ SUBSYSTEhI DESCRIPTION Inertial Subsystem. The function of t h e i n e r t i a l s u b s y s t e m i s t o p r o v i d e a s p a c e - s t a b i l i z e d i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e f r o m which \.-elocity c h a n g e s and a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s c a n be s e n s e d . It i s composed of t h e i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t u n i t ( I M U ) , the n a v i g a t i o n b a s e ( S B ) , p a r t s of the pon.er and s e r v o a s s e m b l y (PS-A), p a r t s of the c o n t r o l and display p a n e l s , and t h r e e coupling d i s p l a y u n i t s ( C D U s ) .

2.2.3. 1

2 . 2 . 3. 1 . 1

Sa\-igation Base. The navigation b a s e ( N B ) i s the r i g i d , s u p p o r t i n g s t r u c t u r e n h i c h m o u n t s the IMU and o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . The S B i s m a n u f a c t u r e d and i n s t a l l e d t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s to provide a c c u r a t e a l i g n m e n t of the e q u i p m e n t mounted on i t . It a l s o p r o v i d e s s h o c k mounting f o r the IMU and o p t i c s .

2 . 2. 3. 1. 2

I n e r t i a l M e a s u r e m e n t Unit. The i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t unit (IMU) i s the m a i n unit of t h e i n e r t i a l s u b s y s t e m . It i s a t h r e e - d e g r e e - o f - f r e e d o m s t a b i l i z e d p l a t f o r m a s s e m b l ) . , containing t h r e e i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e i n t e g r a t i n g g)-ros ( I R I G s ) , t h r e e pulsed i n t e g r a t i n g pendulous a c c e l e r o m e t e r s ( P I P - I s ) , a n d t h r e e a n g u l a r d i f f e r e n t i ating a c c e l e r o m e t e r s (-IDAS). The s t a b l e m e m b e r i t s e l f i s machined f r o m a s o l i d block of b e r y l l i u m xvith h o l e s b o r e d f o r mounting the P I P X s , IRIGs, a n d one of the t h r e e .ADXs. T h r e e g i m b a l a n d s i x i n t e r g i m b a l a s s e m b l i e s , \vhich h o u s e t o r q u e m o t o r s and r e s o l v e r s , a r e a l s o p a r t of the I M U a s s e m b l y , t o g e t h e r \I-ith p r e a m p l i f i e r s and g i m b a l - m o u n t e d e l e c t r o n i c s . F i g u r e 2. 1-2 sho\vs h o w - the IRIGs a n d the P I P A s a r e mounted r e l a t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r on t h e s t a b l e m e m b e r ( o r i n n e r g i m b a l ) . The t h r e e g i m b a l a x e s . about lvhich e a c h of the g i m b a l s r o t a t e , a r e a l s o shoxvn. GL'ID-ASCE .IND SXVIGXTION SYSTEM

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The s t a b l e p l a t f o r m a t t i t u d e i s m a i n t a i n e d by the IRIGs, ADAs, s t a b i l i z a t i o n l o o p e l e c t r o n i c s , and g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s . Any d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r g i m b a l a n g l e s i s s e n s e d by the IRICs and ADAs, which g e n e r a t e e r r o r s i g n a l s . IRIG e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e r e s o l v e d a n d a m p l i f i e d a t t h e IMU a n d a p p l i e d t o s t a b i l i z a t i o n loop e l e c t r o n i c s . ADA-produced e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e s u m m e d with the IRIG e r r o r s i g n a l s . The r e s u l t a n t s i g n a l i s conditioned a n d a p p l i e d t o t h e g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s , which r e s t o r e the de s i r e d attitude. The s t a b l e p l a t f o r m p r o v i d e s a s p a c e - r e f e r e n c e d mount f o r t h r e e PIPAS, which s e n s e velocity c h a n g e s . The P I P A s a r e mounted orthogonally t o s e n s e t h e velocity c h a n g e s along a l l t h r e e a x e s . Any t r a n s l a t i o n a l f o r c e e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s p a c e c r a f t c a u s e s a n a c c e l e r a t i o n o r d e c e l e r a t i o n n7hich i s s e n s e d by one o r m o r e P I P A s . E a c h P I P A g e n e r a t e s a n output s i g n a l p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e magnitude a n d d i r e c t i o n of velocity c h a n g e . T h i s s i g n a l , in the f o r m of a p u l s e t r a i n , i s a p p l i e d t o the AGC. The AGC will u s e the s i g n a l t o update the \relocity i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a l s o g e n e r a t e s i g n a l s t o t o r q u e e a c h P I P A d u c o s y n b a c k t o null. The t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e IRIGs a n d P I P A s i s m a i n t a i n e d within r e q u i r e d l i m i t s d u r i n g both standb)- a n d o p e r a t i n g m o d e s of the IMU. The IMU t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s y s t e m c o n t a i n s c i r c u i t s t o supply n o r m a l p r o p o r t i o n a l t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l n5th the c a p a b i l i t y of b a c k u p o r e m e r g e n c y c o n t r o l i n c a s e of a p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l m a l f u n c t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n a l t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l c i r c u i t is the p r i i n a r ) - m e a n s of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e IRIG a n d PIP=\ t e m p e r a t u r e and p r o v i d e s the m o s t a c c u r a t e c o n t r o l . T h i s type of c o n t r o l i s aL-ailable when e i t h e r the p r o p o r t i o n a l o r a u t o - o v e r r i d e mode is s e l e c t e d with the I M U T E M P MODE s e l e c t o r s w i t c h . The p u r p o s e of t h e a u t o oiFerride mode is t o pro\-ide a u t o m a t i c switching f r o m t h a t mode to e m e r g e n q - c o n t r o l if t h e r e i s a m a l f u n c t i o n i n the p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l c i r c u i t . If a m a l f u n c t i o n o c c u r s i n the p r o p o r t i o n a l m o d e , t h e switching t o e m e r g e n c y c o n t r o l m u s t be p e r f o r m e d m a n u a l l y . In the' p r o p o r t i o n a l m o d e , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e is c o n t r o l l e d by t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l b r i d g e a n d i s ' m a i n t a i n e d a t 135kO. 5 ° F . IVhile i n the e m e r g e n c l - m o d e , i t i s c o n t r o l l e d bb- the m e r c u r y t h e r m o s t a t and i s held \\.ithin *3"F. The b a c k u p t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l a n d i n d i c a t o r c i r c u i t is intended f o r u s e i n t h e e \ - e n t t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l fails. The c o n t r o l s e n s i n g e l e m e n t s f o r t h i s s y s t e m a r e t h r e e PIPA indicating s e n s o r s (connected i n s e r i e s ) and s i x IRIG s e n s i n g e l e m e n t s ( c o n n e c t e d i n s e r i e s ) in t\vo s e p a r a t e b r i d g e s . T h i s s y s t e m c a n m a i n t a i n the t e m p e r a t u r e to n.ithin *1 " F . In t h i s mode of o p e r a t i o n , a n a l a r m i n d i c a t i o n i s not a\railable to the a s t r o n a u t b e c a u s e of m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the t e m p e r a t u r e a l a r m a m p l i f i e r c i r c u i t . 2 . 2 . 3. 1 . 3 Coupling a n d Display Units. T h e r e a r e ii\-e CDL's mounted belo\v the IiMU c o n t r o l panel a t the l o w e r e q u i p m e n t bal-. T h r e e CDUs f u n c t i o n a s p a r t of the ISS, Xvhile t h e two r e m a i n i n g C D U s function u.ith t h e OSS. The optic CDUs (OCDUs) a r e d e s c r i b e d i n p a r a g r a p h 2 . 2 . 3 . 2 . The t h r e e i n e r t i a l CDUs (ICDUs) a r e i d e n t i c a l a n d ma)- be i n t e r c h a n g e d . DisplaJ- d i a l s on the f r o n t panel of e a c h pro\-ide a b-digit r e a d o u t . P o s i t i o n i n g of the ICDUs i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by the -4GC. E a c h ICDU c o n t a i n s a l / - l - s p e e d , 1 / 2 - s p e e d , 1 - s p e e d , a n d l o - s p e e d r e s o l \ - e r , the functions o i which depend upon t h e ISS mode of o p e r a t i o n . The a n g u l a r m o v e m e n t s of the r e s o l v e r s a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o d i g i t a l s i g n a l s bl- a d i g i t a l e n c o d e r , p r o c e s s e d by e n c o d e r e l e c t r o n i c s , and r o u t e d t o -1GC r e g i s t e r s \vhich m a i n t a i n c u r r e n t ICDU a n g l e s f o r u s e a s d e s i r e d . The XGC
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SYSTEMS DATA c o m m a n d s CDU m o v e m e n t s by applying d i g i t a l d r i v e c o m m a n d s t o d i g i t a l g t o - a n a l o g c o n v e r t e r s . The d r i v e s i g n a l s a r e c o n v e r t e d f r o m d i g i t a l t o a n a l o a n d applTed t o CDU m o t o r d r i v e a m p l i f i e r s which position the C b U s . The 1 - s p e e d and 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s function a s r e c e i \ - e r s of s i g n a l s p r o d u c e d b\1 - s p e e d and 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s mounted on the IMU. The 1 / 2 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s a r e u s e d t o z e r o the CDUs a n d t h e 1 1 4 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s a r e not u s e d . The r e s o l v e r s provide input s i g n a l s t o s e l e c t o r c i r c u i t s \vhich provide m o t o r d r i v e s i g n a l s o r s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s , depending upon ISS m o d e of o p e r a t i o n . The IMU o u t e r g i m b a l 1 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d t o the r o l l CDU 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r t o i n c r e a s e r o l l c o n t r o l r a t e s during entry. 2.2. 3 . 1.4 Po\ver and S e r v o A s s e m b l y - . The po\ver a n d s e r v o a s s e m b l y ( P S A ) , l o c a t e d j u s t belo\v the d i s p l a y a n d c o n t r o l panel i n the lolver e q u i p m e n t bay, s e r v e s a s a c e n t r a l mounting point f o r m o s t of the G&N e l e c t r o n i c u n i t s s u c h a s power s u p p l i e s and a m p l i f i e r s . It a l s o c o n t a i n s the b a c k u p e l e c t r o n i c s u s e d t o supply t i m i n g p u l s e s t o the IMU i n c a s e of a n AGC t i m i n g m a l f u n c t i o n . It c o n s i s t s of 10 r e m o v a b l e t r a y s mounted a d j a c e n t t o e a c h o t h e r a n d c o n n e c t e d to a junction box. T h e PSX t r a y s u t i l i z e t h r e e w i r i n g h a r n e s s e s t o provide e l e c t r i c a l connection: one f o r m o d u l e - t o - m o d u l e connection, a n o t h e r f o r module - t o j u n c t i o n box c o n n e c t i o n , and a t h i r d f o r module connection t o a 38-pin f e m a l e t e s t plug on the f r o n t of the PSA t r a y . 2 . 2 . 3.2 Optical Subsystem. The o p t i c a l s u b s y s t e m is u s e d f o r taking p r e c i s e o p t i c a l s i g h t i n g s on c e l e s t i a l b o d i e s a n d f o r taking f i x e s on l a n d m a r k s . T h e s e sightings a r e u s e d f o r aligning t h e IMU a n d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g th’e position of the s p a c e c r a f t . The s y s t e m i n c l u d e s the navigational b a s e , two of the five CDUs, p a r t s of the power and s e r v o a s s e m b l y , c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s , a n d the o p t i c s , Ivhich include the scanning t e l e s c o p e ( S C T ) a n d the s e x t a n t ( S X T ) . 2 . 2 . 3. 2 . 1 Optics. The o p t i c s c o n s i s t of t h e SCT a n d the SXT mounted i n txvo p r o t r u d i n g t u b u l a r s e c t i o n s of the o p t i c a l b a s e a s s e m b l y . The SCT a n d SXT s h a f t a x e s a r e a l i g n e d p a r a l l e l to e a c h o t h e r a n d a f f o r d a c o m m o n l i n e - o f - s i g h t ( L O S ) t o s e l e c t e d t a r g e t s . The t r u n n i o n a x e s m a y b e p a r a l l e l o r the SCT a x i s may b e o f f s e t depending upon m o d e of o p e r a t i o n . The s e x t a n t is a highly a c c u r a t e o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t capable of m e a s u r ing t h e included a n g l e b e t w e e n two t a r g e t s . Angular s i g h t i n g s of tn.0 t a r g e t s a r e m a d e t h r o u g h a fixed b e a m s p l i t t e r a n d a m o v a b l e m i r r o r l o c a t e d in the s e x t a n t h e a d . The s e x t a n t l e n s p r o v i d e s 1. 8 - d e g r e e t r u e field of vie\r \rith 28X magnification. The movable m i r r o r i s capable of sighting a t a r g e t to 5 7 d e g r e e s LOS f r o m the s h a f t axis. The m e c h a n i c a l a c c u r a c l - of the t r u n n i o n a x i s i s twice t h a t of the LOS r e q u i r e m e n t due t o m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n \vhich d o u b l e s any a n g u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t r u n n i o n a x i s . The scanning t e l e s c o p e is s i m i l a r t o a theodolite i n i t s ability t o a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r e e l e v a t i o n a n d a z i m u t h a n g l e s of a s i n g l e t a r g e t using a n e s t a b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e . The l e n s e s provide 6 0 - d e g r e e t r u e field of \-le\\- a t 1X m a g n i f i c a t i o n . The t e l e s c o p e allon.able LOS e r r o r s a r e 1 m i n u t e of a r c r m s i n e l e v a t i o n with m a x i m u m r e p e a t a b i l i t y of 1 3 a r c i s e c o n d s and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 a r c l s e c o n d s i n s h a f t a x i s . GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date

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2 . 2 . 3. 2 . 2

Coupling Display Units. The function of t h e OCDUs is t o position and r e p e a t a n g l e s of t h e S C T and S X T s h a f t a n d t r u n n i o n a x e s . T h e OCDUs a r e s i m i l a r t o the ICDUs, but m a y not be i n t e r c h a n g e d due t o i n t e r n a l m e c h a n i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s allowing h i g h e r OCDU r a t e s . E a c h OCDU h a s a 6-digit d i s p l a y r e a d o u t and c a n be positioned a u t o m a t i c a l l y by AGC c o m m a n d . CDU a n g l e s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o a d i g i t a l s i g n a l by a d i g i t a l e n c o d e r , p r o c e s s e d by e n c o d e r e l e c t r o n i c s , a n d r o u t e d to a n AGC r e g i s t e r . AGC positioning c o m m a n d s a r e a p p l i e d t o a d i g i t a l - t o a n a l o g c o n v e r t e r , c o n v e r t e d t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e analog s i g n a l , and a p p l i e d t o a m o t o r d r i v e a m p l i f i e r i n t h e SXT. R e s o l v e r s i n the SXT function a s t r a n s m i t t e r s t o CDU r e s o l v e r s which r e c e i v e the position s i g n a l s a n d apply t h e c o m m a n d e d a n g l e s t o the CDU m o t o r d r i v e a m p l i f i e r s t o po'sition the CDU m o t o r . T r u n n i o n CDU 1 /-l-speed and 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s function a s receixrers a n d provide d r i v e s i g n a l s to the t r u n n i o n CDU m o t o r . The SXT t r u n n i o n r e s o l v e r s which d r i v e t h e CDU r e s o l v e r s a r e 1 - s p e e d and 6 4 - s p e e d r e s p e c t i v e l y , probiding a 1:4 SXT t r u n n i o n t o CDU t r u n n l o n r a t i o . V i s u a l r e a d o u t s on t h e t r u n n i o n d i s p l a y d i a l s a r e t h u s f o u r t i m e s t h e t r u n n i o n a n g l e and tn.0 t i m e s t h e star l i n e - o f - s i g h t a n g l e f r o m z e r o position. The 1 / 2 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r , i n conjunction with t h e c o s e c a n t a m p l i f i e r , p r o v i d e s a v a r i a b l e g a i n computing r e s o l v e r which is u s e d i n the RESOLVED mode of o p e r a t l o n . The 1 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r i s not u s e d i n t h e t r u n n i o n CDU. Shaft CDU 1 / 2 - s p e e d and 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s function as r e c e i v e r s and p r o d u c e d r i v e s i g n a l s t o the s h a f t CDU m o t o r . SXT r e s o l \ v e r s u s e d a s t r a n s m i t t e r s a r e a l s o 1 / 2 - s p e e d a n d 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s , affording a 1 : l r a t i o ; t h u s , t h e d i s p l a y d i a l s provide d i r e c t r e a d o u t s of the s h a f t a n g l e s . The 1 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r r e s o l v e s p o l a r c o o r d i n a t e s into r e c t a n g u l a r c o o r d i n a t e s f o r t n e PESOLVED m o d e of o p e r a t i o n . The l i - l - s p e e d r e s o l v e r i s not u s e d in the s h a f t CDU.

2 . 2 . 3. 2 . 3

Operational Modes. O p t i c s positioning i s a c c o m p l i s h e d automaticall)- by the XGC o r m a n u a l l y by t h e c r e w . O v e r a l l mode c o n t r o l i s e s t a b l l s h e d by c r e n . s e l e c t i o n of t h e Z E R O OPTICS, MANUAL, o r COMPUTER m o d e s on the O P T I C S panel.

Z E R O OPTICS mode e n a b l e s a u t o m a t i c d r i v e of t h e SXT shaft and t r u n n i o n m o t o r s t o z e r o . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by applying the SXT r e s o l \ . - e r output s i g n a l s t o t h e input of the SXT m o t o r d r i v e a m p l i f i e r s . The d r i v e s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d t o the CDU and S C T r e s o l v e r s which follon. the SXT s h a f t a n d t r u n n i o n a x e s t o z e r o . A f t e r 6 0 s e c o n d s , the AGC o p t i c s position r e g i s t e r s a r e c l e a r e d . This mode m a y b e s e l e c t e d by AGC p r o g r a m o r m a nu a 11>-.
MANUAL m o d e e n a b l e s positioning c o n t r o l of t h e o p t i c s by m a n u a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of the o p t i c s hand c o n t r o l l e r . The hand c o n t r o l l e r is m e c h a n i z e d s u c h t h a t , r i g h t - l e f t m o v e m e n t g e n e r a t e s s h a f t c o m m a n d s , and up-down m o v e m e n t g e n e r a t e s t r u n n i o n c o m m a n d s . Hand c o n t r o l l e r dri\,e r a t e s a r e s e l e c t e d by t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e CONTROLLER S P E E D sn.itch.

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SiM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
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SYSTEMS DATA P o s i t i o n s HI, hlED, and LO c o n t r o l the amplitude of the d r i v e s i g n a l t o the hand c o n t r o l l e r . Hand c o n t r o l l e r d r i v e s i g n a l s a r e applied t o t h e SXT s h a f t and t r u n n i o n d r i v e a m p l i f i e r s t h r o u g h the CONTROLLER MODE s w i t c h f o r s e l e c t i o n of DIRECT o r RESOLVED mode. I n DIRECT m o d e , the i m a g e m o t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d in a p o l a r c o o r d i n a t e r e f e r e n c e f r a m e : i n RESOLVED m o d e , the i m a g e m o t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d in a r e c t a n g u l a r c o o r d i n a t e r e f e r e n c e frame. I n DIRECT m o d e , s h a f t c o m m a n d s move the i m a g e in a c i r c u l a r path a r o u n d the c e n t e r of the field of view. T r u n n i o n c o m m a n d s d r i v e the i m a g e i n a s t r a i g h t line a c r o s s t h e c e n t e r of the field of view. T h e a n g u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n of the t r u n n i o n commanded s t r a i g h t line m o v e m e n t i s a function of t h e shaft a n g l e ; t h e r e f o r e , d i r e c t i o n of i m a g e c i o i r e m e n t with r e s p e c t t o the d i r e c t i o n of hand c o n t r o l l e r m o v e m e n t i s a l s o a function of s h a f t a n g l e . T h e r a t e of i m a g e m o v e m e n t , f o r shaft c o m m a n d s , i s a function of trunnion a n g l e , w h e r e i n i n c r e a s i n g t r u n n i o n a n g l e s r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s i n g i m a g e movement r a t e s . I n RESOLVED m o d e , shaft c o m m a n d s m o v e the i m a g e l e f t - r i g h t in a s t r a i g h t l i n e . T r u n n i o n c o m m a n d s move the i m a g e up-down i n a s t r a i g h t line. I m a g e m o v e m e n t i s i n the s a m e d i r e c t i o n a s hand c o n t r o l l e r m o v e m e n t and the r a t e of m o v e m e n t i s c o n s t a n t f o r v a r y i n g a n g l e s . In COMPUTER m o d e , the XGC positions the o p t i c s to a s t a r o r l a n d m a r k d e t e r m i n e d by AGC p r o g r a m m i n g . T h i s mode i s p e r f o r m e d by a n XGC r o u t i n e which is c a l l e d u p a u t o m a t i c a l l y by v a r i o u s a l i g n m e n t p r o g r a m s . T h e t a r g e t s t a r o r l a n d m a r k m a y be defined by AGC p r o g r a m m i n g o r by the c r e w . If the t a r g e t s t a r o r l a n d m a r k i s not s e l e c t e d by .AGC p r o g r a m m i n g , the c r e w m a k e s a DSKY e n t r y defining e i t h e r the l a t i t u d e , longitude, and altitude f o r a l a n d m a r k o r the s t a r code f o r a s t a r . The AGC d e t e r m i n e s the s p a c e c r a f t attitude by m o n i t o r i n g the I C D U s , and c o m p u t e s the a n g l e s n e c e s s a r y t o d r i v e the o p t i c s t o the d e s i r e d t a r g e t . (If t h e a n g l e s n e c e s s a r y t o a c q u i r e the t a r g e t a r e beyond the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the o p t i c s , t h e AGC f l a s h e s the DSKY d i s p l a y s . ) When t h e n e c e s s a r y a n g l e s a r e c o m p u t e d , t h e AGC d i s p l a y s t h e d e s i r e d s h a f t a n d t r u n n i o n a n g l e s on the DSKY and i n i t i a t e s OCDU d r i v e t o t h e s e a n g l e s . When the AGC h a s c o m p l e t e d d r i v i n g the CDUs, t h e c r e w c h e c k s t h e DSKY-displayed a n g l e s a g a i n s t the 6-digit CDU d i s p l a y s a n d t h e S C T c o u n t e r s . The creLv t h e n l o c a t e s and i d e n t i f i e s the t a r g e t i n the S C T , e n a b l e s m a n u a l c o n t r o l , and c o m p l e t e s the sighting, The AGC c a n a l s o p e r f o r m z e r o o p t i c s f u n c t i o n s , i f d e s i r e d , by t h e AGC p r o g r a m . T h e S C T t r u n n i o n m a y be o p e r a t e d in t h r e e a l t e r n a t e m o d e s , with r e s p e c t t o the SXT t r u n n i o n , a s d e s i r e d . T h e SL-qVE T E L E S C O P E s w l t c h e n a b l e s c r e w s e l e c t i o n of ST-AR LOS, L.4KDM-lRK LOS O " , o r O F F S E T 2 5 " . T h e ST-lR LOS position i s n o r m a l l y u s e d I n t h i s position, the SCT t r u n n i o n i s s l a v e d t o the SXT trunnion. T h e LANDMARK LOS 0 " position, a p p l i e s a fixed voltage t o t h e S C T t r u n n i o n position loop c a u s i n g i t t o null a t z e r o . T h i s holds c e n t e r o i the SCT 6 0 " f l e l d of view p a r a l l e l to the

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SMZA -03-SCO12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA SXT l a n d m a r k l i n e of s i g h t . T h e O F F S E T 2 5 " p o s i t i o n a p p l i e s a f i x e d voltage t o the SCT t r u n n i o n position loop, c a u s i n g it to null a t 25 d e g r e e s o f f - c e n t e r . T h i s holds t h e S C T field of view s o t h a t the SXT l a n d m a r k line of s i g h t r e m a i n s v i s i b l e while sweeping t h e SCT s h a f t t h r o u g h 360 d e g r e e s of r o t a t i o n , providing a n a p p r o x i m a t e 110 - d e g r e e total f i e l d of view,

2 . 2 . 3. 3

Computer Subsystem. T h e c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m (CSS) c o n s i s t s of the Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r ( A G C ) and two d i s p l a y and k e y b o a r d p a n e l s (DSKYs). The AGC and one DSKY a r e l o c a t e d a t the l o w e r e q u i p m e n t bay. T h e o t h e r DSKY is l o c a t e d on the m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e . The AGC m o u n t s one s w i t c h on the f r o n t panel which a p p l i e s p a r t i a l o r full power to the c o m p u t e r to e n a b l e standbv o r full o p e r a t i o n of the CSS. All o t h e r XGC c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s a r e l o c a t e d on the DSKYs. The k e y b o a r d s o n the DSKYs a r e s m i l i a r ; h o w e v e r , the d i s p l a y s on the DSKY in the l o w e r e q u i p m e n t bay a r e m o r e extensive,

2.2.3.3. 1

Xpollo Guidance C o m p u t e r . The .Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r (-AGC) is a d i g i t a l c o m p u t e r using a t w o - p a r t r o p e c o r e m e m o r y . (See f i g u r e 2 . 2 - 3 . ) The AGC p r o c e s s e s v a r i o u s d a t a t o p r o v i d e c o n t r o l and c o m p u t a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . Input d a t a i s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e c r e w , ISS, OSS, iMSFN, and o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s . T h i s d a t a i s p r o c e s s e d by v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s to p r o v i d e outputs t o the c r e w , ISS, OSS, M S F N , and o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s in the f o r m of c o m m a n d s and d i s p l a y s . T h e c o n t r o l functions p e r f o r m e d by the AGC c o n s i s t of t h e following:
0

. I

Align the I h I U s t a b l e p l a t f o r m . P o s i t i o n t h e o p t i c s f o r navigation s i g h t i n g s . C o m m a n d r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m engine f i r i n g s to m a i n t a i n specific attitude. R e q u e s t initiation and c o m m a n d t e r m i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n engine f i r i n g s . P r o v i d e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n p u l s e s t o the c e n t r a l t i m i n g e q u i p m e n t . C o m m a n d t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n to A l S F N . C o m m a n d ISS moding. Command OSS moding.

e
0

0

0

0

0

0

The r e f e r e n c e d a t a u s e d to g e n e r a t e c o n t r o l s m a y be a c q u i r e d e x t e r n a l l y o r g e n e r a t e d within the ;IGC. I n i t i a t i o n of the c o n t r o l s may be a c c o m p l i s h e d by the c r e w u s i n g the D S K Y s , by MSFK via t e l e m e t r ) , o r by a n AGC p r o g r a m .
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MEYORY

ABLE

ERASE- I I

I I

I
FIXED

A
PARITY FAIL

v
SCS MODES TELEMETRY DSKYS (CREW) ISS MODES OSS ANGLES MESC (EVENTS)

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INHIBIT/ENABLE D O W N L I N K =,SKY

INPUT

DATA IN

CENTRAL PROCESSOR

4 I

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LISS MODESa CONTROL
O S MODES 8 CONTROL S SPS E N G I N E

S

OUTPUT

S-IVB I N S T U N I T -

I
TIMING (REAL TIME)

I

I

I F P IS
TO A 1 SECTIONS
TO ALL SECTIONS

A REFERENCE

SM-2A-827

Figure 2 . 2 - 3 .

AGC Functional Block D i a g r a m

Computations a r e p e r f o r m e d t o g e n e r a t e the p r o p e r c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s , m a i n t a i n navigation p a r a m e t e r s , and complete v a r i o u s o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s u n d e r p r o g r a m c o n t r o l . AGC p r o g r a m s a r e s t o r e d in m e m o r y . The m e m o r y contains two s e c t i o n s , e r a s a b l e and n o n - e r a s a b l e . The e r a s a b l e s e c t i o n provides s t o r a g e f o r t r a n s i e n t data. Readout i s d e s t r u c t i v e ; t h u s , if the d a t a i s to be r e t a i n e d , i t m u s t be w r i t t e n back into m e m o r y . O t h e r w i s e , the location i s c l e a r e d f o r f u r t h e r u s e a s d e s i r e d . N o n - e r a s a b l e m e m o r y contains p r o g r a m s , r o u t i n e s , c o n s t a n t s , s t a r and l a n d m a r k c o o r d i n a t e s , and o t h e r , p e r t i n e n t d a t a . Readout is non-destructive; t h u s , the d a t a contained i n this s e c t i o n is not l o s t and cannot be a l t e r e d . AGC p r o g r a m s a r e p e r f o r m e d by controlling the flow of data within the six b a s i c s e c t i o n s l i s t e d a s follows:
a
0 0

P o w e r supply Input output GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEiM

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SYSTEMS DATA
0

0

Central processor Memory Timing

P o w e r Supply. T h e power supply c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s . Input to the power supply i s + 2 8 vdc f r o m the s p a c e c r a f t m a i n d - c bus. The two s e c t i o n s p r o vide t 1 3 vdc and + 3 vdc. T h e +13-vdc output p r o v i d e s power to the DSKYs and, in conjunction with the t 3 - v d c power, to the logic c i r c u i t s . The t 3 - v d c supply p r o v i d e s power to the timing s e c t i o n as w e l l a s to the logic c i r c u i t s . D u r i n g standby mode of o p e r a t i o n , the +3-vdc section only i s o p e r a t e d ; t h u s , power consumption is r e d u c e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 w a t t s . Input. T h e input s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of four r e g i s t e r s which enable i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the AGC and the o t h e r G&N s u b s y s t e m s , the s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s y s t e m , the m i s s i o n s e q u e n c e r , the S-IVE guida n c e , a n d MSFN. The utilization of the r e g i s t e r s i s s u c h t h a t e a c h bit position in e a c h r e g i s t e r i s a s s i g n e d a s p e c i f i c t a s k . F o r e x a m p l e , bit p o s i t i o n s 1, 2 , 3, 4, and 5 of input r e g i s t e r 0 a r e a s s i g n e d to r e c e i v i n g the five bit code g e n e r a t e d when a DSKY key is p r e s s e d . D a t a r e c e i v e d f r o m the v a r i o u s , s o u r c e s a r e conditionedby the input r e g i s t e r s s u c h t h a t , when i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d into the logic c i r c u i t s , the signal l e v e l s and timing a r e c o r r e c t . The d a t a r e c e i v e d by the f o u r input r e g i s t e r s a r e as follows: Input 0 R e g i s t e r R e c e i v e s 5-bit code f r o m the DSKYs, block uplink signal f r o m the U P T E L switch, c o n t r o l s i g n a l s f r o m the SCS mode c o n t r o l panel, and m a r k c o m m a n d s f r o m the MARK pushbutton. Also m o n i t o r s the signal f r o m the t e l e m e t r y bit r a t e detecting c i r c u i t s .

Input 1 R e g i s t e r

This r e g i s t e r is f o r m e d by the S c a l e r A r e g i s t e r of the timing s e c t i o n which m a i n t a i n s r e a l t i m e d u r i n g standby o p e r a t i o n , and provides update information to the r e a l t i m e c o u n t e r s when full o p e r a t i o n i s resumed.
R e c e i v e s 2 0 0 , 400, 8 0 0 , and 1600 pps s i g n a l s f r o m the S c a l e r A s e c t i o n of the t i m i n g s e c t i o n f o r m i n g a n e x t e n s i o n of the r e a l t i m e c o u n t e r s f o r u s e by o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s which r e q u i r e t i m i n g of t h i s o r d e r . Also r e c e i v e s d i s c r e t e event s i g n a l s f r o m the S-IVB i n s t r u m e n t unit, C M f S M s e p a r a t i o n s i g n a l s f r o m the m a s t e r e v e n t s sequence controller, failure signals f r o m the ISS, mode s i g n a l s f r o m the SCS, and p a r i t y fail s i g n a l s .

Input 2 R e g i s t e r

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Input 3 R e g i s t e r

SYSTEMS DATA R e c e i v e s ISS mode s i g n a l s f r o m the ISS mode r e l a y s and mode s i g n a l s f r o m the OSS, m o n i t o r s the p o s i t i o n of t h e TRANSFER s w i t c h , and p r o v i d e s a logic OR gate f o r 3 3 DSKY r e l a y s .

Output. T h e output s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of f o u r r e g i s t e r s which e n a b l e the AGC t o c o m m u n i c a t e with t h e flight c r e w , ISS, OSS, and o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s . T h e u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e r e g i s t e r s is s i m i l a r to t h a t u s e d f o r the input s e c t i o n ( i . e . , e a c h bit position, or g r o u p of bit p o s i t i o n s i s a s s i g n e d a s p e c i f i c t a s k ) . T h e t a s k s a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a r i o u s r e g i s t e r s and bit p o s i t i o n s a r e a s follows: Output 0 R e g i s t e r P r o v i d e s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n link f r o m the AGC t o t h e DSKYs by c o n t r o l of 14 banks of r e l a y s which p r o v i d e d i s p l a y of d a t a and r o u t i n g of c o n t r o l s i g n a l s t o t h e ISS, OSS, a n d SCS. R e c e i v e s i n t e r n a l AGC a l a r m s i g n a l s and c a u s e s a l a r m i n d i c a t o r s o n t h e DSKYs to i l l u m i n a t e . R e c e i v e s KEY RLSE r e q u e s t f r o m a n AGC p r o g r a m and c a u s e s the KEY RLSE i n d i c a t o r t o i l l u m i n a t e and f l a s h u n t i l the DSKY i s r e l e a s e d . R e c e i v e s AGC s i g n a l i n d i c a t i n g i m p r o p e r DSKY o p e r a t i o n and c a u s e s the CHECK FAIL i n d i c a t o r to i l l u m i n a t e . R e c e i v e s S P S engine f i r i n g s i g n a l f r o m a n AGC p r o g r a m , c a u s i n g t h e DSKY to f l a s h a r e q u e s t f o r c r e w i n i t i a t i o n of engine f i r i n g . R e c e i v e s SPS engine off c o m m a n d f r o m a n AGC p r o g r a m , r e m o v i n g t h e engine on s i g n a l . A l s o p r o v i d e s s i g n a l t o r e s e t the e r r o r i n t e r r u p t t r a p c i r c u i t s , i d e n t i f i e s the type of w o r d being t r a n s m i t t e d by downlink t e l e m e t r y , and i n h i b i t s f u r t h e r loading of t e l e m e t r y w o r d s when t h e t e l e m e t r y word r a t e e x c e e d s 50 w o r d s p e r s e c o n d . C o n t r o l s a p p l i c a t i o n of 3200 pps c o n t r o l p u l s e s t o t h e ISS and OSS. S e r v e s as a s p a r e r e g i s t e r f o r the central p r o c e s s o r when needed. C o n t a i n s t h e next word t o be t r a n s m i t t e d by downlink t e l e m e t r y .

Output 1 R e g i s t e r

Output 2 R e g i s t e r

Output 3 R e g i s t e r

Output 4 R e g i s t e r

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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA C e n t r a l P r o c e s s o r . T h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r c o n t a i n s the logic c i r c u i t s and r e g i s t e r s which p e r f o r m t h e p r o g r a m s . P r o g r a m s a r e e x e c u t e d by p e r f o r m i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s i n a s e q u e n c e c o n t r o l l e d by the sequence g e n e r a t o r . T h e r e a r e two b a s i c t y p e s of i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h e f i r s t is the m a c h i n e i n s t r u c t i o n which c o n s i s t s of r e g u l a r , i n v o l u n t a r y , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s i n s t r u c t i o n s . R e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e contained within the p r o g r a m and a r e p a r t of t h e d a t a w o r d s being p r o c e s s e d . Involuntary i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e p e r f o r m e d a s i n t e r r u p t s to t h e p r o g r a m and a r e g e n e r a t e d e x t e r n a l l y to the AGC. M i s c e l l a n e o u s i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e u s e d i n t h e c o m p u t e r t e s t only. T h e s e c o n d b a s i c type of i n s t r u c t i o n is t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s and a r e a p r o g r a m m e r convenience which a r e c o n v e r t e d u n d e r p r o g r a m c o n t r o l to m a c h i n e i n s t r u c t i o n s . The e x e c u t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n s is a function of the sequence generator. The sequence generator combines basic timing p u l s e s with t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p o r t i o n of a d a t a word and p e r f o r m s the p r o g r a m in the n e c e s s a r y s e q u e n c e . R e g u l a r m a c h i n e i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e p r o c e s s e d by t h e s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t o r i n i t i a t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l p e r f o r m one o r m o r e s u b i n s t r u c t i o n , the l a s t of which will be a s u b i n s t r u c t i o n to p r o c e e d to the next i n s t r u c t i o n . Involuntary i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e i n i t i a t e d by an i n t e r r u p t f r o m a n e x t e r n a l s o u r c e , a f t e r which the i n s t r u c t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d i n the s a m e m a n n e r a s a r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n . After c o m p l e t i o n of the i n v o l u n t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n , a " r e s u m e " c o m m a n d i s e x e c u t e d and the s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t o r r e t u r n s to the p r o g r a m which was i n t e r r u p t e d . T h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r p e r f o r m s the d a t a manipulation by adding, s u b t r a c t i n g , shifting, e t c . , within a g r o u p of c e n t r a l r e g i s t e r s , a d d e r , and f p a r i t y block. T h e f u n c t i o n s o the r e g i s t e r s a r e a s follows: A Register Accumulator. processing. S t o r e s the r e s u l t s of a r i t h m e t i c

LP Register

S t o r e s the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s of the p r o d u c t of a multiply i n s t r u c t i o n . U s e d t o c o m p l e m e n t (by r e a d i n g the r e s e t s i d e of the r e g i s t e r ) , a s t e m p o r a r y s t o r a g e , and a s a buffer. P r o g r a m c o u n t e r . Contains a d d r e s s of next i n s t r u c t i o n . I n c r e m e n t e d by one a s e a c h i n s t r u c . t i o n is p e r f o r m e d . ( I n s t r u c t i o n s a r e usually s t o r e d in m e m o r y sequentially. ) If t r a n s f e r c o n t r o l o c c u r s the contents of Z a r e r e a d i n t o and s t o r e d in Q until i n t e r r u p t i s c o m pleted. E n a b l e s i n t e r r u p t e d p r o g r a m to r e s t a r t a t the p r o p e r i n s t r u c t i o n . Also u s e d i n d i v i s i o n . Stores r e m a i n d e r in complemented form. R e f e r to Input s e c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n . R e f e r to Output s e c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n .

3 Register

Z Register

Q Register

Input 0 , 1, 2 , 3 Output 0 , 1 , 2 , 3

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G Register

P r o v i d e s a c c e s s t o and f r o m m e m o r y . Shifting, u n d e r p r o g r a m c o n t r o l , t a k e s place i n t h i s r e g i s t e r . P a r i t y bit i s r e m o v e d and r e s t o r e d in this r e g i s t e r . C o n t a i n s a d d r e s s of w o r d t o be c a l l e d f r o m m e m o r y . If w o r d i s i n fixed m e m o r y , t h i s s e l e c t s w o r d i n conjunction with B-ANK register. S e l e c t s bank i n fixed m e m o r y . . O p e r a t e s in conjunction with S r e g i s t e r . S t o r e s 4 bit o r d e r code of i n s t r u c t i o n w o r d T h e s e r e g i s t e r s f o r m t h e a d d e r . Two n u m b e r s t o be added a r e p l a c e d i n X and Y. T h e r e s u l t i s s t o r e d i n U. T h e p a r i t y c i r c u i t c h e c k s the p a r i t y of w o r d s c o m i n g f r o m m e m o r y t o be odd. I f p a r i t y i s not c o r r e c t , t h i s c i r c u i t g e n e r a t e s a p a r i t y a l a r m . Words being r e t u r n e d t o m e m o r y a r e given the p r o p e r p a r i t y bit by t h i s c i r c u i t .

S Register

BANK R e g i s t e r

SQ Register

X , Y, U Registers

Parity Circuit

Data flow within the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r i s initiated by a n i n s t r u c t i o n . X d a t a w o r d i s brought f r o m m e m o r y t o the G r e g i s t e r . T h e G r e g i s t e r p r o v i d e s P e m p o r a r y s t o r a g e of the w o r d until i t i s needed. I i the w o r d c a m e f r o m e r a s a b l e m e m o r y , i t will u s u a l l y be w r i t t e n back into the s a m e l o c a t i o n d u r i n g the s a m e m e m o r y c y c l e t i m e i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o the G r e g i s t e r . ( T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r y f o r w o r d s f r o m fixed m e m o r y , a s r e a d o u t i s not d e s t r u c t i v e . ) T h e w o r d i s t h e n r o u t e d to the p a r i t y c i r c u i t s f o r a p a r i t y c h e c k and t o have the p a r i t y bit r e m o v e d . T h e s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t o r next c o n t r o l s the t r a n s f e r of t h e d a t a w o r d to the o t h e r r e g i s t e r s f o r p r o c e s s i n g . If the r e s u l t of t h e p r o c e s s i n g is t o be w r i t t e n back into m e m o r y , the w o r d is t r a n s f e r r e d back into the G r e g i s t e r , the p a r i t y b i t i s a d d e d , and the w o r d t r a n s f e r r e d b a c k t o m e m o r y . If the p r o c e s s i n g c o n s i s t s of a r i t h m e t i c functions, i t is p e r f o r m e d i n the a d d e r ( X , Y , and U r e g i s t e r s ) . T h e AGC h a s the c a p a b i l i t y t o add only; t h e r e f o r e , s u b t r a c t i o n , m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , and d i v i s i o n a r e p e r f o r m e d by c o m p l e m e n t i n g a n d l o r shifting, t h e n adding. l l e m o r y . T h e XGC m e m o r y c o n s i s t s of two s e c t i o n s . T h e l a r g e s t s e c t i o n i s t h e f i s e d m e m o r y . T h i s is a r o p e c o r e type having a capability oi 2 4 , 5 7 6 s i x t e e n bit w o r d s . Readout is n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e and the d a t a c o n t a i n e d cannot be changed. All p e r m a n e n t , p r e - d e t e r m i n e d d a t a , s u c h a s p r o g r a m s , t a b l e s , c o n s t a n t s , s t a r and l a n d m a r k a n g l e s , e t c . , a r e contained i n t h i s s e c t i o n . +Addressing the d a t a contained i n the iixed

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-.SYSTEMS DATA s e c t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e S and BANK r e g i s t e r s . A s m a l l e r e r a s a b l e section provides t e m p o r a r y storage f o r transient data. E r a s a b l e m e m o r y i s a c o i n c i d e n t - c u r r e n t c o r e a r r a y with a c a p a c i t y of 1024 s i x t e e n bit w o r d s . R e a d o u t i s d e s t r u c t i v e , s o i f d a t a i s t o be r e t a i n e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to w r i t e t h e d a t a back i n t o the l o c a t i o n when i t i s r e a d out. A d d r e s s i n g the d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n e r a s a b l e m e m o r y is done by the S r e g i s t e r . T i m i n g . T h e t i m i n g s e c t i o n g e n e r a t e s t h e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n p u l s e s f o r AGC o p e r a t i o n s and t i m i n g p u l s e s f o r o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s . T h e t i m i n g s e c t i o n i s divided i n t o the following functional g r o u p s : Clock Divider T,his g r o u p contains the b a s i c clock o s c i l l a t o r which h a s a 2 . 048 m c f r e q u e n c y divided to t i m e v a r i o u s AGC logic functions and c e r t a i n o u t p u t s , clock the t i m e pulse g e n e r a t o r , and d r i v e S c a l e r A. S c a l e r A c o n t a i n s 17 b i n a r y d i v i d e r s p r o ducing s i g n a l s of v a r i o u s f r e q u e n c i e s u s e d within t h e AGC logic, a s r e f e r e n c e to the PSA, and t o d r i v e S c a l e r R. S c a l e r B c o n t a i n s 16 b i n a r y d i v i d e r s producing t i m i n g s i g n a l s t o the Input 1 r e g i s t e r f o r m a i n t a i n i n g r e a l t i m e when the AGC i s i n standby. S c a l e r s A and B a r e u s e d in conjunction with the Input 0 r e g i s t e r , TIME 1 , and TIiME 2 c o u n t e r s to provide r e a l t i m e . Time Pulse Gene r a t o r P r o d u c e s 12 b a s i c t i m i n g p u l s e s which define a c t i o n t i m e s . T h e s e p u l s e s a r e u s e d t o c o n t r o l i n t e r n a l s e q u e n c i n g of data processing. T h i s g r o u p p r o v i d e s t i m i n g p u l s e s to fixed and e r a s a b l e m e m o r > -to s y n c h r o n i z e r e a d and w r i t e o p e r a t i o n s . T h e s t a r t - s t o p logic g e n e r a t e s t h r e e c o m m a n d s . A m o n i t o r s t o p command i n h i b i t s the t i m e pulse g e n e r a t o r and s t o p s A AGC d a t a word flow. . m o n i t o r s t a r t c o m m a n d g e n e r a t e s the t h i r d s i g n a l which i s a c l e a r c o m m a n d to the s e q u e n c e gene r a t o r .

S c a l e r s A and B

Memory Pulse Generator

Start-Stop Logic

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2 . 2 . 3. 3. 2

Display and K e y b o a r d . The DSKYs f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n behveen the flight c r e x and t h e ACC. (See f i g u r e 2 . 2 - 4 ) . ) T h e D S K Y s o p e r a t e in p a r a l l e l , with t h e m a i n d i s p l a y console DSKY providing AGC d i s p l a y and c o n t r o l while the crexv a r e i n t h e i r c o u c h e s . The two condition lights provided a t the m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e DSKY a r e COMPUTER F A I L , which i s a g r o s s ACC f a i l u r e i n d i c a t o r , a n d KEY R L S E , \trhich i s a r e q u e s t t o the cre\v to r e l e a s e the DSKY c i r c u i t s to i n t e r n a l AGC p r o g r a m u s e . The m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e DSKY a l s o h a s a n U P T E L s w i t c h which e n a b l e s the AGC t o a c c e p t o r block t e l e m e t e r e d d a t a f r o m MSFN. The DSKY a t the lo\t7er e q u i p m e n t ba)- c o n t a i n s the r e m a i n d e r of the condition l i g h t s : P R O G ALM, R U P T LOCK, PARITY F A I L , TC T R A P , TM F A I L , COUNTER F A I L , SCALER F A I L , CHECK F A I L a n d KEY RLSE. All t h e condition lights e x c e p t KEY RLSE a r e f a i l u r e i n d i c a t o r s . (KEY RLSE i s a r e q u e s t f o r the cre\v to r e l e a s e the DSKY c i r c u i t s to i n t e r n a l XGC p r o g r a m u s e . ) T h i s DSKY a l s o h a s a TEST -4LARLL.I p u s h button which i s w i r e d t o the a l a r m r e l a y s t o provide a c h e c k of the warning l i g h t s . The e l e c t r o l u m i n e s c e n t d i s p l a y s a r e i d e n t i c a l on e a c h DSKY a n d alxvays d i s p l a y i d e n t i c a l d a t a . The i n t e n s i t y of t h e s e d i s p l a y s i s c o n t r o l l e d by the BRIGHTNESS t h u m b w h e e l s . T h e exchange of d a t a between the flight c r e w and the .AGC i s u s u a l l y i n i t i a t e d by c r e w a c t i o n ; h o w e v e r , i t c a n a l s o be i n i t i a t e d by i n t e r n a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s . The exchanged i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d by the DSKY p r o g r a m . T h i s p r o g r a m allows the following f o u r d i f f e r e n t m o d e s of operation: Display of I n t e r n a l Data-Both a o n e - s h o t d i s p l a y and a p e r i o d i cally updating d i s p l a y ( c a l l e d m o n i t o r ) a r e provided. Loading E x t e r n a l Data-& each numerical character i s entered, it i s d i s p l a y e d in the a p p r o p r i a t e d i s p l a y panel l o c a t i o n . P r o g r a m C a l l i n g arid Control-The DSKY is u s e d to i n i t i a t e a c l a s s of r o u t i n e s which a r e c o n c e r n e d with n e i t h e r loading nor d i s p l a y . C e r t a i n r o u t i n e s r e q u i r e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m the o p e r a t o r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t o s t o p o r continue at a given Foint. Changing M a j o r LMode-The i n i t i a t i o n of l a r g e s c a l e m i s s i o n p h a s e s c a n be c o m m a n d e d b y the o p e r a t o r . T h e d a t a involved i n both loading and d i s p l a y c a n be p r e s e n t e d i n e i t h e r o c t a l o r d e c i m a l f o r m as the o p e r a t o r i n d i c a t e s . If d e c i m a l f o r m i s c h o s e n , the a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e f a c t o r s a r e supplied by the p r o g r a m . D e c i m a l e n t r i e s a r e i n d i c a t e d by e n t e r i n g a s i g n ( + , -). Keyboard O p e r a t i o n . The b a s i c language of c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the o n e r a t o r and the ACC i s a pair of w o r d s known a s v e r b and noun. V e r b and noun c o d e s a r e defined in f i g u r e s 2.2-5 and 2 . 2 - 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . E a c h

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I

LOWER EQUIPMENT BAY DSKY

Figure 2 . 2-4.

Display and K e y b o a r d P a n e l s

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of t h e s e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a t w o - c h a r a c t e r o c t a l n u m b e r . The v e r b code i n d i c a t e s what a c t i o n i s t o b e t a k e n ( o p e r a t i o n ) ; t h e noun code i n d i c a t e s to what a c t i o n i s a p p l i e d ( o p e r a n d ) . T y p i c a l v e r b s a r e t h o s e f o r displaying and loading. Nouns u s u a l l y r e f e r t o a g r o u p of e r a s a b l e r e g i s t e r s within the c o m p u t e r m e m o r y . The PROGRAM, VERB, and NOUN d i s p l a y s provide two digit n u m b e r s which a r e coded o c t a l n u m b e r s d e s c r i b i n g the a c t i o n being p e r f o r m e d . The REGISTER 1 , 2 , and 3 d i s p l a y s provide d i s p l a y of t h e c o n t e n t s of r e g i s t e r s o r m e m o r y l o c a t i o n s . T h e s e d i s p l a y s a r e n u m b e r s which a r e r e a d a s d e c i m a l n u m b e r s if a s i g n ( t , - ) i s p r e s e n t a n d o c t a l n u m b e r s i f no s i g n i s u s e d . The REGISTER d i s p l a y s o p e r a t e u n d e r p r o g r a m c o n t r o l u n l e s s the c o n t e n t s of a s p e c i f i c r e g i s t e r o r m e m o r y l o c a t i o n i s d e s i r e d . The c r e w m a y r e q u e s t d i s p l a y of the c o n t e n t s of a s p e c i f i c r e g i s t e r o r m e m o r y l o c a t i o n by commanding the d i s p l a y f r o m the k e y b o a r d . The only o t h e r d i s p l a y s a r e the ACTIVITY lights \rhich i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r the c o m p u t e r i s computing o r a c c e p t i n g t e l e m e t r y f r o m M S F N . T h e k e y b o a r d p r o v i d e s 18 k e y s which, when p r e s s e d , g e n e r a t e a five bit s i g n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e key p r e s s e d . The +, - , and 0-9 k e \ s a r e u s e d f o r n u m e r i c a l e n t r i e s , while the C L E A R , E N T E R , VERB, N O L " , KEY RELEASE, and ERROR R E S E T k e y s provide i n s t r u c t i o n s The TEST ALARM key is w i r e d t o t h e a l a r m r e l a y s and p r o v i d e s a check of the w a r n i n g i n d i c a t o r lights with the e x c e p t i o n of SCALER F-IIL. The m a i n d i s p l a y console DSKY U P T E L s w i t c h e n a b l e s o r inhibits the a c c e p t a n c e of t e l e m e t r y f r o m M S F N . T h e function of e a c h of t h e k e y s i s a s follows:

0-9

E n t e r n u m e r i c a l d a t a , a d d r e s s e s , and action codes. C o m m a n d s AGC to a c c e p t the next two n u m b e r s a s v e r b code d a t a . V e r b d i s p l a y is b l a n k e d u n t i l n u m b e r s a r e e n t e r e d . C o m m a n d s AGC t o a c c e p t the next two n u m b e r s a s noun code d a t a . Noun d i s p l a y i s blanked until n u m b e r s a r e e n t e r e d . I n s t r u c t s -4GC t o a c c e p t k e y e d - i n d a t a a s c o m p l e t e d and i n i t i a t e o p e r a t i o n s p e c i i i e d by d a t a w o r d . E n t e r s a l l z e r o s i n d a t a r e g i s t e r being loaded. E a c h s u c c e s s i v e p r e s s i n g of t h i s key c l e a r s the next h i g h e r r e g i s t e r . R e l e a s e t h e DSKY c i r c u i t s and d i s p l a y s f o r u s e by t h e .AGC p r o g r a m being e x e c u t e d . M o m e n t a r i l y r e s e t s .AGC f a i l u r e l i g h t s

VERB

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ENTER

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(+I

and ( - )

D e n o t e s s i g n o f d a t a t o follow. t h a t following d a t a i s d e c i m a l .

Denotes

T E S T ALARM

S e t s r e l a y s to i l l u m i n a t e L E B DSKY c o n d i t i o n lights ( e x c e p t SCALER F A I L ) t o e n s u r e p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n . ( L E B DSKY only. ) S e t s AGC input r e g i s t e r s t o a c c e p t o r inhibit t e l e m e t e r e d d a t a f r o m MSFN. (MDC DSKY only. ) P r o v i d e s c o n t r o l of i n t e n s i t y of e l e c t r o luminescent displays.

UPTEL

BRIGHTNESS

T h e l o w e r e q u i p m e n t bay DSKY p r o v i d e s nine condition lights of which e i g h t a r e f a i l u r e i n d i c a t o r s and the r e m a i n i n g light a r e q u e s t f o r a c t i o n . T h e function of e a c h i s a s follows: PROG ALM T h e AGC p r o g r a m being e x e c u t e d h a s detected an e r r o r . D e t e c t e d f a i l u r e i n input t i m i n g p u l s e s . E i t h e r interrupt o r circuitry failed. I n t e r r u p t f a i l u r e i s denoted by R U P T LOCK failure indicator illumination. I n t e r r u p t f a i l e d t o o c c u r o r w a s not c o m p l e t e d within s p e c i f i e d t i m e . T r a n s f e r c o n t r o l i n s t r u c t i o n h a s not o c c u r r e d , o r h a s o c c u r r e d but w a s not c o m p l e t e d within a specified time. F a i l u r e d e t e c t e d i n AGC t i m i n g s e c t i o n . P a r i t y f a i l u r e d e t e c t e d in d a t a r e a d f r o m memory. T e l e m e t r y w o r d r a t e to M S F N e i t h e r too high o r too low. T e l e m e t r y word r a t e f r o m MSFN too high o r i n c o r r e c t t r a n s m i s s i o n of d a t a . A t t e m p t e d i l l e g a l DSKY o p e r a t i o n . N o r m a l l y operator e r r o r . F l a s h e s to i n d i c a t e AGC p r o g r a m i n o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e s DSKY c i r c u i t r y t o continue.

COUNTER F A I L

R U P T LOCK

TC TRAP

SCALER FAIL PARITY F A I L

TM FAIL

CHECK F A I L

KEY R LSE

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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA T h e s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e f o r the e x e c u t i o n of k e y b o a r d o p e r a t i o n s c o n s i s t s of a s e q u e n c e of s e v e n key d e p r e s s i o n s : VERB
V2

m0

Vi

NOUN

N2

N1

ENTER

P r e s s i n g the VERB key b l a n k s the two v e r b lights on the DSKY and c l e a r s t h e v e r b code r e g i s t e r i n the AGC. T h e next two n u m e r i c a l inputs a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e v e r b c o d e , i n o c t a l f o r m . E a c h of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i s d i s p l a y e d by the v e r b lights a s i t i s i n s e r t e d . T h e NOUN key o p e r a t e s s i m i l a r l y with the DSKY noun l i g h t s and AGC noun code r e g i s t e r . P r e s s i n g t h e ENTER key i n i t i a t e s the p r o g r a m i n d i c a t e d by the v e r b - n o u n c o m bination d i s p l a y e d on t h e DSKY. T h u s , i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o follow a s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e i n keying v e r b - n o u n c o d e s into the DSKY. It c a n be done in r e v e r s e o r d e r , i f d e s i r e d , o r a p r e v i o u s l y i n s e r t e d v e r b o r noun c a n be u s e d without r e k e y i n g it. No a c t i o n is t a k e n by the AGC in initiating t h e verb-noun-defined p r o g r a m until t h e ENTER key i s a c t u a t e d . If a n e r r o r i s noticed i n e i t h e r the v e r b code o r noun code p r i o r t o a c t u a t i o n of t h e ENTER k e y , i t c a n be c o r r e c t e d s i m p l y by p r e s s i n g the c o r r e s p o n d i n g VERB o r NOUN k e y and i n s e r t i n g the p r o p e r c o d e . The ENTER key should not be a c t u a t e d u n t i l i t h a s b e e n v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e c o r r e c t v e r b and noun codes a r e displayed. If the s e l e c t e d v e r b - n o u n c o m b i n a t i o n r e q u i r e s d a t a to be loaded by the o p e r a t o r , the VERB and NOUN lights s t a r t f l a s h i n g on a n d off (about once p e r s e c o n d ) a f t e r the ENTER key i s p r e s s e d . D a t a i s loaded i n f i v e c h a r a c t e r w o r d s and, a s i t is keyed i n , i t i s d i s p l a y e d c h a r a c t e r - b y c h a r a c t e r i n one of the f i v e - p o s i t i o n d a t a d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r s , REGISTER 1 , REGISTER 2, o r REGISTER 3. N u m e r i c a l d a t a i s a s s u m e d t o be o c t a l u n l e s s the f i v e - c h a r a c t e r d a t a word i s p r e c e d e d by a plus o r m i n u s s i g n , i n whictr c a s e i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be d e c i m a l . D e c i m a l d a t a m u s t be loaded i n full f i v e - n u m e r a l c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ( n o z e r o s m a y be left o u t ) ; o c t a l d a t a m a y be loaded with high o r d e r z e r o s left o u t . If d e c i m a l i s u s e d f o r an); component of a m u l t i c o m p o n e n t load v e r b , i t m u s t be u s e d f o r a l l c o m ponents of t h a t v e r b . I n o t h e r w o r d s , no m i x i n g of o c t a l and d e c i m a l d a t a i s p e r m i t t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t c o m p o n e n t s of the s a m e load v e r b . T h e ENTER key m u s t be p r e s s e d a f t e r e a c h d a t a w o r d . T h i s t e l l s the p r o g r a m t h a t the n u m e r i c a l word being keyed i n i s c o m p l e t e . T h e on-off f l a s h i n g of the VERB-NOUN lights t e r m i n a t e s a f t e r t h e l a s t ENTER key a c t u a t i o n of a loading s e q u e n c e . T h e CLEAR key is u s e d t o r e m o v e e r r o r s i n loading d a t a a s i t i s d i s p l a y e d i n REGISTER 1, REGISTER 2 , o r REGISTER 3. It d o e s nothing t o the PROGRAM, NOUN, o r VERB l i g h t s . ( T h e KOUN lights a r e blanked by t h e NOUN k e y , the VERB l i g h t s by the VERB key. ) F o r s i n g l e component load v e r b s o r " m a c h i n e a d d r e s s t o be s p e c i f i e d " nouns, the CLE.4R key d e p r e s s i o n p e r f o r m s the c l e a r i n g function on t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e g i s t e r being loaded, provided t h a t the CLEAR key i s d e p r e s s e d b e f o r e t h e ENTER key. Once the ENTER k e y i s d e p r e s s e d , the CLEAR key d o e s nothing. The only way t o c o r r e c t a n e r r o r a f t e r the d a t a is e n t e r e d f o r
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_SYSTEMS DATA a s i n g l e - c o m p o n e n t load v e r b is t o begin the load v e r b a g a i n . F o r twoo r t h r e e - c o m p o n e n t l o a d v e r b s , t h e r e is a CLEAR backing-up f e a t u r e . T h e f i r s t d e p r e s s i o n of the CLEAR key c l e a r s w h i c h e v e r r e g i s t e r i s being l o a d e d . ( T h e CLEAR key m a y be p r e s s e d a f t e r any c h a r a c t e r , but b e f o r e i t s e n t r y . ) C o n s e c u t i v e CLEAR key a c t u a t i o n s c l e a r the d a t a d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r above the c u r r e n t one until REGISTER 1 i s c l e a r e d . Any a t t e m p t t o back u p ( c l e a r ) beyond REGISTER 1 is s i m p l y i g n o r e d . T h e CLEAR b a c k i n g - u p function o p e r a t e s only o n d a t a p e r t i n e n t t o the l o a d v e r b which i n i t i a t e d t h e loading s e q u e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , if the initiating load v e r b w e r e a " w r i t e s e c o n d component into'' type only, no backing u p a c t i o n would be p o s s i b l e . T h e n u m e r i c a l k e y s , t h e CLEAR k e y , and the s i g n k e y s are r e j e c t e d if d e p r e s s e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n ( f i n a l e n t r y ) of a d a t a d i s p l a y o r d a t a load v e r b . At s u c h t i m e , only t h e VERB, NOUN, E N T E R , ERROR R E S E T , o r KEY RELEASE inputs a r e a c c e p t e d . T h u s , t h e d a t a k e y s a r e a c c e p t e d only a f t e r the c o n t r o l k e y s have i n s t r u c t e d t h e p r o g r a m t o a c c e p t t h e m . S i m i l a r l y , the + and - k e y s a r e a c c e p t e d only b e f o r e the f i r s t n u m e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r of REGISTER 1, REGISTER 2 , o r REGISTER 3 is k e y e d i n and at no o t h e r t i m e . T h e 8 o r 9 key i s a c c e p t e d only while loading a d a t a word which i s p r e c e d e d by a + o r - sign. T h e DSKY c a n a l s o be u s e d by i n t e r n a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s f o r s u b r o u t i n e s . H o w e v e r , any o p e r a t o r k e y b o a r d a c t i o n ( e x c e p t ERROR R E S E T ) i n h i b i t s DSKY u s e by i n t e r n a l r o u t i n e s . T h e o p e r a t o r r e t a i n s c o n t r o l of the DSKY until he w i s h e s t o r e l e a s e i t . T h u s , he is a s s u r e d t h a t the d a t a he w i s h e s t o o b s e r v e will not be r e p l a c e d by i n t e r n a l l y i n i t i a t e d d a t a d i s p l a y s . I n g e n e r a l , i t is r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t the o p e r a t o r r e l e a s e the DSKY f o r i n t e r n a l u s e when he h a s t e m p o r a r i l y finished with i t . T h i s i s dbne by p r e s s i n g t h e KEY RELEASE k e y . Verb-Noun F o r m a t s . The v e r b - n o u n c o d e s a r e defined in f i g u r e s 2 . 2 - 5 and 2. 2 - 6 . A noun c o d e m a y r e f e r t o a d e v i c e , a g r o u p of c o m p u t e r r e g i s t e r s , o r a g r o u p of c o u n t e r r e g i s t e r s , o r i t m a y s i m p l y s e r v e to convey i n f o r m a t i o n without r e f e r r i n g to any p a r t i c u l a r c o m p u t e r r e g i s t e r . The noun i s m a d e u p of 1, 2 , o r 3 c o m p o n e n t s , e a c h component being e n t e r e d s e p a r a t e l y a s r e q u e s t e d by the v e r b code. AS e a c h component i s k e y e d , i t i s d i s p l a y e d on t h e d i s p l a y p a n e l with component 1 d i s p l a y e d i n REGISTER 1 , component 2 i n REGISTER 2 , a n d component 3 i n REGISTER 3. T h e r e a r e two c l a s s e s of nouns: n o r m a l and m i x e d . N o r m a l nouns ( c o d e s 0 1 through 54) a r e t h o s e whose component m e m b e r s r e f e r t o c o m p u t e r r e g i s t e r s which , h a v e c o n s e c u t i v e a d d r e s s e s and u s e the s a m e s c a l e f a c t o r when c o n v e r t e d t o d e c i m a l . Mixed nouns ( c o d e s 5 5 t h r o u g h 77) a r e t h o s e whose component m e m b e r s r e f e r t o n o n c o n s e c u t i v e a d d r e s s e s o r whose component m e m b e r s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t s c a l e f a c t o r s when c o n v e r t e d t o d e c i m a l , o r both.
-4 v e r b code i n d i c a t e s what a c t i o n is t o be t a k e n . It a l s o d e t e r m i n e s which component m e m b e r of the noun g r o u p is t o be a c t e d upon. F o r

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SM2A -03-SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA e x a m p l e , t h e r e a r e five d i f f e r e n t load v e r b s . V e r b 2 1 i s r e q u i r e d f o r loading the f i r s t component of the s e l e c t e d noun; v e r b 2 2 l o a d s the second component; v e r b 2 3 l o a d s the t h i r d component; v e r b 2 4 loads the f i r s t and s e c o n d component; and v e r b 2 5 loads a l l t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s . A s i m i l a r component f o r m a t i s u s e d i n the d i s p l a y and m o n i t o r v e r b s . T h e r e a r e two g e n e r a l c l a s s e s of v e r b s : s t a n d a r d and extended. T h e s t a n d a r d v e r b s ( c o d e s 01 through 37) d e a l m a i n l y with loading, d i s p l a y i n g , and m o n i t o r i n g d a t a . T h e extended v e r b s ( c o d e s 40 through 7 7 ) a r e p r i n c i p a l l y c o n c e r n e d with calling u p i n t e r n a l p r o g r a m s whose function i s s y s t e m t e s t i n g and operation. Whenever d a t a i s t o be loaded by the o p e r a t o r , the VERB and N O U N lights f l a s h , the a p p r o p r i a t e d a t a d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r i s blanked, and the i n t e r n a l c o m p u t e r s t o r a g e r e g i s t e r is c l e a r e d in anticipation of d a t a l o a d ing. -As e a c h n u m e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s keyed i n , i t i s displayed in the p r o p e r d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r . E a c h d a t a d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r can handle only five n u m e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s a t a t i m e ( n o t including s i g n ) . If a n a t t e m p t i s m a d e to key in m o r e than f i v e n u m e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s a t a t i m e , the sixth and s u b s e q u e n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e s i m p l y r e j e c t e d but they do a p p e a r i n the d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r . T h e + and - k e y s a r e a c c e p t e d p r i o r to i n s e r t i n g the f i r s t n u m e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r of REGISTER 1, REGISTER 2 , o r REGISTER 3; if keyed in a t any o t h e r t i m e , the s i g n s a r e r e j e c t e d . If the 8 o r 9 key i s a c t u a t e d a t any t i m e o t h e r than while loading a d a t a w o r d p r e c e d e d by a - o r - s i g n , i t i s r e j e c t e d and the CHECK F A I L light goes on. T h e n o r m a l u s e of the f l a s h i s with a load v e r b . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e two s p e c i a l c a s e s when the f l a s h i s u s e d with v e r b s o t h e r than load v e r b s .
e ' l l a c h i n e - 4 d d r e s s to be S p e c i f i e d - T h e r e

i s a c l a s s of nouns available t o allow any m a c h i n e a d d r e s s to be u s e d ; t h e s e a r e called " m a c h i n e a d d r e s s to be specified" nouns. When the "EIYTER", which c a u s e s the v e r b - n o u n combination to be e x e c u t e d , s e n s e s a noun of t h i s type the f l a s h i s i m m e d i a t e l y t u r n e d on. T h e v e r b code i s left unchanged. The o p e r a t o r should load the c o m p l e t e m a c h i n e a d d r e s s of i n t e r e s t (fitFec h a r a c t e r o c t a l ) . T h i s is d i s p l a y e d i n REGISTER 3 a s i t i s keyed in. If a n e r r o r i s m a d e in loading the a d d r e s s , the CLEAR key m a y be u s e d t o r e m o v e i t . P r e s s i n g the E N T E R key c a u s e s e x e c u t i o n of the v e r b to continue.

e

Change M a j o r Mode-To change m a j o r m o d e , the sequence i s VERB 37 E N T E R . T h i s c a u s e s the noun d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r to be blanked and t h e v e r b code to be f l a s h e d . T h e t w o - c h a r a c t e r o c t a l m a j o r mode code should then be loaded. F o r v e r i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s , it is d i s p l a y e d a s i t i s loaded i n the noun d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r . The e n t r y c a u s e s the f l a s h t o be t u r n e d off, a r e q u e s t f o r the new m a j o r mode t o be e n t e r e d , and a new m a j o r mode code t o be d i s p l a y e d i n the PROGRAM d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r .

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---

Verb
Code -

SYSTEMS DATA

Description

Remarks

won
V e r b c o d e s 01 t h r o u g h 37 d e n o t e standard verbs.

01

D i s p l a y 1 s t c o m p o n e n t of D i s p l a y 2nd c o m p o n e n t of D i s p l a y 3 r d c o m p o n e n t of D i s p l a y 1 s t a n d 2nd c o m p o n e n t s of D i s p l a y Ist, 2nd. and 3 r d component of Display a l l component(s) o

P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER I . P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER 1 P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER I P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER I and REGISTER 2.

02
03

04

05

P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER I . REGISTER 2 . A N D REGISTER 3

06

P e r f o r m s d e c i m a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i s t e r s The scale f a c t o r s . types o f s c a l e f a c t o r r o u t i n e s , a n d c o m p o n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a r e s t o r e d within the m a c h i n e f o r e a c h noun which i t is r e q u i r e d to d i s p l a y i n d e c i m a l P e r f o r m s a double p r e c i s i o n d e c i m a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER 1 and REGISTER 2 It d o e s no s c a l e f a c t o r i n g It m e r e l y p e r f o r m s a I O - c h a r a c t e r . f r a c t i o n a l d e c i m a l c o n v e r s i o n o f two c o n s e c u t i v e , e r a s a b l e r e g i s t e r s , u s i n g REGISTER I and R E C I S TER 2 T h e s i g n is p l a c e d i n t h e REGISTER 1 s i g n p o s i t i o n wlth the REGISTER 2 s i g n p o s i t i o n r e m a i n i n g blank It c a n n o t be u s e d with m i x e d nouns I t s intended u s e i s p r i m a r i l y with " m a c h i n e a d d r e s s t o be s p e c i f i e d nouns E n t e r s r e q u e s t t o " w a i t l i s t r o u t i n e ' f o r any m a c h i n e a d d r e s s with delay involved T h i s v e r b a s s u m e s t h a t t h e d e s i r e d n u m b e r of I O - m i l l i s e c o n d u n i t s of d e l a y h a s b e e n l o a d e d i n t o t h e low o r d e r b i t s of the p r i o l d e l a y r e g i s t e r (noun 26) This verb i s u s e d with t h e ' m a c h i n e a d d r e s s to be s p e c i f i e d noun. T h e c o m p l e t e a d d r e s s of t h e d e s i r e d l o c a t i o n i s t h e n keyed in. ( R e f e r t o " M a c h i n e a d d r e s s to be s p e c i f i e d i n p a r a g r a p h on V e r b l N o u n F o r m a t s . ) P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of u p d a t e d d a t a e v e r y l / 2 s e c o n d on REGISTER I , P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of updated d a t a e v e r y 112 s e c o n d on REGISTER 1 P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of u p d a t e d d a t a e v e r y 112 s e c o n d on REGISTER I P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of updated d a t a e v e r ) l / 2 s e c o n d o n REGISTER 1 and REGISTER 2 P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of updated d a t a e v e r y 1 / 2 s e c o n d on REGISTER 1 . REGISTER 2 , and REGISTER 3 P e r f o r m s d e c i m a l d i s p l a y of updated d a t a e v e r y 1 / 2 s e c o n d on a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i s t e r s

07

D P decimal display

IO

E n t e r r e q u e s t to w a i t l i s t ( U s e d only d u r i n g g r o u n d checkout. )

11 12 13
14

Monitor 1st component M o n i t o r 2nd c o m p o n e n t of M o n i t o r 3 r d c o m p o n e n t of h l o n i t o r 1 s t and 2nd c o m p o n e n t of M o n i t o r Ist, 2nd. a n d 3 r d c o m p o n e n t of Monitor all components(s)
of

15

I6

l i

hlonitor D P d e c i m a l

P e r f o r m s double p r e c i s i o n d i s p l a y o d e c i m a l d a t a on REGISTER I and REGISTER 2 f S o scale factoring 1 5 performed F r o v i d e s I O - c h a r a c t e r f r a c t i o n a l d e c l m d l LonT b e 5'gn i s p i a c e d in the s i p - b i t versLon of t w o c o n s e c u t i v e e r a s a b l e r e g i s t e r s p o s i t i o n of REGISTER 1 REGISTER 2 s i g n S i t i s blank E n t e r s r e q u e s t to e x e c u t i v e r o u t i n e f o r any m a c h i n e i d d r e s 5 w i t h p r i o r i t i bn\olved T h i s v e r b a b s u m e s t h a t t h e d e s i r e d p r o r i t v h a s been loaded into b i t s 1 0 - 1 4 o f the T h i s v e r b i s u s e d with the noun, m a c h i n e a d d r e s s p r i o l d e l a ) r e g i s t e r (noun 26) T h e c o m p l e t e a d d r e s s of the d e s i r e d Location L > then k e i e d i n t o be s p e c i f i e d ' ( R e f e r to \Lacnine a d d r e s s t o be s p e c i f i e d " i n p a r a g r a p h on V e r o f h o u n F o r m a t s I P e r f o r m s data loading O c t a l quantities a r e u n s l g n e d Declndk quantities a r e D a t a i s d l s p l a i e d o n REGISTER l p r e c e d e d bi or sign

20

E n t e r r e q u e s t to executive ( L s e d onl) during ground checkout. )

21

Write 1 s t component into

-

-

Figure 2.2-5.

V e r b List (Sheet 1 of 3)

GUIDAXCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Mission

Basic D a t e

l2

1966

Change Date

page

2.2-30

SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

\'e r b Code 22
Description

Remarks P e r f o r m s d a t a loading. Octal quantities a r e unsigned. D e c i m a l quantities a r e p r e c e d e d by t o r - s i g n . D a t a i s displayed o n R E G I S T E R 2 . P e r f o r m s d a t a l o a d i n g . O c t a l q u a n t i t i e s are u n s i g n e d . D e c i m a l q u a n t i t i e s a r e p r e c e d e d by + o r s i g n . D a t a is d i s p l a y e d o n R E G I S T E R 3.

W r i t e 2nd c o m p o n e n t i n t o

23

Write 3rd component into

-

24

W r i t e 1 s t and 2nd component into W r i t e I s t , 2nd. a n d 3 r d component into

P e r f o r m s d a t a loading. O c t a l quantities a r e unsigned. D e c i m a l quantities a r e s i g n . D a t a i s d i s p l a y e d on R E G I S T E R 1 a n d R E G I S T E R 2 . p r e c e d e d by t o r

-

25

P e r f o r m s d a t a loading. O c t a l quantities a r e unsigned. D e c i m a l quantities a r e p r e c e d e d by t o r s i g n . D a t a is d i s p l a y e d o n R E G I S T E R 1, R E G I S T E R 2 , and R E G I S T E R 3.

76 27
30
31

(Spare) (Sparel (Spare) Bank D i s p l a l

f T h i s v e r b 1s i n c l u d e d to p e r m i t d i s p l a v l n g t h e c o n t e n t s o f i x e d m e m o r ) i n an) bank I t s i n t e n d e d u s e i s f o r c h e c k i n g p r o g r a m r o p e s and t h e B;\NK p o s i t i o n 0 1 p r o g r a m ropes

3'2
37

( S p ar e ) P r o c e e d uirhout data I n f o r m s r o u t i n e r e q u e s t i n g d a t a t o be l o a d e d t h a t the o p e r a t o r c h o o s e s not t o load f r e s h d a t a out w i s h e s t h e r o u t i n e t o c o n t i n e a s b e s t i t c a n with old d a t a Final d e c - s i o n ror w h a t a c t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n I S l e f t t o r e q u e s t i n g r o u t i n e I n f o r m s r o u t i n e r e q u e s t i n g d a t a t o be l o a d e d t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r c h o o s e s not t o l o a d i r e s h d a t a and w i s h e s the routine t o t e r m i n a t e F i n a l d e c i s i o n f o r what a c t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n i s left to r e q u e s t i n g r o u t i n e If m o n i t o r i s o n , I! 1s t u r n e d o t f

34

T e r i n i na te

35
30

(Spare) Fresh start Change m a j o r mode to i n i t i a l i z e s t h e p r o g r a m c o n t r o l s o f t w a r e and t h e k e y b o a r d a n d d i s p l a y s y s t e m p r o g r a m C h a n g e to new m a j o r m o d e . Soun Formats.) ( R e f e r to "Change m a j o r mode" i n p a r a g r a p h on V e r b -

37

NOTI
V e r b c o d e s 40 t h r o u g h 7 7 d e n o t e extended verbs.
40

Zero C o a r s e a l i g n IllU Fine align I l I U Lock IllL' Set l l l U to iTTITUDE COSTROL Set I l I C E S T R Y Return I l I L l to c o a r s e align

S l u s t be u s e d with noun 2 0 ( I C D U ) o r noun 55 ( O C D U ) o n l y . S e t s t h e CDU r e g i s t e r s t o zero. .\Lust be u s e d with noun 2 0 (ICDU) or noun 55 (OCDL') only C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s that p e r f o r m t h e i n d i c a t e d GbiS s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s . C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s t h a t p e r f o r m t h e i n d i c a t e d GbiN s ) - s t e m p r o c e d u r e s . C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s t h a t p e r f o r m t h e i n d i c a t e d G6-N s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s

41

42
43
44

45
40

C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s that p e r f o r m t h e indicated G&N s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s that p e r f o r m t h e indicated CLN s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s .

Mission

Figure 2 . 2 - 5 .

V e r b List (Sheet 2 of 3)

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEiM B a s i c Date

l2

1966 Change Date

Page

2.2-31

SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 1 2

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

--SYSTEMS DATA
Verb Code
47 50

Description (Spare) Please perform

Remarks

T h i s v e r b I S u s e d only by i n t e r n a l r o u n t i n e s t h a t w i s h the o p e r a t o r t o p e r f o r m a c e r t a i n t a s k . I t s h o u l d n e v e r be k e y e d i n by t h e o p e r a t o r I t is u s u a l l y u s e d with noun 2 5 , c h e c k l i s t T h e c o d e d n u m b e r for the c h e c k l i s t i t e m t o be p e r f o r m e d i s d i s p l a y e d in REClSTER 1 by t h e r e q u e s t i n g r o u t i n e T h i s v e r b 1s u s e d only by i n t e r n a l r o u t i n e s t h a t r e q u e s t the o p e r a t o r t o " m a r k " It s h o u l d n e v e r be k e y e d i n by t h e o p e r a t o r . I t is u s u a l l y u s e d w i t h noun 30, " a t a r numbers ' T h e n u m b e r s of the s t a r s t o be m a r k e d a r e d i s p l a y e d i n REGISTER I , REGISTER 2 , and REGISTER 3 by t h e r e q u e s t i n g r o u t i n e . T h e o p e r a t o r s h o u l d i n d i c a t e c o m p l e t i o n o f e a c h valid m a r k by p r e s s i n g t h e MARK button. He s h o u l d n e v e r p r e s s E N T E R with v e r b 51. R e j e c t s " m a r k " and r e t u r n s t o v e r b 51. p r e s s i n g MARK button. M u s t be e n t e r e d within 20 s e c o n d s of

51

Please mark

52

Mark reject

53

Free

C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s t h a t p e r f o r m the i n d i c a t e d G & N s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s . wbth noun 2 0 ( I C D U ) o r noun 5 5 (OCDU). C a l l s up p r o g r a m s that p e r f o r m the indicated G & N s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s

U s e d only

54

Pulse torque gyros Align t i m e P e r f o r m BANK s u m S y s t e m t e s t ( U s e d only during ground checkout.) P r e p a r e for s t a n d b y R e c o v e r f r o m s tandb) (Spar e ) (Spare) Calculate orbital parameters C a l c u l a t e t i m e of a r r i v a l a t longitude C a l c u l a t e l a t i t u d e and longitude a t s p e c i f i e d t i m e Calculate maximum d e c l i n a t i o n and t i m e of arrival

55
56 57

60
61 62

--

63
64

65
bb

67

70
71

( 5pa r e )
(Spare) (Sparel R e t u r n to E a r t h a i m point u p d a t e O r b i t c h a n g e a i m point update h l a n u a l lift-oif for t l i g h t s

72
73

74

75
70

R . V . T . update ( s t a t e
vector)

R V T

d e n o t e s p o s i t i o n . v e l o c i t v . and t i m e

77

(Spare)

Figure 2. 2 - 5 .

Lrerb L i s t (Sheet 3 of 3)

GUID-iNCE AND S-AVIGATION SYSTEM
Mission B a s i c Date 12 N o v 1966 Change Date Page

.
2.2-32

SM2A - 0 3 -SCO 1 2

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

No1
01

-

NOL coc

De s c r i ption

Scale /Units

c 22

Description New a n g l e s I: X-REGISTER I Y-REGISTER 2 Z-REGISTER 3 Delta a n g l e s 1. X-REGISTER 1 Y-REGISTER 2 2-REGISTER 3 Delta t i m e f o r REGISTER REGISTER REGISTER ACC clock: I 2 3

NOTR
Noun c o d e s 01 t h r o u g h 54 denote n o r m a l nouns,

NOTE
In S c a l e i U n i t s column. X = significant digit 0 = zero (always) B = blank.

XXX XX d e q r e e s XXX XX d e g r e e s XXX XX d e g r e e s

21

XXX XX d e g r e e s XXX XX d e g r e e s XXX XX d e g r e e s

24

01
02

Specify m a c h i n e a d d r e s s Specify m a c h i n e a d d r e s s Spare) Spare) 4ngular e r r o r 'itch angle

xxxxx
xxxxx.
25

OOXXX h o u r s OOOXX. m i n u t e s OXX XX s e c o n d s

03
04

3 h e c k l i s t ( U s e d only with i e r b 50. " P l e a s e p e r f o r m " ) : h e c k l i s t code n u m b e r s ( A p p e a r nREGISTER 1 )
00001 SCS m o d e t o G & N attitude control

xxxxx

05
06

KXX. XX d e g r e e s YXX. XX d e g r e e s

.leads u p - d o w n
07

tOOOOl
00002 S C S m o d e to G & N Delta V

Zhange of p r o g r a m o r m a j o r n o d e ( U s e d only with v e r b 50, ' P l e a s e p e r f o r m '. ) Spare) I n g i n e o n e n a b l e ( U s e d only with . e r b 50, ' P l e a s e p e r f o r m " . ) )elta V allowable
Iz

00003 S C S m o d e to C & N e n t r

10

00004 SCS m o d e t o m o n i t o r
00007 Manual attitude maneuver

11

12

CXXXX. f t / s e c [XXXX. f t l s e c

0001 I

Automatic o p t i c s positioning

Ielta V tailoff

00012 T a r g e t d a t a e n t r y

13

)elta V m e a s u r e d (Vector iagnitude. ) )elta V counter setting. n c r e m e n t a d d r e s s ( U s e d only uring ground checkout. ) .GC c l o c k t i m e REGISTER 1 REGISTER 2 REGISTER 3 Spare)

CXXXX. f t l s e c

0001 3 S w i t c h OSS to c o m p u t e i control
CXXXX. f t l s e c

I4
15

00014 F i n e a l i g n c h e c k
) c t a l only

00015 P e r f o r m s t a r acqul s ition
OXXX. h o u r s OOXX. m i n u t e s XX. XX s e c o n d s

16

00031 E n g i n e o n 00035 P r e p a r e AGC f o r thrusting

17

00036 T h r u s t t e r m i n a t e
20 JDUs. X-REGISTER 1 Y-REGISTER 2 2-REGISTER 3 'IP4 counters X-REGISTER I Y-REGISTER 2 Z-REGISTER 3 :XX. XX d e g r e e s :XX. XX d e g r e e s :XX. XX d e g r e e s 00041 C / M - S / M separation

26

r i o / d e l a y ( U s e d only d u r i n g round c h e c k o u t . )

xxxx.
xxxx.
xxxx.

21

XXXX. p u l s e s XXXX. p u l s e s XXXX. p u l s e s

27
30

:If t e s t O N - O F F s w l t c h
a r number

F i g u r e 2 . 2-6.

Noun L i s t (Sheet 1 of 3)

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

N o v 1966 Change Date

Page

2.2-33

SMZA-03-SCOIZ
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

---

No UI:
Code
31

SYSTEMS DATA

Noun Code 43

-

~~

Deac ription
~ _ _ _ _ _ ~

S c a l e 1Unit I

Description P e r i g e e altitude REGISTER I

Scale /Units

F a i l u r e regiater code

lloTl
E r r o r c o d e s a r e defined in paragraph 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 . 3 . Self-teat diagnosis REGISTER 2 Self-test diagnosis REGISTER 3 O c t a l only

XXXX. X nautical
miles

Apogee a l t i t u d e REGISTER 2

XXXX. X n a u t i c a l
miles

O c t a l only

Free-fall time REGISTER 3 44 Latitude REGISTER 1 Longitude REGISTER 2 Altitude (Above m e a n e q u a t o r i a l radius.) REGISTER 3

XXBXX. minutes
I e conds

O c t a l only

32

D e c i s i o n t i m e ( U s e d only d u r i n g ground checkout. ) Ephemeris time (Used onlydurin ground checkout. ) Event time REGISTER 1 REGISTER 2 REGISTER 3 Delta e v e n t t i m e : REGISTER I REGISTER 2 REGISTER 3 Delta event t i m e (Display only. )

X X X .X X d e g r e e s X X X .XX d e g r e e s

33

34

X X X X .X n a u t i c a l
miles

OOXXX. h o u r s OOOXX. m i n u t e s OXX. XX s e c o n d s

45

Perigee altitude REGISTER 1 Apogee a l t i t u d e REGISTER 2 Delta v e l o c i t y r e q u i r e d REGISTER 3

XXXX. X d e g r e e s

35

OOXXX. h o u r s OOOXX. m i n u t e s OXX. X X s e c o n d s XXBXX. minutes,
seconds 46

XXXX. X d e g r e e s

36

XXXXX. ftisec

-. .

37

(Spare) G a m m a ( I n e r t i a l flight path angle. ) REGISTER 1 I n e r t i a l velocity REGISTER 2 A l t i t u d e a b o v e l a u n c h pad REGISTER 3

r i m e to event REGISTER 1

XXBXX. minutes.
seconds

40

XXX. X X d e g r e e s

Velocity t o be gained REGISTER 2 Perigee altitude REGISTER 3

XXXXX. f t l s e c X X X X .X n a u t i c a l
miles

X X X X .X
miles

nautical

41

F l i g h t path a n g l e REGISTER 1
Miss

X X X .XX d e g r e e s X X X X .X n a u t i c a l
miles

41

Maximum acceleration REGISTER I P e r i g e e altitude REGISTER 2

X X X X .x g ' s

distance

REGISTER 2

X X X X .X nautical
miles

50

r i m e to event REGISTER 1

XXBXX. mLnutes.
seconds

Free-fall time REGISTER 3

XXBXX. minutes,
seconds

Delta t i m e of b u r n REGISTER 2

XXBXX. m i n u t e s .
seconds

42

Miss distance REGISTER 1

XXXX. X n a u t i c a l
miles

51

r i m e to e v e n t REGISTER 1

XXBXX. m i n u t e s .
seconds

P e r i g e e altitude REGISTER 2

XXXX. X n a u t i c a l
miles

Velocity t o be gained

REGISTER 2
L l e a s u r e d velocit.: s p a c e c r a l t X -ax1 5 REGISTER 3
I

XXXXX. ft!sec
hange a l o n g

Free-fall time REGISTER 3

XXBXX. minutes.
seconds

XXXXX. ltisec

Figure 2. 2-6.

Noun L i s t (Sheet 2 of 3)

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION S Y S T E X I

Mission

B a s i c Date

l2

1966 Change Date

Page

2.2-34

SlM2A - 0 3 - SC 0 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTE,MS D A T A

Noui 63

Noun Code 52

Description

Scale /Units

Codc -

Description Latitude REGISTER I Longitude12 REGISTER 2

rime to e v e n t REGlSTER I

XXBXX. m i n u t e s seconds

XX. XXX d e g r e e s

i e l o c i t y t o b e gained REGISTER 2 'ree-fall time . REGISTER 3

XXXXX. f t l s e c Altitude REGISTER 3

XX. XXX d e g r e e s

XXBXX. m i n u t e s seconds 64

XXX. XX n a u t i c a l miles

.laximum acceleration REGISTER 1 Tree-fall t i m e REGISTER 2 :ommanded r o l l angle REGISTER 1 're3ent acceleration REGISTER 2

(Spare) Sampled time interrupt. ) REGISTER REGISTER REGISTER (Fetched in
1

xxxx. x

g's

65

XXBXX. m i n u t e s seconds XXX. XX d e g r e e s

2 3

OOXXX. h o u r s OOOXX. m i n u t e s OXX. XX s e c o n d s

66

Svstem t e s t r e s u l t s (Used only d u r i n g ground checkout. ) Delta g y r o angles: ( U s e d only during ground checkout. )

XXXX. x g ' s

67

Note
Noun c o d e s 55 t h r o u g h 7 7 d e n o t e m i x e d nouns
55 )CDEs: X (Shaft a n g l e s ) REGISTER 1

K -1RIG
REGISTER 1 XX. XXX d e g r e e s

Y -1RIG
XXX. XX d e g r e e s XX. XXX d e g r e e s REGISTER 2 2-IRIG REGISTER 3 XX. XXX d e g r e e s

Y (Trunnion angles) REGISTER 2
5Q 'ncalled m a r k data: S (Shaft a n g l e s ) REGISTER 1

XX. XXX d e g r e e s

70
XXX. XX d e g r e e s

Pitch trim REGISTER 1 Yaw t r i m REGISTER 2

XXX. XX d e g r e e s

Y (Trunnion angles) REGISTER 2
57
:em, angles - 0 C D U s :

XX. XXX d e g r e e s 3elta velocity tailoff REGISTER 3 XXX. XX d e g r e e s XX. XXX d e g r e e s Octal only 71 72 73 Spare) l e l t a position ( U s e d only d u r i n g ground c h e c k o u t . ) l e l t a velocity ( U s e d only d u r i n g ground c h e c k o u t . ) Spare) 3elta position magnitude REGISTER 1

XXX. XX d e g r e e s

X (Shait a n g l e s ) REGISTER 1

XXXXX. f t i s e c

Y (Trunnion angles)
REGISTER 2
00

\IC m o d e s t a t u s (L'sed o n l y uring ground checkout. i
a r g e t : lCsed onlv d u r i n g round checkout. zimuth REGISTER 1
,

01

74

75
XXX. XX d e g r e e s XX. XXX d e g r e e s

XXXX. X n a u t i c a l mile 5

"t'on

. - -'ER

7

l e l t a velocity magnitude REGISTER 2 d e a s u r e m e n t angle deviation REGISTER 3 76 <-position ( U s e d only d u r i n g :round checkout. ) ?-velocity ( U s e d only d u r i n g :round checkout.)

e l t a v e l o r tv i n s e r t i o n REC!Jl'ER 1 115s ? , s t a - c e REG:n

XXXXX. f t i s e c

XXXXX. f t / s e c

XXX. XX d e g r e e 5

z

XXXX. X n a u t i c a l miles

r e e -iall time REGISTER 3

77 XXBXX. m i n u t e s . seconds

Figure 2 . 2 - 6 .

Noun L i s t (Sheet 3 of 3 )

GUIDASCE A X D NAVIGATION S Y S T E M
hlission

B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966 Change D a t e

Page

2.2-35

SMZA-03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

T h e f l a s h i s t u r n e d off by any of t h e following e v e n t s : F i n a l e n t r y of a load s e q u e n c e E n t r y of v e r b “ p r o c e e d without d a t a ” ( 3 3 ) E n t r y of v e r b “ t e r m i n a t e ” ( 3 4 ) .

0 0

It i s i m p o r t a n t t o conclude e v e r y load v e r b by one of the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d t h r e e , e s p e c i a l l y i f the load w a s i n i t i a t e d by p r o g r a m a c t i o n within t h e c o m p u t e r . If a n i n t e r n a l l y i n i t i a t e d l o a d i s not concluded validly, the p r o g r a m t h a t i n i t i a t e d it m a y n e v e r b e r e c a l l e d . The “ p r o c e e d without d a t a ” v e r b is u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the o p e r a t o r i s unable t o , o r d o e s not w i s h t o , supply the d a t a r e q u e s t e d , but w a n t s the initiating p r o g r a m t o continue a s b e s t it c a n with old d a t a . The “ t e r m i n a t e ” v e r b i s u s e d t o indicate t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r c h o o s e s not to load the r e q u e s t e d d a t a a n d a l s o w a n t s t o t e r m i n a t e the requesting routine. 2.2. 3 . 3 . 3 E r r o r Codes. E r r o r c o d e n u m b e r s a p p e a r i n REGISTER 1 with noun 31.

OSS E r r o r s
00101 00102 001 03 00104 00105 001 06 00107 00110 00120 O p t i c s mode c o n t r o l s w i t c h e d f r o m ZERO OPTICS b e f o r e end of 30 s e c o n d s . AGC unable t o a c h i e v e d e s i r e d o p t i c s m o d e . F u n c t i o n not valid f o r SC 012. No v a c a n t a r e a a v a i l a b l e f o r m a r k s . I n t e r n a l m a r k r e q u e s t while m a r k s y s t e m i s b u s y . F u n c t i o n not v a l i d f o r SC 012. M a r k r e j e c t while m a r k s y s t e m is not i n u s e . M a r k r e j e c t with a l l r e q u e s t e d m a r k s a c c e p t e d o r no m a r k s s i n c e initiating last m a r k reject. Too many m a r k s .

LSS E r r o r s
00201 00202 00203 00204 Z e r o encode e n d e d b e f o r e end of 30 s e c o n d wait. A C C unable t o a c h i e v e d e s i r e d ISS mode. No ISS m o d e i n d i c a t e d t o AGC. ISS m o d e changed while TRANSFER s w i t c h i s i n COMPUTER position, but AGC d i d not c o m m a n d mode change. P r o c e d u r a l Difficulties
00401

00402 00403 00404 00405

D e s i r e d g i m b a l a n g l e s w i l l p r o d u c e g i m b a l lock. g r e a t e r than 6 0 ” . ) S t a r out of f i e l d of view. S a m e a s 00402. IMU o r i e n t a t i o n unknown. SCS m o d e m o n i t o r ’ f a i l u r e .
~

(Middle g i m b a l a n g l e

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page

2 . 2-36

SMZA-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

00406 00407 00410

Navigation p r o g r a m busy. Navigation p r o g r a m needed i n t e r n a l l y AGC update not a l l o w e d . AGC H a r d w a r e Malfunctions

01101 01102 01103 01104 01105 01106

Unused i n t e r r u p t ( R U P T 2 ) o c c u r r e d AGC s e l f - t e s t e r r o r . Unused count, c o m p a r e , a n d s k i p ( C C S ) b r a n c h e x e c u t e d . C - r e l a y failed during C-relay test. Star search failure, IMU o r i e n t a t i o n no good f o r e n t r y . L i s t Overflo\vs

01201 01202 01203 01204 01205 01206 01207 01210

E x e c u t i v e overflow-no v a c a n t a r e a s . : E x e c u t i v e overfloLv-no c o r e s e t s . :: Waitlist o v e r f l o w - t o o m a n y t a s k s . : k S a m e a s 01203. :: M a s t e r c o n t r o l overflow-too many j o b s waiting. :: DSKY waiting line overflo\v. + N o v a c a n t a r e a f o r marks.::: : Something a l r e a d y waiting i n IMU s t a l l . :: Interpreter E r r o r s

01301 01302

A r c c o s - a r c s i n input a n g l e too l a r g e . :: S q u a r e r o o t c a l l e d f o r with a negative a r g u m e n t . :: Display A l a r m s

01401 01402

VG i n c r e a s i n g - l o s s of c o n t r o l . Delta V too low-engine not on. DSKY P r o g r a m E r r o r s

01501

: Check f a i l a l a r m d u r i n g i n t e r n a l u s e . ::

:::These a l a r m s a r e " a b o r t s " and define a l a r m s Lvhich i n i t i a t e a r e s t a r t of the -1GC p r o g r a m xvhich \ v a s i n p r o g r e s s when the a l a r m a p p e a r e d .

-GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2. 2-37

SM2A -0 3 -SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA 2.2.3. 3.4 AGC P r o g r a m s . T h e following l i s t of AGC p r o g r a m s d e f i n e s the p r o g r a m s and r o u t i n e s a p p l i c a b l e to SC-012. The AGC p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e the m a j o r m o d e s of G & N s y s t e m o p e r a t i o n . T h e r o u t i n e s c o n s i s t of a s p e c i f i c s e q u e n c e of o p e r a t i o n s which a r e p e r f o r m e d by m o r e t h a n o n e p r o g r a m a n d / o r o t h e r routine. Program Number
00

Title AGC Idling P r e l a u n c h In it iali za t i o n Gyro Compassing Optical Azimuth Verification Inertial Reference G&N Startup

Contains Routines

01 02 03

04
05

06
07
11

G & N P o w e r Down
S y s t e m s T e s t ( L i m i t e d in-flight u s e . )

P re - L E T Jettison
. P o s t - L E T Jettison L E T Abort Landmark Tracking S t a r / L a n d m a r k Navigation M e a s u r e m e n t Ground T r a c k Determination AGC Update O r b i t Change ( P r e t h r u s t ) R e t u r n to E a r t h ( P r e t h r u s t ) SPS Minimum Impulse ( P r e t h r u s t )
R 24, R 34

12

17

22
23 21 27 31
32

R 27, R 2 8

R 1, R 21, R 35
R 1 , R 21, R 36
I3 1, R 2 1 , R 31, R 33

33

41

O r b i t Change

R 2 , R 22, R 24, R 31, R 34, R 37

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l2

I9b6

Change Date

page

2-2-38

S.M2/\

- 0 3- sc 0 1 2

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Program Number
~____
~ ~

Title R e t u r n t o Earth

Con ta ins Routines R 2, R 22, R 24, R 31, R 34, R 37 R 2 , R 31, R 34, R 37 R 27, R 29 R 4, R 25, R 27, R 28, R 29, R 30 R 1 , R 4, R 21, R 25, R 27, R 28, R 29, R 30 R 27, R 2 9 , R 30 R 1, R 2 1 R 3, R 21

42

13

SPS M i n i m u m I m p u l s e

51
52

IMU O r i e n t a t i o n D e t e r m i n a t i o n S-IVB/IMU Align

53

CSM/IMU Align

54
61 62

I M U R ea1ignment
Maneuver To CM/SM S e p a r a t i o n Attltude CM/SiM S e p a r a t i o n And P r e - E n t r y iManeuver Initialization P o s t 0.05G Final Phase F i r s t Abort Burn

63
64

67 71
___

R 2-1 Contains Routines R 22 R 1 , R 2 1 , R 22 R 22 R 2 5 , R 27, R 28, R 2 9 , R 30

Routine Number 1

Title Attitude C o n t r o l Mode Check T h r u s t C o n t r o l Mode Check E n t r y C o n t r o l Mode Check F i n e Alignment

2
3

+ I
22
~~

Attitude M a n e u v e r SCS D i s c r e t e Monitor

~

GUIDANCE AiUD NAVIGATIOS SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date

.
Page

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SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Routine Number 25 C o a r s e Alignment Sighting M a r k Auto O p t i c s P o s i t i o n i n g S t a r Data T e s t Gyro Torquing Backup Delta V C o u n t e r P r e t h r u s t SPS Minimum I m p u l s e Data Load O r b i t P a r a m e t e r Display P r e t h r u s t O r b i t Change Data Load P r e t h r u s t R e t u r n to E a r t h Data Load S P S Engine Ignition R 38 Contains Routines

Title

27

28.
29

30
31 33

34

35
36 37

38
2.2.1

SPS Engine T h r u s t F a i l

PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA.

2.2.5

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS.

2 . 2 . 5.1

S /C Attitude.
T h e S / C should not be m a n e u v e r e d t o a n a t t i t u d e which will a l i g n the i n n e r c i r c l e of e i t h e r r e d a r e a o n the FDA1 b a l l u n d e r t h e navigation a x i s m a r k e r . F a i l u r e t o a v o i d t h i s condition c a n r e s u l t i n IMU g i m b a l l o c k . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e following m a n e u v e r s should b e avoided:

Yaw m a n e u v e r g r e a t e r t h a n k75 d e g r e e s when r o l l angle i s
0 d e g r e e o r 180 d e g r e e s .

P i t c h m a n e u v e r g r e a t e r t h a n t42 d e g r e e s o r -108 d e g r e e s when roll angle i s * 9 0 degrees.

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov l 9 6 6 Change Date Page 2.2-40

.

S M Z A -03-SCO12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2 . 2 . 5. 2 IMU O p e r a t i o n .
'

The AGC m u s t be O N b e f o r e t h e IMU i s placed i n o p e r a t i o n b l r engaging t h e IMU c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s . The AGC m u s t be ON o r i n STANDBY b e f o r e the IMU i s placed i n standby m o d e . Allow 15 s e c o n d s f o r the s t a b i l i z a t i o n loops to c o m p l e t e l y s t a b i l i z e t h e p l a t f o r m a f t e r applying o p e r a t i n g p o w e r , i. e . , a f t e r engaging the IMU c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s . The IMU m u s t be i n full o p e r a t i o n f o r a t l e a s t 1 h o u r b e f o r e valid o p e r a t i o n of the i n e r t i a l c o m p o n e n t s c a n be a s s u m e d . The i n e r t i a l c o m p o n e n t s will s u f f e r a l o s s of c a l i b r a t i o n if the t e m p e r a t u r e f a l l s below 1 2 0 ° F o r e x c e e d s 1 4 0 ° F . Damage will o c c u r if the t e m p e r a t u r e f a l l s below 4 0 ° F o r e x c e e d s 1 6 0 ° F . Do not o p e r a t e the IMU s u c h t h a t the m i d d l e g i m b a l a n g l e r e a c h e s o r e x c e e d s 70 d e g r e e s .

2.2. 5 . 3

Optics Operation.
Do not s l e w the SXT o r S C T into t h e m e c h a n i c a l s t o p s ,

Do not d r i v e t h e 2X TRUNNION CDU i n e x c e s s of 180 d e g r e e s a s r e a d on t h e CDU d i s p l a y d i a l s . I n s u r e t h a t t h i s display d i a l i n d i c a t e s l e s s t h a n 180 d e g r e e s b e f o r e engaging the ZERO OPTICS mode of o p e r a t i o n .
2.2.6

T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS. T h e following i s a c o m p l e t e l i s t of all G&N s y s t e m t e l e m e t r y d a t a t h a t i s m o n i t o r e d by flight c o n t r o l l e r s a n d ground s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l . The l a s t column c o n t a i n s t h e n a m e and type of S I C c r e w d i s p l a y . The d i s p l a y u t i l i z e s t h e s a m e pickoff o r s i g n a l s o u r c e a s t e l e m e t r y , u n l e s s a s e p a r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r i s included in the d i s p l a y c o l u m n . An a s t e r i s k (:::) by t h e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r d e n o t e s i n f o r m a t i o n n h i c h i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o r d i n g o r t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n d u r i n g PCiLI lo\\ bit r a t e operation.
No m i na 1 Operating Range

hleasurement Number

Descrlption

Sensor Range

C r e w Display Sone

CG 0 0 0 1 i7 C o m p u t e r d i g i t a l d a t a 40 bits
C G 1101 V

t4/t132 vdc

- 2 8 VDC supply

- 3 0 1 0 vdc

-28 vdc

No ne

SiM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
---

SYSTEMS DATA Measurement Number
CG 1110

Description 2. 5 VDC TM b i a s IMU +28 v d c o p e r a t e IMU +28 v d c s t a n d b y AGC +28 v d c Optics +28 vdc IGA t o r q u e m o t o r input IGA 1X r e s output s i n e in p h a s e

Sensor Range TBD Event Event Event Event TBD

Nominal Operating Range - 2 8 vdc None None No ne None None None

C r e w Display

v

C G 1503 X

CG 1513 X CG 1523 X
CG 1533 X

CG 2110

v
v

cCG 2112

TBD

None

W G 2113 V

IGA 1X r e s output c o s i n phase
IGA s e r v o e r r o r i n phase MGA t o r q u e m o t o r input MGA 1X r e s output sine in phase MGA 1X r e s output c o s in p h a s e MGA s e r v o e r r o r in phase OGA t o r q u e m o t o r input OCA 1X r e s output s i n e in p h a s e OGA 1X r e s output COS in phase OCA s e r v o e r r o r i n phase

TBD

None

W G 2117 V

010.5 v r ms

None

_-

CG 2140 V

TBD

None

*CG 2142

v

TBD

None

C G 2143 V

TBD

None

;:CG 2147 V

010.5 v r m s

None

CG 2170 V

TBD

None

+CG 2172

v

TBD

None

‘XCG 2173 V

TBD

None

X G 2177 V

O/O. 5 vrms

None

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 NOv l 9 6 6 Change Date Page 2.2-42

SlMZA - 0 3 - SC 0 1 2

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Measurement Number X G 2206 V Sensor Range 010.2 v r m s Nominal Ope r a t i n g Range None

Description IGA CDU 1X r e s e r r o r i n phase MGA CDU 1X r e s e r r o r i n phase OCA CDU 1X r e s e r r o r i n phase PIPA temp

C G 2236 V

O j O . 2 vrms

None

X G 2266 V

OjO.2 v r m s

None

CG 2300 T

TBD

t126.0°F/ t134. 0 ° F t129.5"F/ t 1 3 7 . 5 "F Ojt2 amps O/t1 amp

None

CG 2301 T

IRIG t e m p

TBD

None

CG 2302 C
C G 2303 C

IMU h e a t e r c u r r e n t IMU blower c u r r e n t SXT t r u n m o t o r d r i v e i n phase SXT s h a f t m o t o r drive in phase SCT tryn motor drive T r u n CDU 16X r e s e r r o r in p h a s e T r u n CDU m o t o r drive i n phase CDU m o t o r d r i v e RMS AGC t e m p m o n i t o r PIPA fail

Olt5 amps O/t5 a m p s TBD

None None None

:::CG 3102 V

+CG 3112 V

T BD

None

:::CG 3133 V

TBD

None

W G 3141 V

TBD

None

:::CG3200 V

T BD

None

X G 3220 V

TBD

None

K G 4300 T
CG 5000 X

TBD Event

None A C C E L F A I L , GSrN ACCEL FAIL C & W lights ( 2 ) . IMU FAIL C6-W lights 2).

CG 5001 X

IMU f a i l

Event

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 xov 1966 Change D a t e Page 2.2-43

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~

Measurement Number CG 5002 X

Description CDU f a i l

Sensor Range Event

Nomina 1 Ope r a t i n g Range

C r e w Display CDU F A I L C&W l i g h t s (2) GIMBAL LOCK, GMBL LOCK C & W l i g h t s (2). PGNS, G & N ERROR C&W lights (2). IMU T E M P C & W l i g h t s (2). Z E R O ENCODER, Z E R O E N C . C&W lights (2). IMU DELAY. light. C&W

CG 5003 X

G i m b a l . lock w a r n i n g

Event

CG 5005 X

E r r o r detect

Event

CG 5006 X

IMU t e m p light

Event

CG 5007 X

Z e r o e n c o d e light

Event

C G 5008 X

IMU d e l a y light

Event

CG 5020 X

AGC a l a r m 1 (Program) AGC alarm 2 (AGC a c t i v i t y ) AGC a l a r m . 3 ( T M )

Event

PROG ALM, C O M P F A I L (DSKY lights). C O M P DSKY l i g h t s ( 2 ) .

. -

C B 5021 X

Event

CG 5022 X

Event

TM FAIL, COMP F A I L . (DSKY lights). CHECK F A I L , C O M P FAIL. (DSKY lights). SCALER F A I L , C O M P FAIL. (DSKY l i g h t s ) . PARITY F A I L , C O M P FAIL. (DSKY lights). COUNTER F A I L , S O M P F A I L . (DSKY ights).

CG 5023 X

AGC a l a r m 4 ( p r o g ck fail) AGC a l a r m 5 ( s c a l e r fail) AGC a l a r m 6 (parity fail) AGC a l a r m 7 [counter fail)

Event

CG 5024 X

Event

CG 5 0 2 5 X

Event

CG 5026 X

Event

C G 5027 X

AGC a l a r m 8 (key release) 4GC a l a r m 9 ( r u p t .ock)

Event

K E Y R L S E (DSKY i g h t s ) (2).
3 U P T LOCK, C O M P FAIL. (DSKY l i g h t s ) .

CG 5028 X

Event

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date

l2

1966

Change Date

Page

2-2-34

.

SiM2A - 0 3 - SC 0 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA Measurement Number CG 5029 X Sensor Range Event Nominal Operating Range

Description AGC a l a r m 10 ( T C trap) Computer power fail light IMU p r e s s u r e PSA t e m p 1 t r a y 3 PSA t e m p 2 t r a y 2 PSA t e m p 3 t r a y 4

C r e w Display TC TRAP, COMP FAIL. (DSKY l i g h t s ) . AGC PWR F A I L (DSKY l i g h t s ) (2). None None None None

CG 5030 X

Event

::CG 6000 P +CG 6020 T 2::CG 6021 T :::CG 6022 T 2.2.7

TBD TBD TBD TBD

G & N POWER CONSUMPTION. The o p t i c s a r e only p o w e r e d u p when a s t a r o r l a n d m a r k sighting i s r e q u i r e d . The s u b s y s t e m s p o w e r l e v e l s a r e a s follows: Description IMU- o p e r a t e standby
B

Control C B 59 and58 CB 61 and 60 C B 57 a n d 56 AGC Mode Switch CB 55 and 54

Power Reqmt's 325. 0 w a t t s ( d c ) 61-7 watts (dc) 115. 0 w a t t s ( d c ) 15. 0 w a t t s ( d c ) 124. 4 w a t t s ( d c ) 14.4 watts (dc)

AGC-operate standby
s

Optics -operate

Controls and displays AGC only AGC and IMU F u l l G & N operation

CB 9 3 a n d 62 and Switch No. 7 10. 0 w a t t s ( d c ) 1 0 - 7 watts (dc) 18-7 watts (dc) 7 - 0 watts (dc)

M i n i m u m p o w e r consumption i s 7 6 . 7 w a t t s ( d c ) when AGC and IMU a r e in t h e standby m o d e .

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 N o v 1966 Change Date Page 2.2-45

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
._--

SYSTEMS DATA

2.2.8

INTER F A C E SIGNALS.

Signal Name

Source

Description

Engine on-off

P r o v i d e s p u l s e t r a i n t h a t l a s t s a s long a s t h e engine AGC (Apollo i s r e q u i r e d t o f i r e . T h e t i m e a t which t h e s i g n a l t e r m i n a t e s t a k e s into a c c o u n t e l e c t r o n i c d e l a y s guidance c o m p u t e r ] within t h e SCS a n d tail-off c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the engines. AGC P r o v i d e s continuous p u l s e t r a i n to the SCS to be s w i t c h e d back to the AGC. P r o v i d e s power t o a n a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s w i t c h on the G & N system.

Discrete signal carrier
G & N s y s t e m attitude c o n t r o l ( o r SCS attitude control)

SCS’

Minimum impulse enable

G&N system

Disables a l l t h r e e attitude channels simultaneously a n d s u p p l i e s v o l t a g e s to a n a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s w i t c h on t h e G & N s y s t e m . P r o v i d e s s i x s i g n a l s to the G & N s y s t e m f o r hand controller operation.

Minimum impulse t a n d - p i t c h , yaw, and roll Minimum impulse pitch, yaw, and roll

scs

G&N system

P r o v i d e s t h e c a p a b i l i t y to i n i t i a t e s p a c e c r a f t attitude c h a n g e s i n the G & N s y s t e m a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l mode o r t h e SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l mode. T h e s e c h a n g e s will be i n i t i a t e d by d i s c r e t e m i n i m u m i m p u l s e s . P r o v i d e s pitch a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to t h e SCS.

P i t c h e r r o r body o f f s e t a n d body a x i s Yaw e r r o r body o f f s e t axis Yaw e r r o r body a x i s

G&N system G&N system G&N system G&N system G&N system

P r o v i d e s yaw a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to the SCS d u r i n g G & N s y s t e m e n t r y mode. P r o v i d e s yaw a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to the SCS d u r i n g n,ormal G&N s y s t e m operating modes. P r o v i d e s r o l l a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to the SCS d u r i n g
G&N s y s t e m entry mode.

Roll e r r o r body o f f s e t axis Roll e r r o r body axis

P r o v i d e s r o l l a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to the SCS d u r l n g normal G&N s y s t e m operating modes.

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.2-46

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Signal Name IMU 28V 8 0 0 c p s (demodulator r e f e r e n c e ) IMU IMU IMU IMU IMU IMU s i n AIG l X , c o s AIG l X , s i n AMG l X , C O S AMG l X , s i n AOG l X , and c o s AOG 1X

Source

De s c r i p t i o n P r o v i d e s a n 800 c p s , s y n c h r o n o u s , i n - p h a s e voltage f r o m the G & N s y s t e m .

G&N

I

P r o v i d e s total attitude s i g n a l s to the SCS.

Ele c t r i c 1 P o w e r S y s t e m ( E P S ) and G & N S y s t e m Interface t 2 8 vdc AGC bus A and bus B t 2 8 vdc optics bus A and bus B t 2 8 vdc IMU bus A and bus B t 2 8 vdc standby bus A a n d bus B
1 1 5v 400 c p s E PS

P r o v i d e s power to the AGC.

I

P r o v i d e s power to the o p t i c s s u b s y s t e m .
EPS

E PS

P r o v i d e s power t o the IMU.

E PS

P r o v i d e s IMU t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l power.

I EPS
AGC

II

P r o v i d e s power f o r a l l G&N s y s t e m 6-volt l a m p s

Communication and I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n S y s t e m and G&N System I n t e r f a c e DLNK sync Synchronizes data t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m the AGC t o the communications and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m . P e r m i t s two AGC w o r d s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m the AGC to the communications and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m . Stops the A G C and the t r a n s m i s s i o n of data f r o m the AGC to the communications and instrumentation system. P r o v i d e s pulse signal that o c c u r s a t the beginning of e v e r y data t r a n s m i s s i o n to the communications and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m . S e t s flip-flop i n XGC that e n a b l e s 5 - s t a g e downlink c o u n t e r . I n i t i a t e s by DLNK s t a r t , stopped by DLNK end, and c o n s i s t s of a 40 bit t e l e m e t r y word (two AGC w o r d s and a n 8 bit t e l e m e t r y w o r d o r d e r code). T r a n s m i t t e d to the uplink counter in the A G C . Adds one to uplink counter and shifts the counter one i n c r e m e n t .

DLNK end

AGC

DLNK s t a r t

AGC

D L N K data

AGC

ULNK 1

-4GC

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
1 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

page

2.2-47

SMZA-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
~~

Signal N a m e ULNK 0

Source AGC

Description T r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e uplink c o u n t e r i n t h e AGC. Shifts uplink c o u n t e r o n e i n c r e m e n t .

~

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l2

I966 Change D a t e

page 2.2-48

SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
\

SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2 SUBSECTION 2 . 3 STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) 2.3.1 INTRODUCTION. The s t a b i l i z a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l s y s t e m (SCS) p r o v i d e s a capability f o r controlling rotation, t r a n s l a t i o n , a n d t h r u s t v e c t o r f o r c e s with additional capability of r a t e stabilization. The SCS is divided into t h r e e b a s i c s u b s y s t e m s : attitude r e f e r e n c e , attitude c o n t r o l , a n d t h r u s t v e c t o r control. T h e s e s u b s y s t e m s contain the e l e m e n t s which provide f o r manu'al attitude control, a u t o m a t i c attitude c o n t r o l , and t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l , plus m a n u a l backup p r o v i s i o n s f o r a l l a u t o m a t i c functions. The s u b s y s t e m / c o n t r o l capability allows the f r e e selection of s e v e r a l m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n which f a l l within the boundaries of t h r e e e n t i r e l y different flight c o n t r o l p r o f i l e s . T h e s e include coasting flight ( e a r t h o r b i t a l e n v i r o n m e n t ) , p o w e r e d flight ( a t m o s p h e r i c - a s c e n t , a n d e a r t h o r b i t a l e n v i r o n m e n t ) , a n d a t m o s p h e r i c flight ( e n t r y - unpowered). S p a c e c r a f t d i s p l a y s p r o v i d e a capability f o r monitoring S I C attitude, S I C r a t e s , attitude e r r o r s , cautions, a n d w a r n i n g s . C o n t r o l s provide s w i t c h a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r commanding m o d e s , commanding inputs to change o p e r a t i n g s t a t u s a n d to p e r m i t m a n u a l o v e r r i d e t o all a u t o m a t i c functions. The SCS i n t e r f a c e s with t h e following S / C s y s t e m s (See figure 2. 3 - 1 ) . Telecommunications System ( T / C ) P r o v i d e s c l o c k r e f e r e n c e f r e q u e n c y f o r m e a s u r e m e n t of changes in S / C velocity R e c e i v e s all down-link t e l e m e t r y f r o m SCS P r o v i d e s up-data position i n f o r m a t i o n via AGC o r voice
0

E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r S y s t e m (EPS) P r o v i d e s p r i m a r y power f o r SCS o p e r a t i o n E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l S y s t e m (ECS) T r a n s f e r s h e a t f r o m SCS e l e c t r o n i c s

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
l2

196t

Change Date

Page

2.3-1

SMZA -03 - S C O 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-SYSTEMS DATA

T/C
I

4

TELEMETRY MEASUREMENTS

t

ATTITUDE ERRORS

.

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION
SYSTEM

S P S ON-OFF

SPS THRUST O N - ~ F F

SPS GlMML COMMANDS TOTAL ATTITUDE

I I

sps

DISPLAY CONSOLE

DISPLAY AND ‘SWITCH COMMANDS

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

O

n
RCS AUTO ON-OFF PRIMARY SM-2A-676D

n

CONTROL COMMANDS

I

DIRECT RCS ROTATION COMMANDS

F i g u r e 2 . 3-1.

SCS F u n c t i o n a l Interface

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date

l2

1966 Change Date

Page

2.3-7

SM2A - 0 3 -SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Sequential Events C o n t r o l S y s t e m (SECS) P r o v i d e s a b o r t switching function By switch c o n t r o l in SCS, i n i t i a t e s a b o r t a n d e n a b l e s c o n t r o l functions in SCS
0

0

Guidance a n d Navigation S y s t e m (G&N) P r o v i d e s roll, pitch, a n d yaw t o t a l attitude inputs t o SCS P r o v i d e s attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s P r o v i d e s t h r u s t on/off c o m m a n d f o r SPS engine P r o v i d e s s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s t o TVC during G & N AV

0

P r o p u l s i o n S y s t e m s (SPS, RCS). The s e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m g e n e r a t e s i n t e r n a l f o r c e s f o r l a r g e velocity changes The r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m g e n e r a t e s the i n t e r n a l f o r c e s r e q u i r e d f o r rotation, a n d t r a n s l a t i o n .

A detailed d e s c r i p t i o n a n d function of the SCS c o n t r o l s a n d d i s p l a y s r e f e r r e d t o is provided in s e c t i o n 3 .

2.3.2

F U NC TJONAL DESCRIPTION.
T h e functional d e s c r i p t i o n of the SCS c o v e r s the m a j o r a r e a s of c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t i e s , Apollo r e f e r e n c e a x e s , a n d s u b s y s t e m d e s c r i p t i o n .

2.3.2. 1

C o n t r o l Capabilities. C o n t r o l capability e x i s t s f o r the m a n u a l attitude c o n t r o l , a u t o m a t i c attitude c o n t r o l , and t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l functions. The following p a r a g r a p h s provide a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of e a c h c o n t r o l function.

2. 3. 2. 1. 1

Manual Attitude Control. Manually commanded inputs c o n v e r t e d t o e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l s , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , c a u s e the propulsion s y s t e m s to m a n e u v e r the s p a c e c r a f t t o a d e s i r e d attitude a n d / o r change the flight path ( t r a j e c t o r y ) of the s p a c e c r a f t . Manual c o n t r o l s include two independent rotation c o n t r o l l e r s ( f i g u r e 2.3-8), two t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r s ( f i g u r e 2. 3 - 8 ) , a n d a n a r r a n g e m e n t of panel-mounted c o n t r o l s a n d d i s p l a y s .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l2

1966

Change Date

Page

.

7. 3-3

SMZA-03-SC012 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2. 3. 2. 3 Subsystems. The a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e , a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , and t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m s a r e d e s c r i b e d in t h e following p a r a g r a p h s . The d e s c r i p t i o n c o v e r s t h e p u r p o s e and functions of e a c h s u b s y s t e m , and the i n t e g r a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n with o t h e r s y s t e m s . F i g u r e s 2 . 3 - 3 and 2 . 3 - 4 , provide s i m p l i f i e d block, a n d flow d i a g r a m s of the t h r e e s u b s y s t e m s and f i g u r e 2. 3-5 s h o w s the switching logic a n d functions which a f f e c t the t h r e e s u b s y s t e m s . 2.3. 2 . 3. 1 Attitude R e f e r e n c e S u b s y s t e m . The p u r p o s e of t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m ( f i g u r e s 2. 3 - 4 and 2. 3-5) is to r e l a t e t h e S I C a t t i t u d e in t e r m s of i t s g e o m e t r i c X, Y, and Z c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m to a n a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m with a fixed r e f e r e n c e f r a m e . The r e l a t i o n between t h e two c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s r e p r e s e n t s i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e and is p r e s e n t e d t o the a s t r o n a u t s by v i s u a l d i s p l a y . V i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n of i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e is n e c e s s a r y to p e r f o r m m a n u a l m a n e u v e r s o r f o r m o n i t o r i n g a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n s . The flight d i r e c t o r a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r (FDAI), l o c a t e d on the S I C m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e , d i s p l a y s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e m a n u a l a n d a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n s . The i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y e d i n c l u d e s S / C t o t a l attitude, attitude e r r o r in t h r e e a x e s , a n d r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s in t h r e e a x e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y e d by the FDAI is obtained f r o m e i t h e r the G&N s y s t e m o r the SCS. T h e r e a r e two a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d with the a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m : p r i m a r y a n d backup. The p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e is obtained t h r o u g h the m e c h a n i z a t i o n of s u b s y s t e m s within t h e G&N s y s t e m . The backup r e f e r e n c e is m e c h a n i z e d within t h e SCS. E a c h of t h e a t t i t u d e reference loops contain t h r e e basic elements: a computer, a n inertial r e f e r e n c e d e v i c e , and a v i s u a l d i s p l a y . Attitude R e f e r e n c e /G&N. To obtain a n i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e u s i n g the G & N s y s t e m , t h e a s t r o n a u t s , t h e G & N o p t i c s s u b s y s t e m , the i n e r t i a l and c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m s , a n d the MSFN a r e i n t e g r a t e d to f o r m a c l o s e d loop system. The G&N s y s t e m i s u s e d to d e t e r m i n e i n e r t i a l attitude and position a n d i n i t i a t e s a l i g n m e n t of t h e s t a b l e e l e m e n t of the IMU to t h e d e s i r e d i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e initially e s t a b l i s h e d by o p t i c a l s i g h t i n g s . After IMU a l i g n m e n t , the IMU i n conjunction with the AGC c a n provide i n e r t i a l - r e f e r e n c e d a t t i t u d e hold a n d , i f r e q u i r e d , i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e d velocity c h a n g e s . T r a n s l a t i o n a l v e l o c i t i e s a r e s e n s e d by a c c e l e r o m e t e r s mounted on t h e IMU s t a b l e e l e m e n t . The AGC p r o c e s s e s t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r s i g n a l s to update v e l o c i t y a n d change i n f o r m a t i o n f o r TVC functions. In addition t o the o p t i c a l a l i g n m e n t of the IMU, the a s t r o n a u t s can u s e t h e c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m to e s t a b l i s h IMU a l i g n m e n t .
~~ ~ ~~ ~

STABILIZATION AND C.0NT.RQL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966 - C h a n g e Date

I t

.
Page 2.3-8

EXC

kqg#fj-bER
AGCU

r----

I

ERROR RESOLVER XMITTER

I I

I

I

RESOLVER CONTROL

I
I
I I

I
I

II

I I

I

qs#z~= I
I
ERROR RESOLVER XMITTER I RESOLVER CONTROL

I

I

I I I

I

I

+
CONTROL LOGIC

4
A

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ATTITUDE REFERENCE FUNCTIONAL CONTROL LOOP

I

AGCU TOTAL ANGLE

r---+
EULER ERROR

RESOLVER XMliTER

I

RESOLVER ~. CONTROL

TAS SECTION OF AS/GPI PANEL

EUiER ERROR

ATTITUDE SET, AGCU RESOLVER COMPARISON

I
I I I
I

I
AECA

J

MODES

u 1
1
:.ED MODES, TOTAL ATTITUDE

IMU/CDU R&

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____1

I

I
I
NAV AXES TORQUING

- 1

I

ATTI'TUDE SET NAv AXES ERR RO

NAV AXES ATTITUDE ERROR

, +

EULER ERROR

7

S/C C O M M A N D ATTITUDE ERROR

J

I

I

CDU ATTITUDE ERROR

I
~ S ~ Z ~ E
ERROR R RESOLVER XMITTER

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GYRO TORQUING

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L , ,

1
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CONTRC4 MODES

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COMMANDS ATTITUDE REFERENCE SUBSYSTEM

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MODES

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.

Miss:

SMZA -03-sc012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

I I

L O G I C INPUT

--c

i

A UX

-GLN

INPUTS

ECA
I

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4

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.
KSCONTROL PANEL
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SPS G I M M L
POSITION

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AND MTE #)SITION REDIUCK

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THRaT MCTOR CONTROL SUBSYSTEM
SM-2A-9358

Figuro 2.3-3. SCS Functional Block Diagram
STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM
Mie sion . m r i c D.tr' I t

1966 Change Date

Page

2.3-9/2. 3-10

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..... .. .. .. .( . . . ..

SMZA-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

1
ATTITUDE GYRO

1
COMBINED ATTITWE GYRO

I

INTEGRATED MODE FU.tCTIONS

I

@-FIGW @-FlGW

2.34 SHEEl3
2 . 3 4 SHEET 4

NOTE: b r S l i t d h g Lopis btoilt, k Rgun 2 . 3 4 . Shnt 2 .

SM-U- l a 8

Figure 2. 3-4.

SCS Functional Flow Diagram (Sheet 1 of 4)

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission Basic Date 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 3 - 1 1 / 2 . 3 -12

. . , :-.

..,

tOIAlION C O N T t U
rcMt SWllCM

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1

I

I

A A A

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m

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,

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1

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WlICHlNG LOCK f t 2.3-5 l

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1

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urcn

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SMZA - 0 3 - SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

S Y S T E M S DATA

I

I

I I

NO. b l
-YAW

Figure 2 . 3 - 4 .

SCS Functional Flow Diagram (Sheet 2 of 4)

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 l966 Change Date P a g e - 7 3 - 1 3 f 2 . 3 -14

~~

--

TVC INTEGRATOR

I I
WAG YAW INPUT
I

I

I

0

K30

I1

I

K2 SY

FROM FIG 2.3-4
SHT 2

NOTE:

I
+io VDC

r
-a VM

1 . For Switching logic Detoils, k c Figure 2.3-5. Shh 3 6 4
2. F o r A b d e s , See Figure 2 3 - 9

ROTATION CONTROL YAW COMMAND (MTVC)

FROM
FIG 2.3-4
cur I I
an,

@ MTK

PATES

-$
YAW GlMM

i

TVC INTEGRATOR

I

1

BM4G YAW INPUT

I

I
+(

I I

., L
GLN O YAW BM4G INPUT (8’ LIMITER) R
‘A

I I I

I

+K29 SCS A V MODE

i::
T

1

I

I I
T R S VECTOR CONTROL SUBSYSTEM HUT

- x)V

A

K28
S Y S G D CK R

I I I

?.3-4
2

Y INTEGRATOR All ERR RO SUWING

K D ENG IGN

LIMITER

I

h

I

%+

2.3-4 I

V

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

V V DlFF CLUTCH VOLTS

---7
I
jYSTEM

GIMML ACTUATOR (YAW)

I

EXTEND NO. I
SERVO N O . 1

i

*
K32
-1

b-

YAW G l M M L ANGLE AS/GPI INDICATOR

K32

T

-

1% ELK TRANS

T K

( 7

ELEC
TUNS

N0.1)

T

-

I

.
K3 1 MTK LNG

1

I

-

H k

Figure 2 . 3-4.

SCS Functional F l o w Diagram (Sheet 3 of 4)

Mission

STABILIZATION A N D CONTROL SYSTEM B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date

Page 2.3-1512. 3-16

+X TRANSLATION

r -FROM
f l G . 2.3-4 SHT 2
+X TRANSLATION

- -- ---- -----_.
*
J

DIRECT U L A G E

7

CR

AV INHIBIT CIRCUIT

P

I

I

DIRECT ULLAGE

-----------J
G I N THRUST G I N THRUST ON/OFF (PULSE TRAIN) ON/OFF (Ac) PULSE TRAIN - ( (DC) 7 CONVERTER

DSKY ENTRY KEY)

-

COMPUTER DIGITAL DATA

m
.FIG. 2 3
SHT 1

I

--K37A K37C

HI

HI

HI

L---

E l
AV

COUNTER

d V DISPLAY PANEL

POT-OUT
-+ &3 'I

LATCH
+X TRANSUTION

DIRECT W A G E

COINCIDENCE SWITCH (OPEN)

+LATCH

G I N THRUST SIG

I

THRUST

SWITCH

GLN

1 GANdV

J
K37A K37B
It
I ,

I

I

I
GAN AV

?RIDE/

. . I

.

K37A K37C

-1

K37B K37C
1 ,
I

I*
I

4)

A

Mission

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

_------__----------NORM*L/OFF/ DIRECT O N SWITCH

1
I
I
I

r

I
A Y PANEL

I

-L--+ I i---7
I

I

IGNITION COILS

1 I
I I I

*

-

I

I

- 3 -3 -

NO. AND NO. 2

I

NO. 3 AND ' NO.

'

I

I I

NOTES:

sps THRUST O N P F F LOGIC AND ACCELEROMETER ELECTRONIQ

Figure 2.3-4.

SCS Functional Flow Diagram (Sheet 4 of 4)

Mission

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Basic Date l 2 1966 Change Date

P a g e 2.3-1712.3-18

SMZA-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

--

SYSTEMS DATA

ROTATION CONTROL BREAKOUT SWITCHES FROM FIG. SWITCH AV

css
MTVC ENGAGE

V
F

GbN b V

G B N ATTITUDE CONTROL

I

i

AV

SCS A V

M -L c
P -

R

ATTITUDE/MONITOR/ ENTRY SWITCH
J

K N

n

T

A
r _ Y , i

+28 VDC

ST
SWITCHES
NO RMAL

. . ..
u -

OFF
ROLL B’U RATE

I

NORMAL
NOTE
For delta wderA. see Fig 2.3-9

PITCH B/U RATE

H

NORMAL
0

YAW B/U RATE

h

BMAG

SCS MODE SWITCHES
SM-?A- lO49B

F i g u r e 2. 3-5. SCS Switching Logic (Sheet 1 of 4 ) STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEiM Mission

B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page 2.3-1912. 3 - 2 0

.

I__-

APOL

G h N A l T CON1

~

K9-A

L

mit
ERR
AGAA

c -

f

MTVC ENGAGt

KP-8

PITCH
ERR

c
t-

AGM

K9-C
YAW

E RR

.

ROLL B / u RATE
PITCM I/U RATF . YAW 8 i U MTt

AGAA

11

LOCAL VERTICAL

L
I

1

+a

-

j
FDA1

-

ALIGN

I

FROM FIG. 2.3-5 SM7 I

MONITOR GhN ATTITUM CONTIOl GhN A V GhN ENTRY .05G M4NUAL

.MG W N U A L G I N ENTRY GhN ATTITUDE CON1 MDNlTOP MIN I M P A T l CON1

FROM FIG 2.3-5 SM7 3

0

":"
A
~

MIN IMP A l l CON1

L

css
S a ATTITUOE CONTROL PITCH AXIS ENGAGED
YAW

css

CWNNEL E n mu 6WITCH. PITCH CIUNNEL)

u

FROM FIG 2.34 SHT I
CKANNEL ENABLE SWITCMES, ROLL

AXIS ENGAGED

CWNNEL

A h C r O L L AXIS ENGAGED 060 WLL AXIS ENGAGED

Figure 2.3-5.

!j

STA BLLIZA TIC

Mission

Basic Date12 NOV

SMZA -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

!

ATTITUDE REFERENCE SUBSYSTEM

SWITCHING LOGIC

NOTE:

fur dclto A a u k ws f i g . 2.3-9

F i g u r e 2. 3 - 5 .

SCS Switching L o g i c (Sheet 2 of 4 )

STABILIZATW AND CONTROL SYSTEM
Mission
B a s i c Date12 NOV 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-21/2.3-22

k : - w

2.

7
N

SCS ENTRY

G6N ENTRY
YAW B/U RT

1 '
K15 RT IN

G - N DV G-N ATl

h

MINIMUM DEADMND

M
L

G6N A V G 6 N ATTITUDE CONTROL
1

scs

FROM

MODE SWITCHES F I G . 2.3-5

.

I

1

n

0.05G MANUAL

V

css

SHT 1
SCS A l l CONTROL

SCS ENTRY
CONTROL

P

SCS LOCAL VERTICAL SCS ATTITUDE CONTROL
1

-t
1
I

=7
ON/OFF

scs LCL VE

R
S

SCSA V

1

SCS A V

SCS AT1 CON1

FROM FIG. 2.3-4 SHT 2

I
SHT 4

YAW DIRECT SW (+) YAW DIRECT SW (-) DIRECT ULLAGE

IMP E N A l SWITCH 0

+

FROM FIG. 2 - 3 4

ENGINE IGNITION

-

I
DELAY

SEE FIG. 2.3-9

A

VDC

~

I SEC DELAY ON/OFF

.

Mission

B
!

SMZA -03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

D
I
11 I.

I -}
G6N

MODE

iISZRETES

I

d V

G L N AT1 C O N 1
A

G I N ENTRY

+
K18
AGM

ATr
IN FROM FIG.

A
rl

w Fig. 2.3-9

m

11

I

.

scs

K29

-

ATTITUDE CONTROL SUBSYSTEM SWITCHING LOGIC YAW CHANNEL ('TYPICAL)

AV
MODE

STABILIZATION AND C O N T R O L SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

.

Change Date

Page

2-3.23/2. 3-24

SMZA -03-SCO 12

-

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

FROM FIG. 2-14 SHT 1

MTVC ENGAGE
F

1

I

rL F) D
S R O NO. I DISENGAGE E V ENGAGE S R O NO. 2 K34V E
TVC MONITOR (OVER-UNDER CURRENT) O TVC R N0.I OFF

I
-

1

+2BV C APPL D AT TP-CH1035V

1

SHT 2 2 -1 1 4

) D Y (

SCS ENTRY
K35 ENTRY

NOTE:
See Fig.

2-13 Sht 5

for relays

K36, K37, 8 K 3 8

SM-2A- 1052

Figure 2. 3-5.

SCS Switching Logic (Sheet 4 of 4)

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

Basic Date 12

1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-25

SM2A -03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA I n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e d a t a m a y a l s o be r e c e i v e d by t h e a s t r o n a u t s via the MSFN voice link f o r AGC updating a n d / o r f o r IMU a l i g n m e n t . With t h e c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m in t h e G&N loop, a u t o m a t i c m a n e u v e r s a n d / o r G & N c o n t r o l l e d velocity c h a n g e s a r e p o s s i b l e . The FDAI r e c e i v e s total a t t i t u d e and a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m . The FDAI i n d i c a t e s S I C t o t a l a t t i t u d e ( S / C r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e ) a n d a t t i t u d e e r r o r . T o t a l a t t i t u d e r e p r e s e n t s the g i m b a l a n g l e s of t h e IMU; a n d a t t i t u d e e r r o r is the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e IMU g i m b a l a n g l e s a n d t h e d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e . The d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e is obtained by m a n e u v e r i n g the S / C e i t h e r m a n u a l l y o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y in t h e d i r e c t i o n s t h a t null out t h e i n d i c a t e d e r r o r s , T h i s e s t a b l i s h e s S I C a t t i t u d e to the d e s i r e d i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e . The F D A I a l s o d i s p l a y s r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s obtained f r o m the SCS r a t e g y r o s . The SCS r a t e g y r o s supply r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r all G & N and SCS c o n t r o l a n d d i s p l a y functions. In G&N m o d e s , the FDAI b a l l is continuously c o n t r o l l e d by s i g n a l s f r o m the IMU g i m b a l a n g l e r e s o l v e r s . In SCS m o d e s , t h e b a l l is c o n t r o l l e d by t h e AGCU t o t a l a n g l e r e s o l v e r s . AGCU s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e b a l l only d u r i n g m a n u a l l y i n i t i a t e d a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s ( a s s u m i n g none of the BMAGs a r e r a t e c a g e d ) and i n the SCS e n t r y mode a f t e r 0.05 G switching. At a l l o t h e r t i m e s , t h e b a l l r e m a i n s s t a t i o n a r y . The b a l l is a l w a y s d r i v e n with r e f e r e n c e to t h e IMU a x e s with t h e AGCU providing t h e c o n v e r s i o n f o r t h e BMAGS f r o m body a x e s t o IMU a x e s . Attitude R e f e r e n c e / S C S . If t h e IMU cannot be u s e d f o r a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e , a b a c k u p o r s t r a p d o w n a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e c o m p r i s e d of a s s e m b l i e s c o n t a i n e d within the SCS will p r o v i d e i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e . The s t r a p d o w n r e f e r e n c e i s m e c h a n i z e d within t h e following:
0

Attitude G y r o A c c e l e r o m e t e r A s s e m b l y (AGAA)

C o n t a i n s t h e body-mounted a t t i t u d e g y r o s (BMAGS), X - a x i s a c c e l e r o m e t e r , and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d e l e c t r o n i c s . P r o v i d e s attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s f o r t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m , AGCU, and FDAI. The BMAGS a r e a l s o a s o u r c e f o r backup r a t e s i g n a l s , i f r e q u i r e d .
0

R a t e G y r o A s s e m b l y (RGA)

P r o v i d e s a n g u l a r r a t e s i g n a l s to the a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l (ACS) s u b s y s t e m s and to t h e FDAI.
0

Attitude Set / G i m b a l P o s i t i o n I n d i c a t o r (AS / G P I )

The AS s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a c a p a b i l i t y to s e t in d e s i r e d r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e s a n d a l i g n the ARS to t h o s e a t t i t u d e s . The G P I s e c t i o n allows the a s t r o n a u t s to m a n u a l l y p o s i t i o n t h e SPS engine g i m b a l s to a t r i m position p r i o r to a d e l t a V m a n e u v e r .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 19661 Change Date Page 2 . 3-7.6

SM2A -0 3-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

--SYSTEMS DATA
0

Display/Attitude Gyro Accelerometer Assembly Electronic Control A s s e m b l y (D/AGAAECA) AGAA section: C o n t a i n s e l e c t r o n i c s r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e t h e BMAGS a n d to i n t e r f a c e with the AGCU P r o v i d e s t h e i n t e r f a c e e l e c t r o n i c s between all s e n s o r s and corresponding displays

DECA section:

0

A u x i l i a r y E l e c t r o n i c C o n t r o l A s s e m b l y (AECA) AGCU section: P e r f Q r m s the m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n s a n d c o n t a i n s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n m a t r i c e s r e q u i r e d t o d i s p l a y a t t i t u d e a n d a t t i t u d e e r r o r s of the S / C . The AGCU is t h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l d e v i c e f o r t h e SCS ARS. The r e m a i n d e r of the AECA c o n t a i n s c i r c u i t r y f o r the SPS engine t h r u s t O N / O F F c o n t r o l function.

0

F l i g h t D i r e c t o r Attitude I n d i c a t o r (FDAI) The FDAI ( f i g u r e 2 . 3-12) p r o v i d e s t h e v i s u a l d i s p l a y s f o r S / C attitude; included i s total a t t i t u d e r e a d o u t (FDAI b a l l ) g i m b a l e d in t h r e e a x e s : r o l l , p i t c h , a n d yaw. P i t c h a n d yaw t o t a l a t t i t u d e is r e a d f r o m e i t h e r t h e body a x e s index The i n d i c e s a r e fixed to t h e ( v ) o r the navigation a x e s index (e). i n s t r u m e n t f a c e p l a t e . Roll is i n d i c a t e d by a r o l l bug ( i n d i c a t o r needle d r i v e n by t h e r o l l g i m b a l t h r o u g h a g e a r m e c h a n i s m ) . Roll a t t i t u d e is r e a d by c o m p a r i n g t h e r o l l bug p o s i t i o n with r e f e r e n c e to a s c a l e d b e z e l r i n g about t h e i n s t r u m e n t p e r i p h e r y . Attitude e r r o r s a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h r e e f l y - t o n e e d l e s . Angular r a t e s a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h r e e fly-to n e e d l e s . A t r o l l r a t e o r t r o l l e r r o r will c a u s e t h o s e n e e d l e s to d e f l e c t l e f t . A r o l l r a t e o r - r o l l e r r o r will c a u s e t h e n e e d l e s to d e f l e c t right.

-

A t pitch r a t e o r t p i t c h e r r o r will c a u s e t h o s e n e e d l e s to d e f l e c t down. A - pitch r a t e o r - pitch e r r o r will c a u s e the n e e d l e s to d e f l e c t up. The yaw r a t e and e r r o r n e e d l e s deflect i n the s a m e d i r e c t i o n s a s the roll needles.

To c o r r e c t the e r r o r , t h e S / C is a u t o m a t i c a l l y o r m a n u a l l y r o t a t e d i n the d i r e c t i o n of needle deflection.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion

B a s i c Date 12 NOV 1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-27

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
~~ ~ ~~

The SCS attitude r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m i s m e c h a n i z e d such that it i s u s e d p r i m a r i l y f o r m o n i t o r i n g S/C attitude. Consequently, automatic m a n e u v e r i n g is not p o s s i b l e when SCS m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n a r e s e l e c t e d . H o w e v e r , by using t h e FDAI a s a m o n i t o r and by p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n of cont r o l s , p r e c i s i o n m a n u a l m a n e u v e r s c a n be p e r f o r m e d . The s u b s y s t e m , acting as a s t r a p d o w n r e f e r e n c e , will supply a l l of the a t t i t u d e d a t a n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m the IMU. T h e s e d a t a a r e s u b s e quently applied to t h e FDAI f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n of S I C attitude. The IMU i s a t h r e e - g i m b a l p l a t f o r m and t h e r e f o r e w i l l a c h i e v e a g i m b a l l o c k condition. The m i d d l e and o u t e r g i m b a l s b e c o m e p a r a l l e l and the output i s not p r e d i c t a b l e . T h e AGCU h a s a s i m i l a r function which c r e a t e s a n effective g i m b a l lock. T h i s o c c u r s in both s y s t e m s f o r a 9 0 - d e g r e e yaw d i s p l a c e m e n t with r e s p e c t to the navigation b a s e . The FDAI and yaw attitude s e t c o n t r o l p r o v i d e s m a r k i n g s t h a t will s e r v e as a w a r n i n g p r i o r to achieving a g i m b a l l o c k condition. B a s i c a l l y , the body-mounted a t t i t u d e g y r o s (BMAGS), attitude g y r o coupling unit (+4GCU), and the FDAI a r e t h e p r i m a r y i n e r t i a l s e n s i n g , c o m puting, and d i s p l a y e l e m e n t s of the s t r a p d o w n s y s t e m . Attitude e r r o r s in r o l l , pitch, and yaw body a x e s a r e s e n s e d b y the body-mounted attitude g y r o s . The e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e conditioned and subsequently d i r e c t e d to the FDAI f o r d i s p l a y of t o t a l attitude and a t t i t u d e e r r o r . The m a j o r p a r t of the conditioning t a k e s p l a c e in t h e AGCU which p r o v i d e s s i g n a l inputs to the FDAI c o m p a r a b l e to t h a t of t h e IMU. The AGCU s e c t i o n of t h e a u x i l i a r y e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y i s t h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l o r computing d e v i c e f o r t h e SCS a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m . It p e r f o r m s m o s t of the i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e computations and p e r f o r m s the m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n v e r s i o n s and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o d i s p l a y t o t a l a t t i t u d e and attitude e r r o r . T h e a t t i t u d e g y r o torquing loop, that t h e AGCU e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l e l e m e n t s a r e a p a r t of, p e r f o r m t h e following:
0

G e n e r a t e a p u l s e t r a i n t h a t i s equivalent t o the t o t a l change in S / C attitude P r o v i d e t w o - d i r e c t i o n a l c o n t r o l of r e s o l v e r s h a f t a n g l e s P r o v i d e torquing c u r r e n t for t h e a t t i t u d e g y r o s P r o v i d e f o r w a r d and r e v e r s e c o n v e r s i o n of g y r o and attitude s e t e r r o r s i g n a l s t o a p p r o p r i a t e a x e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r FDAI d i s p l a y , and fo r g y r o to rquing ,

The SCS r a t e g y r o s s e n s e v e h i c l e a n g u l a r velocity, and supply angular r a t e s i g n a l s to t h e s y s t e m f o r r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n and to the FDAI r a t e indicat o r s . The p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n of s w i t c h e s will p l a c e t h e BMAGS in a backupr a t e condition, and p r o v i d e r a t e s i g n a l s to t h e FDAI r a t e i n d i c a t o r s . Whene v e r m a n u a l t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l i s s e l e c t e d , t h e BMACS will a u t o m a t i c a l l y be placed in the b a c k u p - r a t e condition. Attitude R e f e r e n c e Control. After a m a n e u v e r o r a s e r i e s of m a n e u v e r s , the S / C attitude (body a x e s ) i s , e a c h t i m e , d i f f e r e n t with r e s p e c t to t h e i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e f r a m e . T h e r e f o r e , the r e q u i r e m e n t e x i s t s f o r a method of r e s o l v i n g t h e r o t a t i o n s about the d i f f e r e n t body a x e s , and

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SMZA-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
L -

SYSTEMS DATA

e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e body a x e s a n d t h e a x e s of the fixed r e f e r e n c e f r a m e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p is e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h a n E u l e r a n g l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s obtained f r o m e i t h e r the IMU ( s t a b l e e l e m e n t ) or the s t r a p d o w n a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m . The E u l e r a n g l e , then, is t h e r e s o l v e d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e S / C body a x e s c o o r d i n a t e s a n d the c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e fixed i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e . The E u l e r angle a t t i t u d e of the S / C , as d i s p l a y e d on t h e FDAI, is with r e s p e c t to t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e f i x e d reference frame. The c o n v e r s i o n f r o m body a x e s t o E u l e r a n g l e r e a d o u t on the FDAI, b a s i c a l l y , c o n s i s t s of a f o r w a r d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and a r e v e r s e t r a n s f o r m a tion. (See f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 3 . ) The f o r w a r d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n is e s s e n t i a l l y bodyto-navigation a x e s c o n v e r s i o n , then navigation a x e s - t o - E u l e r angle t r a n s f o r m a t i o n by r e s o l v e r s in t h e AGCU. The r e s o l v e r s and g i m b a l s e r v o s in t h e FDAI p o s i t i o n t h e total a t t i t u d e d i s p l a y s , r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e E u l e r e r r o r s . The r e v e r s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n is e s s e n t i a l l y E u l e r a n g l e - t o - n a v i g a tion a x e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n by r e s o l v e r s in the AGCU, then navigation-to-body a x e s c o n v e r s i o n f o r s i g n a l a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e attitude gyro torquing a m p l i f i e r s . A f t e r a m p l i f i c a t i o n , t h e s i g n a l s a r e demodulated and a p p l i e d to the g y r o torquing c o i l s which t o r q u e t h e g y r o s to null the o r i g i n a l e r r o r . A f t e r initial a l i g n m e n t to t h e IMU r e f e r e n c e , the BMAG/AGCU loop is opened by r e l a y a c t i o n and f u r t h e r positioning of the FDAI ball is p r e vented. However, i f t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , f o r e x a m p l e , is d i s p l a c e d , t h e loop will be c l o s e d and the FDAI b a l l will follow S / C motion until t h e c o n t r o l is n e u t r a l i z e d . The BMAG/AGCU loop will open and the ball will again be s t a t i o n a r y . If i n G & N mode, the FDAI b a l l is a l w a y s coupled to r e p r e s e n t and follow IMU g i m b a l a n g l e s . Attitude E r r o r s . The FDAI attitude e r r o r i n d i c a t o r s r e p r e s e n t the d i f f e r e n c e between a c t u a l S / C a t t i t u d e and the i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e . The e r r o r is r e f e r e n c e d to t h e S I C body a x e s in a l l m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n , except for G&N entry mode. Signals t h a t p o s i t i o n the attitude e r r o r i n d i c a t o r of the FDAI c o m e f r o m t h r e e p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s . (See f i g u r e s 2 . 3 - 3 and 2 . 3 - 4 . ) In SCS m o d e s , e i t h e r t h e BMAGS or the AGCU p r o v i d e body a x e s e r r o r s i g n a l s to the e r r o r i n d i c a t o r m e t e r m o v e m e n t s . AGCU s i g n a l s a r e applied when ATT S E T is s e l e c t e d on the a t t i t u d e s e t s e c t i o n of the AS/GPI. T h i s a p p l i e s the body a x e s equivalent of the d i f f e r e n c e between the attitude s e t r e s o l v e r s h a f t and the AGCU r e s o l v e r shaft. When A T T S E T is not s e l e c t e d , t h e outputs of the t h r e e BMAGS a r e applied to the a t t i t u d e e r r o r m e t e r m o v e m e n t s of t h e FDAI. Whether f r o m the BMAGS or t h e AGCU, t h e e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e d i r e c t e d to the m e t e r

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page

2-3-29

SM2A - 03 -SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

Mode Monitor
SCS and G & N E n t r y

Roll i25" *25"

Pitch *15" i5'
i 5 O

Yaw i15"
i 5 O

All o t h e r m o d e s

*5*

i 5"

When G&N m o d e s a r e s e l e c t e d , t h e e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e d i r e c t e d to the FDAI via t h e i n e r t i a l coupling d i s p l a y units (CDUs) and t h e attitude r e f e r e n c e c o n v e r s i o n c i r c u i t r y . The r o l l and yaw channel s i g n a l s a r e r e f e r e n c e d to e i t h e r the navigation b a s e a x e s o r the S / C body a x e s . C o n v e r s i o n in the p i t c h c h a n n e l is not r e q u i r e d . The c a p a b i l i t y to r e f e r e n c e t h e r o l l and y a w c h a n n e l s i g n a l s to e i t h e r t h e navigation b a s e of S / C body a x e s . i s r e q u i r e d to f a c i l i t a t e r o l l and yaw channel c r o s s - c o u p l i n g c o n t r o l . T h i s is r e q u i r e d when G & N e n t r y m a n e u v e r s a r e p e r f o r m e d ; in which c a s e , r e f e r e n c e is t o the navigation b a s e a x e s . R a t e s . The following c h a r t p r o v i d e s mode v e r s u s f u l l - s c a l e r a t e i n d i c a t i o n s as r e a d on t h e FDAI. Mode s Monitor SCS E n t r y G&N F n t r y Ro 11 Pitch Yaw

*25" / s e c

*5n I s e c

i5' /sec

SCS LCL V e r t o r SCS A T T Cont o r C & N ATT Cont

* l oIsec

*1 I s e c

i 1 Isec
O

SCS a n d G & N V

i 5 " Isec

i5" / s e c

i 5 a/sec

SCS Attitude R e f e r e n c e Alignment. Alignment of the attitude r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m is p e r f o r m e d by c o m p a r i n g the outputs of t h e total attitude s e t r e s o l v e r s in t h e AGCU with t h e a t t i t u d e s e t r e s o l v e r s of the A S / G P I . The a t t i t u d e s e t r e s o l v e r s h a f t c a n be positioned by u s i n g the attitude s e t d i a l s ( t h u m b w h e e l s ) on the f r o n t of the A S / G P I . The d i a l s i n d i c a t e E u l e r angle of the a t t i t u d e s e t r e s o l v e r shaft, and the output of t h e r e s o l v e r is t h e E u l e r a n g l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a t t i t u d e set r e s o l v e r s and t h e total a t t i t u d e r e s o l v e r s i n the AGCU.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 N ov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-30

SMZA-03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA When t h e FDAI ALIGN switch on t h e A S / G P I panel is p r e s s e d , t h e ACCU r e s o l v e r s w i l l a l i g n t o t h e a t t i t u d e s e t r e s o l v e r s . E u l e r - t o navigation a x e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and navigation a x e s - t o - b o d y a x e s c o n v e r s i o n t a k e s p l a c e f o r t h e FDAI a t t i t u d e e r r o r d i s p l a y functions. In SCS c o n t r o l m o d e s , t h e a t t i t u d e s indicated on t h e a t t i t u d e s e t d i a l s w i l l be indicated on t h e FDAI with r e s p e c t t o t h e navigation a x e s symbol and t h e r o l l index, 2. 3 . 2. 3. 2 Attitude Control S u b s y s t e m . T h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m (ACS) ( f i g u r e s 2. 3 - 4 and 2. 3-5), e s s e n t i a l l y , p r o v i d e s t h e m e a n s f o r controlling s p a c e c r a f t motion. Control i s e i t h e r manual o r a u t o m a t i c when using c o n t r o l l e d inputs f r o m t h e C & N s y s t e m . S p a c e c r a f t motion, o t h e r t h a n d r i f t , is i n i t i a t e d through t h e u s e of t h e S / M RCS j e t s p r i o r t o C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n . After s e p a r a t i o n ( e n t r y ) , t h e C / M RCS j e t s a r e used. An a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l logic c h a r t is p r e s e n t e d i n figure 2. 3 - 6 . T h e r e a r e f o u r t y p e s of c o n t r o l s t h a t t h e ACS contends with which to s a t i s f y m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . ( S e e f i g u r e s 2. 3-4 and 2. 3 - 7 . ) T h e s e a r e r o t a t i o n , t r a n s l a t i o n , a t t i t u d e hold, and r a t e damping only. Rotational motion is r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h navigational sightings with t h e G&N o p t i c s s u b s y s t e m t e l e s c o p e and s e x t a n t for S / C alignment p r i o r t o a velocity c h a n g e f o r TVC functions, for antenna o r i e n t a t i o n , f o r T I C t r a n s m i s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n , and f o r l i f t v e c t o r c o n t r o l ( r o l l c o n t r o l plus pitch and yaw r a t e stabilization) during entry.
4

T r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l f o r t h e AS204A m i s s i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e ullage function p r i o r to SPS engine ignition. Holding a t t i t u d e ( a t t i t u d e hold) to a fixed r e f e r e n c e ( e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e A R S ) is n e c e s s a r y f o r navigational sightings, p r e p a r i n g f o r a velocity change and ullage m a n e u v e r s . After e s t a b l i s h i n g a t t i t u d e hold, t h e S / C motion involved is t h e amount of d r i f t that t h e S / C is allowed t o r o t a t e about i t s a x e s . T h e d r i f t is l i m i t e d t o a s e l e c t a b l e m i n i m u m o r m a x i m u m deadband about all t h r e e a x e s . R a t e damping only p r o v i d e s r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n d u r i n g e n t r y o r i n t h e event of a n e b o r t p r i o r t o l a u n c h e s c a p e s y s t e m ( L E S ) j e t t i s o n . The motions involved h e r e a r e t h e f i n i t e f i r i n g s of t h e RCS j e t s when r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s exceed c e r t a i n l i m i t s . T h e RCS j e t f i r i n g s w i l l d e c r e a s e t h e r a t e s t o within p r e d e t e r m i n e d limits. T h e r a t e s a r e l i m i t e d t o 0. 2 d e g r e e l s e c f o r a l l m o d e s , except SCS and G&N e n t r y m o d e s when t h e r a t e s a r e i n c r e a s e d t o 2 d e g r e e s / s ec ond. The ACS i n c l u d e s t h e r o l l , pitch, and yaw e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l i e s ( E C A s ) , the d e l t a V i n d i c a t o r , a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e s e c t i o n of t h e G&N o p t i c s c o n t r o l panel and, i n addition, u t i l i z e s a l l of t h e p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t s and functions of t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m .
.. .
~~~~~

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 3 - 3 1

SMZA-03-SCO12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

*
*

CIRCUIT BREAKER TABULATION I S APPLICABLE TO RCS ENGINES AUTOMATIC COIL OPERATION ONLY. FOR MANUAL DIRECT COIL OPERATION, POWER IS APPLIED FROM SCS DIRECT C O N 1 CIRCUIT BREAKERS MN A O MN B BY ACTUATION O THE R F R PILOTS O CO-PILOTS H A N D CONTROLLER, RESPECTIVELY.

NOTES: 1 . Cambimtions of tmmlation a d rotation manowen r q u i r i n g the
simultaneous firing of identical S/M RCS e n g i m is prohibited by let selection logic circuit design.

2. Minimum impulse opmution is accomplished i n fhe roll oxis by two
Remaining e n g i m are disabled by wtting the A6C ROLL CHANNELrwitch to OFF and pulling one BlLD ROLL circuit breaker; or setting the BbD ROLL CHANNEL switch to OFF and p r l l i n g on* A6C ROLL circuit breaker.
enginsr only.

3 . Fuel consewation ond/ar canrunption balance between quads moy
be accomplished by using applicable SCS CHANNEL switches and circuit breokers to select singleengine operation in each direction.
\

SM-2A-782D

F i g u r e 2. 3 - 6 .

SCS Attitude Control Logic C h a r t
I

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

page 2.3-32

.

Y

.

-_

I

m

I
-SWITCHING

L -.- TRANSDUCER ---I
PITCh

I

CONTPCK

- 1

I

I

-

Z A F PITCH W A G SIG GEN

1

I

I

-

I
ATTITUDE SIGNAL FROM G L N

-----I I TRANSLATION L--, CONTROL

L

r---

-----.
YAW ECA

ATTITUDE SIGNAL F O G6N R M

------

I

PITCH ECA

-e-

---------ATE G Y R O 1

I

r

-

,--

-- -------e-

---

YAW ECA
_ .

---_-------

,

. s!* .

. _ . ...".

h

7

-----PITCH CHANNEL

I PATE SIGNAL

PICKOFF

ROLL ECA

1

TRANSDUCER

J

ATTITUDE SIGNAL

@I

_c--

W

---_ ----

-I

D DD

-

AND GATE

O GATE R

YAW CHANNEL

SWITCH

I
+5-28

- SIGNAL INVERTER
4)-

I I

I
I

VDC MAIN
BUS B

*

NORMALLY OPEN NORMALLY CLOSED

I I

I

NOTES: K17 Rclov contoch o w n ahrr a c b t i o n of mtoiion conlmller breokout witches. Relay contoch close durine G L N m o d e and open during SCS mcdn.

I
28 VDC
MAIN BUS A

K18 Relay mntocts close during SCS modes and open during G6N m d n .

@

Functional Repmentotion of the mcchonicolly linked motor-driven wltch. Actuated by RCS tmnsfrr witch or by the MESC.

6--

__---

u
n
MOT

.Motor-driven witch-Sptem 8

i

Mist

, fa

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O O P E R A T I O N S HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

p
SWITCHING

-1
I I I I I I I
SM-2A-718 D

F i g u r e 2. 3 - 7 .

J e t S e l e c t i o n Logic F u n c t i o n a l Flow D i a g r a m

f.

'

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL S Y S T E M

M s s ion i

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

page 2 . 3 - 3 3 1 2 . 3 - 3 4

SM2A -03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA T h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m e l e c t r o n i c s is contained within t h e r o l l , p i t c h , and yaw E C A s . The E C A s a c c e p t t h e manual and a u t o m a t i c i n p u t s , conditions t h e m , and d i r e c t s on-off e l e c t r i c a l c o m m a n d s i g n a l s through j e t s e l e c t i o n logic t o a p p r o p r i a t e a u t o m a t i c ( n o r m a l ) c o i l s of t h e RCS j e t s . T h e output of t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic will b e e i t h e r a t i m e modulated s i g n a l o r a s t e a d y - s t a t e t 2 0 - v d c signal. T h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y two t y p e s of inputs to t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m : m a n u a l and i n e r t i a l s e n s o r (AGAA, RGA, IMU). Manual inputs a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e r o t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s , s w i t c h e s on the SCS c o n t r o l p a n e l , a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e s w i t c h on t h e a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e s e c t i o n of t h e G&N o p t i c s c o n t r o l p a n e l , and t h e d i r e c t ullage s w i t c h on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y panel. T h e s e c o n t r o l s c a n b e used f o r manual u l l a g e m a n e u v e r s o r as a backup d u r i n g a u t o m a t i c d e l t a V f u n c t i o n s . T h e a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e s w i t c h c o m m a n d s inputs to t h e ACS and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o t h e RCS j e t s f o r s m a l l angular accelerations. T h e i n e r t i a l s e n s o r inputs a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e AGAA, RGA, and t h e IMU v i a t h e G&N s y s t e m . T h e AGAA (BMAG) and r a t e g y r o s (RGA) inputs a r e used f o r a t t i t u d e hold, r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n , and manual r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l . T h e IMU inputs p r o v i d e G&N a t t i t u d e hold and c o m m a n d r a t e s i g n a l s f o r manual o r automatic rotational maneuvers. R o t a t i o n M a n e u v e r s . Rotation m a n e u v e r s c a n b e p e r f o r m e d by using f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of m a n u a l c o n t r o l s o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y by u s i n g t h e G&N c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m . Manual r o t a t i o n m a n e u v e r s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by using t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , c o m m o n l y c a l l e d c o n t r o l s t i c k s t e e r i n g (CSS), d i r e c t o r e m e r g e n c y c o n t r o l which i s a function of t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , a t t i t u d e . i m p u l s e c o n t r o l , and positioning of t h e i n e r t i a l CDUs. Automatic m a n e u v e r s r e s u l t f r o m a s t r o n a u t inputs t o t h e AGC via t h e DSKY. The AGC, a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m , a u t o m a t i c a l l y p o s i t i o n s t h e CDUs and will c o m m a n d S / C motion t o t h e p r o g r a m m e d attitude. N o r m a l CSS is a p r o p o r t i o n a l m a n u a l function and is a v a i l b l e a t any t i m e i n all o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s . T h e m a x i m u m CSS p r o p o r t i o n a l r a t e s t h a t c a n b e c o m m a n d e d a r e as follows:

B

0

0

19 d e g r e e s p e r second ( r o l l a x l s ) e n t r y m o d e 5 d e g r e e s p e r second ( p i t c h and yaw a x e s ) e n t r y mode 0 . 7 9 d e g r e e p e r second (all a x e s ) a l l o t h e r m o d e s .

Eyen though CSS c o m m a n d s g r e a t e r r a t e s , the SCS e l e c t r o n i c s will l i m i t t h e r a t e s to t h o s e values given. P r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l is obtained by using t h e r a t e g y r o output to c a n c e l t h e output of a t r a n s d u c e r within the r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l . CSS p r o p o r t i o n a l c o m m a n d s a r e a l w a y s d i r e c t e d to the a u t o m a t i c solenoid c o i l s of t h e RCS e n g i n e s .

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SYSTEMS DATA When t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l ( s t i c k ) is d i s p l a c e d , a t r a n s d u c e r within t h e s t i c k will c o m m a n d a r o t a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e amount of s t i c k d i s p l a c e m e n t . The r o t a t i o n a l rates a r e l i m i t e d t o p r e d e t e r m i n e d v a l u e s , depending on t h e o p e r a t i o n a l mode. When i n SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e and as t h e s t i c k i s d i s p l a c e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2. 5 d e g r e e s f r o m n e u t r a l , b r e a k o u t s w i t c h e s within t h e s t i c k c l o s e c a u s i n g t h e BMAG and t h e AGCU t o b e c o m e c l o s e d loop. It a l s o inhibits BMAG e r r o r s i g n a l s t o t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . As t h e S / C r o t a t e s , t h e AGCU a p p l i e s torquing c u r r e n t t o t h e BMAG t o r q u e r c o i l s . T h e g y r o s , t h e n , a r e t o r q u e d at a rate p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e magnitude of BMAG e r r o r , keeping a t t i t u d e e r r o r a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y z e r o . Thus, t h e AGCU w i l l follow S / C motion and e s t a b l i s h a new a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e when t h e s t i c k is r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l . When i n G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l mode, a G&N SYNC switch m u s t be e n e r g i z e d t o e n a b l e t h e a t t i t u d e hold function when t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k i s r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l . T h e G&N s y n c function p r o v i d e s IMU/CDU c l o s e d loop o p e r a t i o n which k e e p s a t t i t u d e e r r o r s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y z e r o d u r i n g t h e m a n e u v e r . Consequently, t h e S I C will hold t h e new a t t i t u d e when t h e s t i c k is r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l . If G&N sync is not enabled, t h e S / C will r e t u r n to t h e attitude established before stick displacement. NOTE F o r the AS204A m i s s i o n the G & N SYNC switch w i l l r e m a i n O F F f o r the e n t i r e m i s s i o n . T h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m will c o n t r o l t h e a c t u a l m a n e u v e r r a t e , but t h e SCS will l i m i t t h e m a x i m u m . The m a x i m u m n o n - e n t r y m a n e u v e r r a t e is 1 0 ° / s e c o n d , a n d e n t r y m a n e u v e r r a t e i s 17'/second i n a l l a x e s . D i r e c t r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l is a nonproportional function whereby i n i t i a t e d c o m m a n d s a r e applied d i r e c t l y t o t h e RCS d i r e c t c o i l s . To a c c o m p l i s h d i r e c t r o t a t i o n , t h e DIRECT R C S / O F F s w i t c h (MDC-8) is s e t to DIRECT RCS; t h e SCS-CHANNEL s w i t c h e s (MDC-8) a r e s e t t o O F F ; if high r a t e s a r e t o be m a i n t a i n e d , and t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k is r o t a t e d about the d e s i r e d a x i s o r a x e s to h a r d s t o p s . J u s t p r i o r to engaging t h e h a r d s t o p s , a switch c l o s e s a n d a p p l i e s a d i r e c t c o m m a n d t o t h e RCS d i r e c t c o i l s . R a t e feedback is not u s e d to c a n c e l s t i c k movement. T h e breakout s w i t c h e s , however, c l o s e t h e BMAG/AGCU loop, and a t t i t u d e e r r o r output t o t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s i s inhibited. With p r o p e r c o n t r o l and s w i t c h configuration, d i r e c t c o n t r o l is a v a i l a b l e a t any t i m e . T h e a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e c o n t r o l (G&N o p t i c s c o n t r o l p a n e l ) p r o v i d e s t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r c o m m a n d i n g l o w - r o t a t i o n a l rates about a l l t h r e e a x e s . Attitude i m p u l s e c o n t r o l i s a v a i l a b l e only i n SCS o r G & N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e s and is used p r i m a r i l y f o r p r e c i s e a t t i t u d e m a n e u v e r s d u r i n g navigational o r s t a r sighting p e r i o d s . After t h e c o n t r o l is enabled and d i s p l a c e d , a switch c l o s u r e in t h e c o n t r o l and a n RC network combination g e n e r a t e one

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APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA p u l s e , which i s applied t o t h e RCS j e t s e l e c t i o n logic. One p u l s e is g e n e r a t e d f o r e a c h a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e switch c l o s u r e ( c o n t r o l d i s p l a c e m e n t ) . It is not a p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l and a t t i t u d e hold is not a v a i l a b l e when t h e c o n t r o l is r e t u r n e d t o n e u t r a l . When t h e c o n t r o l is enabled, r e l a y a c t i o n r e m o v e s a l l r a t e , a t t i t u d e e r r o r , and r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l inputs to t h e SCS electronics. Automatic positioning of t h e CDUs is a c c o m p l i s h e d by using t h e DSKY. T h i s method of c o n t r o l is p r i m a r i l y used d u r i n g G&N e n t r y . T r a n s l a t i o n M a n e u v e r s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e m e t h o d s of initiating t r a n s l a t i o n m a n e u v e r s : n o r m a l . t r a n s l a t i o n s , using t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l ; d i r e c t ullage, using t h e d i r e c t u l l a g e button o n t h e d e l t a V c o n t r o l p a n e l ; and s e p a r a t i o n u l l a g e , using t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l . T r a n s l a t i o n c o m m a n d s a r e not p r o p o r t i o n a l ; o p e r a t i o n i s through s w i t c h c l o s u r e only and is a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g all m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n p r i o r to C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n . D u r i n g n o r m a l t r a n s l a t i o n , s w i t c h c l o s u r e s within t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l p r o v i d e c o m m a n d s to t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c which f i r e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e j e t s f o r t h e d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n of t r a n s l a t i o n . The c o m m a n d s a r e d i r e c t e d to t h e a u t o m a t i c RCS engine c o i l s . A p r i m a r y function of n o r m a l t r a n s l a t i o n i s t h e ullage m a n e u v e r , which is n e c e s s a r y i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a velocity change. Ullage m a n e u v e r s r e q u i r e t r a n s l a t i o n along the +X-axis. D i r e c t u l l a g e i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by using t h e DIRECT ULLAGE p u s h button on t h e d e l t a V c o n t r o l p a n e l . When p r e s s e d , s w i t c h c l o s u r e s c o m m a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i r e c t RCS c o i l s to initiate t r a n s l a t i o n along t h e t X - a x i s . D i r e c t ullage is a v a i l a b l e at a n y t i m e p r i o r t o C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n . Upon C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n , t h e d i r e c t u l l a g e function to t h e C / M pitch and yaw d i r e c t c o i l s i s inhibited by deadfacing. It is p r i m a r i l y a backup o p e r a t i o n i n t h e event of n o r m a l t r a n s l a t i o n f a i l u r e . Ullage will continue as long as t h e DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton is p r e s s e d . T h e s e p a r a t i o n u l l a g e function r e q u i r e s a CCW r o t a t i o n of t h e t r a n s Ullage c o m m a n d s a r e d i r e c t e d to t h e l a t i o n c o n t r o l into a d e t e n t position. d i r e c t RCS c o i l s . T h e s e p a r a t i o n u l l a g e m a n e u v e r is p e r f o r m e d when SPS a b o r t s a r e n e c e s s a r y o r when S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n is r e q u i r e d . If t h e LES h a s b e e n j e t t i s o n e d , t h e s i g n a l f r o m t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l i n CCW d e t e n t w i l l c o m m a n d t h e s e q u e n t i a l e v e n t s c o n t r o l s y s t e m (SECS) to s e q u e n c e t h e s e p a r a t i o n ullage and consequent s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e S - I V B . Lf t h e LES is a t t a c h e d t o t h e S / C , t h e s a m e c o m m a n d w i l l initiate a LES abort. In G&N and SCS m o d e s , a c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l into a d e t e n t g e n e r a t e s a CSS l o g i c s i g n a l t h a t i n h i b i t s a t t i t u d e g y r o s i g n a l s f r o m t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s , and p r o v i d e s BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop o p e r a t i o n . I t a l s o initiates manual t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l (MTVC).

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SMZA-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA T h e CW r o t a t i o n e n a b l e s c a p a b i l i t y f o r manual r o l l c o n t r o l by t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r d u r i n g G & N e n t r y . T h i s is n o r m a l l y a n a u t o m a t i c function of t h e G&N s y s t e m and e n t r y p r o g r a m . Attitude Hold. Attitude hold is a c a p a b i l i t y of t h e ACS t o hold S I C a t t i t u d e within s e l e c t e d deadband limits of a fixed r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e . The deadband (amount S I C i s allowed t o d r i f t e i t h e r s i d e of r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e ) is s e l e c t e d by s e t t i n g t h e ATT DEADBAND switch on MDC8 t o e i t h e r MAX o r MIN. In t h e G&N o r SCS e n t r y m o d e s , however, t h e deadband w i l l be m a x i m u m r e g a r d l e s s of deadband s w i t c h position. T h e ACS a c c o m p l i s h e s a t t i t u d e hold by inputting s u m m e d a t t i t u d e e r r o r and r a t e g y r o s i g n a l s t o t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c , which w i l l t u r n on a p p r o p r i a t e j e t s to keep t h e S / C within t h e s e l e c t e d deadband. T h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l is conditioned by a deadband c i r c u i t and r a t e l i m i t e r b e f o r e it is s u m m e d a t t h e input of a s u m m i n g a m p l i f i e r with t h e r a t e g y r o s i g n a l . When t h e s u m m e d input t o t h e a m p l i f i e r is g r e a t e r t h a n its t h r e s h o l d , t h e a m p l i f i e r will c a u s e a switching a m p l i f i e r to p u l s e t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic. T h e l o w e r t h e a n g u l a r r a t e s , t h e c l o s e r t h e S / C i s allowed to d r i f t to t h e deadband l i m i t s . As a n g u l a r r a t e s i n c r e a s e , t h e s u m m e d e r r o r l r a t e s i g n a l i n c r e a s e s in magnitude p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s o o n e r t h e t h r e s h o l d of t h e s u m m i n g a m p l i f i e r i s r e a c h e d , t h e s o o n e r t h e j e t s will f i r e , damping t h e o s c i l l a t i o n . A l i m i t c y c l e s w i t c h on MDC8 c a n be used t o - p r o v i d e t i m e modulated p u l s e s t o t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c . L i m i t c y c l e is p r i m a r i l y u s e d f o r fuel c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s . T h e l i m i t c y c l e switch e n a b l e s a psuedo r a t e f e e d b a c k c i r c u i t at t h e output of t h e switching a m p l i f i e r p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . T h e psuedo r a t e , and consequently t h e t i m e - m o d u l a t e d p u l s e s , i s a function of s i g n a l magnitude a t the switching a m p l i f i e r input. F o r l a r g e s i g n a l i n p u t s , t h e output p u l s e s will c a u s e t h e RCS j e t s t o p u l s e a t a higher f r e q u e n c y and f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s . As t h e e r r o r d e c r e a s e s , t h e p u l s e widths and f r e q u e n c y d e c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y until t h e e r r o r is nulled. T h e psuedo r a t e loop is n o r m a l l y used a t a l l t i m e s ( l i m i t c y c l e on) when a n i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e is being maintained. Attitude hold i s a v a i l a b l e at a l l t i m e s i n t h r e e a x e s , except d u r i n g m o n i t o r m o d e and SCS e n t r y m o d e a f t e r t h e 0. 05 G switching. During G&N e n t r y a f t e r 0. 05 G switching, r o l l a t t i t u d e hold i s s t i l l enabled. Yaw and pitch a t t i t u d e hold is inhibited. R a t e Damping Only. In a d d i t i o n to. a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l and maneuvering c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h e ACS p r o v i d e s a r a t e damping only capability. Although r a t e damping is a n o r m a l function d u r i n g a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e s , r a t e damping c a n b e u s e d t o l i m i t S / C r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s ( r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n ) when a t t i t u d e hold i s not being u s e d . N o r m a l l y , when S I C r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s exceed 0 . 2 d e g r e e p e r second i n a n y a x i s , t h e r a t e g y r o s o r t h e B U G i n
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SYSTEMS DATA backup r a t e s e n s e t h e a n g u l a r a c c e l e r a t i o n s . T h e s i g n a l s , conditioned via the r o l l , pitch, and yaw ECAs and through j e t s e l e c t i o n logic, a r e applied t o a p p l i c a b l e RCS engines to keep t h e S I C r a t e s within the 0 . 2 - d e g r e e - p e r - s e c o n d r a t e deadband. If i n SCS o r G&N e n t r y m o d e , t h e r a t e deadband i s i n c r e a s e d t o 2 d e g r e e s p e r second. R a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n , i n addition to t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l functions, i s a v a i l a b l e when a n y of t h e following conditions e x i s t :
0 0

0

S e l e c t i o n of m o n i t o r mode a f t e r S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n S e l e c t i o n of m o n i t o r m o d e f o r LES a b o r t s Clockwise rotation of t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l a f t e r S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n SCS e n t r y mode a f t e r 0 . 0 5 G switching G & N e n t r y mode a f t e r 0 . 0 5 G switching ( p i t c h and yaw a x e s o n l y ) .

2. 3. 2. 3 . 3

T h r u s t Vector Control S u b s y s t e m . T h e p u r p o s e of t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l ( T V C ) s u b s y s t e m ( f i g u r e s 2. 3 - 4 and 2 . 3 - 5 ) is to a l i g n o r position t h e gimbaled SPS engine to a t r i m position p r i o r t o SPS t h r u s t i n g and m a i n t a i n t h i s t r i m d u r i n g t h e a c c e l e r a tion p e r i o d . The S / C e x p e r i e n c e s a changing c e n t e r of g r a v i t y ( c . g. ) c a u s e d by t h e consumption of fuel and o x i d i z e r d u r i n g a c c e l e r a t i o n . T h e TVC s u b s y s t e m m a i n t a i n s t h e S P S engine t h r u s t v e c t o r through t h e c. g . and holds S I C a t t i t u d e s o that t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r w i l l r e m a i n i n t h e d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . This c o m p e n s a t e s f o r u n d e s i r a b l e f o r c e s t h a t affect S I C s t a b i l i t y b e c a u s e of t h e shifting c . g . T h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l , i n a d d i t i o n t o the TVC s u b s y s t e m , u t i l i z e s t h e functions of t h e G&N s y s t e m , t h e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m s , and t h e SCS a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e and a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l subsystems. T h e TVC s u b s y s t e m e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t r o l s the SPS engine g i m b a l s , and consequently t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r , by e n e r g i z i n g t h e gimbal a c t u a t o r s ; one f o r p i t c h and one f o r yaw. T h e n o r m a l method f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h r u s t is through t h e G&N d e l t a V mode. T h i s p r o v i d e s t h e m o s t a c c u r a t e c o n t r o l . The a c c e l e r o m e t e r s on t h e IMU s t a b l e e l e m e n t and the ACC p r o v i d e s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s to t h e SPS engine g i m b a l s and continuous t r a j e c t o r y c o r r e c t i o n s to c o m p e n s a t e f o r u n d e s i r e d a c c e l e r a t i o n s . The AGC a l s o c o m p e n s a t e s f o r t h e n e a r -body o r b i t a l and g r a v i t y a f f e c t s on t h e S I C . So, the a c t u a l v e r s u s r e q u i r e d velocity change w i l l r e s u l t i n a c u r v e d t r a j e c t o r y . N o r m a l l y , both G & N d e l t a V and SCS d e l t a V m o d e s o p e r a t e by driving No. 1 and No. 2 s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s . If a f a i l u r e o c c u r s in No. 1 , a n a u t o m a t i c switchover to d r i v e No. 2 s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s and No. 2 gimbal m o t o r will o c c u r . O r , No. 2 will d r i v e if N o . 1 i s switched off o r if m a n u a l t h r u s t v e c t o r control is initiated.

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SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

A m a n u a l method of t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l is provided t o c o n t r o l t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e SPS engine gimbal. When o p e r a t i n g manually, inputs f r o m t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l , and t h e B M A G s a r e d i r e c t e d t o r e d u n d a n t s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s No. 2 and t h e No. 2 gimbal a c t u a t o r m o t o r . T h e nominal a u t h o r i t y f r o m e i t h e r r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r i s *6 d e g r e e s of SPS gimbal engine d e f l e c t i o n .
T h e gimbal p o s i t i o n d i s p l a y s e c t i o n of t h e A S I C P I p a n e l , t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y , SCS c o n t r o l panel, r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l , and t h e SPS s w i t c h e s on M D C - 3 a r e t h e p r i n c i p l e c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s a s s o c i a t e d with TVC. They p r o v i d e t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r c o n t r o l and monitoring of s y s t e m per for manc e . T h r u s t Vector Control. When G & N d e l t a V m o d e is s e l e c t e d , autom a t i c t h r u s t on-off, a t t i t u d e , and s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s i n i t i a t e i n t h e G & N s y s t e m . However, b e f o r e t h e ullage maneuver and t h r u s t - o n , t h e gimbal p o s i t i o n t r i m c o n t r o l thumbwheels on t h e AS/GPI a r e u s e d t o position t h e engine g i m b a l s . T h e engine p o s i t i o n is v e r i f i e d on t h e A S I G P I visual d i s play. T h e g i m b a l s a r e aligned s u c h t h a t , at t h e m o m e n t of t h r u s t - o n , t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r will b e through t h e S I C c . g . T h i s is n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e any d e l t a V to p r e v e n t u n d e s i r a b l e r o t a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t s about t h e c. g. when t h r u s t i n g begins.

In addition t o initial positioning of t h e g i m b a l s , t h e amount of a c c e l e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e velocity change less tailoff i s s e t into t h e d e l t a V r e m a i n i n g c o u n t e r on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y . T h i s a l l o w s t h e c r e w a method of m o n i t o r i n g d e l t a V r e m a i n i n g and, when i n SCS AV mode, p r o v i d e s a u t o m a t i c t h r u s t - o f f c a p a b i l i t y . A coincidence s w i t c h i n t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y w i l l , by inhibiting t h e t h r u s t on l o g i c , a u t o m a t i c a l l y t e r m i n a t e t h r u s t when t h e AV r e m a i n i n g c o u n t e r i n d i c a t e s z e r o . The a c c e l e r o m e t e r i n t h e AGAA s e n s e s t X a c c e l e r a t i o n , and s u p p l i e s a c c e l e r a t i o n s i g n a l s t o t i m i n g and output logic which s u b s e q u e n t l y d r i v e s t h e d e l t a V r e m a i n i n g p o t e n t i o m e t e r to z e r o . T h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r t h r u s h o l d i s 1 X 10-4 g, but the AV c o u n t e r w i l l only s t e p o n c e f o r e a c h 0 . 2 5 t t l s e c velocity change.
NOTE It is p o s s i b l e , but not r e c o m m e n d e d , to have SPS engine ignition without ullaging when i n SCSAV mode. P r i o r t o S P S ignition, t h e G&N s y s t e m inputs a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n f o r m a tion t o t h e ACS t o hold t h e S I C a t a c o n s t a n t a t t i t u d e i n all t h r e e a x e s . Attitude e r r o r s f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m and r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the SCS r a t e g y r o s a r e a l s o applied to t h e SPS gimbal s e r v o loops. Upon engine ignition, t h e combined a t t i t u d e e r r o r and r a t e g y r o i n p u t s , conditioned by the s e r v o electronics, reposition the gimbals a s n e c e s s a r y to rotate the S I C t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r c. g. shift. T h e g i m b a l position is a l s o modified by s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s f r o m t h e AGC so t h a t t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r w i l l point in the right direction for the curved trajectory.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 NOV 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-40

SMZA-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
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SYSTEMS DATA T h e BMAG/AGCU loop r e m a i n s open and follows IMU c h a n g e s so t h a t t h e SCS w i l l h a v e t h e s a m e i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e in t h e e v e n t a s w i t c h o v e r t o SCS d e l t a V mode is n e c e s s a r y . N o r m a l l y , G & N d e l t a V m o d e u t i l i z e s t h e p r i m a r y g i m b a l s e r v o and a c t u a t o r m o t o r No. 1. If the g i m b a l m o t o r s w i t c h e s on MDC-3 a r e a c t i vated, a TVC m o n i t o r s i g n a l g e n e r a t o r ( o v e r - u n d e r c u r r e n t s e n s o r ) i n t h e a c t u a t o r w i l l s e n s e a f a i l u r e of m o t o r No. 1. If m o t o r No. 1 fails, t h e s e n s o r will a u t o m a t i c a l l y c a u s e a s w i t c h o v e r t o m o t o r No. 2 i n t h e a c t u a t o r . S i n c e t h e No. 2 s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s a r e d r i v e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with No. 1, a n i n t e r r u p t i o n d u r i n g t h e velocity change will not o c c u r . Motor No. 2 a l s o c o n t a i n s a TVC m o n i t o r s i g n a l g e n e r a t o r , but is not u s e d . In t h e event of m o t o r No. 2 f a i l u r e , c a u s i n g a n e x c e s s i v e c u r r e n t d r a i n on the d-c bus, a 70-ampere circuit b r e a k e r in the line w i l l disconnect the m o t o r f r o m t h e d - c supply bus. Motor No. 2 h a s no s w i t c h o v e r o r warning light c a p a b i l i t y . In SCS d e l t a V mode, t h e g i m b a l s e r v o l o o p s function t h e s a m e as i n G&N d e l t a V mode. Attitude e r r o r i n f o r m a t i o n , h o w e v e r , is d e r i v e d f r o m t h e B U G S . The r a t e loop is i d e n t i c a l , u n l e s s in backup r a t e condition. SCS d e l t a V w i l l not function if t h e B U G S a r e r e q u i r e d f o r backup r a t e b e c a u s e of t h e l o s s of a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n f o r m a t i o n .

SCS d e l t a V k e e p s t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r t h r o u g h t h e c . g. by f i r s t c o m p a r i n g t h e t r i m p o s i t i o n c o m m a n d s s e t by t h e g i m b a l p o s i t i o n t h u m b w h e e l s and t h e p o s i t i o n t r a n s d u c e r f e e d b a c k s i g n a l s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e , combined,with a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the BMAGs, conditions t h e s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s to e n e r g i z e t h e a c t u a t o r c l u t c h e s .
E x c e p t f o r mode s e l e c t i o n and t h r u s t - o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e s a m e p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h r u s t - o n , and t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y functions a r e t h e s a m e as f o r G&N d e l t a V. The S C S s y s t e m d o e s not p r o v i d e a u t o m a t i c thrust-on. A thrust-on switch on the delta V display provides the thrust-on c o m m a n d f o r SCS d e l t a V m o d e . T h r u s t - o f f , however, i s a u t o m a t i c by c l o s i n g of t h e coincidence switch. A NORMAL-OFF-DIRECT-ON s w i t c h on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y is a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r manual t h r u s t - o n and s e r v e s a s a m a n u a l backup f o r a l l a u t o m a t i c t h r u s t - o f f c o m m a n d s .

If t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r cannot be used for t h e ullage m a n e u v e r p r i o r t o t h r u s t - o n , a DIRECT ULLAGE s w i t c h on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y p r o vides a m a n u a l backup to i n i t i a t e u-lage.

A manual d e l t a V c a n b e p e r f o r m e d , providing a d e l t a V m o d e h a s been s e l e c t e d and the t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is r o t a t e d CW into d e t e n t . T h i s r e m o v e s all n o r m a l i n p u t s i n t o t h e TVC s e r v o l o o p s , a l l o w s c o m m a n d e d inputs f r o m t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , and r a t e d a t a f r o m t h e BMAGs in backupr a t e condition, into t h e r e d u n d a n t No. 2 s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s and m o t o r No. 2 of t h e g i m b a l a c t p a t o r s . T h i s p r o v i d e s r a t e - s t a b i l i z e d m a n u a l c o n t r o l of t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r . T h r u s t - o n is i n i t i a t e d by t h e m o m e n t a r y t h r u s t - o n s w i t c h l o c a t e d on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y .
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SM2A-03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA T h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l m u s t b e h e l d t o a given d i s p l a c e m e n t t o c o n t r o l the g i m b a l s a b o u t t h e initial trim p o s i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e s e t t i n g s of t h e AS/GPI. T h e C P I p r o v i d e s the only indication of t h e position of the g i m b a l a n g l e s with r e s p e c t to the S I C body axes. 2. 3 . 3 FLIGHT CONTROL P R O F I L E S . T h e r e a r e t h r e e b a s i c flight c o n t r o l p r o f i l e s a s s o c i a t e d with m i s s i o n AS204A. T h e s e include powered flight, c o a s t i n g flight, a n d e n t r y . Within t h e s e p r o f i l e s , v a r i o u s m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n a r e e s t a b l i s h e d e i t h e r within the a t m o s p h e r e o r in e a r t h o r b i t a l e n v i r o n m e n t . B e c a u s e of t h e d i v i s i o n of p o w e r e d flight, i . e . , a s c e n t a n d e a r t h o r b i t a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s divided as follows:
0 0
0

A s c e n t (including a b o r t s ) Coasting f l i g h t ( e a r t h o r b i t a l ) P o w e r e d flight ( e a r t h o r b i t a l ) E n t r y ( n o n p o w e r e d a t m o s p h e r i c flight).

A s t h e v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s a r e d i s c u s s e d , r e f e r e n c e will b e m a d e t o f i g u r e s 2. 3-4, 2. 3-5, and 2. 3-6. A t y p i c a l c o n t r o l channel yaw i s shown in f i g u r e 2 . 3-4, s h e e t 2 ; t h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n c e s not t y p i c a l to t h e yaw c h a n n e l will be c l a r i f i e d .

It s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t r e l a y s in f i g u r e s 2. 3-4, 2. 3-5, and 2. 3-7 a r e n o t r e l a y s of t h e a c t u a l s y s t e m b y n u m b e r . However, t h e r e l a y n o m e n c l a ture is s y s t e m o r i e n t e d a n d m a y be c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d b y u s i n g t h e following chart.

F i g . 2. 3-4, 2. 3-5, 2.3-7 Relays

Function

S CS S y s t e m Relay

K1 K2 K3

ORBIT R A T E FDAI ALIGN

'

G & N ROLL, P I T C H , YAW A T T SIN AND COS

K4

AGCU CAGED

K5

AGCU ALIGN

24A14K3 24A14K1 24A14K2 22A 16A3K4 22A16A3K6 22A17A3K4 22A17A3K6 2 2A18A 3K4 22A18A 3K6 22A8K1 22A8K2 22A8K4 22A8K5 22A8K6 22A8K7

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SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

F i g . 2. 3-4, 2.3-5, 2. 3-7 R e l a y s

SYSTEMS DATA

Function

SCS S y s t e m Relay

K6 K7

K8 K9

AG CU P / Y ERROR R G & N ERR/AGCU INH G & N P ERR Y ERR G & N BODY G & N P , Y, E R R S . F . ROLL, P I T C H , YAW ERR AGAA MONITOR t G & N AV t G & N A T T CONTR t G & N ENTRY t. 05G MANUAL t t YAW B / U R A T E R O L L , P I T C H , YAW, B / U RATE

20A3K3 21A3K3 2 2A20A 3K 1 22A21A3K1 2 2A2 O 3K4 A 22122 1A3K4 22A2 3A3K2

K10

K11

M T V C R T OUT

K12

R O L L , P I T C H , YAW RATE Y/P RT SF R - Y R T CPLG R T IN TRANS

K13 K14 K15

K16

ENT GAIN

K17 K18 K19 K20 K21 K22 K23

K24

G & N A T T IN AGAA A T T IN D-B CHG R J C ATT SW G & N MIN IMP ENABLE P S U E D O R T CO R CS LATCHING RELAY ARMED ( J E T DVRS ENABLED) SAFE ( J E T D V R S DISABLED) 1 . 8 S E C LATCH

2 2A9K 1 22A9K2 22A13K1 22A13K2 22A11K1 22A11K2 22A9K 3 22A11K3 22A12K3 22A23A3 22A20A3 22A21A3K 22A22A3 23A11K2 2 3A 19K 1 23A19K1 19A26K 1 23A15K 1 23A15K2 23A17K2 23A19K2 23A19K3 23A15K3 23A11K1 23A13K 23A13K MESC Z19

MESC 2 8

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SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-SYSTEMS DATA

Fig. 2. 3-4, 2. 3-5, 2. 3-7 R e l a y s
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Function

SCS S y s t e m Relay

K25 K26 K27 K28 K29 K30 K31 K32 K33 K34 K35 K36 K38

MAIN DEPLOY AUTO CONT INTER ENG IGN S Y S GRD CK SCS AV MODE ENG IGN MTVC ENGAGE T V C E L E C TRANS SERVO NO. 1 DISENGAGE S E R V O NO. 2 ENGAGE ENTRY AV INH THRUST O N LAMP

MESC 2 1 2 23A11K3 23A2 1K2 2 3A2 1K 3 23A21K1 23A27K 1 23A18K2 23A25K1 2 3A 14K 1 23A18K 1 22A8K8 22A21A3K6 22A2QA3K6

2. 3. 3 . 1

Ascent. D u r i n g t h e a s c e n t p h a s e , capability e x i s t s f o r monitoring boost vehicle stability. T h e SCS is i n a m o n i t o r m o d e with all s u b s y s t e m s a c t i v e , but s u p p l i e s no a c t i v e c o m m a n d s f o r c o n t r o l p u r p o s e s f o r t h e f i r s t 61 s e c onds of flight. A f t e r 61 s e c o n d s , if a b o r t s a r e r e q u i r e d , t h e SCS w i l l b e used to supply s i g n a l s f o r S / C s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l .

2 . 3. 3 . 1. 1

Monitor Mode. T h e m o n i t o r m o d e p r o v i d e s the capability of monitoring deviations f r o m p r o g r a m m e d launch vehicle a t t i t u d e p r i o r t o S-IB s e p a r a t i o n and CSM a t t i t u d e a f t e r S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n . T h e S-IVB u t i l i z e s a d i f f e r e n t guida n c e technique and monitoring C / M i n s t r u m e n t s r e l a t i v e t o S-IVB o p e r a t i o n p r o v i d e s no useful p u r p o s e . Monitor mode a l s o , p r o v i d e s rate stabilization, when r e q u i r e d , a n y t i m e d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n . N o r m a l Ascent. At time of launch, RCS latching r e l a y s i n t h e SECS s y s t e m w i l l b e open t o inhibit c o m m a n d s to t h e RCS j e t s . R e l a y s K4 and K 5 w i l l b e c l o s e d , providing BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop, The FDAI will b e following IMU g i m b a l a n g l e c h a n g e s . T h e m o t o r - d r i v e n switch 5 ( f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 7 ) i s set t o t h e S / M position when t h e REACTON CONTROL SYS-TRANS C / M - S / M s w i t c h on M D G 16 is set to S / M .

-

Total a t t i t u d e and a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e IMU and i n e r t i a l CDU ( f i g u r e 2 . 3-4, s h e e t 1) a r e applied t o t h e FDAI through r e l a y s K3, K7, and K8, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s r e p r e s e n t deviations f r o m t h e t r a j e c t o r y f o r t h e f i r s t s t a g e b o o s t e r only. T h e SCS r a t e g y r o s apply a t t i t u d e r a t e s t o t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s d i r e c t l y and t o t h e FDAI via r e l a y K12. STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-44

SMZA - 0 3 -SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

.SYSTEMS DATA T h e X - a x i s a c c e l e r o m e t e r will be a c t i v e . but i t s output w i l l b e u s e d only if a n a b o r t d e l t a V is r e q u i r e d . T h e TVC s u b s y s t e m is a c t i v a t e d t o hold t h e SPS engine t h r u s t v e c t o r t h r o u g h t h e c . g. i n t h e event of a n SPS a b o r t , and to k e e p t h e n o z z l e c e n t e r e d and s t a t i o n a r y within t h e a d a p t e r . T h e SPS engine g i m b a l s a r e aligned t o null o f f s e t ( p i t c h to. 4 d e g r e e s and yaw t3. 6 d e g r e e s ) p r i o r t o launch. Q u i e c s e n t c u r r e n t on t h e g i m b a l motor clutches maintains these angles during ascent. LES A b o r t . If a n LES a b o r t is i n i t i a t e d ( 6 1 s e c o n d s o r m o r e a f t e r lift-off) r e q u i r i n g SCS o p e r a t i o n , t h e SCS is enabled one second a f t e r LES ignition. T h e SCS is enabled by t h e a r m i n g of t h e RCS l a t c h i n g r e l a y s i n t h e SECS, and t h e S / M - C / M t r a n s f e r s w i t c h w i l l b e d r i v e n t o t h e C / M p o s i t i o n . T h e RCS l a t c h i n g r e l a y w i l l open by t h e o p e r a t i o n of a b a r o m e t r i c s w i t c h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 4 , 0 0 0 f e e t d u r i n g d e s c e n t and w i l l d i s a b l e a c t i v e c o m m a n d s to t h e C / M RCS. B e s i d e s r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n , s p e c i f i c c o m m a n d inputs t o t h e SCS above 24, 000 f e e t w i l l depend on a l t i t u d e and o t h e r f a c t o r s .

SPS A b o r t . An SPS a b o r t would be i n i t i a t e d a f t e r t h e LES j e t t i s o n . T h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is r o t a t e d CCW i n t o d e t e n t and t h e switch c l o s u r e will c a u s e t h e MESC t o c o m m a n d a tX t r a n s l a t i o n ( s e p a r a t i o n u l l a g e ) via t h e d i r e c t c o i l s of t h e S / M RCS. T h e d i r e c t c o i l s a r e a c t i v a t e d t h r o u g h t h e RCS t r a n s f e r switch.
B e f o r e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e S-IVB, a d e l t a V m o d e m u s t b e s e l e c t e d . F o r a n S P S a b o r t , a l i g n m e n t of t h e S P S engine g i m b a l s is not r e q u i r e d s i n c e t h e y w e r e p r e s e t p r i o r t o l a u n c h and no p r o p e l l a n t h a s b e e n c o n s u m e d . At s e p a r a t i o n , a n a b o r t c a n b e m a d e i n t o e a r t h o r b i t o r to a d o w n r a n g e landing s i t e .
2 . 3. 3 . 2

Coasting F l i g h t ( E a r t h O r b i t a l ) . T h e c o a s t i n g flight p r o f i l e r a n g e s f r o m a f r e e - d r i f t c o n f i g u r a t i o n (no c o n t r o l ) t o m o n i t o r mode ( p a s s i v e ) to a t t i t u d e hold ( a c t i v e c o n t r o l ) . T h e following p a r a g r a p h s d e s c r i b e t h e v a r i o u s m o d e s r e l a t i v e to t h e e a r t h orbital environment.

2. 3. 3 . 2. 1

G&N Attitude C o n t r o l . G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l w i l l p r o v i d e i n e r t i a l l y s t a b i l i z e d a t t i t u d e by utilizing t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e and a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m s . Attitude d a t a is obtained f r o m the i n e r t i a l l y r e f e r e n c e d IMU. R e l a y s K4 and K5 p r o v i d e BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop so t h a t if SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is s e l e c t e d , t h e AGCU will h a v e t h e s a m e r e f e r e n c e as t h e IMU f o r c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y purposes. Attitude e r r o r s f r o m t h e i n e r t i a l CDU t h r o u g h r e l a y s K7 and K8 a r e applied to t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s f o r a t t i t u d e e r r o r d i s p l a y , and to p r o v i d e a t t i t u d e c o r r e c t i o n s . T h e e r r o r s f r o m t h e CDU a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e IMU g i m b a l a n g l e s and t h e c o m m a n d e d output of t h e AGC. Total a t t i t u d e f r o m t h e IMU is applied t o t h e FDAI via r e l a y K 3 . T h e STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

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SYSTEMS DATA a t t i t u d e r a t e s f r o m t h e SCS r a t e g y r o and r e l a y K12 will d r i v e t h e FDA1 r a t e i n d i c a t o r a t a s c a l e r a n g e of *1 d e g r e e / s e c o n d . T h e m a x i m u m deadband l i m i t is n o r m a l l y s e t f o r G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . If navigation s i g h t i n g s a r e r e q u i r e d , t h e m i n i m u m deadband m a y b e s e l e c t e d . T h e G&N s y s t e m and S C S a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m will m a i n t a i n a t t i t u d e within t h e s e l e c t e d deadband l i m i t s . Maneuvering. A u t o m a t i c m a n e u v e r s m a y b e executed by i n s e r t i n g c o m m a n d s into t h e AGC via t h e DSKY. T h e S / C w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y maneuvei t o t h e c o m p u t e r - c o m m a n d e d attitude. T h e SCS will follow t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l i n p u t s f r o m t h e CDU i n r e s p o n s e t o AGC inputs f o r m a n e u v e r i n g t o t h e c o m m a n d e d attitude. Manual m a n e u v e r s c a n be commanded with o r without a t t i t u d e hold. I n G&N m o d e , r e l a y K l 8 ( f i g u r e 2 . 3-7) is open. R e l a y K17 is c l o s e d . R e l a y K18 i n h i b i t s Bh4AG inputs and allows G&N a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s into t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic f o r t h e a t t i t u d e hold function. When t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l is d i s p l a c e d , t h e b r e a k o u t s w i t c h e s open K17, inhibiting G&N s i g n a l s and allowing p r o p o r t i o n a l c o m m a n d ( r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l p l u s r a t e g y r o ) s i g n a l s i n t o t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic. When t h e c o n t r o l is r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l , r e l a y K17 c l o s e s and t h e G&N a t t i t u d e hold function i s r e s t o r e d , p r o v i d e d G&N s y n c is a c t i v e . T r a n s l a t i o n i n all a x e s c a n b e c o m m a n d e d .by t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l . A s shown i n f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 5 , s w i t c h c l o s u r e s within t h e c o n t r o l apply c o m m a n d s i g n a l s d i r e c t l y t o t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic a n d , s u b s e q u e n t l y , t o t h e a u t o RCS c o i l s . Attitude hold is a n o r m a l function when t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e initiated, u s i n g t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l . T h e d i r e c t ullage s w i t c h on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y is a backup f o r tX t r a n s l a t i o n s . When t h i s s w i t c h is a c t i v a t e d , t h e signal is applied d i r e c t l y t o t h e RCS d i r e c t c o i l s . Attitude hold i s not a function of d i r e c t ullage. Attitude i m p u l s e c o n t r o l ( p a n e l 105, L E B ) is a m a n u a l c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t y f o r G&N and SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e s only. E a c h d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e c o n t r o l ( f i g u r e 2 . 13-4, s h e e t 3 ) p r o v i d e s a n output a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e c o m m a n d t o two RCS engines f o r a d u r a t i o n of 18*4 m s . T h e p u l s e s c o m m a n d body a n g u l a r r a t e s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 a r c m i n / s e c .

2 . 3 . 3. 2 . 2

G&N L o c a l V e r t i c a l . T h e G&N l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e is a n e x t e n s i o n of G & N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . T h e p u r p o s e of t h i s m o d e of o p e r a t i o n i s t o a c c u r a t e l y m a i n t a i n t h e S / C X-axis a t a fixed a n g l e with r e s p e c t t o t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l ( r e l a t i v e to t h e e a r t h s u r f a c e ) while m a i n t a i n i n g t h e S / C Y-axis n o r m a l t o t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e . T h e G&N l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e is a n AGC-commanded function. A c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m (not a v a i l a b l e f o r AS204A m i s s i o n ) is c a l l e d by t h e a s t r o n a u t by DSKY e n t r y . A f t e r IMU a l i g n m e n t , w i t h t h e S / C X - a x i s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of the d e s i r e d orbital path, the computer p r o g r a m provides a n orbit r a t e STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

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-_ SYSTEMS DATA s o u r c e t o c o m m a n d t o r q u i n g of t h e IMU at a r a t e t h a t w i l l m a i n t a i n t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l attitude. T h i s m o d e m a y b e used t o m a k e navigational s i g h t i n g s of e a r t h l a n d m a r k s by keeping t h e G&N o p t i c s within t h e a r e a of t h e e a r t h surface.

2. 3 . 3 . 2 . 3

SCS Attitude Control. SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e w i l l hold t h e S / C a t a n i n e r t i a l - r e f e r e n c e d a t t i t u d e and w i l l limit S / C d r i f t to t h e s e l e c t e d deadband limits, n o r m a l l y , *5 d e g r e e s i n e a r t h o r b i t . If SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is s e l e c t e d a f t e r a G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l function, t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m is aligned t o t h e IMU (BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop). If not, a n FDAI/AGCU a l i g n function i s required. When SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is s e l e c t e d , G&N inputs a r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . T h e following r e l a y c o n t a c t s ( f i g u r e 2 . 3-4, s h e e t 2 ) a r e a c t i v a t e d t o supply S C S - g e n e r a t e d c o m m a n d s f o r d i s p l a y and control purposes.
0 0 0

0

Relay Relay Relay Relay

K4 open-FDA1 b a l l s t a t i o n a r y K12-Applies body r a t e s to FDAI K 3 c l o s e d to AGCU-Applies attitude e r r o r s to FDAI K11B-Applies a t t i t u d e e r r o r s to SCS e l e c t r o n i c s

FDAI/AGCU Align. If t h e ACCU h a s not been aligned t o t h e IMU o r if a new a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e is d e s i r e d while i n SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e , t h e astronaut w i l l determine S / C attitude f r o m s t a r sightings o r f r o m the M S F N . I n e r t i a l a n g l e s a r e d i a l e d i n t o t h e A S / G P I with t h e ATTITUDE SET d i a l s aad t h e FDAI ALIGN pushbutton is p r e s s e d . R e l a y K2 c l o s e s and t h e AGCU and FDAI b a l l w i l l d r i v e t o t h e s e l e c t e d attitude. Manual M a n e u v e r s . A f t e r AGCU r e f e r e n c e h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e S I C c a n b e m a n e u v e r e d t o t h e d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e by flying out t h e e r r o r s , using CSS. T h e A T T S E T / O F F switch is a c t i v a t e d , r e l a y K23 is a c t i v a t e d , t h e RCS l a t c h i n g r e l a y s a r e c l o s e d t o t h e S / M RCS, r e l a y s K6 and K9 c l o s e , and K20 w i l l open. Attitude e r r o r , equal to t h e d i f f e r e n c e between ATTITUDE S E T d i a l p o s i t i o n and AGCU r e s o l v e r s h a f t p o s i t i o n , is then applied to t h e FDAI f r o m t h e AGCU t h r o u g h K6. Attitude e r r o r f r o m t h e BMAG i s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e FDAI when K9 a c t i v a t e s . When t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l i s moved out of d e t e n t , CSS c o m m a n d s a r e applied through t h e ACS to t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c and a u t o c o i l s of t h e RCS e n g i n e s . At t h e s a m e t i m e , r e l a y s K4 and K5 c l o s e providing BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop, T h e BMAGs follow S / C r o t a t i o n and r e p o s i t i o n s t h e FDAI ball. When t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l is r e t u r n e d t o n e u t r a l , t h e BMAG/AGCU loop i s opened, r e l a y s K4 and K 5 open, and t h e new a t t i t u d e w i l l hold within t h e s e l e c t e d d e ad band.

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SMZA -03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK -..SYSTEMS DATA When t h e ATT S E T / O F F s w i t c h i s O F F , r e l a y s K6 and K9 d e - e n e r g i z e and a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e BMAGs a r e now applied t o t h e FDAI and ACS. If f u r t h e r a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s a r e d e s i r e d , they c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d by u s i n g CSS. T h e BMAGIAGCU loop w i l l b e c l o s e d , and opened when t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l i s r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l . T h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r n e e d l e s will i n d i c a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e AGCU and t h e S I C attitude. T h e e r r o r n e e d l e s a r e f l y - t o n e e d l e s and w i l l be a t full s c a l e if t h e e r r o r is g r e a t e r than 5 d e g r e e s . To f l y out t h e e r r o r , t h e a s t r o n a u t m u s t f l y - t o t h e n e e d l e s o r u s e t h e FDAI b a l l m a r k i n g s until t h e n e e d l e s c o m e off full s c a l e , and t h e n f l y - t o t h e n e e d l e t o null t h e r e m a i n i n g e r r o r . F r e e D r i f t . F r e e d r i f t is n o r m a l l y used d u r i n g extended p e r i o d s of t i m e when p o w e r and RCS p r o p e l l a n t c o n s e r v a t i o n i s d e s i r e d . F r e e d r i f t c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d i n e i t h e r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e by placing t h e SCS CHANNEL s w i t c h e s t o O F F , inhibiting all c o m m a n d s i g n a l s t o t h e RCS a u t o c o i l s . With a n SCS a t t i t u d e m o d e s e l e c t e d and a n SCS CHANNEL s w i t c h to O F F ( P I T C H o r YAW o r A&C R O L L and B&D R O L L ) , r e l a y a c t i o n c l o s e s t h e BMAG/AGCU loop and u p d a t e s t h e ARS while d r i f t i n g . However, if one Bh4AG is p l a c e d i n backup r a t e and a channel s w i t c h is off, r e l a y a c t i o n r a t e c a g e s t h e r e m a i n i n g BMAGs and opens t h e BMAG/AGCU loop, t h u s , p r e v e n t i n g t h e ARS f r o m being updated. 2.3. 3.2.4

SCS L o c a l V e r t i c a l . SCS l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e is a n e x t e n s i o n of SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . Its p u r p o s e is t o m a i n t a i n S I C a t t i t u d e with r e s p e c t t o t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l . When t h e L C L V E R T P o F F s w i t c h on MDC-8 is s e t t o L C L VERT, r e l a y K1 e n e r g i z e s and a n o r b i t r a t e s o u r c e with a p r e s e t l e v e l is applied t o t h e BMAGI AGCU s e r v o loop. At p r e s e n t , t h e p r e s e t l e v e l e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e o r b i t r a t e s o u r c e i s m o s t a c c u r a t e f o r a 100-n m i c i r c u l a r o r b i t and w i l l m a i n t a i n t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m at t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l with t o r q u e r a t e s of 246 d e g r e e s / h o u r , o r 4 . 1 d e g r e e s l m i n u t e . It w i l l m a i n t a i n a n a p p r o x i m a t e a t t i t u d e when t h e AGCU i s aligned t o r e p r e s e n t S / C a t t i t u d e when t h e S I C X Z p l a n e is p a r a l l e l t o t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e a t t h e t i m e L C L VERT is s e l e c t e d . All t h r e e RCS c h a n n e l s m u s t b e enabled fof t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e . Modifications of t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l a t t i t u d e c a n b e m a d e using CSS. T h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is a l s o a c t i v e and a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g this m o d e of o p e r a t i o n

2. 3 . 3 . 3

Powered Flight (Earth Orbital). P o w e r e d flight i n c l u d e s t h o s e m o d e s that p r o v i d e t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r velocity c h a n g e s using t h e SPS engine. Included i n t h e following d i s c u s s i o n a r e t h e G&N d e l t a V, SCS d e l t a V, and t h e m a n u a l d e l t a V m o d e s .

2. 3. 3. 3. 1

C&N D e l t a V.

G & N d e l t a V mode is t h e n o r m a l m e t h o d . f o r velocity c h a n g e s . P r i o r t o engine ignition, h o w e v e r , G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e m u s t b e e s t a b l i s h e d .

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SMZA-03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA S y s t e m r e l a y s apply t h e following (G&N/SCS switch on MDC-8 s e t t o G&N and ATTITUDE/MONITOR/ENTRY s w i t c h set t o ATTITUDE ( f i g u r e 2. 3-5, s h e e t 1) ):
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R e l a y K 7 a n d K8-Attitude e r r o r f r o m CDUs t o FDAI R e l a y K9-Attitude e r r o r f r o m CDUs t o SCS e l e c t r o n i c s R e l a y K3-Total attitude f r o m IMU to FDAI ball Body r a t e s t o FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s RCS latching r e l a y in MESC c l o s e d t o RCS s y s t e m

T h e FCSM-SCS - R E S E T / OVERRIDE a n d G&N-RESET / OVERRIDE s w i t c h e s on MDC-2 m a y b e set t o SCS and G&N positions. T h e s e s w i t c h e s p r o v i d e a n a u t o m a t i c m o n i t o r i n g of SPS engine c o m b u s t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . If rough combustion o c c u r s , t h e S P S ROUGH E C O warning light on MDC- 10 w i l l light and engine t h r u s t will t e r m i n a t e . A r e s t a r t c a n b e m a d e by r e s e t t i n g t h e FCSM s w i t c h e s and then setting t h e m b a c k to SCS and G&N. O r , t h e m o n i t o r c a n b e b y p a s s e d by s e t t i n g the FCSM s w i t c h e s t o RESET/OVERRIDE. Attitude i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e IMU is displayed on t h e FDAI ball. Attitude e r r o r s f r o m t h e CDUs a r e a l s o applied t o t h e FDAI ( f 5 - d e g r e e s c a l e ) a n d a r e u s e d by t h e SCS t o c o n t r o l a t t i t u d e i n r e s p o n s e t o AGC c o m m a n d s . Rotational rates a r e displayed by t h e FDAI rate i n d i c a t o r s with a s c a l e r a n g e of 55 d e g r e e s / s e c o n d . T h e c o m p u t e r - c o n t r o l l e d velocity change w i l l b e m o n i t o r e d on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y . T h e r e q u i r e d velocity l e s s tailoff will b e set i n t o t h e delta V d i s p l a y by t h e AV S E T switch, using velocity i n f o r m a t i o n obtained f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m o r MSFN. M i n i m u m deadband is s e t on MDC-8, t h e g i m b a l m o t o r s w i t c h e s , and t h e i n j e c t p r e - v a l v e s w i t c h e s on MDC-3 a r e a c t i v a t e d . T h e S P S g i m b a l trim a n g l e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d , set into t h e A S / G P I by t h e g i m b a l position thumbwheels, and gimbal position verified on t h e GPI. T h e NORMAL/OFF/DIRECT switch on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y is set t o n o r m a l . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 s e c o n d s p r i o r t o ignition, a f t e r the digital event t i m e r (MDC-5 and 8 ) h a s b e e n set f o r countdown, t h e a s t r o n a u t will c o m m a n d a tX u l l a g e using t h e t r a n s l a t i o n control. At T = 0, t h e AGC will c o m m a n d a signal through t h e t h r u s t on-off logic and enable t h e solenoid d r i v e r s of the TVC s u b s y s t e m . T h e solenoid d r i v e r s will t h e n a c t i v a t e t h e S P S engine ignition c o i l s and SPS t h r u s t i n g w i l l o c c u r . T h e l a m p portion of t h e THRUST ON switch on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y will light, verifying t h e automatic computer command. S y s t e m delay.(AUTO CONT INTER) logic will t e r m i n a t e the RCS ullage a p p r o x i m a t e l y one second after SPS ignition. T h e c o m p u t e r will c o m m a n d pitch and yaw attitude of the SPS g i m b a l s via the TVC to c o n t r o l the t h r u s t v e c t o r . R o l l c o m m a n d s will be applied t o the r o l l RCS during the maneuver.

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SM2A -03-SCO12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA When t h e d e l t a V r e m a i n i n g c o u n t e r i n d i c a t e s z e r o , t h r u s t i n g will t e r m i n a t e and the THRUST ON light will g o out. T h e N O R M A L / O F F / DIRECT ON switch will be s e t t o O F F a n d the SPS m o t o r s w i t c h e s , i n j e c t p r e - v a l v e s , and t h e T V C e l e c t r o n i c s will b e de-activated. Approximately one s e c o n d a f t e r t h r u s t t e r m i n a t e s , pitch and yaw c o n t r o l i s t r a n s f e r r e d b a c k t o the SCS f o r the attitude c o n t r o l function. If a malfunction o c c u r s during t h e m a n e u v e r , a s w i t c h o v e r t o SCS d e l t a V will allow continuation of t h e velocity change. If t h e r e is no r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l a t ullage initiation, the DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton on the d e l t a V d i s p l a y m a y b e u s e d f o r the ullage m a n e u v e r p r i o r to ignition of the S P S engine. A l s o , i f a u t o m a t i c t h r u s t - o n d o e s n o t o c c u r at T = 0 , t h e THRUST ON pushbutton on the d e l t a V d i s p l a y will provide engine ignition.
2. 3 . 3 . 3. 2

SCS Delta V.

SCS d e l t a V m o d e i s a p r i m a r y backup f o r the G&N d e l t a V. P r e l i m i n a r y t o engine ignition, SCS attitude c o n t r o l i s e s t a b l i s h e d b y setting t h e G & N / S C S switch on MDC-8 to SCS. A f t e r SPS engine ignition, the S C S u s e s S / M RCS r o l l jets to m a i n t a i n r o l l attitude and applies c o m m a n d s to t h e SPS engine g i m b a l s to c o n t r o l the t h r u s t v e c t o r . R e l a y s in f i g u r e 2. 3 - 4 apply t h e following (RCS latching r e l a y in t h e SECS i s closed t o the S / M RCS throughout the m a n e u v e r ) :
,

R e l a y s K9 and K10-Attitude e r r o r s f r o m BMAGs t o FDAI R e l a y K11B- Attitude e r r o r s f r o m BMAGs t o SCS e l e c t r o n i c s R e l a y s K 4 and K 5 open-FDA1 b a l l s t a t i o n a r y Body r a t e s t o FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s (RGA).

The c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y activation p r o c e s s t h a t w a s p e r f o r m e d f o r the G & N d e l t a V will be p e r f o r m e d f o r SCS d e l t a V . T h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a s follows: Control of attitude and the t h r u s t v e c t o r is through t h e SCS.
0

A t T = 0 , ignition is initiated m a n u a l l y b y p r e s s i n g the THRUST O N pushbutton on the d e l t a V display. T h r u s t i s t e r m i n a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y when the AV r e m a i n i n g counter ( d e l t a V pot. ) indicates z e r o .

As in the G & N d e l t a V mode, if t h e r e q u i r e d c o m m a n d r e s p o n s e s to not o c c u r , the s a m e backup c o n t r o l s c a n be u s e d to p e r f o r m the d e l t a V .

.. .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
2.3-50
,

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA In SCS d e l t a V mode, if engine ignition d o e s not o c c u r when t h e THRUST O N switch i s p r e s s e d , t h e N O R M A L / O F F / D I R E C T ON s w i t c h c a n be s e t t o DIRECT ON. T h i s a p p l i e s a c o m m a n d s i g n a l d i r e c t l y t o t h e SPS engine ignition c o i l s and w i l l i n i t i a t e t h r u s t i n g . The N O R M A L / O F F / D I R E C T ON switch m u s t be s e t t o O F F t o t e r m i n a t e engine t h r u s t . 2. 3 . 3 . 3 . 3 Manual D e l t a V (MTVC). A m a n u a l d e l t a V will b e p e r f o r m e d only a s a backup t o a G&N o r SCS d e l t a V. Manual t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l is initiated by a CW r o t a t i o n of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l into d e t e n t . At t h i s t i m e , r e l a y s K4 and K5 will c l o s e , providing r a t e caging of a l l t h r e e BMAGs; and r e l a y s K10 and K l l B w i l l open r e m o v i n g r a t e g y r o outputs f r o m t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . T h e r a t e - c a g e d BMAGs through r e l a y and K12 w i l l switch BMAG b a c k u p - r a t e s i g n a l s into t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . In t h e G&N and SCS d e l t a V m o d e s , T V C s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s No. 1 and SPS gimbal d r i v e m o t o r No. 1 was u s e d . When MTVC i s i n i t i a t e d , r e l a y s K32, K33, and K34 a c t i v a t e . T h i s c l o s e s t h e s e r v o loop f o r c o m m a n d i n g SPS gimbal d r i v e m o t o r No. 2 . Gimbal t r i m c o m m a n d s a r e applied through r e l a y K31. When t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l is moved out of d e t e n t , pitch and yaw c o m m a n d s a r e applied t o m o t o r No. 2 through r e l a y K31 and gimbal position feedback is t h r o u g h r e l a y K32. T h e s u m m a t i o n of backup r a t e and p r o p o r t i a n a l CSS c o m m a n d s into t h e TVC p r o v i d e s a r a t e - d a m p e d m a n u a l c o n t r o l of t h e engine g i m b a l s . T h e a s t r o n a u t m u s t keep t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l a t a given d i s p l a c e m e n t t o k e e p t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r t h r o u g h t h e c . g. and t o fly t h e c o r r e c t t r a j e c t o r y .

If CW s w i t c h e s of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l a r e engaged while i n G & N d e l t a V, G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , o r G & N e n t r y m o d e , a t t i t u d e e r r o r s a r e not r e m o v e d f r o m t h e FDAI. T h i s allows t h e a s t r o n a u t t o monitor and, if n e c e s s a r y , fly a G & N p r o g r a m m e d m a n e u v e r using CSS.
2. 3.3.4 Entry. T h e e n t r y p r o f i l e c o n s i s t s of t h e v a r i o u s methods of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e S / C f o r t h e e n t r y p h a s e of t h e m i s s i o n . T h e e n t r y mode i s n o r m a l l y s e l e c t e d a f t e r S / M - C / M s e p a r a t i o n . At s e p a r a t i o n , t h e m o t o r - d r i v e n RCS t r a n s f e r s w i t c h e s a r e c l o s e d to t h e C / M RCS. 2. 3. 3.4. 1 G&N E n t r y , G&N manual m o d e is t h e p r i m a r y method of c o n t r o l f o r e n t r y into the a t m o s p h e r e f o r the AS204A m i s s i o n . Automatic e n t r y m a y be u s e d in l i e u of G & N manual mode.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date
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SM2A -03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA C & N Manual. This is n o r m a l l y a backup f o r the G & N e n t r y a u t o m a t i c mode. T h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is r o t a t e d C W i n t o d e t e n t . T h i s r e m o v e s i n e r t i a l CDU a t t i t u d e e r r o r s f r o m t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . N o r m a l l y , t h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l c a l l up t h e e n t r y p r o g r a m via t h e DSKY s h o r t l y a f t e r S/M- C/ M separation. T h e e n t r y a n g l e , r e q u i r e d pullout a n g l e , and o t h e r r e q u i r e d e n t r y d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d on t h e c o m p u t e r d i s p l a y s . T h e a s t r o n a u t c a n m a n u a l l y p e r f o r m a c o n t r o l l e d g - l e v e l e n t r y by u s i n g CSS t o fly out t h e commanded a t t i t u d e e r r o r s d i s p l a y e d on t h e FDAI. T h e BMAG/AGCU h a s b e e n c l o s e d l o o p f o r backup r e f e r e n c e i n c a s e s w i t c h o v e r is n e c e s s a r y . A f t e r . 05 g, a e r o d y n a m i c f o r c e s build up sufficiently t o s t a b i l i z e the S / C i n t h e p i t c h and yaw axes. At t h i s t i m e , CSS will b e effective i n t h e r o l l c h a n n e l only. The SCS w i l l r a t e - d a m p t h e pitch and yaw c h a n n e l s , and t h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l h a v e s t e e r i n g c a p a b i l i t y by using r o l l CSS t o c o n t r o l t h e lift vector. A u t o m a t i c E n t r y . The FDAI r a t e d i s p l a y s c a l e r a n g e c h a n g e s to *25 d e g r e e s / s e c o n d i n r o l l , and *5 d e g r e e s / s e c o n d in p i t c h and yaw. Deadband i s m a x i m u m . T h e r a t e deadband is * 2 d e g r e e s / s e c . P r i o r t o . 05 C switching, a t t i t u d e e r r o r f r o m t h e i n e r t i a l CDUs is applied t o t h e FDAI e r r o r i n d i c a t o r through r e l a y s K7 and K8, and t o t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s through r e l a y K9. T h e RGA a p p l i e s r a t e g y r o body r a t e s t o t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . R e l a y K3 a p p l i e s total a t t i t u d e t o t h e FDAI ball. At . 0 5 g, t h e . 0 5 G E N T R Y / O F F s w i t c h on MDC-8 is s e t t o ,051 C ENTRY. T h e SCS pitch and yaw c h a n n e l s p e r f o r m r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n only. T h e r o l l c h a n n e l is still s u b j e c t t o c o m p u t e r - c o n t r o l l e d r o l l c o m m a n d s . T h e AGC w i l l fly t h e S / C a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d e n t r y p r o g r a m .

2. 3. 3 . 4 . 2

SCS E n t r y .
T h e SCS e n t r y mode is a p r i m a r y backup to G & N e n t r y mode. When s e l e c t e d , total a t t i t u d e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e FDAI i s supplied throughout t h e e n t r y . P r i o r to . 0 5 g, t h e BMACs apply a t t i t u d e e r r o r s to t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s through r e l a y s K3 and K9. After . 0 5 g, r e l a y s K3 and K9 r e m o v e a t t i t u d e e r r o r s f r o m t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . R e l a y s K 4 and K5 c l o s e , providing BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop. F o r t h e r e m a i n d e r of e n t r y , a t t i t u d e e r r o r s a r e not d i s p l a y e d . T h e r e i s no a t t i t u d e hold c a p a b i l i t y . The r a t e gyros, however, provide r a t e signals for r a t e stabilization. The SCS e l e c t r o n i c s i n c r e a s e r a t e s t o a 2 - d e g r e e / s e c o n d r a t e deadband. T h e FDAI d i s p l a y s t o t a l attitude. T h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l i n i t i a t e t h e n e c e s s a r y c o m m a n d s u s i n g CSS t o fly a c o n t r o l l e d g - l e v e l e n t r y . After a e r o d y n a m i c s s t a b i l i t y i n p i t c h and yaw, s t e e r i n g c a p a b i l i t y will b e in t h e r o l l channel only.

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SM2A -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

If, a f t e r . 05 g, i t is n e c e s s a r y t o p l a c e a B U G i n backup r a t e , only t h e BMAG s e l e c t e d by t h e r a t e g y r o s e l e c t switch w i l l have i t s inputs in t h e SCS f o r r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n . When backup r a t e is s e l e c t e d , r e l a y s K9, K10, K12, and K15 a c t i v a t e , providing backup r a t e t o t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . L o s s of FDAI b a l l r e f e r e n c e w i l l o c c u r . R e l a y K12 r e m o v e s r a t e g y r o output f r o m t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . T h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l c o n t r o l t h e l i f t v e c t o r with t h e CSS r o l l c h a n n e l . If they w i s h t o d e c r e a s e t h e g l e v e l , they w i l l r o l l t h e S / C to keep t h e lift v e c t o r up. If they w i s h to i n c r e a s e t h e g level, they w i l l r o l l t h e S / C so t h a t t h e l i f t v e c t o r is down.
2.3.4

M A J O R COMPONENT/ SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION
T h e SCS c o n s i s t s of t h e following m a j o r components:
0

R a t e g y r o a s s e m b l y (RGA) Attitude g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y (AGAA) P i t c h e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y (pitch ECA) Roll e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y ( r o l l ECA)

0

0

0

Yaw e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y (yaw ECA) A u x i l i a r y e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y ( a u x ECA) D i s p l a y and a t t i t u d e g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y (DISPLAY-AGAA ECA) Rotation c o n t r o l Translation control F l i g h t d i r e c t o r a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r (FDAI) Attitude s e t / g i m b a l p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r (AS/ GPI) Velocity c h a n g e i n d i c a t o r ( A V d i s p l a y ) .

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2. 3.4. 1

Rate Gyro Assembly. T h e r a t e g y r o a s s e m b l y c o n t a i n s t h r e e i d e n t i c a l r a t e g y r o s , mounted orthogonally along t h e s p a c e c r a f t body a x e s , and a s s o c i a t e d g y r o e l e c t r o n i c s . No p r o v i s i o n is m a d e f o r h e a t e r s o r t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l of t h e g y r o s . E a c h g y r o is a s i n g l e - a x i s unit, with t h e input axis d e t e r m i n e d by t h e g y r o mounting f i x t u r e . S e l f - t e s t c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d by torquing c o i l s which e n a b l e t h e g y r o t o b e d i s p l a c e d a t a known r a t e and by s p i n m o t o r r o t a t i o n d e t e c t i o n c i r c u i t s which allow m o n i t o r i n g of t h e g y r o s p i n m o t o r s p e e d . All s e l f - t e s t c i r c u i t s a r e c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d f r o m o p e r a tional c i r c u i t s to p r e v e n t a f a i l u r e in t h e f o r m e r f r o m affecting g y r o

~~

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2.3-53

SM2A -03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA o p e r a t i o n . T h e g y r o outputs a r e u s e d by t h e SCS a s p r i m a r y d a m p i n g o r s t a b i l i z a t i o n s i g n a l s a n d , i n addition, as n e g a t i v e f e e d b a c k t o null r o t a t i o n a l c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s and p r o v i d e a p r o p o r t i o n a l m a n e u v e r r a t e capability. T h e r a t e g y r o s a l s o p r o v i d e a n i n d i c a t i o n on t h e FDA1 of t h e r a t e - o f a t t i t u d e change i n p i t c h , r o l l , and yaw a x e s . An a t t i t u d e c h a n g e about a n y of t h e a x e s r e s u l t s i n a n output s i g n a l which is r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e r a t e of d i s p l a c ' e m e n t . E a c h m i n i a t u r e r a t e g y r o a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a s p i n m o t o r , damping s y s t e m , g i m b a l a s s e m b l y , q u a d r i l e v e r s p r i n g , and s e l f - c h e c k c i r c u i t r y . T h e g y r o s p i n m o t o r is a 4 0 0 - c p s 3 - p h a s e s y n c h r o n o u s h y s t e r e s i s m o t o r p o w e r e d by 26 v o l t s a c . T h e m a x i m u m t i m e allowed f o r t h e g y r o to c o m e up t o o p e r a t i n g s p e e d is 17 s e c o n d s . Damping is a c c o m p l i s h e d by p o s i t i v e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e d a m p i n g fluid t h r o u g h t e m p e r a t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d o r i f i c e s . T h e q u a d r i l e v e r s p r i n g p r o v i d e s t h e t o r s i o n a l r e s t r a i n t r e q u i r e d by t h e g y r o , t o g e t h e r with r a d i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e g i m b a l a s s e m b l y . Some i m p o r t a n t r a t e g y r o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e as follows: Full-scale range Input r a n g e (to limit s t o p ) M a x i m u m r a t e without d a m a g e

30 "/ s ec 30 " I s e c
600"/ s e c

2. 3.4. 2

Attitude G y r o A c c e l e r o m e t e r A s s e m b l y . T h e a t t i t u d e g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y c o p t a i n s t h r e e bodymounted a t t i t u d e g y r o s ( B U G S ) and a n a c c e l e r o m e t e r . E l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l c i r c u i t s f o r t h e g y r o s and a c c e l e r o m e t e r a r e contained i n t h e d i s p l a y and attitude gyro a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y electronic control assembly.

2 . 3.4.2. 1

Body-Mounted Attitude G y r o s . T h e t h r e e BMAGs a r e i d e n t i c a l u n i t s , mounted orthogonally along t h e s p a c e c r a f t body a x e s , to s e n s e a t t i t u d e d i s p l a c e m e n t along t h e p i t c h , r o l l , and yaw a x e s . E a c h g y r o i s a s i n g l e - a x i s unit, with t h e input axis d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p h y s i c a l mounting i n t h e S I C . A s p i n m o t o r d e t e c t i o n c i r c u i t i s included i n e a c h g y r o t o allow m o n i t o r i n g of g y r o s p i n m o t o r s p e e d . T h i s will b e t e l e m e t e r e d d a t a only. T h e BMAGs p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n denoting t h e a n g u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s p a c e c r a f t f r o m a p r e s e t attitude. They a r e initially s e t to a s p e c i f i c s p a c e - s t a b i l i z e d o r i e n t a t i o n ; t h e r e a f t e r , a n y d i s p l a c e m e n t f r o m t h i s initial s e t t i n g r e s u l t s i n output s i g n a l s which a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e amount of a n g u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t . T h e output s i g n a l s a r e used to p r o d u c e a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s f o r a n a t t i t u d e - h o l d m o d e o r f o r d i s p l a y on t h e flight d i r e c t o r a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r . T h e outputs m a y a l s o b e applied t o t h e a t t i t u d e g y r o c o u p l e r unit (AGCU) f o r a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s t o r a g e and f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t unit (IMU) a x e s . IMU a x e s d i f f e r f r o m t h e s p a c e c r a f t body a x e s . T h e AGCU and BMAGs a r e used as a s u b s t i t u t e o r backup i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e unit f o r t h e IMU d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s when t h e IMU is

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12 " 1966 J

1 .

Change Date

P a g e 2.3-54

SMZA-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA t u r n e d off o r h a s malfunctioned. T h e BMACs c a n a l s o b e u s e d to p r o d u c e a t t i t u d e r a t e - o f - c h a n g e i n f o r m a t i o n , a s backup f o r t h e r a t e g y r o s . T h e BMAGs a r e s i n g l e - d e g r e e - o f - f r e e d o m , m i n i a t u r e i n t e g r a t i n g g y r o s contained i n e l e c t r i c a l l y heated individual p a c k a g e s . The h e a t e r w i l l m a i n t a i n individual BMAG t e m p e r a t u r e a t 170rt2OF. Degraded g y r o o p e r a tion w i l l r e s u l t if t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e is not m a i n t a i n e d . The g y r o s p i n m o t o r s a r e 3 - p h a s e 2 4 , 0 0 0 - r p m s y n c h r o n o u s d e v i c e s , powered by 1 3 . 6 v o l t s 400 c p s f r o m a supply i n t h e a t t i t u d e g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r package e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y . With C / M t e m p e r a t u r e a t 80°F and t h e mounting p l a t e t e m p e r a t u r e a t 5 5 O F , t h e m a x i m u m t i m e allowed f o r t h e BMAG t o r e a c h o p e r a t i n g l i m i t s is 40 m i n u t e s . A few g y r o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e l i s t e d a s follows. Ac c e l e r a t i o n s e n s i t i v e d r i f t Maximum self-torquing r a t e Maximum attitude range AGCU coupled torquing l i m i t s 2. 3 . 4 . 2 . 2 Accelerometer. T h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r is mounted along t h e s p a c e c r a f t X - a x i s t o s e n s e velocity c h a n g e s along t h i s a x i s . It i s a pendulous-type a c c e l e r o m e t e r with e l e c t r o n i c null and balance. T h e t e m p e r a t u r e is maintained a t 1 7 0 5 2 O F under n o r m a l o p e r a t i n g conditions. A s i g n a l output is g e n e r a t e d by a velocity change along t h e X - a x i s . T h i s velocity change c a u s e s t h e pendulous m a s s to move, r e s u l t i n g i n a change of coupling between t h e p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y windings of a s i g n a l g e n e r a t o r . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a n output signal which is demodulated and amplified t o p r o v i d e a c c e l e r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f o r m of d i g i t a l s i g n a l s to a c o u n t e r i n t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y ( p a r a g r a p h 2. 3 . 4 . 1 0 ) . T h e pendulous m a s s is r e t u r n e d t o null by t h e balancing a c t i o n of t h e e l e c t r o n i c caging s i g n a l when t h e velocity change c e a s e s . 2. 3 . 4 . 3 P i t c h , Roll, and Yaw E l e c t r o n i c Control A s s e m b l i e s . T h e pitch, yaw, and r o l l e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l i e s ( E C A s ) a r e n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l , with s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s d u e t o d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e a c h a x i s . T h e E C A s p r o v i d e t h e c i r c u i t r y f o r input c o n t r o l s i g n a l p r o c e s s ing and SCS m o d e c o n t r o l and configuration. Input c o n t r o l s i g n a l s c o n s i s t of a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e SCS BMAGs and f r o m t h e G & N s y s t e m , m i n i m u m i m p u l s e c o m m a n d s , r a t e g y r o a n g u l a r s i g n a l s , t r a n s l a t i o n and r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s , s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n engine gimbal position c o m m a n d s , and SPS engine g i m b a l r a t e and position feedback s i g n a l s . Mode c o n t r o l inputs a r e r e c e i v e d from s w i t c h e s on panel 8 of t h e m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e (MDC). T h e s e input s i g n a l s a r e applied to l o g i c - c o n t r o l l e d r e l a y s which enable c i r c u i t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e d e s i r e d mode. ECA output s i g n a l s c o n s i s t of r e a c t i o n j e t f i r i n g c o m m a n d s and SPS gimbal p o s i t i o n c o m m a n d s . T h e r e a c t i o n j e t c o m m a n d s a r e g e n e r a t e d in t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic p o r t i o n s of t h e ECAs. P r e i g n i t i o n SPS engine gimbal p o s i t i o n c o m m a n d s a r e g e n e r a t e d m a n u a l l y a t t h e A S / G P I by thumbwheels which p r o v i d e input s i g n a l s t o t h e gimbal c o n t r o l c i r c u i t s . P o s t - i g n i t i o n STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM
Mission 4 deg/hr 25 d e g l s e c 520 deg 20' s e c r o l l , 5' s e c pitch and yaw

B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-55

SM2A-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA g i m b a l c o n t r o l is provided by a u t o m a t i c t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l ( T V C ) c i r c u i t r y i n t h e pitch and yaw ECAs.
2. 3.4.4

A u x i l i a r y E l e c t r o n i c Control A s s e m b l y . The auxiliary electronic control a s s e m b l y contains the attitude gyro coupling unit and s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m t h r u s t on-off c o m m a n d c i r c u i t r y . T h e AGCU p o r t i o n of t h e a u x i l i a r y ECA r e c e i v e s BMAG s i g n a l s f r o m t h e DISPLAY-AGAA ECA and p r o c e s s e s t h e d a t a f o r d i s p l a y on t h e FDAI. It a l s o t r a n s f o r m s a t t i t u d e s e t d i a l s i g n a l s t o body a x e s . The SPS engine on-off c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y i n t h e AUX ECA r e c e i v e s engine on-off c o m m a n d s f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m o r t h e SCS.' T h e s e c o m m a n d s a r e conditioned and applied t o t h e SPS engine solenoid v a l v e s .

2. 3 . 4 . 5

DisDlav and Attitude Gvro A c c e l e r o m e t e r A s s e m b l y E l e c t r o n i c Control

T h e d i s p l a y and a t t i t u d e g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y p r o v i d e s t h e e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r o l and power t h e d i s p l a y s , BMAGs, and a c c e l e r o m e t e r . The DISPLAY ECA p o r t i o n c o n s i s t s of t h e c i r c u i t r y n e c e s s a r y to r e c e i v e and condition t h e following: Attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m o r t h e B U G S t o the FDAI a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n d i c a t o r s Attitude r a t e - o f - c h a n g e s i g n a l s f r o m t h e r a t e g y r o s o r BMAGs t o t h e FDAI a t t i t u d e r a t e i n d i c a t o r s
0

F e e d b a c k s i g n a l s f r o m t h e SPS engine g i m b a l s t o t h e gimbal position indicators A c c e l e r o m e t e r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e AGAA t o t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y integrator.

T h e AGAA ECA p o r t i o n c o n s i s t s of c i r c u i t r y n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e following:
e A c c e p t and condition B U G i n p u t s f o r t h e AGCU e A c c e p t and condition AGCU torquing c o m m a n d s to t h e BMAGs

Control BMAG and a c c e l e r o m e t e r t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s
0

Control and condition t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r r e b a l a n c e loop and inputs to the integrator Supply r e f e r e n c e voltages t o t h e B U G S and a c c e l e r o m e t e r Condition t h e BMAG and a c c e l e r o m e t e r outputs t o t e l e m e t r y . STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM
...

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page

2.3-56

SMZA -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

2. 3 . 4 . 6
Rotation C o n t r o l s .

SYSTEMS DATA

Two identical r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l s a r e provided to enable m a n u a l c o m m a n d o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e ( f i g u r e 2. 3-8). E a c h c o n t r o l i s a c o n t r o l s t i c k containing b r e a k o u t s w i t c h e s and t r a n s d u c e r s ( f i g u r e 2. 3 - 9 ) which apply c o n t r o l s i g n a l s to t h e r e a c t i o n j e t s e l e c t i o n logic c i r c u i t r y i n t h e p i t c h , yaw, and r o l l ECAs. When t h e s t i c k i s moved, t h e b r e a k o u t s w i t c h e s c l o s e t h e loop between t h e BMACs and AGCU, and c o n t r o l s i g n a l s f r o m t h e pitch, yaw, and r o l l t r a n s d u c e r s a r e applied t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l ECAs. P r o p o r t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k m o v e m e n t is provided by r a t e g y r o f e e d b a c k to t h e ECA e l e c t r o n i c s ( f i g u r e 2. 3-10). T h e r e a c t i o n j e t s o l e n o i d s c a n a l s o be c o n t r o l l e d via t h e d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n of c o n t r o l v o l t a g e s f r o m s w i t c h e s i n t h e c o n t r o l l e r . The l a t t e r method, r e q u i r i n g u s e of t h e DIRECT MODE switch on MDC-8, d o e s not p r o v i d e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e s p o n s e . With t h e d i r e c t mode enabled and t h e s t i c k commanding a r o t a t i o n . a b o u t one a x i s , t h e r a t e damping c i r c u i t s in t h e o t h e r a x e s a r e a c t i v e . P r o v i s i o n is m a d e to mount t h e c o n t r o l s a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s in t h e CIM: t h e r i g h t a r m r e s t of t h e l e f t c r e w couch, both a r m r e s t s of t h e r i g h t c r e w couch, and at t h e navigation s t a t i o n i n t h e l o w e r equipment b a y . N o r m a l l y , one c o n t r o l is a t t a c h e d to t h e l e f t c r e w couch mount and the o t h e r is used a t any of t h e o t h e r t h r e e l o c a t i o n s . Simultaneous o p e r a t i o n of both c o n t r o l s is p o s s i b l e but not a d v i s e d ; however, e a c h c o n t r o l h a s a locking d e v i c e to p r e v e n t i n a d v e r t e n t o p e r a t i o n . 2. 3 . 4 . 7 Translation Controls. Two i d e n t i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s a r e provided to enable m a n u a l c o m mand o f ' s p a c e c r a f t t r a n s l a t i o n a l m a n e u v e r s . (See f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 8 . ) E a c h c o n t r o l i s a T - h a n d l e type c o n t r o l s t i c k containing s w i t c h e s , which apply c o n t r o l s i g n a l s to t h e r e a c t i o n j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c c i r c u i t r y i n t h e pitch, yaw, and r o l l ECSs ( f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 1 1 ) . T h e r e a c t i o n j e t s a r e a c t i v a t e d in g r o u p s of two o r f o u r , depending upon t h e d i r e c t i o n of d e s i r e d t r a n s l a t i o n . L e f t r i g h t and up-down t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by f i r i n g two r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l j e t s with t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n of t h r u s t . F o r w a r d and r e v e r s e t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by f i r i n g t h e four f o r w a r d t h r u s t i n g o r f o u r r e a r w a r d t h r u s t i n g r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l j e t s . T h e t r a n s l a t i o n m a n e u v e r commanded i s in d i r e c t r e s p o n s e to the d i r e c t i o n i n which t h e T - h a n d l e i s moved. T h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l h a s s w i t c h e s which initiate a s p a c e c r a f t a b o r t if t h e T - h a n d l e is r o t a t e d c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e . Both c o n t r o l s have s w i t c h e s which enable manual t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l and d i s a b l e a u t o m a t i c a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l i f t h e T - h a n d l e i s r o t a t e d c l o c k w i s e . Each c o n t r o l h a s a locking d e v i c e to p r e v e n t i n a d v e r t e n t o p e r a t i o n of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l . Both c o n t r o l s a r e mounted i n t h e C / M on t h e l e f t a r m r e s t of t h e c r e w couch. The p r i ; n a r y c o n t r o l is identified with yellow s t r i p e s and is the only one provided with a b o r t switching c a p a b i l i t y .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-57

SMZA-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
PUSH T O TALK

--

ABORT INITIATE

+Z

MNC EN~BLE AND/OR AUTO A T 1 C O N T R O L DISABLE (18')

PITCH

CONTROL

R OTAT ION CONTROL
F i g u r e 2. 3-8. Rotation and Translation Controls

SM-24-674A

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission

Basic Date 1 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-58

SM2A-03-SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

--

SYSTEMS DATA

I I I I I I I I I I
I I

I I I

N-qI}
TRANSDUCER

H--lI;}
I
TRANSDUCER TRANSDUCER DIRECT SWITCHES

ROTATI ON CONTROLLER

II
I

< 26 VAC 400 CPS FROM PITCH ECA OR YAW ECA
- PITCH
PROPORTIONAL RATE COMh4ANDS TO PITCH ECA

- ROLL

PROPORTIONAL RATE COMMANDS TO ROLL ECA

I

- YAW

PROPORTIONAL RATE COMMANDS TO YAW ECA

1

I
I
I

DIRECT RCS

18 VDC FROM
D ,C

OFF

MA1 N BUS A O DC M A I N BUS B R (SEE NOTES)

I
I
PITCH

DIRECT COMMANDS TO RCS ENGINES DIRECT COILS

I

I

I

I I I I

I

:}

YAW

I

BREAKOUT SWITCHES

I
I
1

< DC M A I N BUS A OR
DC MAIN BUS B BREAKOUT SIGNAL TO PITCH, ROLL A N D YAW ECA

28 VDC FROM

I
I I
I

1-1
NOTES:

CASE GROUND

1 . DC main bus A supplies power to direct switches in rotation control No. 1 . 2. DC main bus B supplies power to direct switches in rotation control N o . 2.
SM-2A-71 I B

F i g u r e 2. 3-9.

Rotation Control Schematic

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 No!'

.
Page

1966

Change Date

2.3-59

SMZA-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

32
ROLL MOTIONS DIRECT SWITCH ACTUATION

-4

FORCEINCH-POUNDS

BREAKOUT SWITCH

0

1

I

1

2

I

7 8 9 IO DISPLACEMENT DEGREES ROTATION CONTROL STICK DISPLACEMENTS VS FORCES

I

I

1

3

4

5

1

1

1

I

I

I

I

6

-

-

I1

12

13

I

YAW MOTIONS

MECHANICAL LIMIT (16 IN.-LBS, 13 DEGREES)

14
12

FORCE INCH-POUNDS

-

DISPLACEMENT DEGREES ROTATION CONTROL STICK DISPLACEMENTS VS FORCES

-

-

PITCH MOTIONS

FORCE INCH-POUNDS

-

DISPLACEMENT DEGREES ROTATION CONTROL STICK DISPLACEMENTS

-

-

VS FORCES

SM-?A-675

Figure 2. 3-10,

Rotation Control Charts

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion

Basic Date 1 2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-60

-

SMZA -03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

I

SYSTEMS DATA

T R A N S L A T ION CONTROLLER

1
I

I t

ABORT INITIATE SWITCHES (CCW)

I

I
I

I

.
<
+x
-X
'

28 VDC FROM D C M A I N BUS A O R D C M A I N BUS B ABORT I N I T I A T I O N S I G N A L TO MISSION SEQUENCER A

ABORT I N I T I A T I O N S I G N A L TO MISSION SEQUENCER B

MOTOR DRIVEN SWITCH (LOCATED IN S/M, CLOSED
AFTER S/M SEPARATION FROM SlVB)

c-"

1

I I
I
I

Ah
28 VDC FROM DC MAIN BUS A O R DC MAIN B U S B

I
I

I
I

- Y

TRANSLATION C O M M A N D S T O S RCS ENGINES / M

M. N U A L N C E A _ _ N SWITCH jCW,

I
-b

.

I

I
I
I

I
PUSH TO TALK

I

<

.
<

DC M A I N BUS A O R DC M A I N BUS 8 T O PITCH, YAW 6 ROLL ECA 28 V D C C O M M U N I U T I ONS SM-2A-7106

I

F i g u r e 2 . 3 - 11. T r a n s l a t i o n C o n t r o l S c h e m a t i c 2.3.4.

a

F l i g h t D i r e c t o r Attitude I n d i c a t o r . T h e flight d i r e c t o r a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r , l o c a t e d on MDC-4, p r o v i d e s attitude, a t t i t u d e e r r o r , and a t t i t u d e r a t e - o f - c h a n g e d i s p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n . ( S e e f i g u r e 2. 3-12. ) T h e FDAI i n d i c a t e s a t t i t u d e r a t e of change and a t t i t u d e e r r o r on i n d i c a t o r s and s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e on a 3 d e g r e e - o f - f r e e d o m , i n e r t i a l l y r e f e r e n c e d ball and r o l l i n d i c a t o r . T h e r o l l r a t e d i s p l a y i s l o c a t e d a c r o s s t h e top of t h e FDAI. T h e p i t c h r a t e d i s p l a y is l o c a t e d along t h e r i g h t s i d e of t h e FDAI. T h e yaw r a t e d i s p l a y is l o c a t e d a c r o s s t h e bottom of t h e FDAI. T h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r d i s p l a y s a r e p o i n t e r s which m o v e a c r o s s t h e f a c e of t h e ball. T h e r a t e and e r r o r d i s p l a y s a r e f l y - t o d i s p l a y s . T h e r o l l a t t i t u d e p o i n t e r is l o c a t e d a t t h e top and points down t o w a r d s t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball. T h e p i t c h a t t i t u d e p o i n t e r i s l o c a t e d a t the r i g h t and points l e f t t o w a r d t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball. .The yaw p o i n t e r is l o c a t e d a t t h e STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date 12

" J 1966

Change Date

page 2 . 3 - 6 1

SMZA -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-SYSTEMS DATA

ROLL RATE

\
ROL IN D

/AXIS

NAVIGATION MARKER

--PITCH

RATE DISPUY

'PITCH

ATTITUDE

ERROR DISPLAY
ATTITUDE BALL \BODY

AXIS
MARKER

YAW ATTITUDE ERROR DISPLAY

/

'
Attitudo Enor lndicaton Anaular U IO lndicaton

YAW RATE DISPLAY

I
I

0.
-.l./bc

I I

0. -.2./Lc

1 I

-2.5.

+ .3*/s.c
SM-2A-726 C

NOTE: O n this illurtmtion, tho attitude ball
d i q l a y i s read with n f e n n c o to the navigation axis maker.

F i g u r e 2. 3 - 12. F l i g h t D i r e c t o r Attitude I n d i c a t o r b o t t o m and p o i n t s up t o w a r d t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball. T h e FDAI is l o c a t e d in t h e c e n t e r of t h e d i s p l a y . T h e b a l l f a c e is m a r k e d i n d e g r e e s of p i t c h and yaw and is r e f e r e n c e d to t h e IMU a x e s . Two r e f e r e n c e m a r k e r s a r e l o c a t e d on t h e f a c e of t h e d i s p l a y t o i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e i n r e f e r e n c e t o e i t h e r s p a c e T h e body a x e s m a r k e r is on t h e c r a f t body a x e s o r IMU (navigation) a x e s l o w e r f a c e of t h e d i s p l a y . The IMU o r navigation a x e s m a r k e r is l o c a t e d on t h e u p p e r f a c e of t h e d i s p l a y . Roll a t t i t u d e is t h e IMU r e f e r e n c e and i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e r o l l i n d i c a t o r (bug) which t r a v e l s a r o u n d t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e of t h e ball. Roll a t t i t u d e z e r o r e f e r e n c e is l o c a t e d a t t h e t o p of t h e ball. FDAI d i s p l a y o p e r a t i o n w i l l v a r y , depending upon mode. T h e r a t e d i s p l a y is o p e r a t i v e a t all t i m e s . E a c h r a t e i n d i c a t o r h a s a c a l i b r a t e d d i s p l a y s c a l e , with t h e r a n g e of t h e s c a l e dependent upon t h e mode s e l e c t e d . M a x i m u m f u l l - s c a l e d e f l e c t i o n w i l l b e as indicated i n t h e following t a b u l a t i o n .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page
7. 3 - 6 2

.

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
F u l 1- S c a 1<: De f 1e c t i o n

Mode Delta V modes E n t r y m o d e s and m o n i t o r m o d e A l l other modes

Pitch *5"/sec *5" / s e c *lo/sec

I

Roll *5"/sec *25" / s e c *lo/sec

I

Yaw
~~~

*5"/sec *5"/ s e c *1 " I s e c

F u l l - s c a l e Deflection Mode Entry modes Monitor m o d e All other modes Pitch *5" *15" *5O Roll *25" *25" *5" Yaw *5" k15" *5"

T h e gimbaled a t t i t u d e ball is c o l o r e d half g r a y and half black, with t h e l i n e of s e p a r a t i o n a t t h e 0 - d e g r e e to 1 8 0 - d e g r e e pitch a n g l e . T h i s t w o - c o l o r s c h e m e p e r m i t s r a p i d r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e s p e c i f i c pitch h e m i s p h e r e being d i s p l a y e d . T h e r e a r e two c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s l o c a t e d a t 9 0 - d e g r e e y a w l o - d e g r e e pitch and 2 7 0 - d e g r e e y a w l o - d e g r e e pitch. T h e i n n e r c i r c l e s a r e solid r e d 3 0 - d e g r e e c i r c l e s which r e p r e s e n t t h e b a s e of a c o n e with t h e a p e x at t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball. T h i s area d e n o t e s p o s s i b l e IMU g i m b a l lock. The o u t e r c i r c l e s e n c l o s e a r e d 4 0 - d e g r e e c i r c l e which a l s o r e p r e s e n t s t h e b a s e of a c o n e with t h e a p e x a t t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball. T h i s a r e a d e n o t e s a t t i t u d e s which r e s u l t i n AGCU i n a c c u r a c y . The ball i s r e a d a g a i n s t one of two r e f e r e n c e m a r k s , depending upon t h e mode of o p e r a t i o n . The IMU a x e s r e f e r e n c e m a r k i s t h e upper m a r k e r which i n d i c a t e s s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e i n pitch and yaw a x e s with r e f e r e n c e t o t h e IMU g i m b a l s o r stability a x e s . T h e body a x e s m a r k e r is t h e lower m a r k e r (v) which i n d i c a t e s s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e with r e f e r e n c e to t h e body a x e s . T h e included a n g l e between t h e m a r k e r s is 32 d e g r e e s . T h e r o l l i n d i c a t o r is r e f e r e n c e d to t h e z e r o m a r k on t h e p e r i p h e r y of t h e b a l l d i s p l a y f a c e i n a l l o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s . I n SCS m o d e s , t h e b a l l is d r i v e n only d u r i n g m a n u a l m a n e u v e r s , d u r i n g FDAI a l i g n m e n t , and a f t e r 0. 05 g is s e n s e d d u r i n g e n t r y . D u r i n g t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , t h e b a l l is d r i v e n by s i g n a l s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e AGCU. In G&N m o d e s , t h e ball d i s p l a y s IMU gimbal a n g l e s . F i g u r e 2. 3-13 p r o v i d e s a t a b u l a r l i s t i n g of t h e v a r i o u s FDAI display configurations.

(e)

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page

2 . 3-63

SM2A -03-SCO12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c D a t e l 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-64

SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-SYSTEMS DATA

2. 3 . 4 . 9

Attitude Set / Gimbal P o s i t i o n Indi cat0 r . The attitude s e t / g i m b a l position i n d i c a t o r (AS-GPI) p r o v i d e s two s e p a r a t e functions. The attitude s e t portion e n a b l e s FDAI-AGCU alignm e n t and p r o v i d e s a r e f e r e n c e f o r a c q u i r i n g new a t t i t u d e s . The g i m b a l position display portion p r o v i d e s positioning c o n t r o l of the SPS engine g i m b a l a n g l e s and d i s p l a y s g i m b a l position. The attitude s e t portion p r o vides a c o m p a r i s o n of the angle between the attitude d i s p l a y e d on the ATTITUDE S E T i n d i c a t o r s and the position of the AGCU r e s o l v e r shaft. It a l s o p r o v i d e s c o n t r o l of the inputs to t h e FDAI attitude e r r o r p o i n t e r s and aligns the FDAI to the attitude indicated o n the ATTITUDE S E T i n d i c a t o r s . The attitude s e t function is c o n t r o l l e d by m a n u a l o p e r a t i o n of the t h u m b wheels. The d e s i r e d position is dialed by a thumbwheel, with the display providing v i s u a l indication of the position s e l e c t e d by the thumbwheel. The attitude display m a y be used to align the FDAI-AGCU o r to indicate a new attitude f o r the s p a c e c r a f t . To a c c o m p l i s h FDAI-AGCU a l i g n m e n t , the d e s i r e d position is s e t o n the attitude s e t display. The FDAI ALIGN pushbutton i s then p r e s s e d . T h i s p r o v i d e s a s i g n a l which d r i v e s the AGCU s t e p p e r m o t o r and c o n t r o l logic t o position the AGCU r e s o l v e r shaft. The s t e p p e r m o t o r d r i v e s the s h a f t to the c o m m a n d e d position, r e s u l t i n g i n a n output f r o m a n angle g e n e r a t o r to the FDAI ball, d r i v i n g the b a l l to the commanded position. To m a n u a l l y m a n e u v e r the s p a c e c r a f t to a p r e d e t e r m i n e d attitude, the d i s p l a y i s s e t to the d e s i r e d attitude and the A T T S E T s w i t c h i s placed to A T T SET. The output s i g n a l is applied'to the attitude e r r o r display p o i n t e r s on the FDAI, providing a m a n u a l m a n e u v e r indicatiQn to the s p a c e c r e w . The d i s p l a y configuration i s a fly-to type, with the c r e w manually maneuvering the s p a c e c r a f t t o w a r d the p o i n t e r s . ( T h e p o i n t e r s will peg if the new attitude i s i n e x c e s s of 5 d e g r e e s f r o m the o r i g i n a l attitude. ) The SPS engine g i m b a l position d i s p l a y allows positioning of the g i m b a l s and p r o v i d e s indication of g i m b a l position. Two thumbwheels enable the pitch and yaw engine g i m b a l s to be positioned p r i o r to SPS engine firing. The g i m b a l s position the engine to a n attitude which e n s u r e s that the SPS engine t h r u s t v e c t o r is through the s p a c e c r a f t c e n t e r of gravity. Movement of the thumbwheels r e s u l t s i n the g e n e r a t i o n of c o n t r o l s i g n a l s which engage the SPS g i m b a l ring t o r q u e m o t o r m a g n e t i c c l u t c h e s . Clutch engagement connects the g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r and g e a r t r a i n to move the g i m b a l ring. P o s i t i o n t r a n s d u c e r s send a s i g n a l to the g i m b a l position d i s p l a y s to i n d i c a t e t h e angle of the gimbal. The yaw g i m b a l position s c a l e is graduated i n i n c r e m e n t s of one-half d e g r e e f r o m - 5 d e g r e e s to t 1 3 d e g r e e s . C e n t e r is l o c a t e d at t h e t 4 - d e g r e e position due to a n i n h e r e n t o f f s e t i n the yaw c e n t e r of g r a v i t y . The pitch g i m b a l position s c a l e i s g r a d u a t e d i n i n c r e m e n t s of one-half d e g r e e f r o m -9 d e g r e e s to t9 d e g r e e s , with the c e n t e r position at 0 d e g r e e s .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966 Change Date

Page

2.3-65

SMZA -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

L. 3.4. 10

Velocity Change I n d i c a t o r . The d e l t a V d i s p l a y p r o v i d e s c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y of s p a c e c r a f t velocity c h a n g e s . T h e d i s p l a y p o r t i o n of the panel c o n s i s t s of the AV REMAIMNG i n d i c a t o r , which is a f i v e - d i g i t d i s p l a y . The digital d i s p l a y is s e t by the v a r i a b l e s p e e d A V S E T switch. T h r e e p a n e l s w i t c h e s c o n t r o l the SPS and RCS engine f i r i n g c o m m a n d s . The DIRECT ULLAGE s w i t c h is a pushbutton, m o m e n t a r y - c o n t a c t s w i t c h which, when d e p r e s s e d e n e r g i z e s t h e d i r e c t c o i l s of t h e tX r e a c t i o n j e t s o l e n o i d s . It s e r v e s as a backup f o r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l , which is u s e d u n d e r n o r m a l conditions f o r tX t r a n s l a t i o n s f o r SPS f u e l s e t t l i n g ( u l l a g e ) . The THRUST ON s w i t c h i s a n i l l u m i n a t e d pushbutton, m o m e n t a r y - c o n t a c t switch which is u s e d to f i r e the SPS engine i n the SCS d e l t a V mode. The s w i t c h is enabled when the SPS THRUST s w i t c h is i n the NORMAL position. The pitch and yaw RCS c o n t r o l and f i r i n g c i r c u i t s a r e inhibited d u r i n g S P S engine f i r i n g . A f t e r i g n i t i o n , the SPS engine continues to f i r e until t h e AV REMAINING d i s p l a y c o u n t s down to z e r o . The THRUST ON switch i s a l s o u s e d to back up t h e Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r f i r i n g c o m m a n d s in t h e G&N d e l t a V mode i n the e v e n t of a n AGC f a i l u r e . The S P S THRUST s w i t c h p r o v i d e s o v e r a l l c o n t r o l of SPS engine f i r i n g . The NORMAL p o s i t i o n e n a b l e s n o r m a l engine f i r i n g s e q u e n c e s . The O F F position p r o v i d e s a p o s i t i v e off c o m m a n d as backup i n c a s e of a malfunction. The DIRECT ON position p r o v i d e s a p o s i t i v e f i r i n g c o m m a n d to the S P S engine. The AV S E T s w i t c h s e t s up t h e AV REMAINING d i s p l a y and logic c i r c u i t s p r i o r to d e l t a V m a n e u v e r s . P r e s s i n g the u p p e r s e c t i o n of the AV s w i t c h sets up l o g i c c i r c u i t r y which c a u s e s a s l e w m o t o r to d r i v e the AV REMAINIVG d i s p l a y i n the p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n ( i n c r e a s i n g velocity). P r e s s i n g the l o w e r s e c t i o n of the s w i t c h d r i v e s the d i s p l a y i n the negative d i r e c t i o n ( d e c r e a s i n g v e l o c i t y ) . The s w i t c h h a s two s e t s of c o n t a c t s i n both t h e u p p e r and l o w e r p o s i t i o n s . P r e s s i n g t h e s w i t c h lightly engages t h e f i r s t s e t of c o n t a c t s , which r e s u l t s i n a s i g n a l t h a t will d r i v e the d i s p l a y a t a r a t e of two f e e t p e r s e c o n d . P r e s s i n g t h e s w i t c h h a r d e r ( p a s t a n e a s i l y f e l t h a r d / s o f t p o i n t ) e n g a g e s t h e second s e t of c o n t a c t s , which r e s u l t s i n t h e d i s p l a y b e i n g d r i v e n at a r a t e of 64 f e e t p e r s e c o n d . As t h e d i s p l a y is d r i v e n to the d e s i r e d velocity, t h e i n t e g r a t o r and logic c i r c u i t is s e t to a l o g i c a l value e q u a l to t h e d e s i r e d change. The t r a n s l a t i o n c o m m a n d s i g n a l e n e r g i z e s a r e l a y which a p p l i e s the output of the A G M a c c e l e r o m e t e r to the i n t e g r a t o r and logic c i r c u i t , which c o m p a r e s the d e s i r e d velocity i n c r e m e n t with the a c t u a l velocity change r e c e i v e d f r o m the a c c e l e r o m e t e r . When t h e a c t u a l velocity change e q u a l s the value s e t , the A V REMAINING c o u n t e r s e n d s a s i g n a l to a coincidence d e t e c t o r logic c i r c u i t which, i n t u r n , t r a n s m i t s a s t o p f i r i n g c o m m a n d to t h e t h r u s t c o n t r o l l o g i c . Although t h i s c a u s e s t h e SPS engine to s t o p firing, s o m e t h r u s t i n g continues a s a r e s u l t of t h e tail-off i n h e r e n t t o t h e engine. T h e A V REMAINING d i s p l a y continues to count p a s t z e r o ( i . e . , 99999,99998, 99997, e t c . ) until no f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t i o n is f e l t . Tail-off e f f e c t s will be c a l c u l a t e d p r i o r to f l i g h t ' a n d c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by t h e c r e w when the d i s p l a y is being s e t up f o r d e l t a V m a n e u v e r s .

---

STABILIZATION AND Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov

CONTROL SYSTEM
Page

.
2.3-66

1966

Change Date

SMZA -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA 2 . 3 . 4 . 11 E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r Distribution. See f i g u r e s 2. 3-14 and 2 . 3-15 2. 3. 5 PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA. F i g u r e 2. 3-16 contains t h e latest a v a i l a b l e power consumption d a t a f o r . t h e Block I SCS. T h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s w e r e not included in ;he SCS component breakdown b e c a u s e they d o not d i s s i p a t e a significant a m o u n t of power within t h e m s e l v e s . T h e X - a x i s a c c e l e r o m e t e r is a s e r v o - r e b a l a n c e d pendulous a c c e l e r o m e t e r . Some of t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e as follow 5 . Operating r a n g e Threshold Null torque Signal g e n e r a t o r s e n s i t i v i t y Signal g e n e r a t o r null 0.001 g to 2 g I x 10-4 g ( m a x ) 1 x 10-4 g (max) 50 m i l l i v o l t s / m i l l i r a d 1 mr ( m a x )

-

T h e body-mounted attitude g y r o s a r e s i n g l e - d e g r e e - o f - f r e e d o m g y r o s . Some of t h e g y r o d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a s follows. A c c e l e r a t i o n s e n s i t i v e drift Random d r i f t M a x i m u m torquing rate Maxi m u m input a t t i t u d e Gyro threshold G y r o t r a n s f e r function Signal g e n e r a t o r null Excitation f r e q u e n c y

4 deglhslg 0.05 deg/hr 25 d e g l s e c *20 deg 0 . 02 d e g / h r 1 . 15 m i l l i v o l t s / m i l l i r a d 3. 5 m i l l i v o l t s 400f0.01% CPS
Some of the g y r o

The r a t e gyros a r e single-axis miniature gyros. d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e as follows. Full-scale range Input r a n g e ( t o limit stop) Maximum r a t e without d a m a g e Excitation f r e q u e n c y Threshold 30'1 sec 30 " I s e c 6 O O o / sec

400fO.01% c p s 0 . 0 2 ' t sec

2. 3. 6
2. 3. 6. 1

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS.
S/ C Attitude Change.

It is r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t vehicle a t t i t u d e change b e held t o m a x i m u m r a t e s of l e s s t h a n 20 d e g r e e s p e r second r o l l and 5 d e g r e e s p e r second in pitch and yaw t o p r e v e n t p o s s i b l e loss of a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e . B e c a u s e of t h e AGCU digital logic, t h e stepping m o t o r c a n be stepped at a m a x i m u m
STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page

2.3-67

SMZA-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

PARTIAL SCS POWER SW ACl (AC91 _ , - , __

A

PARTIAL CCZ

A

AC B U S N O . 1 (AC BUS NO. 115 VAC 115 VAC)
PHASE
\-,

:

A

GROUP I ACI (ACZI

NOTES:

1.

D-C w e r i s applied to thew
u n i h through partial

OFF

SCS pore,
uppr

PILOT'S ROTATIONAL CONTROLLER TRANSLATIONAL CONTROLLER

switch, as ahown in part of diagram.

right

2. Contacts clom after S-IVB scpomtion o high-altitude abart. r

F i g u r e 2 . 3-14.

SCS P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-68

SM2A -03-SCO12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

-

REQUIRED SCS POWER SWITCHES SYSTEM C A P A B I L l T l E S PARTIAL POWER
BACKUP RATE CHANNEL ENABLE DIRECT ROTATION CONTROL PRO PORT10 N4 L ROTATION CONTROL ATTITUDE IMPULSE G A N SYNC TRANSLATION A V SET

RATE GYRO POWER
0

ROTATION POWER

Tvc
POWER

scs
0

Tvc 2
POWER

0 0

0

~~

-

0
0

S f 5 ENGINE IGNITION

om

I RATE INDICATORS VALID
BALL 6 ROLL BUG DRIVEN’

I
0

I

I

*OI

I

I

I

RO ATTITUDE E R R INDICATORS VALID

0 0

NOTES: I .

I f backup rate has been selected i n any axis. I f backup rate has been selected i n a l l 3 axes, RATE GYRO POWER need not be on. PARTIAL SCS POWER murt be on i f AV switch i s at NORMAL. However, SPS engine can ba t u m d on when a l l power switch- are off, by placing AV switch to DIRECT ON. TVC 2 POWER switch must be on i f manual N C i s engaged. SCS AV mode only. However, i n GBN AV mode, BMAG POWER must be o n i f backup rate has beon selected i n any axis. I f backup rate has been selected i n a11 three oxes, RATE GYRO POWER switch i s set to OFF.
only; also G A N modes i f backup rate has been selected i n any axis

2.

3.
4.

5. SCS modes
6. SCS mod7.

only, i f backup rate has not been selected.

RATE GYRO POWER w i t c h may b set to OFF for extended periods of attitude hold,

8. FDA1 A L I G N and G B N modes only.
SM- 2A-90W

F i g u r e 2. 3-15.

SCS P o w e r vs S y s t e m Capability

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-69

S M 2 A -03-SCO12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
--

SYSTEMS DATA

SYSTEM STEAD\ $TAT€ POWER CONSUMPTION-WAITS 6 Q - l ) MONITOR 115 VAC400 CPS SWITCH PARTIAL SCS PWR ( I ) POWER FACTOR FDA1 POWER FACTOR RGA POWER POWER FACTOR ROT. C O N 1 POWER POWER FACTOR TVCSW N0.I POWER FACTOR TVC SW NO. 2 POWER FACTOR BMAG POWER POWER FACTOR CONT PANEL INPUT ( I ) 125.2 GLNAlTlTUDE

I
I
GbNENTRY
~

I

SCSATTITUDE

1

0.94

1

24.1 117.6 0.89 0.91

I

16.7

I ;::I I I
0.98
0.85

0.99

0.92 I16:4 0 96
Ill:5
0 75

II 1
4:3 34 .
0 57
0.78 61 .

1 1 I I I I
8:7 0 86 8.7 0.86

16.3

4.2

0.63

0.99

7.0 162.3 0.80
11

.a:

MoDE
SWITCH\ PARTIAL SCS P W R ( I ) POWER FACTOR FDA1 POWER FACTOR RGA POWER POWER FACTOR ROT.CONT POWER POWER FACTOR TVC SW NO. I POWER FACTOR TVC sw No. 2 POWER FACTOR

SYSTEM STEADY-STATE POWER CONSUMPTIOWWATTS ( 5 0 - 1 ) (CONTINUED)

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NOTES: 1 . Power marrummenh made in w c h nwde. '. Power consunption assumed came in each mode. 2 Asterisk indicates mode in which mwsurament was made. 3. h a r u r m e n t ~ made with SPS engine o f f . (Two solenaids and 2 relays.)

4. Line losses and inverter efficiencies nat con5. 6.

ridered. A l l values indimted are in w o t h . Figure &a nat include enegiring RCS enginn
b r manwven.

SM-24-754D

Figure 2 . 3-16.

SCS Steady-State P o w e r Consumption Data

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.3-70

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

rate of 100 s t e p s p e r second i n r o l l and 25 s t e p s p e r second i n pitch and yaw. T h i s is equivalent t o g y r o t o r q u i n g rates of 20 d e g r e e s p e r second in r o l l and 5 d e g r e e s p e r second i n pitch a n d yaw. T h e r e f o r e , i f vehicle r a t e s exceed t h e g y r o torquing r a t e s , t h e stepping m o t o r will l a g behind t h e vehicle r a t e s . Under t h i s condition, t h e B U G - A G C U loop m a y not b e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e SCS attitude r e f e r e n c e .
2. 3 . 7 T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS. T h e following i s a c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g of all SCS t e l e m e t r y d a t a that is m o n i t o r e d by flight c o n t r o l l e r s and ground s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l . The last c o l u m n contains the n a m e and type of S I C c r e w d i s p l a y . T h e d i s p l a y u t i l i z e s t h e s a m e pickup o r signal s o u r c e as t e l e m e t r y , u n l e s s a s e p a r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r i s included i n t h e d i s p l a y column. An a s t e r i s k (*) by t h e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r d e n o t e s i n f o r m a t i o n which i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o r d i n g o r t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n d u r i n g P C M low-bit rate o p e r a t i o n . F i g u r e 2 . 3-4, s h e e t 2, identifies t e l e m e t r y m e a s u r e m e n t s f o r t h e SCS yaw channel. Identical m e a s u r e m e n t s i n t h e following l i s t , r e l a t i v e t o t h e r o l l and pitch c h a n n e l s , a r e t a k e n f r o m the same c i r c u i t junctions a s f o r t h e yaw channel. Measurement Number

Description P i t c h rate P i t c h rate manual r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l P i t c h pos f e e d b a c k i n P T V diff c l u t c h volts c o m b P i t c h r a t e e r r o r a m p out Pitch integratorlatt e r r o r summing MTVC pitch r a t e P i t c h SCS att e r r o r t P i t c h / t X solenoid d r i v e r out - P i t c h I t X solenoid d r i v e r out + P i t c h / - X solenoid d r i v e r out - P i t c h / - X solenoid d r i v e r out G-N DV mode control G-N DV a t t mode c o n t r o l G-N e n t r y mode c o n t r o l Monitor mode control Yaw r a t e Yaw m a n u a l r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l Y a w pos feedback i n YTV diff c l u t c h volts c o m b Yaw r a t e e r r o r a m p out Y integratorlatt e r r o r summing MTVC yaw r a t e

S e n s o r Range

C r e w Display FDAI FDAI None None FDAI None None FDAI None None None None None None None None FDAI FDAI None None FDAI None None

* CH 0024 V CH 0025 V * CH 0034 V * CH 0047 V * ; '
: g

*

* * *

*

-

*

CH 0050 CH0067 CH 0074 CH 0075 CH 0087 CH 0088 CH 0089 CH 0090 CH 0100 CH 0101 CH 0102 CH 0103 CH 1024 CH 1025 CH 1034 CH 1047 CH 1050 CH 1067 CH 1074

V

V V V X X X X X X X X V V H
V

V V V

Z e r o / t 5 VRMS - 6 l t 6 vdc TBD -6. 2 t o t 6 2 vdc TBD TBD Z e r o / t l O VRMS Offlon event Offlon event Off/on event Offlon event Event Offlon event Offlon event Offlon event -30 t o t 3 0 Q / s e c Z e r o I t S VRMS -8.51i-a. 5 vdc -85 t o 4-85 MADC - 6 . 2 t o t 6 . 2 vdc - 2 . 5 to t2. 5 Vdc TBD

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date

.
Page 2.3-71

SM2A 03 -SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
-.

-

SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~ ~~

Measurement Number
~ ~ ~~

Description V yaw SCS a t t e r r o r t Y a w / + X solenoid d r i v e r out - Y a w / t X solenoid d r i v e r out t Y a w / - X solenoid d r i v e r out - Y a w / - X solenoid d r i v e r out SCS DV m o d e c o n t r o l SCS a t t m o d e c o n t r o l SCS e n t r y m o d e c o n t r o l SCS l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e c o n t r o l MTVC m o d e c o n t r o l Combined AG SMRD Roll rate Roll m a n r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l out Combined RG SMRD Combined a t t i t u d e g y r o t e m p

S e n s o r Range Z e r o / + 10 VRMS Off/on event Off/on event Offlon event Off/on event Event Event Event Event Event 0 t o 5 vdc TBD Z e r o / t 5 VRMS - 0 t o t 5 vdc 0 to t 5 vdc

C r e w Display FDAI None None None None None None None None None None FDAI FDAI None AGAP TEMP LIGHT FDAI None FDAI None None None None None None None None None AV Counter None None None None None None None None Delta V Display

* CH 1087 X * CH 1088 X * CH 1089 X * CH 1090 X
CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH CH

CH 1075 V

* * * *

*

1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 2015 2024 2025 2026 2030

X X X X X V V V V T

* CH 2090 X * CH 2091 X * CX 2092 X * CH 2093 X * C H 2094 X

* CH 2070 V CH 2075 V * CH 2087 X * Ch 2088 X * Ch 2089 X

CH 2050 V

* CH 3186 V
CH 4100 CH4101 CH 4102 CH 4103 CH 4104 CH 4105 CH 4320 CH4321 CG 0 0 0 1 H H H H H H

CH 3185 X

Roll r a t e e r r o r a m p out Roll a t t i t u d e e r r o r a m p out Roll SCS a t t e r r o r R o l l / t Z solenoid d r i v e r out - R o l l / - Z solenoid d r i v e r out t R o l l / - Z solenoid d r i v e r out - R o l l / - 2 s s l e n o i d d r i v e r out R o l l / t Y solenoid d r i v e r out - R o l l / t Y , s o l e n o i d d r i v e r out t R o l l / - Y solenoid d r i v e r out - R o l l / - Y solenoid d r i v e r out . 0 5 g Manual switch DV r e m a i n i n g pot out

+

+

-6. 2 to t6. 2 vdc -25f-I-25 vdc Z e r o / l O VRMS Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event Event - 3 t o t 1 3 KFPS
-12 to - 12 to -12 t o -12 t o -12 t o - 12 to Event Event Event tl2 t 12 t12 +12 t12 t 12 VRMS VRMS VRMS VRMS VRMS VRMS

*

*

X X V

R e s o l v e r s i n out pitch a t t R e s o l v e r cos out pitch a t t R e s o l v e r s i n out yaw att R e s o l v e r c o s out yaw att R e s o l v e r s i n out r o l l a t t R e s o l v e r c o s out r o l l att SPS solenoid d r i v e r out 1 SPS solenoid d r i v e r out 2 C o m p u t e r d i g i t a l d a t a 40 b i t s

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
2-3-77

SM2A-03-SCO 1 2 APOL1.0 OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2 SUBSECTION 2 . 4 SERVICE PKOPULSION SYSTEM (SPS)

2.4. 1

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION T h e s e r v i c e propulsion s u b s y s t e m p r o v i d e s the m a j o r i m p u l s e f o r a l l m a j o r velocity changes ( A V ' s ) throughout a m i s s i o n , plus the S I M a b o r t a f t e r the launch e s c a p e tower is jettisoned. T o p e r f o r m this function, the s u s b y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e s a helium p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s y s t e m , a p r o p e l l a n t f e e d s y s t e m , a propellant gauging and utilization s y s t e m , and a r o c k e t engine. T h e o x i d i z e r is nitrogen t e t r o x i d e , a n d the fuel is a blended h y d r a z i n e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% u n s y m m e t r i c a l dimethyl h y d r a z i n e a n d 50% anhydrous hydrazine). T h e p r e s s u r i z i n g g a s i s helium. T h e s u b s y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e s d i s p l a y s and s e n s i n g d e v i c e s t o p e r m i t ground-based s t a t i o n s and the c r e w to m o n i t o r i t s operation.
A functional flow d i a g r a m is contained in f i g u r e 2.4-1.

T h e h e l i u m p r e s s u r e is d i r e c t e d to the helium p r e s s u r i z i n g v a l v e s which i s o l a t e the helium during nonthrusting p e r i o d s , o r allows the helium to p r e s s u r i z e the fuel a n d o x i d i z e r tanks d u r i n g t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s . T h e helium p r e s s u r e i s r e d u c e d a t the p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s to a d e s i r e d working p r e s s u r e . T h e r e g u l a t e d helium p r e s s u r e is d i r e c t e d through c h e c k v a l v e s that p e r m i t helium flow in the d o w n s t r e a m d i r e c t i o n when the p r e s s u r i z i n g valves a r e open, a n d p r e v e n t a r e v e r s e flow of p r o p e l l a n t s d u r i n g nont h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s . T h e h e a t e x c h a n g e r s t r a n s f e r h e a t f r o m the p r o p e l l a n t s to the helium g a s to r e d u c e any p r e s s u r e e x c u r s i o n s that m a y r e s u l t f r o m a t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l between the h e l i u m g a s a n d p r o p e l l a n t s i n the tanks. T h e relief v a l v e s m a i n t a i n the s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y of the propellant tank s y s t e m s if a n excessive p r e s s u r e r i s e occurs. T h e total propellant supply is contained within f o u r similar tanks: a n o x i d i z e r s t o r a g e tank, o x i d i z e r s u m p tank, fuel s t o r a g e tank, and fuel s u m p tanks. T h e s t o r a g e and s u m p tanks f o r e a c h p r o p e l l a n t s y s t e m a r e connected i n s e r i e s by a single t r a n s f e r line. T h e r e g u l a t e d helium e n t e r s into the fuel a n d o x i d i z e r s t o r a g e tank, p r e s s u r i z i n g the s t o r a g e tank p r o p e l l a n t s , and f o r c e s the propellant to a n outlet i n the s t o r a g e tank which is d i r e c t e d through a t r a n s f e r line into the r e s p e c t i v e s u m p tank standpipe, p r e s s u r i z i n g the p r o p e l l a n t s i n the s u m p tank. T h e p r o p e l l a n t in the s u m p tank is d i r e c t e d to the exit end into a p r o p e l l a n t retention r e s e r v o i r , retaining sufficient p r o p e l l a n t s a t the tank o u t l e t s to p e r m i t engine r e s t a r t capability i n a z e r o g condition. T h e p r o p e l l a n t s exit f r o m the r e s p e c t i v e s u m p tanks into a s i n g l e line to the h e a t exchanger.

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.4-1

SMZA-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

A p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n v a l v e is i n s t a l l e d i n the o x i d i z e r l i n e , and i s p o w e r e d only d u r i n g SPS t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s . T h e p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve a i d s i n m a i n t a i n i n g the c e n t e r of mass i n a r e l a t i v e l y confined a r e a i n the Y - Z plane, i n addition to s i m u l t a n e o u s p r o p e l l a n t depletion. T h e o x i d i z e r supply and f u e l supply a r e connected f r o m the s u m p tank to t h e engine i n t e r f a c e flange. T h e p r o p e l l a n t s flow f r o m the p r o p e l l a n t s u m p tank feed through t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e plumbing to the m a i n p r o p e l l a n t o r i f i c e s and f i l t e r s to the b i p r o p e l l a n t valve. T h e b i p r o p e l l a n t valve a s s e m b l y c o n t a i n s the m a i n p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e s t h a t a r e p n e u m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and a l l o w s the p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e s to d i s t r i b u t e the p r o p e l l a n t s to the engine i n j e c t o r d u r i n g t h r u s t i n g periods, o r isolates the propellants f r o m the injector during nonthrusting periods. T h e engine i n j e c t o r d i s t r i b u t e s t h e p r o p e l l a n t s through o r i f i c e s in the f a c e of the i n j e c t o r w h e r e the f u e l a n d o x i d i z e r i m p i n g e upon e a c h o t h e r , a t o m i z e , and i g n i t e due to h y p e r g o l i c ignition. T h e a b l a t i v e c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r a b s o r b s the h e a t g e n e r a t e d within the c h a m b e r . T h e n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n is a t t a c h e d to the a b l a t i v e c h a m b e r and r a d i a t e s to s p a c e . T h e engine a s s e m b l y is mounted to the s t r u c t u r e of t h e s e r v i c e module and is g i m b a l e d to p e r m i t t h r u s t v e c t o r a l i g n m e n t through t h e c e n t e r of m a s s , p r i o r .to t h r u s t i n i t i a t i o n and t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l d u r i n g a t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d . A flight c o m b u s t i o n stability m o n i t o r s y s t e m is employed to m o n i t o r the engine f o r i n s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s . P r o p e l l a n t quantity i s m e a s u r e d by two s e p a r a t e s e n s i n g s y s t e m s : p r i m a r y and a u x i l i a r y . T h e s e n s i n g s y s t e m s a r e p o w e r e d only d u r i n g t h r u s t - o n p e r i o d s due to the c a p a c i t a n c e and point s e n s o r m e a s u r i n g techniques. T h e l i n e a r i t y would not p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e z e r o g SPS nonthrusting periods. T h e c o n t r o l of the s u b s y s t e m i s a u t o m a t i c with p r o v i s i o n s f o r m a n u a l override. 2.4.2 2.4.2.1 MAJOR COMPONENT /SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION. P r e s s u r i z a t i o n Subsystem. T h e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of two h e l i u m t a n k s , two h e l i u m p r e s s u r i z i n g v a l v e s , two d u a l p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l i e s , two d u a l c h e c k valve a s s e m b l i e s , two p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s , and two h e a t e x c h a n g e r s . T h e c r i t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s a r e redundant to i n c r e a s e reliability.

SERVICE PROPU&ICJN S Y S T ~ M
Mission
B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change D a t e page 2.4-2

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SYSTEMS DATA

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SPS F u n c t i o n a l F l o w D i a g r a m

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Mission

Basic Date

l2

1966

Change Date

P a g e 2.4-312.4-4

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
.

SYSTEMS DATA

2.4.2. 1. l , *
J

-

Helium T a n k s .
? 4 T h e two helium supply s p h e r i c a l p r e s s u r e v e s s e l s a r e i l o c a t e d i n the c e n t e r s e c t i o n of the s e r v i c e module. f

2.4.2. 1.2

Helium P r e s s u r i z i n g V a l v e s . T h e s e two continuous duty s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d v a l v e s ’ a r e n o r m a l l y c l o s e d to the h e l i u m supply p r e s s u r e . T h e valves a r e e n e r g i z e d open and s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d . When the helium s w i t c h e s on p a n e l 20 a r e in the AUTO p o s i t i o n , the v a l v e s a r e e n e r g i z e d and d e - e n e r g i z e d by the t h r u s t O N - O F F signal. T h e v a l v e s m a y be m a n u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the c r e w , u t i l i z i n g the ON and O F F p o s i t i o n of the h e l i u m s w i t c h e s . E a c h valve i s c o n t r o l l e d individually by a s e p a r a t e switch on p a n e l 20. E a c h valve c o n t a i n s a position switch which c o n t r o l s a position i n d i c a t o r above e a c h switch on p a n e l 20. When a valve i s c l o s e d , the p o s i tion switch i s open and the i n d i c a t o r is g r a y ( s a m e c o l o r a s the p a n e l ) . When a valve is open, the p o s i t i o n switch i s c l o s e d and the i n d i c a t o r h a s diagonal l i n e s , i n d i c a t i n g the valve i s open. I n the event of a f a i l u r e i n the a u t o m a t i c m o d e of o p e r a t i o n , the c r e w m a n u a l l y e n a b l e s the p r e s s u r i z i n g valve o r v a l v e s on p a n e l 20. In the e v e n t of a p r o b l e m with one of the r e g u l a t i n g u n i t s , the c r e w m a n u a l l y i s o l a t e s the r e q u i r e d p r e s s u r i z i n g valve.

2.4.2.1.

3

P r e s s u r e Pegulator Assemblies. P r F s s u r e r e g u l a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by two p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t i n g u n i t s i n p a r a l l e l , d o w n s t r e a m of e a c h h e l i u m p r e s s u r i z i n g valve. E a c h r e g u l a t o r unit c o n t a i n s a p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y r e g u l a t o r in s e r i e s , and a p r e s s u r e s u r g e d a m p e r i n s t a l l e d on the i n l e t to e a c h r e g u l a t i n g unit. T h e p r i m a r y r e g u l a t o r is n o r m a l l y the c o n t r o l l i n g r e g u l a t o r , while the s e c o n d a r y is n o r m a l l y open d u r i n g a d y n a m i c flow condition. T h e s e c o n d a r y r e g u l a t o r w i l l not b e c o m e a c o n t r o l l i n g r e g u l a t o r until the p r i m a r y , due to a p r o b l e m , allows a h i g h e r p r e s s u r e than n o r m a l , and allows the s e c o n d a r y r e g u l a t o r to function and b e c o m e the c o n t r o l l i n g r e g u l a t o r . A l l r e g u l a t o r p r e s s u r e s a r e in r e f e r e n c e to a bellows a s s e m b l y t h a t i s vented to a m b i e n t . One o the r e g u l a t i n g units i n c o r p o r a t e d i n one of t h e p a r a l l e l p a t h s f i s c o n s i d e r e d the working r e g u l a t o r . T h e r e g u l a t i n g unit i n the r e m a i n i n g p a r a l l e l path i s n o r m a l l y l o c k e d up when the s y s t e m i s dynamic. T h e r e g u l a t o r that is n o r m a l l y locked up would not function until the n o r m a l r e g u l a t o r allowed the r e g u l a t e d h e l i u m p r e s s u r e to d e c r e a s e , due to a p r o b l e m , and allow t h e n o r m a l l y locked-up r e g u l a t o r to b e c o m e the functioning r e g u l a t o r .

_ .

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date
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SM2A -03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2.4.2. 1.4 Check Valve A s s e m b l i e s . E a c h a s s e m b l y c o n t a i n s f o u r independent c h e c k v a l v e s c o n n e c t e d i n a s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l c o n f i g u r a t i o n which p r o v i d e s added redundancy. T h e c h e c k v a l v e s will not open until t h e r e i s a 4 - p s i p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l between the c h e c k valve a s s e m b l y i n l e t and o u t l e t l i n e s . 2.4.2.1.5 H e l i u m P r e s s u r e Relief Valves. T h e p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s c o n s i s t of a r e l i e f v a l v e , a b u r s t d i a p h r a g m , and a f i l t e r . I n this e v e n t , e x c e s s i v e h e l i u m a n d / o r p r o p e l l a n t v a p o r r u p t u r e s the b u r s t d i a p h r a g m and the f i l t e r ( f i l t e r is to be a n o n f r a g m e n t a t i o n type) f i l t e r s any f r a g m e n t a t i o n . T h e r e l i e f valve o p e n s and v e n t s the a p p l i c a b l e s y s t e m to s p a c e , a n d w i l l c l o s d and r e s e a l a f t e r the e x c e s s i v e p r e s s u r e h a s r e t u r n e d to t h e o p e r a t i n g l e v e l . T h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m p r o v i d e s a m o r e p o s i t i v e s e a l of h e l i u m than a r e l i e f valve. T h e f i l t e r p r e v e n t s any f r a g m e n t s f r o m the d i a p h r a g m f r o m e n t e r i n g the r e l i e f valve s e a t .

A p r e s s u r e b l e e d d e v i c e is i n c o r p o r a t e d between t h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m a n d r e l i e f valve. T h e b l e e d valve v e n t s the cavity between t h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m and r e l i e f valve i n the event of any l e a k a g e f r o m the d i a p h r a g m . T h e b l e e d d e v i c e is n o r m a l l y open and will c l o s e when t h e p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s up to a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p r e s s u r e .
2.4.2.1.6 Heat Exchangers, E a c h unit is a l i n e - m o u n t e d , c o u n t e r f l o w h e a t e x c h a n g e r c o n s i s t i n g of a p o r t i o n of t h e h e l i u m p r e s s u r i z a t i o n line, c o i l e d h e l i c a l l y within an e n l a r g e d s e c t i o n of the p r o p e l l a n t supply line. T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t c a u s e s t h e h e l i u m g a s , flowing through t h e c o i l e d line, to a p p r o a c h the t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e p r o p e l l a n t . 2.4.2.2 ProDellant Subsvstem. T h i s s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of two f u e l t a n k s ( s t o r a g e and s u m p ) , two o x i d i z e r t a n k s ( s t o r a g e and s u m p ) , p r o p e l l a n t feed l i n e s , and b i p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e as s e m bly

.

2.4.2.2.1

Propellant Tanks. T h e total p r o p e l l a n t supply is contained within f o u r h e m i s p h e r i c a l domed c y l i n d r i c a l tanks within t h e s e r v i c e module. T h e s t o r a g e tanks a r e p r e s s u r i z e d f r o m the h e l i u m supply, a n d a n outlet t r a n s f e r s the p r o p e l l a n t a n d / o r h e l i u m g a s f r o m the s t o r a g e tanks through t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t r a n s f e r l i n e s to the s u m p tanks. A s t a n d p i p e , i n the s u m p t a n k s , a l l o w s the p r o p e l l a n t a n d / o r helium g a s f r o m t h e s t o r a g e tanks to p r e s s u r i z e the s u m p t a n k s . T h u s , the p r o p e l l a n t s i n the s u m p tanks a r e d i r e c t e d i n the r e t e n t i o n r e s e r v o i r s , to the outlet, and then to the engine.

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
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1966 Change Date

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SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA T h e r e t e n t i o n r e s e r v o i r s a r e i n s t a l l e d i n the e x i t end of the s u m p tanks only. T h e u m b r e l l a p r o p e l l a n t r e t e n t i o n s c r e e n s r e t a i n a quantity of p r o p e l l a n t i n the exit end of t h e s u m p t a n k s , in addition to r e t a i n i n g p r o p e l l a n t within the r e t e n t i o n r e s e r v o i r can and i n the plumbing f r o m the s u m p tank o u t l e t to the b i p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e of t h e S P S engine d u r i n g z e r o g conditions. An ullage m a n e u v e r m u s t be p e r f o r m e d p r i o r to a t h r u s t - o n s i g n a l to the SPS engine by the S / M RCS. T h e u l l a g e m a n e u v e r is p e r f o r m e d to e n s u r e t h a t no g a s e s a r e r e t a i n e d below o r aft of the r e t e n t i o n s c r e e n s , i n addition to s e t t l i n g the p r o p e l l a n t s and e n s u r i n g that the r e t e n t i o n s c r e e n s a r e not damaged. 2.4.2.2.2 Tank Propellant F e e d Lines. T h e p r o p e l l a n t f e e d l i n e s have flexible bellows a s s e m b l i e s i n s t a l l e d to p e r m i t a l i g n m e n t of the tank f e e d plumbing to the engine i n t e r f a c e plumbing. 2.4.2.3 B i p r o p e l l a n t Valve A s s e m b l y . T h e b i p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of two g a s e o u s n i t r o g e n (GN2) p r e s s u r e v e s s e l s , two i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s , two GN2 r e g u l a t o r s , t w o GN2 r e l i e f v a l v e s , f o u r solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s , f o u r a c t u a t o r s , and eight p r o p e l l a n t b a l l v a l v e s . 2.4.2.3.1 G a s e o u s N i t r o g e n (GN2) P r e s s u r e V e s s e l s . Two GN2 tanks a r e mounted on the b i p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e a s s e m b l y that supply p r e s s u r e to t h e i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s . One GN2 tank i s in the p r i m a r y p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m A and the r e m a i n i n g GN2 tank i s i n the s e c o n d a r y pneum'atic c o n t r o l s y s t e m B.
2.4.2.3.2

Inj e c t o r Pr e v a l v e s

.

T h e i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s a r e two-position s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d v a l v e s , one f o r e a c h p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m and i d e n t i f i e d as A and B. T h e valve i s e n e r g i z e d open and s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d . T h e i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e i s opened upon c o m m a n d f r o m the c r e w , p a n e l 3, p r i o r to a n engine t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d . T h e i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s e n e r g i z e d open allows GN2 supply tank p r e s s u r e to flow to a n o r i f i c e and on i n t o the r e g u l a t o r .
2. 4.2.3.3

GN2 P r e s s u r e R e g u l a t o r s .
A s i n g l e - s t a g e r e g u l a t o r is i n s t a l l e d i n e a c h p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m between the i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s and the s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s . T h e r e g u l a t o r r e d u c e s the supply GN2 p r e s s u r e to a d e s i r e d working p r e s s u r e .

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page '-4-7

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SYSTEMS DATA

2.4.2.3.4

GN2 Relief Valves.

A p r e s s u r e r e l i e f valve is i n s t a l l e d i n e a c h p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m , d o w n s t r e a m of the GN2 p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s , to l i m i t the p r e s s u r e applied to t h e solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s i n t h e event a GN2 p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r m a l functioned open. T h e o r i f i c e , between the i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e a n d r e g u l a t o r , is i n s t a l l e d to r e s t r i c t the flow a n d a l l o w the r e l i e f valve to r e l i e v e the p r e s s u r e i n event the r e g u l a t o r fails to open, p r e v e n t i n g any d a m a g e to the solenoid control valves a n d / o r actuators.
2.4.2.3.5 GN2 Solenoid C o n t r o l Valves.
F o u r s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d , t h r e e - w a y , two-position c o n t r o l v a l v e s a r e u t i l i z e d f o r a c t u a t o r c o n t r o l . Two solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s a r e l o c a t e d d o w n s t r e a m of the GN2 r e g u l a t o r s i n e a c h p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m . T h e two s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s i n the p r i m a r y s y s t e m a r e identified i n 1 and 2 , and t h e two i n the s e c o n d a r y s y s t e m a r e identified as 3 a n d 4. T h e two s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s i n the p r i m a r y s y s t e m c o n t r o l the a c t u a t o r and b a l l v a l v e s 1 and 2 . T h e two s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s in the s e c o n d a r y s y s t e m c o n t r o l the a c t u a t o r and b a l l v a l v e s 3 a n d 4. T h e SPS t h r u s t ON-OFF c o m m a n d c o n t r o l s the e n e r g i z i n g o r d e - e n e r g i z i n g of a l l f o u r solenoid c o n t r o l valves.

2.4.2.3.6

GN2 B a l l Valve A c t u a t o r s .
F o u r p i s t o n - t y p e , p n e u m a t i c a l l y o p e r a t e d a c t u a t o r s a r e u t i l i z e d to c o n t r o l t h e e i g h t p r o p e l l a n t b a l l v a l v e s . E a c h a c t u a t o r p i s t o n is m e c h a n i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d t o a p a i r of p r o p e l l a n t b a l l v a l v e s ; one f u e l and one o x i d i z e r . Wben the solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s a r e opened, p n e u m a t i c p r e s s u r e is a p p l i e d to the opening s i d e of the a c t u a t o r s . T h e s p r i n g p r e s s u r e , on the c l o s i n g s i d e , i s o v e r c o m e a n d the a c t u a t o r piston m o v e s . Utilizing a r a c k and pinion g e a r , l i n e a r m o t i o n of the a c t u a t o r connecting a r m i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o r o t a r y motion, which opens t h e p r o p e l l a n t b a l l valves. When the engine f i r i n g s i g n a l i s r e m o v e d f r o m the solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s , the s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s c l o s e r e m o v i n g p n e u m a t i c p r e s s u r e s o u r c e f r o m t h e opening s i d e of the a c t u a t o r s . T h e a c t u a t o r c l o s i n g s i d e s p r i n g p r e s s u r e now f o r c e s the a c t u a t o r p i s t o n to m o v e i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , c a u s i n g the p r o p e l l a n t b a l l valves to c l o s e . T h e p i s t o n m o v e m e n t f o r c e s the r e m a i n i n g GN2, on the opening s i d e of the a c t u a t o r , b a c k through t h e solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s w h e r e they a r e vented o v e r b o a r d .

2.4.2.3.7

Bipropellant Valves. T h e e i g h t p r o p e l l a n t b a l l v a l v e s a r e u s e d to d i s t r i b u t e f u e l and o x i d i z e r to the engine i n j e c t o r a s s e m b l y . F o u r linked p a i r s , e a c h p a i r c o n s i s t i n g of one f u e l and one o x i d i z e r b a l l valve c o n t r o l l e d by a s i n g l e a c t u a t o r , a r e a r r a n g e d in a s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l configuration. T h e p a r a l l e l a r r a n g e m e n t p r o v i d e s redundancy to e n s u r e engine ignition, and the s e r i e s a r r a n g e m e n t to' e n s u r e t h r u s t t e r m i n a t i o n . When the a c t u a t o r s

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SMZA-03-SC012 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA a r e opened, e a c h p r o p e l l a n t b a l l valve is r o t a t e d , t h e r e b y aligning the b a l l to a p o s i t i o n that allows p r o p e l l a n t s to flow to the engine i n j e c t o r a s s e m b l y . T h e m e c h a n i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t is s u c h that the o x i d i z e r b a l l v a l v e s m a i n t a i n a n 8 - d e g r e e l e a d o v e r the f u e l b a l l valves upon opening, which r e s u l t s i n s m o o t h e r engine s t a r t i n g t r a n s i e n t s . E a c h p a i r of p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e s i n c o r p o r a t e s a p o t e n t i o m e t e r d r i v e g e a r and housing. E a c h housing c o n t a i n s two p o t e n t i o m e t e r s that a r e m e c h a n i c a l l y driven: one p r o v i d e s a n e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o a v i s u a l indication of valve p o s i t i o n of p a n e l 2 0 , and the r e m a i n i n g p r o v i d e s a s i g n a l to t e l e m e t r y .

2 . 4 . 2 . 3.8

Engine P r o p e l l a n t L i n e s . I n t e g r a l p r o p e l l a n t l i n e s a r e utilized, on t h e engine, to r o u t e e a c h p r o p e l l a n t f r o m the i n t e r f a c e points i n the g i m b a l p l a n e a r e a to the p r o p e l l a n t engine gimbaling, o r i f i c e s f o r a d j u s t m e n t of o x i d i z e r / f u e l r a t i o , and s c r e e n s f o r keeping p a r t i c l e c o n t a m i n a n t s f r o m e n t e r i n g the engine.

2.4.2.4

Engine I n j e c t o r . T h e i n j e c t o r is bolted to the a b l a t i v e t h r u s t c h a m b e r a t t a c h pad. P r o p e l l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n to the i n j e c t o r o r i f i c e s , on the c o m b u s t i o n f a c e of the i n j e c t o r , is a c c o m p l i s h e d through c o n c e n t r i c annuli m a c h i n e d in the f a c e of the i n j e c t o r a s s e m b l y and c o v e r e d by c o n c e n t r i c c l o s e o u t r i n g s . P r o p e l l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n to t h e annuli is a c c o m p l i s h e d through a l t e r n a t e r a d i a l m a n i f o l d s welded to the b a c k s i d e of the i n j e c t o r body. T h e i n j e c t o r is r e g e n e r a t i v e l y cooled a n d baffled to p r o v i d e c o m b u s t i o n stability. T h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r o r i f i c e s i m p i n g e upon e a c h o t h e r , a t o m i z e , and i g n i t e due to h y p e r g o l i c r e a c t i o n .

2.4.2.5

Ablative Combustion C h a m b e r . T h e a b l a t i v e c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r m a t e r i a l extends f r o m the i n j e c t o r a t t a c h pad to the n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n a t t a c h pad. T h e a b l a t i v e m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s of a l i n e r , a l a y e r of insulation, i n t e g r a l m e t a l a t t a c h f l a n g e s f o r mounting the i n j e c t o r and nozzle e x t e n s i o n , and s t r u c t u r a l o u t e r r e i n f o r c e ment. T h e only r e s t r i c t i o n on a r e s t a r t is dependent upon the SPS WALL T E M P HI caution and w a r n i n g light, on p a n e l 11, m o n i t o r i n g the o u t s i d e w a l l t e m p e r a t u r e a t the t h r o a t .

2.4.2.6

Nozzle Extension. T h e b e l l - c o n t o u r e d , n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n is bolted to the a b l a t i v e t h r u s t c h a m b e r exit a r e a . T h e n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n is r a d i a n t - c o o l e d and c o n t a i n s an e x t e r n a l s t i f f e n e r to p r o v i d e additional s t r e n g t h .

2.4.2.7

F l i g h t Combustion Stability Monitor (FCSM). The FCSM i a a n a c c e l e r o m e t e r p a c k a g e , mounted to the SPS engine i n j e c t o r , to m o n i t o r the engine f o r v i b r a t i o n buildup c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o m b u s t i o n instability.

._

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SM2A -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA T h e t h r e e a c c e l e r o m e t e r s p r o v i d e s i g n a l s i n t o a n FCSM box a s s e m b l y which a m p l i f i e s i t and, when the v i b r a t i o n g - l e v e l e x c e e d s 180 g ' s peak to p e a k f o r 70*20 m i l l i s e c o n d s , a l e v e l d e t e c t o r t r i g g e r s a power switch gating p o w e r to t h e s u m m i n g logic. T h e stability m o n i t o r w i l l m o n i t o r only i n a f r e q u e n c y r a n g e w h e r e i n s t a b i l i t y would o c c u r ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 to 5000 cycles p e r second). T h e s u m m i n g l o g i c , i f t h e r e a r e two o r m o r e rough c o m b u s t i o n s i g n a l s r e c e i v e d f r o m the n o r m a l l y c l o s e d c o n t a c t s , w i l l open r e m o v i n g p o w e r f r o m the G&N and SCS d r i v e r logic; and w i l l c l o s e t h e n o r m a l l y open c o n t a c t s p r o v i d i n g a ground to the S P S ROUGH ECO caution and w a r n i n g light, on p a n e l 10, i n f o r m i n g the c r e w the S P S engine w a s s h u t down due to combustion instability. T h e FCSM t r i g g e r c i r c u i t s will p r o v i d e power to t h e voting logic r e l a y s continuously o n c e u n s t a b l e c o m b u s t i o n is s e n s e d ; and p o w e r r e m a i n s a p p l i e d to t h e voting logic r e l a y s even though the engine is shut down, u n s t a b l e c o m b u s t i o n i s no l o n g e r s e n s e d , and the SPS ROUGH ECO r e m a i n s illuminated. When the engine i s s h u t down to u n s t a b l e c o m b u s t i o n and to r e m o v e power f r o m t h e voting logic r e l a y s , t h e c r e w would p l a c e a n y one of the following s w i t c h e s to the p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e d to r e s e t t h e FCSM voting logic: a. AUTO-OVERRIDE s w i t c h e s to OVERRIDE. b. A V s w i t c h to O F F . c. ATTITUDE-MONITOR-ENTRY s w i t c h to e i t h e r MONITOR o r ENTRY. d. FCSM SCS and G & N s w i t c h e s to RESET/OVERRIDE. When the FCSM i s r e s e t , t h e S P S ROUGH ECO light on p a n e l 10 will not be i l l u m i n a t e d . T h e RESET/OVERRIDE s w i t c h e s , on p a n e l 2 , p r o v i d e a b y p a s s c a p a b i l i t y of t h e FCSM s y s t e m . With the FCSM RESET/OVERRIDE s w i t c h e s , on p a n e l 2 , i n the RESET/OVERRIDE position, p o w e r i s not p r o v i d e d to the FCSM box and s u m m i n g logic a s s e m b l i e s r e n d e r i n g the FCSM i n o p e r a t i v e as w e l l a s t h e S P S ROUGH E C O c a u t i o n a n d w a r n i n g light o n p a n e l 10. If u n s t a b l e c o m b u s t i o n o c c u r s , the engine c o n t i n u e s to thrust. T h e FCSM box a s s e m b l y and s u m m i n g logic a s s e m b l y r e c e i v e s power f r o m the SCS through the following s w i t c h e s : a. Mode s e l e c t s w i t c h to G & N o r SCS m o d e , p a n e l 8. b. ATTITUDE-MONITOR-ENTRY s w i t c h to ATTITUDE, p a n e l 8. c. AV s w i t c h to AV p o s i t i o n , p a n e l 8. d. FCSM G & N , RESET/OVERRIDE s w i t c h to G&N p o s i t i o n , p a n e l 2 . e. FCSM SCS, R E S E T / O V E R N D E switch to SCS position, p a n e l 2 .

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SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l2

lq66

Change Date

Page

2.4-10

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SM2A-03-SCOlZ APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2.4.2.8 SPS E l e c t r i c a l Heaters. T w e n t y - s i x e l e c t r i c a l s t r i p h e a t e r s a r e employed on the p r o p e l l a n t line b r a c k e t s , f u e l and o x i d i z e r h e a t e x c h a n g e r s , p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve, b i p r o p e l l a n t valve a s s e m b l y , and the i n j e c t o r tubes. T h e s e e l e c t i r c a l s t r i p h e a t e r s a r e employed to c o n t r o l the t e m p e r a t u r e of the e n t i r e a f t bulkhead and engine a r e a s , thus the p r o p e l l a n t s . T h e s t r i p h e a t e r s a r e c o n t r o l l e d as a n o r m a l m a n u a l function of t h e c r e w , on p a n e l 19 ( f i g u r e 2.4-2), utilizing t h e S P S HEATER switch. T h e c r e w w i l l p l a c e the switch to position A o r B when the p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d i c a t o r , on p a n e l 20, r e a d s - 4 0 ° F ( l o w e r r e d line indication) which is equivalent to a p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e of t40"F. The propellant t e m p e r a t u r e r e a d o u t i s d e r i v e d f r o m the engine f u e l - f e e d line m e a s u r e m e n t ( f i g u r e 2.4-1). T h e c r e w w i l l p l a c e the S P S HEATER switch to O F F when the p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d i c a t o r , on p a n e l 20, r e a d s t 8 0 ' F ( u p p e r r e d line indication) which is equivalent to a p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e of t 1 2 0 " 1 .

Propellant Temperature Comparison P r o p e l l a n t T e m p e r a t u r e I n d i c a t o r R e a d i n g 'F -100
-80

-60

-40

-20

0

t20 t40

t6O

t80

tl00

t120

t140

t160

t180

t2OO

to

t13.33

t26.67

t40 t53.34

t66.67

t80 t93.34

t106.67

tl2O

t133.34

t146.67

t160

t173.34

t186.67

t2OO

When the SPS HEATER s w i t c h is p l a c e d to p o s i t i o n A, all 26 h e a t i n g e l e m e n t s (A) w i l l r e c e i v e 28 vdc. When the SPS HEATER s w i t c h i s placed to p o s i t i o n B, a l l 26 heating e l e m e n t s (B) w i l l r e c e i v e 2 8 vdc. T h e O F F p o s i tion of the SPS HEATER switch r e m o v e s a l l e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r f r o m the SPS heating elements. 2.4.2.9 T h r u s t Mount A s s e m b l i e s . T h e t h r u s t m o u n t a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a g i m b a l r i n g , engine-tov e h i c l e mounting p a d s , and g i m b a l r i n g - t o - c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r a s s e m b l y s u p p o r t s . T h e t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e is c a p a b l e of providing 1 8 . 5 d e g r e e s i n c l i n a t i o n about the Z-axis and *7.5 d e g r e e s about t h e Y - a x i s . 2.4.2.9.1 G i m b a l Actuator. T h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l of the s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n engine i s a c h i e v e d by dual- , s e r v o - , electro-mechanical actuators. The gimbal actuators a r e c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g c o n t r o l a r o u n d the Z - Z a x i s (yaw) of 7 ( t 1 / 2 , - 0 ) d e g r e e s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n f r o m a t 4 - d e g r e e null offset, and a r o u n d the Y - Y a x i s (pitch) of 6 ( + 1 / 2 , - 0 ) d e g r e e s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n f r o m a z e r o d e g r e e null offset. T h e r e a s o n f o r the 4 - d e g r e e o f f s e t to t h e t Y a x i s is due to the offset c e n t e r of m a s s i n the s p a c e c r a f t . E a c h a c t u a t o r a s s e m b l y ( f i g u r e 2.4-3) c o n s i s t s of f o u r e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c p a r t i c l e c l u t c h e s , two d - c m o t o r s , a b u l l g e a r , j a c k s c r e w and r a m , b a l l nut, f o u r l i n e a r p o s i t i o n t r a n s d u c e r s , and two velocity g e n e r a t o r s . T h e a c t u a t o r a s s e m b l y i s a s e a l e d unit and e n c l o s e t h o s e p o r t i o n s p r o t r u d i n g f r o m the m a i n housing.

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l2

1966

Change Date

page

.

2.4-11

SMZA -03-SCO12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

- - T - -

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I

k
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SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

M i s s ion

Basic Date

12 Nov

1966 Change Date

page 2 . 4 - 1 2

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-

SYSTEMS DATA

F i g u r e 2.4-3.

SPS E l e c t r o - M e c h a n i c a l G i m b a l A c t u a t o r

One m o t o r a n d a p a i r of c l u t c h e s ( e x t e n d a n d r e t r a c t ) a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s s y s t e m No. 1, and t h e r e m a i n i n g m o t o r a n d p a i r of c l u t c h e s ( e x t e n d and r e t r a c t ) a r e identified a s s y s t e m No. 2 within t h e s p e c i f i c a c t u a t o r . An o v e r and u n d e r c u r r e n t r e l a y is e m p l o y e d f o r e a c h p r i m a r y g i m b a l m o t o r ( f i g u r e 2.4-4), and is c o n t r o l l e d individually by a switch on p a n e l 3 . When t h e p r i m a r y GIMBAL MOTORS s w i t c h e s a r e p l a c e d to t h e START p o s i t i o n , p o w e r is a p p l i e d to t h e m o t o r - d r i v e n switch within t h e over and u n d e r c u r r e n t r e l a y of the p r i m a r i e s . T h e m o t o r s w i t c h then s u p p l i e s p o w e r f r o m t h e m a i n b u s A to the g i m b a l m o t o r . When t h e s w i t c h is r e l e a s e d , i t s p r i n g - l o a d s to t h e ON p o s i t i o n which a c t i v a t e s the o v e r and u n d e r c u r r e n t s e n s i n g c i r c u i t r y of the p r i m a r y r e l a y which m o n i t o r s t h e c u r r e n t to the gimbal motor. T h e o v e r and u n d e r c u r r e n t r e l a y of the p r i m a r i e s a r e u t i l i z e d to m o n i t o r the c u r r e n t to t h e g i m b a l m o t o r due to t h e v a r i a b l e c u r r e n t flow to t h e g i m b a l m o t o r t h a t is dependent upon t h e g i m b a l a n g l e change r e q u i r e d .

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM
Mission B a s i c Date l2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.4-13

SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Using No. 1 yaw s y s t e m as a n e x a m p l e , and identifying the u p p e r m o t o r and c l u t c h e s in f i g u r e 2.4-3 a s s y s t e m No. 1 , the o p e r a t i o n of the c u r r e n t m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m is as follows: a. If t h e r e l a y s e n s e s a n o v e r o r u n d e r c u r r e n t to g i m b a l m o t o r No. 1, the m o n i t o r c i r c u i t r y within t h e r e l a y will d r i v e the m o t o r - d r i v e n switch, r e m o v i n g p o w e r f r o m g i m b a l m o t o r No. 1. b. S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a f a i l s e n s e s i g n a l is s e n t f r o m t h e r e l a y , the SCS, which opens r e l a y K13 r e m o v i n g inputs f r o m the No. 1 c l u t c h e s a n d c l o s e s r e l a y K14 applying inputs to the No. 2 c l u t c h e s within the s a m e a c t u a t o r ; and the top c o n t a c t of K12 opens and t h e bottom c o n t a c t of K12 c l o s e s f o r TVC m o n i t o r . c. S i m u l t a n e o u s l y a s i g n a l is s e n t to i l l u m i n a t e a caution and w a r n i n g light on p a n e l 11, to i n d i c a t e the p r i m a r y g i m b a l m o t o r h a s failed. T h e p r i m a r y s w i t c h e s on p a n e l 3 a r e then p l a c e d i n t h e O F F position. N o r m a l l y the OFF p o s i t i o n is u s e d to s h u t down the g i m b a l m o t o r s upon the c o m p l e t i o n of a t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d . T h e No. 2 s y s t e m s employ a 7 0 - a m p c i r c u i t b r e a k e r t h a t is located in the s e r v i c e m o d u l e n e a r the SPS power d i s t r i b u t i o n box. Using No. 2 yaw s y s t e m as an e x a m p l e ( f i g u r e 2.4-4), the o p e r a t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m is a s follows: a. When the s e c o n d a r y GIMBAL MOTORS s w i t c h e s a r e p l a c e d to the START p o s i t i o n , p o w e r is applied to the m o t o r - d r i y e n s w i t c h within the o v e r and u n d e r c u r r e n t r e l a y of the s e c o n d a r i e s . The m o t o r switch then s u p p l i e s p o w e r f r o m the m a i n b u s B through t h e 7 0 - a m p c i r c u i t b r e a k e r , and t h r o u g h the m o t o r - d r i v e n s w i t c h to the s e c o n d a r y g i m b a l m o t o r . b. When the s e c o n d a r y s w i t c h is r e l e a s e d , i t s p r i n g - l o a d s to the ON p o s i t i o n w h i c h ' p e r f o r m s no functions on the s e c o n d a r i e s . c. T h e 7 0 - a m p c i r c u i t b r e a k e r will m o n i t o r the c u r r e n t to the s e c o n d a r y g i m b a l m o t o r ; and i f a c u r r e n t of 70 a m p s i s s e n s e d , the c i r c u i t b r e a k e r in the s e r v i c e m o d u l e w i l l r e m o v e p o w e r f r o m the s e c o n d a r y g i m b a l m o t o r . d. T h e r e is no f a i l s e n s e s i g n a l s e n t to the s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s y s t e m , a n d no i l l u m i n a t i o n of the c a u t i o n and w a r n i n g light on p a n e l 11 f r o m the s e c o n d a r y s y s t e m . e. If the No. 2 s y s t e m h a s f a i l e d due to a n o v e r c u r r e n t , the c i r c u i t b r e a k e r r e m o v e s power f r o m g i m b a l m o t o r No. 2 only, a n d t h a t s p e c i f i c a c t u a t o r i s i n o p e r a t i v e i f the No. 1 s y s t e m h a s p r e v i o u s l y failed. T h e s e c o n d a r y s w i t c h e s on p a n e l 3 a r e then p l a c e d to O F F position. N o r m a l l y , t h e O F F p o s i t i o n is u s e d to s h u t down the g i m b a l m o t o r s upon the c o m p l e t i o n of a t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d . T h e c l u t c h e s a r e of a m a g n e t i c p a r t i c l e type. T h e g i m b a l m o t o r d r i v e g e a r m e s h e s with the g e a r on the c l u t c h housing. T h e g e a r s on e a c h c l u t c h housing m e s h and as a r e s u l t , the clutch housings c o u n t e r r o t a t e . T h e c u r r e n t input is applied to the e l e c t r o - m a g n e t mounted to the r o t a t i n g c l u t c h housing f r o m the s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m o r i n the guidance and navigation s y s t e m through the s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m . A q u i e s c e n t

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

I

INPUTS

ENGINE IGNITION

Tvc No. 1
POWER

I

I

L1'v'l'Ln

I

Tvc
TO SCS
INTEGRATOR PANEL 6 MONlTOR

.

lV GIMBAL
TRIM THUMBWHEEL

1

1 ROTATION CONTROL
ANDRATECAGE CURRENT LIMITER GENERATOR

Tvc No. 2 POWER SWITCH PANEL 24

K9 CONTROLLED BY SPS THRUSI ON4FF LOGIC K10. K11. K12. K13 AND K14 YIOVvN PRIOR TO GIMBAL MOTOR STAR1

I F THE OVER AND UNDER CURRENT RELAY FOR YAW GIMBAL MOTOR NO. 1 SENYS AN OVER OR UNDER CURRENT, THE REMY SIGNAL OPENS K13 TO CLUTCHES, K13 TOP CONTACT OPENS LOWER CLOSES FOR TLM, K13 CLOSES TO CLUTCHES, K1Z TOP CONTACT OPENS, LOWER CLOSES.
K10. K11. K13 and K14 ARE ALW CONTROLLED BY CLOCKWISE ROTATION OF TRANSLATION CONTROL WITH DaTA V MODE SELECTED REFERRED TO AS MANUM THRUST VfCTOR CONTROL

++ l ! E
CLUTCH CM

IW

I

Missi

. : ;-. . . .

.-. .

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

sM
OVER UNDER

I

CAUTION AND WARNING PANEL 11

I , , -

------

--

I
Figure 2.4-4.

I
SPS Yaw Gimbal Actuator Motor and Clutch Control
SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM
M i s s ion
Ba s ic_, Date

SM-2A-1079

l 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page 2 . 4 - 1 5 / 2 . 4 - 1 6

SMZA -03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA c u r r e n t i s applied to the e l e c t r o - m a g n e t of the extend and r e t r a c t clutches when the t h r u s t v e c t o r POWER s w i t c h e s , on panel 24, a r e on, which p r e v e n t s the engine f r o m moving during the boost p h a s e of the m i s s i o n with the g i m b a l m o t o r s O F F . A 246 foot-pound f o r c e would be r e q u i r e d on the engine to o v e r c o m e the q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t (equivalent to 1.53 g) in the clutches. T h e g i m b a l m o t o r s will be t u r n e d on, p r i o r to jettisoning the launch e s c a p e t o w e r , to s u p p o r t the S P S a b o r t c r i t e r i a a f t e r the launch e s c a p e t o w e r h a s been j e t t i s o n e d , a n d will be t u r n e d O F F a s soon a s p o s s i b l e to r e d u c e the h e a t p r o b l e m that o c c u r s due to the g i m b a l m o t o r s d r i v i n g the clutch housings. With q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t applied, i t c r e a t e s a f r i c t i o n f o r c e in the clutch housing that c r e a t e s h e a t , which i f allowed t o rise t o a high t e m p e r a t u r e the e l e c t r o - magnet would l o o s e i t s m a g n e t i s m capability; thus r e n d e r i n g that s e t of clutches inoperative. T h i s p r o b l e m o c c u r s only d u r i n g boost, not d u r i n g the n o r m a l S P S b u r n s . P r i o r to any t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s the thumbwheels on panel 6 c a n be u s e d to position the engine. T h e t h r u s t - o n s i g n a l m a y b e provided by the G & N through the SCS, o r by SCS only. In e i t h e r m o d e the c u r r e n t input r e q u i r e d ( t o m a i n t a i n the engine t h r u s t v e c t o r through the c e n t e r of m a s s ) to the c l u t c h e s will i n c r e a s e above the q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t which i n c r e a s e s the c u r r e n t i n the e l e c t r o - m a g n e t s that a r e rotating with the clutch housings. T h e d r y powder m a g n e t i c p a r t i c l e s have the ability to b e c o m e m a g n e t i z e d v e r y r e a d i l y a s w e l l as becoming demagnetized as readily. T h e m a g n e t i c p a r t i c l e s i n c r e a s e the f r i c t i o n f o r c e between the rotating housing a n d the flywheel, c a u s i n g the flywheel to r o t a t e . T h e flywheel a r r a n g e m e n t i s a t t a c h e d t o the clutch output s h a f t allowing the clutch s h a f t to d r i v e the bull g e a r . T h e bull g e a r d r i v e s a b a l l nut which d r i v e s the a c t u a t o r j a c k - s h a f t to a n extend or r e t r a c t position, depending upon which clutch housing e l e c t r o y m a g n e t the c u r r e n t input is supplied to. T h e l a r g e r the excitation c u r r e n t , the h i g h e r the clutch shaft r o t a t i o n r a t e . M e s h e d with the b a l l nut pinion g e a r a r e two r a t e t r a n s d u c e r s of the t a c h o m e t e r type. When the ball nut is rotated, the r a t e t r a n s d u c e r s u p p l i e s a feedback into the s u m m i n g network of the t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l Logic to c o n t r o l the d r i v i n g r a t e s of the j a c k s c r e w ( a c t i n g as a dynamic b r a k e to p r e v e n t o v e r o r u n d e r c o r r e c t i n g ) , one t r a n s d u c e r f o r e a c h s y s t e m . T h e j a c k s c r e w contains f o u r position t r a n s d u c e r s , all a r r a n g e d f o r l i n e a r m o t i o n a n d a l l connected t o a s i n g l e yoke. One of the position t r a n s d u c e r s is u s e d to provide a feedback t o the s u m m i n g network of t r a n s d u c e r feedback. The two feedbacks to the s u m m i n g network r e d u c e the output c u r r e n t to the clutch, r e s u l t i n g i n a p r o p o r t i o n a l r a t e change to the d e s i r e d g i m b a l a n g l e position and r e t u r n s to a q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t . One position t r a n s d u c e r p r o v i d e s a s i g n a l to the v i s u a l display on panel 6. One of the position t r a n s d u c e r s p r o v i d e s a f e e d b a c k to the redundant s u m m i n g network of the t h r u s t v e c t o r logic f o r the redundant clutches. T h e r e m a i n i n g position t r a n s d u c e r is not p r e s e n t l y utilized.

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Changc Date Page
2.4-17

SMZA-03-SC012

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

_SYSTEMS DATA T h e s p a c e c r a f t d e s i r e d motion, thumbwheel positioning, engine n o z z l e p o s i t i o n , t h r u s t v e c t o r p o s i t i o n , g i m b a l p o s i t i o n d i s p l a y i n d i c a t o r and a c t u a t o r r a m m o v e m e n t is identified i n f i g u r e 2. 4-5.

A snubbing d e v i c e p r o v i d e s a h a r d s t o p f o r a n additional I - d e g r e e t r a v e l beyond the n o r m a l g i m b a l l i m i t s .
Manual t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l m a y be obtained by the c r e w p l a c i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l c l o c k w i s e . T h i s w i l l open c o n t a c t s K10 and K13 and c l o s e c o n t a c t s K11 and K14, allowing the r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l to p r o v i d e the c r e w with m a n u a l t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l . 2.4.2.10 P r o p e l l a n t Utilization and Gauging S u b s y s t e m (PUGS). T h e s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of eight p r o p e l l a n t quantity s e n s o r s , a p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n v a l v e , a c o n t r o l unit, and a d i s p l a y unit ( f i g u r e s 2.4-6 and 2.4-7). 2.4.2.

10. 1

Quantity Sensing, Computing, and Indicating S y s t e m . P r o p e l l a n t quantity i s m e a s u r e d by two s e p a r a t e s e n s i n g s y s t e m s : p r i m a r y and a u x i l i a r y . T h e p r i m a r y quantity s e n s o r s a r e c y l i n d r i c a l c a p a c i t a n c e p r o b e s , mounted a x i a l l y i n e a c h tank. I n t h e o x i d i z e r t a n k s , t h e p r o b e s c o n s i s t of a p a i r of c o n c e n t r i c e l e c t r o d e s with o x i d i z e r u s e d as t h e d i e l e c t r i c . I n the f u e l t a n k s , a p y r e x g l a s s p r o b e , c o a t e d with s i l v e r on t h e i n s i d e , is u s e d as one conductor of the c a p a c i t o r . F u e l on the outs i d e of t h e p r o b e i s the o t h e r c o n d u c t o r . T h e p y r e x g l a s s itself f o r m s t h e d i e l e c t r i c . T h e a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m u t i l i z e s point s e n s o r s mounted a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e p r i m a r y p r o b e s to p r o v i d e a s t e p function i m p e d a n c e change when t h e liquid l e v e l p a s s e s t h e i r l o c a t i o n c e n t e r l i n e . P r i m a r y p r o p e l l a n t m e a s u r e m e n t i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by the p r o b e s c a p a c i t a n c e being a l i n e a r function of p r o p e l l a n t height. A u x i l i a r y p r o p e l l a n t m e a s u r e m e n t is a c c o m p l i s h e d by l o c a t i n g the p r o p e l l a n t l e v e l with point s e n s o r s . E a c h point s e n s o r c o n s i s t s of c o n c e n t r i c m e t a l r i n g s , s e v e n in the s t o r a g e tanks and eight i n the s u m p t a n k s . T h e r i n g s p r e s e n t a v a r i a b l e i m p e d a n c e , depending on w h e t h e r they a r e c o v e r e d o r u n c o v e r e d by the p r o p e l l a n t s . When the p r o p e l l a n t s a r e between point s e n s o r s , the p r o p e l l a n t s r e m a i n i n g a r e i n t e g r a t e d by a r a t e flow g e n e r a t o r which i n t e g r a t e s the s e r v o s a t a r a t e p r o p o r t i o n a l to the n o r m a l flow r a t e of the f u e l and o x i d i z e r . A m o d e s e l e c t o r s e n s e s when the p r o p e l l a n t c r o s s e s a s e n s o r and c h a n g e s t h e a u x i l i a r y s e r v o s f r o m the flow r a t e g e n e r a t o r m o d e to the position m o d e , t h e s y s t e m m o v e s to the location s p e c i f i e d by t h e d i g i t a l - t o - a n a l o g c o n v e r t e r f o r 3 / 4 second to c o r r e c t f o r any d i f f e r e n c e . T h e s y s t e m then r e t u r n s t o the flow r a t e g e n e r a t o r m o d e until t h e next point s e n s o r is r e a c h e d . F i g u r e s 2. 4 - 8 and 2 . 4 - 9 i l l u s t r a t e p o i n t s e n s o r l o c a t i o n s t h a t a r e c o v e r e d by p r o p e l l a n t s . T h e nonsequential p a t t e r n d e t e c t o r functions to d e t e c t f a l s e o r faulty s e n s o r s i g n a l s . If a s e n s o r h a s failed, the i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h a t s e n s o r i s blocked f r o m t h e s y s t e m , p r e v e n t i n g d i s r u p t i o n of s y s t e m computation. SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

.
Page 2.4-18

Mission

B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966

Change Date

SMZA -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
--

SYSTEMS DATA

VI
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SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966 Change Date

Page

2.4-19

SM2A-03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA When a THRUST-ON s i g n a l is p r o v i d e d with the SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h i n the PRIMARY o r NORMAL position, the c r e w d i s p l a y digital r e a d o u t s , and u n b a l a n c e d i s p l a y w i l l not change f o r 4 . 5 i 1 . 0 s e c o n d s to allow f o r p r o p e l l a n t settling. However, T L M w i l l r e c e i v e t h e s a m e s i g n a l a s upon c o m p l e t i o n of t h e l a s t f i r i n g a f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y one s e c o n d of SPS THRUSTON. When the THRUST-ON s i g n a l is p r o v i d e d wi'th the SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h i n AUXILIARY position, t h e c r e w d i s p l a y digital r e a d o u t s and TLM will r e c e i v e a change in i n f o r m a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y which i s g e n e r a t e d f r o m a flow r a t e i n t e g r a t o r t h a t s i m u l a t e s t h e n o m i n a l flow r a t e and t r a n s m i t s this a s quantity i n f o r m a t i o n to the c r e w d i s p l a y s and TLM. T h e c r e w d i g i t a l r e a d o u t s , unbalance d i s p l a y , and T L M will not be updated to the p r o p e l l a n t f r o m a point s e n s o r f o r 4 . 5 i l . O s e c o n d s a f t e r THRUST-ON. When the THRUST-ON s i g n a l is p r o v i d e d p l u s 4. 5 i l . O s e c o n d s , i f a point s e n s o r is u n c o v e r e d the c r e w digital r e a d o u t s , unbalance d i s p l a y , a n d T L M w i l l b e updated to the p r o p e l l a n t r e m a i n i n g a t t h a t point s e n s o r . The t i m e d e l a y of 4 . 5 i 1 . 0 s e c o n d s is to t h e point s e n s o r s y s t e m and not to the a u x i l i a r y f u e l and o x i d i z e r s e r v o s , and is to allow f o r p r o p e l l a n t settling. Any d e v i a t i o n f r o m the n o m i n a l o x i d i z e r to f u e l r a t i o (2: 1 by m a s s ) is d i s p l a y e d i n pounds by the UNBALANCE i n d i c a t o r . The u p p e r half of the i n d i c a t o r i s m a r k e d INC, and t h e l o w e r half is m a r k e d DEC to identify the r e q u i r e d c h a n g e i n o x i d i z e r flow r a t e to c o r r e c t any unbalance condition. When the SENSOR s e l e c t switch is i n t h e NORMAL position, t h e outputs of both s e n s o r s y s t e m s a r e continually c o m p a r e d i n the c o m p a r a t o r network. If a d i s c r e p a n c y o c c u r s between total p r i m a r y and total a u x i l i a r y f u e l of 300 poynds, o r a d i s c r e p a n c y between total p r i m a r y o x i d i z e r and a u x i l i a r y o x i d i z e r of 300 pounds, the caution and warning i n d i c a t o r on p a n e l 11 is i l l u m i n a t e d . T h e output of the o x i d i z e r s u m p tank s e r v o a m p l i f i e r and t h e p r i m a r y p o t e n t i o m e t e r of the unbalance i n d i c a t o r a r e c o m p a r e d i n the c o m p a r a t o r n e t w o r k , and i f 300 pounds o r 90 p e r c e n t of the c r i t i c a l u n b a l a n c e i n d i c a t e d v e r s u s t i m e r e m a i n i n g i s r e a c h e d ( f i g u r e 2 . 4 - l o ) , t h e c a u t i o n and w a r n i n g light on p a n e l 11 is illuminated. With t h e SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h i n the PRIMARY position, the output of t h e o x i d i z e r s u m p tank s e r v o a m p l i f i e r and the output of the p r i m a r y p o t e n t i o m e t e r i n the unbalance m e t e r a r e c o m p a r e d i n the c o m p a r a t o r n e t w o r k and if 300 pounds o r 90 p e r c e n t of t h e c r i t i c a l unbalance i n d i c a t e d v e r s u s t i m e r e m a i n i n g is r e a c h e d , the caution and warning light on p a n e l 1 1 is illuminated. With the SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h i n the AUXILIARY position, the output of the a u x i l i a r y o x i d i z e r s e r v o a m p l i f i e r and the output of the a x u i l i a r y p o t e n t i o m e t e r a r e c o m p a r e d in the c o m p a r a t o r network, and i f 300 pounds o r 90 p e r c e n t of the c r i t i c a l unbalance i n d i c a t e d v e r s u s t i m e r e m a i n i n g i s r e a c h e d ( f i g u r e 2.4- l o ) , the caution and w a r n i n g light on p a n e l 11 is illuminated.

SERVICE'IPROPU-L$ION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c D a t e y 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page

2.4-20

S P S Q U A N T I T Y SENSING, COMPUTING
P R I W A Q Y WC PJMP PRM Nc 2 TANK

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SPS Quantity Sensing, Computing and Indicating S y s t e m

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM
B a s i c Date
12 Nov 1966 Change Date

SMZA - 0 3 -SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

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SMZA-03-SC012 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS D A T A

AUXILIARY FUEL POINT SENSORS

USEABLE NE1
POUNDS

INDICATED FUEL POUNDS

SM-?A-1110

F i g u r e 2.4-8.

Auxiliary Fuel Point S e n s o r s

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM
Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966 Change Date

page

2.4-24

SMZA -03-SCO12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

AUXILIARY OXIDIZER POINT SENSORS

&ABLE

OXIDIZER POUNDS

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F i g u r e 2.4-9.

Auxiliary Oxidizer P o i n t S e n s o r s

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
l2

1966

Change Date

page

2.4-25

SM2A-03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
COMPARATOR U N I T PROVIDES OUTPUT T O SPS PU SNSR FAIL STATUS I N D I C A T O R (MDC-11) FOR UNBALANCE C O N D I T I O N S IN THIS R E G I O N .

100%

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SM-244-899
F i g u r e 2 . 4 - 10. P r o p e l l a n t Unbalance Warning S y s t e m Output C h a r t

Once t h e w a r n i n g light is i l l u m i n a t e d , the c r e w c a n d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e is a m a l f u n c t i o n within t h e quantity and indicating s y s t e m s o r i f t h e r e is a t r u e u n b a l a n c e condition e x i s t i n g by u s e of the s e l f - t e s t p o r t i o n of the s y s t e m . By o b s e r v i n g the r e s p o n s e of e a c h s y s t e m i n conjunction with the T E S T s w i t c h on p a n e l 20, the c r e w c a n r e c o g n i z e the malfunction o r d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e is a t r u e unbalance existing.

2 . 4 . 2 . 10.2

Quantity Computing and Indicating S y s t e m T e s t .
A t e s t of the s e n s i n g s y s t e m s excluding the point s e n s o r s and p r o b e s c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d d u r i n g THRUST-ON o r -OFF p e r i o d s .

With t h e SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h i n P R I M A R Y and the T E S T switch i n the TEST U P p o s i t i o n , the t e s t s t i m u l i is a p p l i e d to the p r i m a r y s y s t e m tank s e r v o a m p l i f i e r s a f t e r a 4 . 5 k l . O s e c o n d delay. A t this t i m e , the t e s t s t i m u l i w i l l d r i v e the f u e l and o x i d i z e r d i s p l a y s to an i n c r e a s e r e a d i n g a t

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l2

1966

Change Date

page

2.4-26

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA d i f f e r e n t r a t e s ( o x i d i z e r a t a r a t e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 digits p e r s e c o n d and f u e l a t a r a t e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 . 5 digits p e r s e c o n d ) , r e s u l t i n g i n a n unbalance and i n d i c a t e d on t h e unbalance d i s p l a y as a n INC ( c l o c k w i s e rotation). T L M would r e c e i v e a n i n c r e a s e i n p r o p e l l a n t quantity f r o m the p r i m a r y system simultaneously. P l a c i n g t h e TEST switch i n t h e TEST DOWN position, and a f t e r a
4. 5*1.0-second d e l a y , will p r o v i d e t e s t s t i m u l i to the tank s e r v o a m p l i f i e r s

which w i l l d r i v e t h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r d i s p l a y s t o a d e c r e a s e r e a d i n g , r e t u r n i n g the c r e w d i s p l a y s c l o s e to t h e r e a d i n g d i s p l a y e d p r i o r to T E S T U P , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y T L M would r e c e i v e a d e c r e a s e in p r o p e l l a n t quantity. If the TEST s w i t c h w a s a g a i n p l a c e d to T E S T DOWN, a f t e r a 4.5rtl. 0 - s e c o n d d e l a y , the f u e l and o x i d i z e r c r e w d i s p l a y r e a d o u t s would d r i v e to a d e c r e a s e r e a d i n g a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s r e s u l t i n g i n a n unbalance and i n d i c a t e d on the unbalance d i s p l a y a s a DEC ( c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n ) . T L M would r e c e i v e a d e c r e a s e i n p r o p e l l a n t quantity s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . To r e t u r n to the r e a d i n g d i s p l a y e d p r i o r to t h e second T E S T DOWN, p l a c e the T E S T switch to TEST U P and a f t e r a 4. -1.0-second delay, the c r e w disp l a y s would r e t u r n c l o s e to the o r i g i n a l d i s p l a y e d r e a d i n g s , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y T L M r e c e i v e s an i n c r e a s e i n p r o p e l l a n t quantity. T o t e s t the a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m , p l a c e the SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h to AUXILIARY and u t i l i z e the T E S T switch up and down p o s i t i o n s . T h e r e is no t i m e delay involved with the a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m . T h e AUTO p o s i t i o n r e m o v e s the e l e c t r i c a l t e s t s t i m u l i inputs. 2.4.2.10.3 P r o p e l l g n t Utilization Valve. If an unbalance condition e x i s t s , the c r e w will u s e the p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve to r e t u r n the p r o p e l l a n t s to a b a l a n c e d condition. T h e p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n v a l v e housing c o n t a i n s two sliding g a t e v a l v e s within the housing. One of the sliding g a t e v a l v e s i s t h e p r i m a r y and the r e m a i n ing is the s e c o n d a r y ( f i g u r e 2.4-7). Stops a r e p r o v i d e d within t h e v a l v e housing f o r the full i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e p o s i t i o n s of the p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y sliding g a t e valves. T h e s e c o n d a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve h a s twice the t r a v e l of the p r i m a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve to c o m p e n s a t e f o r p r i m a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve f a i l u r e in any position. T h e s e c o n d a r y valve i s s e l e c t e d by the VALVE switch and i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e OXIDIZER F L O W s w i t c h i n the s a m e m a n n e r a s the p r i m a r y . T h e p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n v a l v e c o n t r o l s a r e on p a n e l 20. T h e VALVE switch s e l e c t s the p r i m a r y or s e c o n d a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i a a t i o n valve. N o r m a l position of the VALVE s w i t c h is PRIMARY. T h e OXIDIZER FLOW s w i t c h is u t i l i z e d to p o s i t i o n the p r i m a r y o r s e c o n d a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

SMZA -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA s l i d i n g g a t e valve. When the OXIDIZER FLOW s w i t c h is i n NORMAL, the s l i d i n g g a t e v a l v e i s i n the n o m i n a l flow p o s i t i o n and t h e u p p e r and l o w e r OXID flow p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r is g r a y . When t h e OXIDIZER FLOW s w i t c h is p l a c e d t o t h e INCREASE position, the s l i d i n g g a t e valve is i n the i n c r e a s e flow p o s i t i o n and t h e u p p e r OXID flow p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r is s t r i p e d . When t h e OXIDIZER FLOW s w i t c h is p l a c e d to DECREASE position, t h e sliding g a t e valve is i n t h e d e c r e a s e flow p o s i t i o n , but d o e s not block t h e o x i d i z e r flow c o m p l e t e l y and t h e l o w e r OXID flow i n d i c a t o r is s t r i p e d .
2.4.2. 10.4

Engine THRUST O N - O F F Control. F i g u r e 2 . 4 - 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e THRUST O N - O F F logic i n the .guidance and navigation d e l t a V mode, t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m d e l t a V mode and t h e m a n u a l d i r e c t mode. The guidance and navigation is the p r i m a r y d e l t a V m o d e which p r o v i d e s t h e m o s t a c c u r a t e t r a j e c t o r y c o r r e c t i o n s . The G&N AV mode of o p e r a t i o n will r e q u i r e G & N g a t e 2 to be c o m p l e t e l y enabled. Its r e q u i r e d i n p u t s will be a n u l l a g e m a n e u v e r input which could be supplied by the SPS a b o r t l o g i c or t h e d i r e c t u l l a g e pushbutton o r by t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l 1 or 2 p l a c e d to t h e tX, which would s a t i s f y the OR g a t e 3 function and t h e holding input a f t e r t h e G&N AND g a t e 2 is enabled which i s p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h NAND g a t e s 1 and 2, with the G & N AV m o d e s e l e c t e d f r o m the SCS c o n t r o l p a n e l and t h e p u l s e t r a i n c o n v e r t e r output of l o g i c one c o m m a n d e d f r o m t h e G&N c o m p u t e r by t h e c r e w . T h e s e i n p u t s will e n a b l e AND g a t e 2 and provide the l o g i c o n e input to i n v e r t e r 3 which d i s a b l e s AND g a t e 6. I n v e r t e r 4 will p r o v i d e a l o g i c one s i g n a l to the solenoid d r i v e r s t h a t p r o v i d e t h e ground f o r t h e two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s . The two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s provide p o w e r to the following: a. T h e fo& s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s , which allow g a s e o u s n i t r o g e n p r e s s u r e to b e d i r e c t e d to f o u r a c t u a t o r s t h a t p o s i t i o n e i g h t of t h e ball v a l v e s i n t h e i n j e c t o r valve a s s e m b l y of t h e engine. This i s due to INJECTOR P R E VALVE A and B being enabled. b. The quantity s e n s i n g and i n d i c a t i n g s y s t e m and the p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve c. T h e s y s t e m s A and B h e l i u m p r e s s u r i z i n g v a l v e s . d. When the output of the p u l s e c o n v e r t e r i s a logic z e r o , G & N AND g a t e 2 i s d i s a b l e d , which t e r m i n a t e s a G&N AV m a n e u v e r and r e m o v e s g r o u n d f r o m t h e two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s , (Manual backup of t h e THRUST CONTROL s w i t c h to O F F . )

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The backup d e l t a V m o d e , is t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m d e l t a V mode which h a s l i m i t a t i o n s and r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e individual cons i d e r a t i o n . The SCS AV m o d e of o p e r a t i o n will r e q u i r e enabling SCS AND g a t e 1 to i n i t i a t e t h r u s t i n g of t h e engine. SCS AND g a t e 1 h a s t h r e e enabling i n p u t s : t h e input f r o m OR g a t e 1 i n d i c a t i n g a AV m o d e is s e l e c t e d ; the output f r o m the DECA i n d i c a t i n g a value g r e a t e r than z e r o on t h e AV REMAINING d i s p l a y ; and t h e i n p u t f r o m t h e THRUST ON pushbutton light i n d i c a t o r a f t e r i t is p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h NAND g a t e s 3 and 4. The one logic output f r o m SCS AND g a t e 1 is i n v e r t e d by INVERTER 2 to a z e r o logic which d i s a b l e s AND g a t e 6 and i s i n v e r t e d by INVERTER 4 to a logic one, SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

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SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA and e n a b l e s t h e solenoid d r i v e r s t h a t provide ground to the two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s . The two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s provide power to the s a m e functions a s i n t h e G&N A mode. V a. When t h e output of t h e DECA A REMAINING c o u n t e r r e a c h e s z e r o V velocity, SCS AND g a t e 1 is d i s a b l e d . The logic output f r o m AND g a t e 1 goes to z e r o and INVERTER 2 g o e s to a one logic output which e n a b l e s AND g a t e 6 to a o n e logic output and the s i g n a l is i n v e r t e d by INVERTER 4 to a z e r o l o g i c output, and the solenoid d r i v e r s r e m o v e ground f r o m the two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s t e r m i n a t i n g t h r u s t . (Manual backup of the THRUST CONTROL s w i t c h to OFF. ) The DIRECT o p e r a t i n g m o d e b y p a s s e s all e l e c t r o n i c s . The DIRECT ON p o s i t i o n of the THRUST CONTROL s w i t c h p r o v i d e s power to the two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s , the s a m e as i n the G&N AV mode of SCS AV mode. T h r u s t would be, t e r m i n a t e d by placing t h e THRUST CONTROL s w i t c h i n t h e O F F position. The SPS t h r u s t c o n t r o l l o g i c p r o v i d e s i l l u m i n a t i o n of the t a l k - b a c k light i n t h e THRUST ON switch. To i l l u m i n a t e t h e light i n a G & N AV m o d e , AND g a t e 4 m u s t be enabled. I t h a s two inputs which a r e G&N AV mode s e l e c t e d and t h e p r e s e n c e of a l o g i c one output f r o m the pulse t r a i n c o n v e r t e r . With AND g a t e 4 e n a b l e d , OR g a t e 2 will t r i g g e r the l a m p d r i v e r and i l l u m i n a t e t h e THRUST ON light. To i l l u m i n a t e the light i n the SCS AV m o d e , AND g a t e 3 m u s t be e n a b l e d , i t will a l s o s a t i s f y OR g a t e 2 and t r i g g e r the l a m p d r i v e r . The SPS t h r u s t c o n t r o l logic is i n t e r l o c k e d s o t h a t . AND g a t e s 3 and 4 will n e v e r be enabled s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b e c a u s e of the THRUST ON s w i t c h inhibited to t h e p u l s e t r a i n c o n v e r t e r . T h e r e f o r e , the THRUST ON light will be i l l u m i n a t e d a t all t i m e s when the t h r u s t i s on f o r n o r m a l 'operation. If the d i r e c t f u n c t i o n is u s e d to initiate t h r u s t i n g , i t will b y p a s s all e l e c t r o n i c s and not i l l u m i n a t e t h e THRUST ON light. The output f r o m the SPS t h r u s t c o n t r o l l o g i c p e r f o r m s a function o t h e r t h a n e n e r g i z e the fuel and o x i d i z e r solenoid v a l v e s . It p r o v i d e s the l o g i c s w i t c h e s r e q u i r e d to r e c o n f i g u r e t h e SCS r e l a y s f o r p r o p e r t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l . The t h r u s t c o n t r o l s w i t c h p r o v i d e s both i n p u t s to OR g a t e 4 i f both d c b u s e s a r e o p e r a t i o n a l . E i t h e r d c bus will enable OR g a t e 5 to provide the u p p e r input to INHLBIT AND g a t e 1. AND g a t e 5 p r o v i d e s the c o n t r o l l i n g input to t h e INHIBIT AND g a t e 1. When the solenoid d r i v e r s a r e not e n e r g i z e d and t h e t h r u s t c o n t r o l s w i t c h is i n NORMAL, both inputs to AND g a t e 5 a r e t r u e . The t r u e input w i l l m a i n t a i n a logic f a l s e output f r o m t h e INHIBIT AND g a t e 1 b e c a u s e of the i n v e r s i o n on the input of the gate. When e i t h e r SPS r e l a y s e t is a c t i v a t e d by a solenoid d r i v e r o r by the ground c o n t a c t s of t h e DIRECT ON s w i t c h , AND g a t e 5 w i l l be d i s a b l e d by the ground o r f a l s e input. The input will be i n v e r t e d by the INHIBIT AND g a t e 1 input to enable a n output to the t i m e delay. The t i m e delay i s r e q u i r e d to I p e r m i t t h r u s t buildup f r o m t h e SPS engine b e f o r e the ullage m a n e u v e r is t e r m i n a t e d ; h o w e v e r , the pitch and yaw a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n p u t s a r e i n s e r t e d into the TVC e l e c t r o n i c s i m m e d i a t e l y . T h i s a c t i o n a s s u r e s positive g f o r c e s
1

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SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l 2 NOv 1966

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SMZA -03-SCO12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA throughout t h r u s t i n i t i a t i o n of the S P S engine and g i m b a l i n g c o n t r o l of the S P S engine f o r t h e e n t i r e t h r u s t buildup. The t i m e d e l a y is a l s o a c t i v e a f t e r INHIBIT AND g a t e 1 i s d i s a b l e d by enabling AND g a t e 5. AND g a t e 5 is enabled when both s e t s of SPS r e l a y s a r e d e - e n e r g i z e d . The t i m e d e l a y is a c t i v e f o r both outputs when t h e s i g n a l is r e m o v e d to p e r m i t continued SPS engine g i m b a l c o n t r o l , while t h e r e s i d u a l t h r u s t i s p r e s e n t and i n h i b i t s RCS o p e r a t i o n i n pitch and yaw until r e s i d u a l t h r u s t is r e d u c e d . T h i s r e d u c e s t h e tumbling induced a t t h r u s t t e r m i n a t i o n . The t i m e d e l a y is a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e second f o r a p p l i c a t i o n and r e m o v a l of the engine ignition signal. 2.4.3 PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA. Design Data. The following l i s t c o n t a i n s s p e c i f i c d a t a f o r t h e components i n the SPS HELIUM TANKS ( 2 ) 4000*50 p s i a f i l l p r e s s u r e , 4400 m a x i m u m o p e r a t i n g p r e s s u r e 70 "*lo "F, c a p a c i t y 1 9 . 4 c u b i c f e e t , i n s i d e d i a m e t e r 40 in. and a wall t h i c k n e s s of 0 . 4 6 in. Working r e g u l a t o r - P r i m a r y 186*4 p s i g , s e c o n d a r y 191*4 p s i g , p r i m a r y lockup 200 psig, s e c o n d a r y lockup 205 psig. N o r m a l l y locked by working r e g u l a t o r ; p r i m a r y 181*4 psig, s e c o n d a r y 191*4 p s i g , p r i m a r y lockup 195 p s i g , s e c o n d a r y lockup 205 psig, F u e l and o x i d i z e r u n d e r p r e s s u r e s e t t i n g ( S P S PRESS light, panel 11) 160 p s i a . F u e l and o x i d i z e r o v e r p r e s s u r e s e t t i n g (SPS P R E S S light, panel 11) 200 p s i a .

2. 4. 3. 1

REGULATOR UNITS ( 2 )

PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS ( 2 ) ULLAGE PRESSURE (REGULATED HELIUM)

P R O P E L L A N T UTILIZATION I n c r e a s e p o s i t i o n VALVE CONTROL (2)

-

46.65 l b s / s e c o n d

N o r m a l p o s i t i o n - 45. 2 7 l b s / s e c o n d a t 70 O F and 168*4 psig D e c r e a s e position

- 43.87 lbs/second

R e s p o n s e t i m e - N o r m a l to i n c r e a s e o r v i c e - v e r s a , o r n o r m a l to d e c r e a s e o r v i c e - v e r s a i s 3 to 4 s e c o n d s QUANTITY SENSING SYSTEM ACCURACY
*O. 35% of full t a n k p l u s *O. 35% o f p r o p e l l a n t r e m a i n i n g p r i m a r y s y s t e m *O. 3570 of full tank p l u s rt0. 35% of p r o p e l l a n t r e m a i n i n g p l u s 2. 370 of s t o r a g e tank quantity r e m a i n i n g , auxiliary system.

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SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 NOV 1966 Change Date page 2.4-30

SMZA -03-SG012 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA HELIUM R E L I E F VALVE ( 2 ) D i a p h r a g m r u p t u r e s at 220*7 p s i g Filter - 10 m i c r o n s n o r m a l , 25 m i c r o n s absolute Relief valve r e l i e v e s at 232*8 psig Relief valve reseats at 212 p s i g m i n i m u m F l o w c a p a c i t y 3 l b s / s e c o n d m i n i m u m at 60 F and 250 psig Bleed device c l o s e s a t a m b i e n t to 100 p s i and is manually r e s e t open OXIDIZER STORAGE AND S U M P TANK Total tank capacity 3 0 , 6 0 0 l b s , u s a b l e , 2 7 , 333 l b s . E a c h tank h a s a volume of 175 cubic ft.
Fill p r e s s u r e 110 psia. Ullage after filling 2 . 4 cubic f t i n s t o r a g e and 8. 0 cubic ft i n s u m p tank. Ullage a f t e r p r e s s u r i z e d to 175 p s i a , 6 . 8 cubic f t i n s t o r a g e and 5. 0 cubic f t i n s u m p tank. I n s i d e d i a m e t e r 51 in., length 165.4 i n . , and will elongate t o 0. 125 in. when p r e s s u r i z e d to 240 p s i and 1 2 0 ° F f o r 336 h o u r s . Wall t h i c k n e s s 0. 060 in. i n continuous a r e a s , 0. 069 in. weld buildup a r e a s and 0.031 in. o n d o m e s . Fill t o l e r a n c e of 1 / 4 of 1% of full tank plus 1/470 of p r o pellant remaining.

FUEL STORAGE AND S U M P TANK

Total tank capacity 15, 300 l b s , u s a b l e 13, 677 l b s . E a c h tank h a s a volume of 139. 7 cubic ft.
Fill p r e s s u r e 9 0 p s i a . Ullage a f t e r filling 1 . 8 cubic f t i n s t o r a g e and 5 . 8 cubic f t i n s u m p tank. Ullage after p r e s s u r i z e d to 175 p s i a , 6 cubic ft i n s t o r a g e and 3. 0 cubic f t i n s u m p tank. Inside d i a m e t e r 45 in. , length 166. 8 i n . , and will elongate to 0. 125 in. when p r e s s u r i z e d to 240 p s i and 1 2 0 ° F f o r 336 h o u r s . Wall t h i c k n e s s 0 . 0 5 3 in. i n continuous a r e a s , 0. 061 in. i n weld buildup a r e a s , and 0 . 0 3 1 in. on d o m e s . Fill t o l e r a n c e of 1 / 4 of 1% full tank plus 1/470 of p r o p e l l a n t remaining.

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.4-31

SMZA -03-SCO12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA NOMINAL P R O P E L L A N T TANK WORKING PRESSURE I N T E R F A C E FLANGE FILTER GASEOUS NITROGEN P R O P E L L A N T VALVE CONTROL SYSTEMS ( 2 ) 175k4 p s i a

500 m i c r o n s absolute

Storage v e s s e l p r e s s u r e 2500*50 p s i at 6 8 " F , 2900 p s i a t 1 3 0 ° F . Support 36 valve actuations. Regulator, s i n g l e s t a g e , 130*7 p s i a t all flow u p t o 0 . 0 3 5 l b s / s e c o n d .

145 p s i m a x i m u m lockup p r e s s u r e .
Relief valve

- r e l i e v e s a t 350*10 p s i ,
r e s e a t s a t not l e s s than 250 p s i

B a l l v a l v e s 1 and 4 d r y opening t r a v e l time of 0. 6 (to. 2, - 0 . 0 5 ) second B a l l v a l v e s 2 and 3 d r y opening t r a v e l t i m e of 0. 325*0. 1 second. B a l l v a l v e s 1 and 4 d r y closing t r a v e l t i m e of 0. 375*0.05 second B a l l v a l v e s 2 and 3 d r y c l o s i n g t r a v e l t i m e of 0. 575*0. 1 second ENGINE 500-second service lift on S / C 014 Capable of 36 r e s t a r t s Expansion r a t i o , 6 to 1 a t ablative c h a m b e r exit a r e a , 62. 5 to 1 a t nozzle extension exit area. Cooling c h a m b e r , ablation and film extension, radiation I n j e c t o r type, baffled r e g e n e r a t i v e l y , cooled, unlike i m p i n g e m e n t O x i d i z e r l e a d , 8 deg. Length, 152.82 i n c h e s
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SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

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M i s s ion

B a s i c Date

l2

1966

Change Date

2-4-32

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

Nozzle e x t e n s i o n e x i t d i a m e t e r , 94. 4 i n c h e s Weight, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 650 l b s Ablative c h a m b e r t h r o a t t e m p e r a t u r e s e n s o r i l l u m i n a t e s SPS WALL T E M P HI c a u t i o n and w a r n i n g l i g h t o n panel 11 a t 380 "F, one s e n s o r per h a r n e s s . S P S Pc t r a n s d u c e r , Pc d i s p l a y e d on panel 3 t h r o u g h L / V AOA, SPS Pc s w i t c h to L / V AOA, SPS P c i n d i c a t o r , g r e e n r a n g e o n i n d i c a t o r i s 65 to 12570, n o r m a l Pc 8 5 to 125 p s i a . GIMBAL LIMITS About Z - Z axis *7 ( + 1 / 2 , - 0 ) d e g with additional 1 d e g f o r snubbing yaw About Y - Y axis *6 ( t 1 / 2 , - 0 ) deg with additional 1 deg f o r snubbing pitch GIMBAL MOTOR UNDER AND OVERCURRENT RELAYS U n d e r c u r r e n t ( p r i m a r y only) below 6 a m p e r e s d e t e c t e d f o r a d u r a t i o n of 250*50 m i l l i s e c o n d s o r m o r e s h a l l i n t e r r u p t t h e flow to t h e l o a d i n l e s s t h a n 100 m i l l i s e c o n d s . O v e r c u r r e n t dependent upon t e m p e r a t u r e d u r i n g s t a r t t r a n s i e n t a n d s t e a d y s t a t e of gimbal motor on p r i m a r y . Secondary cont r o l l e d by 7 0 - a m p c i r c u i t b r e a k e r . ACTUATORCLUTCHES Quiescent c u r r e n t of 60 (t10, - 5 ) m i l l i a m p s ( M o t o r s off, a 246 f t - l b f o r c e r e q u i r e d to move engine equivalent to 1 . 53 g. ) 3.5*1.0 p s i d r y a i r a t -160 " F a t vendor
0. 23 r a d i a n s p e r s e c o n d (13. 0 9 ' p e r s e c o n d )

ACTUATOR PRESSURIZED S / C 012 and 014 SERVO ACTUATOR D E F L E C T I O N RATE FLIGHT COMBUSTION ST ABILI TY MONITOR SYSTEM 2 . 4 . 3. 2 P e r f o r m a n c e Data.

180 g ' s p e a k to p e a k f o r 70*20 m i l l i s e c o n d s 600 to 5000 c y c l e s p e r second

R e f e r to m i s s i o n m o d u l a r d a t a book, SID 66-1177. 2.4. 3 . 3 P o w e r Consumption Data. SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

page

.

2.4-33

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

Subsystem and Component Service propulsion Propellant utilization valve Propellant utilization gauging s y s t e m

Control

No. of UNtS

Watt! AC

e r Unit DC

Tota at - NDCt s AC

VALVE s w and OXIDIZER FLOW s w (Ref. gauging
SYS)

G a u g i n g C B ( 4 ) SPS GAUGING AC s w SENSOR
SW

16.8

Injector prevalves

He v a l v e C B ( 2 ) I N J E C T O F PREVALVE s w ( 2 ) He P R E S S U R I Z I N G s w ( 2 ) SPS relay

2

21.0

42. 0

He solenoid valves

2

28.0

56. 0

Feedline heaters

SPS H E A T E R s w

26

:See fig. a r e 2-4-.

33.0

P i l o t valves (SCS) Gimbal actuator motors

ECA drivers (2)
Gimbal C B ( 6 ) GIMBAL MOTOR
sw (4)

4

in.

5

42.0

Channel I Idle pitch Yaw Boost pitch yaw T h r u s t Oh pitch Yaw Maxlmum pitch Yaw C h a n n e l I1 Idle pitch Yaw Boost pitch yaw Thrust O N pitch
Yaw

450* 45Oh

511.k 511*

7754 175%
1 8 00*<

1ano.r

335.** 3 3 5r:, h
3 3 5 ,* ,k 335**

335** 335 : :
1:s

Maxlmum pitch Yaw *With q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t **Without q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t

335*a 3 35:"k

I I I I I I I I- -900 1022 I550

3600

670

67 0

670

570

.4bove s t a t e m e n t s a s s u m e c h a n n e l I is t h e o p e r a t i n g c h a n n e l a n d c h a n n e l I1 i s s t a n d b v . C h a n n e l I o p e r a t i n g v a l u e s a p p l i c a b l e t o c h a n n e l II when c h a n n e l I1 i s c o m m a n d e d . 2 h - v d c s u p p l v v a l u e s . c u r r e n t d r a w v a l u e s n o t a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n of a n a p p l i e d v o l t a g e .

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Mission

Basic Date

lZ

1966

Change Date

Page

2.4-34

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA 2.4. 3 . 4 SPS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r Distribution. See f i g u r e 2 . 4 - 1 1 f o r e l e c t r i c a l power d i s t r i b u t i o n . 2.4.4 OPERATION LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS. The o p e r a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s of t h e S P S a r e as follows: a . P r o p e l l a n t quantity gauging s u b s y s t e m is o p e r a t i o n a l oniy d u r i n g engine f i r i n g . A 4. 5 - s e c o n d f i r i n g p e r i o d is r e q u i r e d b e f o r e p r o p e l l a n t quantity i n f o r m a t i o n is updated, when SENSOR s w i t c h i s i n t h e NORM o r PRI position. Delay is b u i l t - i n t o a l l o w p r o p e l l a n t s to s e t t l e and s t a b i l i z e b e f o r e updating t h e d i s p l a y s . b. A o n e - s e c o n d t i m e d e l a y between a c t u a t i o n of GIMBAL MOTOR s w i t c h e s (MDC-3) i s r e q u i r e d , a s s i m u l t a n e o u s a c t u a t i o n m a y r e s u l t i n a n e x c e s s i v e power d r a i n . c . Engine d e s i g n m i n i m u m i m p u l s e c o n t r o l limit i s 0. 4 s e c o n d ; however, mission m i n i m u m impulse m a y be longer. d. Due to a d v e r s i v e t e m p e r a t u r e e f f e c t s , engine g i m b a l d r i v e m o t o r s should not be continuously e n e r g i z e d f o r p e r i o d s i n e x c e s s of 12 m i n u t e s . e . Single bank m o d e of o p e r a t i o n by the b i p r o p e l l a n t valve a s s e m b l y will r e s u l t i n a 3 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n t h r u s t . 2.4. 5 T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS. The following s u b s e q u e n t l i s t is of all SPS t e l e m e t r y d a t a m o n i t o r e d by flight c o n t r o l l e r s and g r o u n d s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l .

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 NOv 1966 Change Date page 2.4-35

SMZA -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

A C BUS 2 *p E# C#

IDENTICAL IO FiTCH GIMBAL ACTUATOR CI RCUl TS

SM-2A-713 D

Figure 2 . 4 - 1 1 .

3PS Electrical Power Distribution Diagram

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM
Mission

Basic Date l 2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.4-36

SM2A-03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
S Y S T E M S DATA

V

3

-

$
m

d

.

n

N

2
m

d

u

.

N

2
m

d

N

0

+

0

+

+ a 0
0

0

0 0 0 0

+ + + +

0 0 0 0

+ + + +

0 0 0 0 0

+ + + + +

0

+

0

+

0

+

0 0

+ +

0 0 0

+ + +

0

+

0 0 0

+ + -

0

m

E

F m 30
0

5
9 0 0

i

0

N N 3 0

z m -z+ z
N N 0 0 0 0

& &

&

0 0 N N
e 3 W W

M
a)

dd
SERVICE P R O P U L S I O N S Y S T E M

c c

d

c

w

0 N

0 N
3

0 0 0
N N N
- 4 -

d

c

d

I

m rJ GRCL

a C . 3

0
C

2
C

Mission

Basic Date

l2

1966

Change Date

page

2.4-37

SM2A-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS D A T A

X

0
N

0 N

-

S E R V I C E PROPULSION SYSTEM

Mission

Basic Date

''

1966

Change Date

Page

2.4-38

SM2A-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2 SUBSECTION 2 . 5 REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM (RCS)

2. 5 . 1

INTRODUCTION. T h e Apollo c o m m a n d s e r v i c e module c o n s i s t s of two s e p a r a t e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m s , c o m p l e t e l y independent, d e s i g n a t e d S / M RCS a n d C / M RCS. T h e S / M RCS i s u t i l i z e d t o c o n t r o l S I C r o t a t i o n in a l l t h r e e a x e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o a n y m i n o r t r a n s l a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s including S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n , S P S ullage, a n d C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n m a n e u v e r s . T h e C / M RCS i s u t i l i z e d t o c o n t r o l C / M r o t a t i o n i n a l l t h r e e a x e s a f t e r C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n a n d d u r i n g e n t r y m a n e u v e r s . T h e C / M RCS d o e s not have t r a n s l a t ion c a p a b i l i t i e s . Both t h e S / M a n d C / M RCS a r e c o n t r o l l e d e i t h e r a u t o m a t i c a l l y o r m a n u a l l y f r o m t h e c o m m a n d module. P h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n of t h e RCS e n g i n e s is shown i n f i g u r e 2. 5-1. Engine f i r i n g s e q u e n c e f o r s p e c i f i c m a n e u v e r s a n d individual engine c i r c u i t b r e a k e r power c o n t r o l a r e shown in f i g u r e
2. 5 - 2 .

2. 5. 2

S / M RCSa FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION.

T h e S / M RCS c o n s i s t s of f o u r individual, functionally i d e n t i c a l p a c k a g e s , l o c a t e d 90 d e g r e e s a p a r t a r o u n d t h e f o r w a r d p o r t i o n ( + X - a x i s ) of t h e S / M p e r i p h e r y a n d offset f r o m t h e S I C Y - a n d Z - a x e s by 7 d e g r e e s 15 m i n u t e s . E a c h p a c k a g e c o n f i g u r a t i o n , c a l l e d a quad, is s u c h t h a t t h e r e a c t i o n e n g i n e s a r e mounted on t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e of t h e p a n e l a n d t h e remaining components a r e inside. Propellant distribution lines a r e routed t h r o u g h t h e p a n e l s k i n t o f a c i l i t a t e p r o p e l l a n t t r a n s f e r t o t h e r e a c t i o n engine c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r s . T h e engine c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r s a r e c a n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 d e g r e e s away f r o m t h e p a n e l s t r u c t u r e t o r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t s of e x h a u s t g a s on t h e s e r v i c e module skin. T h e two r o l l e n g i n e s on e a c h quad a r e o f f s e t - m o u n t e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e plumbing i n t h e engine mounting s t r u c t u r e . E a c h RCS p a c k a g e i n c o r p o r a t e s a p r e s s u r e - f e d . p o s i t i v e - e x p u l s i o n , pulse -modulated, bipropellant s y s t e m t o produce the reaction t h r u s t r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e v a r i o u s S / M RCS c o n t r o l functions. Acceptable p a c k a g e o p e r a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e is m a i n t a i n e d b y i n t e r n a l l y mounted. t h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d e l e c t r i c h e a t e r s . T h e S / M RCS p r o p e l l a n t s , c o n s i s t of n i t r o g e n t e t r o x i d e ( N z O ~ ) u s e d a s t h e o x i d i z e r ; monom e t h y l h y d r a z i n e (MMH) used as t h e fuel. P r e s s u r i z e d h e l i u m gas is t h e p r o p e l l a n t t r a n s f e r r i n g agent.

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2-5-1

SM2A-03-SC012
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
Y

SYSTEMS DATA

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM
Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date

Page

2.5-2

SMZA -03-SCO12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

m
to

I

N
I

f

L L =

, + t + u u

N VI

: Ii I: ;I
Mission
B a s i c Date 1 2 N o v 1966

m

Z

z

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Change Date Page 2- 5 - 3

SMZA -03-SGO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA T h e r e a c t i o n e n g i n e s m a y be p u l s e - f i r e d , producing s h o r t - t h r u s t i m p u l s e s o r continuously f i r e d , producing a s t e a d y - s t a t e t h r u s t level, The s h o r t - p u l s e f i r i n g p e r m i t s a t t i t u d e -hold m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n and e x t r e m e l y a c c u r a t e a t t i t u d e a l i g n m e n t m a n e u v e r s d u r i n g navigational sightings. CSM a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is n o r m a l l y m a i n t a i n e d by utilizing t h e a p p l i c a b l e p i t c h , yaw, a n d r o l l e n g i n e s on all f o u r quads. H o w e v e r , in t h e event of a m a l f u n c t i o n , c o m p l e t e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l c a n b e m a i n t a i n e d with only two a d j a c e n t q u a d s o p e r a t i n g . T h i s two-quad c a p a b i l i t y d o e s not include t h e e x e c u t i o n of t r a n s l a t i o n and u l l a g e m a n e u v e r s . A functional flow d i a g r a m of one S / M RCS quad is shown i n f i g u r e 2 . 5 - 3 . The h e l i u m s t o r a g e v e s s e l s u p p l i e s p r e s s u r e to two s o l e n o i d o p e r a t e d h e l i u m i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s t h a t a r e n o r m a l l y open throughout t h e m i s s i o n . T h i s a l l o w s h e l i u m p r e s s u r e t o t h e p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s downs t r e a m of e a c h h e l i u m i s o l a t i o n valve reducing t h e h i g h - p r e s s u r e h e l i u m t o a d e s i r e d working p r e s s u r e . R e g u l a t e d h e l i u m p r e s s u r e is d i r e c t e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s p a r a l l e l c o m b i n a t i o n of f o u r independent c h e c k v a l v e s . T h e c h e c k v a l v e s p e r m i t h e l i u m p r e s s u r e t o t h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r t a n k s and p r e v e n t r e v e r s e flow of p r o p e l l a n t v a p o r s or liquid. A p r e s s u r e - r e l i e f v a l v e is i n s t a l l e d i n t h e p r e s s u r e l i n e s between t h e c h e c k v a l v e s a n d p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s t o p r o t e c t t h e propellant tanks f r o m any excessive p r e s s u r e increase.
- e . -

H e l i u m e n t e r i n g t h e p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s c r e a t e s a p r e s s u r e buildup around the propellant positive expulsion bladders forcing the propellants to b e e x p e l l e d i n t o t h e p r o p e l l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n lines. P r o p e l l a n t s t h e n flow t h r o u g h t h e n o r m a l l y open p r o p e l l a n t i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s . O x i d i z e r a n d f u e l is d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e eight f u e l a n d o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r v a l v e s by a p a r a l l e l f e e d s y s t e m . T h e f u e l valve on e a c h engine opens 2 m i l l i s e c o n d s p r i o r to t h e o x i d i z e r v a l v e to obtain p r o p e r engine o p e r a t i o n . E a c h valve a s s e m b l y c o n t a i n s o r i f i c e s which m e t e r t h e p r o p e l l a n t flow t o obtain a n o m i n a l 2: 1 o x i d i z e r j f u e l r a t i o by weight. T h e o x i d i z e r a n d fuel ' i m p i n g e , a t o m i z e , and ignition due t o t h e h y p e r g o l i c p r o p e l l a n t s . T h e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y by t h e G & N s y s t e m o r t h e SCS. Manual o v e r r i d e d i r e c t c o n t r o l is p r o v i d e d f o r r o t a t i o n a l m a n e u v e r s a n d d i r e c t u l l a g e only. T h e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d . T h i s s y s t e m configuration maintains propellants under constant p r e s s u r e a t the engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s providing r a p i d c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n s e r a t e s t o t h r u s t on-off c o m m a n d s . S / M RCS MAJOR COMPONENT/SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION. T h e S / M RCS is c o m p o s e d of f o u r s e p a r a t e , individual p a c k a g e s ; e a c h package containing t h e following five m a j o r s u b s y s t e m s : Pressurization Propellant Rocket engine REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

.v

'

-r ;

2. 5 . 3

0 0

.-.,-

l2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.5-4

r----------

-----------

MASTER EVENT SEQUENCE CONTROLLER

---------MASTER EVENT SEQUENCE CONTROLLER
PANEL 16 AUTO O X DUMP CIRCUITS

.

PITCH CHANNEL SWITCH PANEL 8 T l O N CONTROLS
SLATION CONTROLS

S

--~

JRlNG DESCENT

WPUT FROM ANY ABORT SIGNAL FROM ?AD UP TO LE5 TOWER

r m1K 2 Z16Kl

2-1/2 SEC DEUY

RTTISON O R INPUT FROM CM S M
S RCS M SEPARATION WITCHES ?ANEL 1s

C19A1 RCS CONTROC BOX

'I
I

I

i

C19A4

I
1 6 ~

S RCS M DIRECT

-----1t
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I
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RCS
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U

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d

DIRECT COILS

51

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(E LEG)

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TRANSFER

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I
A-P JET '2 c+P JET '1

TROLS ONTROLS
RCS P O ISOL R P (MOC-25)
MN

*
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A HELIUM 1

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COILS

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B-SRSOOZT-IM91

He TANK PRESS Q W D A &&&TLM

To:

RCS INDICATORS

switch S/M A (MDC-12)

j-q&a
C M RCS DIRECT

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8 CM SM

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A PROPELIANT ON
4,

J

CM NEG

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PROPELLANT INDICATOR

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PRESSURE TRANSDUCER TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER

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CM NEG

-- ---?Ir:

t

5

Mission

8

k

i

SMZA-03-SC012 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

MN BUS A

w

m

v ~ c

MN BUS B 28 VDC

w

PSRSO68T- IOAI00 c-sRKMn-1OA98 B-SR5066T- lOA62

Fmm: Rotational

STRIP HEATER

S/M RCS HOVSIN

4Ea
JCER

INJECTOR ASSEMBLY

IN

El

LIRE IER

Figure 2 . 5 - 3 .

S / M RCS Functional Flow Diagram (QuaL
REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

,

Mission

Basic Date

1 2 Nov 19b6 Change Date

page 2 . 5 - 5 1 2 . 5 - 6

SM2A - 0 3 -SC 0 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
P r o p e l l a n t quantity gauging Temperature control system

0 0

2 . 5.3. 1

P r e s s u r i z a t i o n Subsvstem. T h e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n and p r o p e l l a n t f e e d s t o r e s , r e g u l a t e s , a n d d i s t r i b u t e s h e l i u m t o t h e p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s , and s t o r e s and d i s t r i b u t e s p r o p e l l a n t t o t h e engine a s s e m b l i e s ( f i g u r e 2. 5-3). It c o n s i s t s of s t o r a g e t a n k s , i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s , p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s , and t h e l i n e s a n d v a l v e s n e c e s s a r y f o r filling, d r a i n i n g a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e fluids.

2. 5. 3 . 1. 1

H e l i u m Supply Tank. T h e t o t a l h i g h - p r e s s u r e h e l i u m supply is contained within a s i n g l e s p h e r i c a l s t o r a g e tank. Initial fill p r e s s u r e is 4150*50 p s i g a t 7 0 ° F . T h e l i m i t working p r e s s u r e is 5000 p s i g t o a c c o m m o d a t e p r e s s u r e t r a n s i e n t s d u r i n g filling. P r o o f p r e s s u r e is 6667 p s i g and t h e b u r s t p r e s s u r e i s 7500 p s i g .

2. 5. 3. 1 . 2

H e l i u m Isolation Valve. T h e h e l i u m i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s a r e a t w o - s o l e n o i d v a l v e s and a r e m e c h a n i c a l l y l a t c h e d open a n d s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d . T h e h e l i u m i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s a r e individually c o n t r o l l e d by t h e i r own h e l i u m s w i t c h on p a n e l 15. T h e v a l v e s a r e n o r m a l l y open i n r e s p e c t t o s y s t e m p r e s s u r e s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h e m e c h a n i c a l latching f g a t u r e f o r power c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n , i n addition t o p r e v e n t i n g o v e r h e a t i n g of t h e v a l v e c o i l s . A p o s i t i o n switch contained within e a c h v a l v e c o n t r o l s a p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r below e a c h s w i t c h on p a n e l 15. When t h e valve is open, t h e p o s i t i o n s w i t c h is open; a n d the i n d i c a t o r on p a n e l 15 is g r e y ( s a m e c o l o r as t h e p a n e l ) indicating t h e v a l v e is i n i t s n o r m a l position. When t h e v a l v e i s c l o s e d , t h e position switch is c l o s e d ; and t h e i n d i c a t o r on p a n e l 15 is d i a g o n a l l i n e s indicating t h e valve is i n i t s a b n o r m a l position. T h e valve is c l o s e d i n t h e event of a p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r unit p r o b l e m a n d d u r i n g ground s e r v i c i n g .

2 . 5. 3 . 1. 3

P r e s s u r e Regulator Assemblies. H e l i u m p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by two r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l i e s connected in p a r a l l e l , with one a s s e m b l y l o c a t e d d o w n s t r e a m of e a c h h e l i u m i s o l a t i o n valve. E a c h a s s e m b l y i n c o r p o r a t e s two ( p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y ) s e p a r a t e r e g u l a t o r s connected i n s e r i e s . T h e s e c o n d a r y r e g u l a t o r r e m a i n s open a s long as t h e p r i m a r y r e g u l a t o r functions p r o p e r l y . In t h e event of t h e p r i m a r y r e g u l a t o r failing open, the s e c o n d a r y r e g u l a t o r will m a i n t a i n slightly h i g h e r , but a c c e p t a b l e p r e s s u r e s .

2. 5 . 3 . 1.4

Check Valve A s s e m b l i e s . Two check valve a s s e m b l i e s , one a s s e m b l y l o c a t e d d o w n s t r e a m of e a c h r e m l a t o r a s s e m b l v , p e r m i t h e l i u m flow in t h e d o w n s t r e a m d i r e c t i o n REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

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only. T h i s p r e v e n t s p r o p e l l a n t a n d / o r p r o p e l l a n t v a p o r backflow into t h e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s y s t e m if s e e p a g e o r f a i l u r e o c c u r s i n t h e p r o p e l l a n t t a n k bladders .

2. 5 . 3 . 1. 5

P r e s s u r e Relief Valves The helium relief valve contains a b u r s t diaphragm, f i l t e r , a bleed d e v i c e , a n d t h e r e l i e f valve. T h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m is i n s t a l l e d t o p r o v i d e a m o r e p o s i t i v e s e a l a g a i n s t h e l i u m t h a n t h a t of t h e a c t u a l r e l i e f v a l v e . T h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m r u p t u r e s at a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p r e s s u r e . T h e b u r s t d i a p h r a m is of t h e n o n f r a g m e n t a t i o n t y p e , but i n t h e event of a n y f r a g m e n t a t i o n , t h e f i l t e r f i l t e r s out any f r a g m e n t a t i o n and p f e v e n t s a n y p a r t i c l e s f r o m flowing onto t h e r e l i e f valve s e a t . T h e r e l i e f valve will r e l i e v e a t a p r e s s u r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t of t h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m r u p t u r e p r e s s u r e a n d r e l i e v e t h e e x c e s s i v e p r e s s u r e o v e r b o a r d , p r o t e c t i n g t h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r t a n k . T h e r e l i e f valve will r e s e a t at a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p r e s s u r e . A p r e s s u r e b l e e d d e v i c e is i n c o r p o r a t e d between t h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m a n d r e l i e f valve. T h e bleed valve v e n t s t h e c a v i t y b e t w e e n t h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m a n d r e l i e f valve i n t h e event of a n y l e a k a g e f r o m t h e d i a p h r a g m , o r v e n t s t h e c a v i t y upon c o m p l e t i o n of p e r f o r m i n g a checkout of t h e r e l i e f v a l v e f r o m t h e t e s t p o r t on t h e r e l i e f valve. T h e b l e e d d e v i c e is n o r m a l l y open a n d w i l l c l o s e when t h e p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s up t o a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p r e s s u r e . T h e b l e e d d e v i c e a u t o m a t i c a l l y opens when t h e p r e s s u r e d e c r e a s e s t o t h e b l e e d valve opening p r e s s u r e .

2. 5. 3. 1. 6

D i s t r i b u t i o n Plumbing. B r a z e d joint tubing is u s e d t o d i s t r i b u t e r e g u l a t e d h e l i u m i n e a c h

RCS quad f r o m t h e h e l i u m s t o r a g e v e s s e l s t o t h e p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s .
2. 5 . 3 . 2

Propellant Subsystem. T h i s s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of one o x i d i z e r t a n k , one f u e l t a n k , one o x i d i z e r a n d fuel i s o l a t i o n v a l v e , a n d a s s o c i a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n plumbing.

2. 5 . 3 . 2 . 1

O x i d i z e r Tank. T h e o x i d i z e r supply is contained i n a s i n g l e t i t a n i u m a l l o y h e m i s p h e r i c a l l y d o m e d c y c l i n d r i c a l tank. T h e t a n k is c r a d l e - m o u n t e d t o t h e R C S panel. T h e t a n k c o n t a i n s a d i f f u s e r tube a s s e m b l y a n d a teflon b l a d d e r f o r p o s i t i v e e x p u l s i o n of t h e o x i d i z e r . T h e b l a d d e r is a t t a c h e d t o the d i f f u s e r tube at e a c h end of t h e tank. T h e d i f f u s e r tube a c t s as t h e p r o p e llant out let. When t h e tank is p r e s s u r i z e d , t h e h e l i u m g a s s u r r o u n d s t h e e n t i r e b l a d d e r , e x e r t i n g a f o r c e which c a u s e s t h e b l a d d e r t o c o l l a p s e about t h e p r o p e l l a n t f o r c i n g t h e o x i d i z e r into t h e d i f f u s e r tube a s s e m b l y a n d out of t h e t a n k outlet i n t o t h e manifold, p r o v i d i n g expulsion d u r i n g z e r o g ' s . T a n k h a s a working p r e s s u r e of 248 p s i g ; proof p r e s s u r e of 331 psig. REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

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SM2A-03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2. 5 . 3 . 2 . 2 F u e l Tank. T h e f u e l supply is contained i n a s i n g l e t a n k t h a t is s i m i l a r in m a t e r i a l , c o n s t r u c t i o n , and o p e r a t i o n t o t h a t of t h e o x i d i z e r tank. 2. 5. 3. 2 . 3 P r o p e l l a n t Isolation Shutoff Valve. T h e i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s i n t h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r l i n e s a r e both c o n t r o l l e d by a s i n g l e s w i t c h on p a n e l 15. T h e v a l v e s a r e two-solenoid v a l v e s a n d a r e m a g n e t i c a l l y l a t c h opened a n d s p r i n g -loaded c l o s e d . T h e v a l v e s a r e n o r m a l l y open i n r e s p e c t t o fluid flow. T h i s , a g a i n , e s t a b l i s h e s a power conservation. E a c h valve c o n t a i n s a p o s i t i o n s w i t c h which is in p a r a l l e l t o one p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r below t h e switch on p a n e l 15 t h a t c o n t r o l s both v a l v e s . When t h e p o s i t i o n s w i t c h i n e a c h valve is open, t h e i n d i c a t o r on p a n e l 15 is g r e y ( s a m e c o l o r as t h e p a n e l ) indicating t o t h e c r e w t h a t t h e v a l v e s a r e i n t h e n o r m a l position. When t h e p o s i t i o n switch i n e a c h valve o r one valve is c l o s e d , t h e i n d i c a t o r on p a n e l 15 is diagonal l i n e s indicating t o t h e c r e w t h a t t h e valve o r v a l v e s a r e c l o s e d . T h e v a l v e s a r e c l o s e d in t h e event of a f a i l u r e d o w n s t r e a m of t h e v a l v e s , line r u p t u r e , runaway t h r u s t e r , e t c .
2 . 5. 3. 2 . 4

D i s t r i b u t i o n Plumbing. P r o p e l l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n plumbing within e a c h quad is functionally i d e n t i c a l . E a c h quad c o n t a i n s s e p a r a t e s i m i l a r o x i d i z e r and fuel plumbing n e t w o r k s . P r o p e l l a n t s within t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n e t w o r k s a r e d i r e c t e d f r o m t h e supply t a n k s , through manifolds f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e f o u r e n g i n e s in the cluster.

2. 5. 3 . 2 . 5

Propellant, In-Line F i l t e r s . I n - l i n e f i l t e r s a r e i n s t a l l e d i n t h e f u e l a n d o x i d i z e r m a n i f o l d s downs t r e a m of t h e p r o p e l l a n t shutoff v a l v e s and p r i o r t o t h e engine manifold contained within t h e engine housing. T h e i n - l i n e f i l t e r s a r e i n s t a l l e d t o p r e v e n t a n y p a r t i c l e s f r o m flowing i n t o t h e engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s and engine i n j e c t o r .

2 . 5. 3 . 3

Engine A s s e m b l i e s . T h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m e n g i n e s a r e r a d i a t i o n c o o l e d , p r e s s u r e -fed, b i p r o p e l l a n t t h r u s t g e n e r a t o r s which c a n be o p e r a t e d i n e i t h e r t h e p u l s e modulated o r t h e s t e a d y s t a t e mode. ( T h e s e m o d e s a r e defined as a f i r i n g of l e s s t h a n o n e - s e c o n d d u r a t i o n , and o n e second duration o r m o r e , respectively. ) E a c h engine c o n s i s t s of a f u e l and o x i d i z e r c o n t r o l v a l v e , which c o n t r o l s t h e flow of p r o p e l l a n t s by r e s p o n d i n g t o e l e c t r i c a l c o m m a n d s ( a u t o m a t i c or m a n u a l ) g e n e r a t e d by t h e guidance and navigation s u b s y s t e m a n d / o r s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m o r by the c r e w ; and an i n j e c t o r
__

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.5-9

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
_-

head a s s e m b l y , which d i r e c t s t h e flow of e a c h p r o p e l l a n t f r o m t h e p r o p e l l a n t c o n t r o l v a l v e s t o the c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r w h e r e the p r o p e l l a n t s a t o m i z e and ignite (hypergolic) t o p r o d u c e t h r u s t .

2.5.3.3. 1

P r o p e l l a n t Solenoid I n j e c t o r Control Valves ( F u e l and O x i d i z e r ) . T h e p r o p e l l a n t solenoid i n j e c t o r v a l v e s u t i l i z e two coaxially wound c o i l s : o n e f o r automatic and o n e for d i r e c t m a n u a l operation. T h e autom a t i c c o i l is u s e d when t h e t h r u s t c o m m a n d o r i g i n a t e s from t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic, which i s the e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y that s e l e c t s the r e q u i r e d a u t o m a t i c c o i l s t o be e n e r g i z e d f o r a given m a n e u v e r . The m a n u a l c o i l s a r e used when the t h r u s t c o m m a n d o r i g i n a t e s a t the r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l ( d i r e c t m o d e ) , d i r e c t ullage pushbutton, SPS a b o r t , o r t h e C / M S / M S E P switch ( f i g u r e 2. 5 - 3 ) . T h e solenoid v a l v e s a r e s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d and e n e r g i z e d open. The r e a c t i o n t i m e of t h e v a l v e s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in f i g u r e s 2 . 5 - 4 and 2.5-5.
Figure 2. 5-4 i l l u s t r a t e s a t h r u s t i n g d u r a t i o n of 15 s e c o n d s ( s t e a d y s t a t e ) . T h e e l e c t r i c a l on s i g n a l i s r e c e i v e d within e i t h e r the a u t o m a t i c ( n o r m a l ) o r m a n u a l (backup) c o i l s of the engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s . The solenoid i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e e n e r g i z e d open allowing fuel and o x i d i z e r to

TH RUST LBS

L

- STEADY STATE
I

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F i g u r e 2. 5 - 4 .

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S / M RCS Steady-State Operation ( T y p i c a l 15 Seconds)
~~ ~~ ~

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
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SM2A -03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
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SYSTEMS DATA

THRUST LBS.

FUEL VALVE FULLY CLOSED,

fh

50
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V A L V E IGNITION

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60

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70

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.

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Figure 2 . 5-5.

S / M RCS Engine Minimum T o t a l I m p u l s e T yp ic al)

flow through the i n j e c t o r into the combustion c h a m b e r . The p r o p e l l a n t s , being h y p e r g o l i c , ignite, providing the s t a r t t r a n s i e n t . The engine, a s a r e s u l t of p r o p e l l a n t ignition, p r o d u c e s c h a m b e r p r e s s u r e , g a s velocity, and t h r u s t . A t 15 s e c o n d s a f t e r t h e r e c e i p t of the t h r u s t - o n signal, the automatic o r m a n u a l c o i l s a r e d e - e n e r g i z e d and the i n j e c t o r v a l v e s s p r i n g - l o a d c l o s e d . However, due to the closing t i m e and r e s i d u a l p r o p e l l a n t flow d o w n s t r e a m of t h e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s into t h e combustion c h a m b e r , t h r u s t output continues until the p r o p e l l a n t s have burned c o m pletely allowing t h e c h a m b e r p r e s s u r e , g a s velocity, and t h r u s t to d e c a y to 0 pounds, e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e cutoff t r a n s i e n t .

F i g u r e 2. 5 - 5 i l l u s t r a t e s the m i n i m u m e l e c t r i c a l signal that can be provided to the a u t o m a t i c c o i l s of the i n j e c t o r v a l v e s f r o m the stabilization c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m j e t s e l e c t i o n logic. The following d e s c r i b e s the sequence of o p e r a t i o n and r e a s o n s why.

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SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~ ~~~

a. A t i m e of 18*4 m i l l i s e c o n d s (14 m i l l i s e c o n d s m i n i m u m ) will e l a p s e b e f o r e t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m (SCS) c a n e l e c t r i c a l l y p r o v i d e a command-off s i g n a l t o the a u t o m a t i c c o i l s of t h e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s on the engine. b. When t h e automatic c o i l s of t h e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s r e c e i v e the e l e c t r i c a l on s i g n a l f r o m the SCS, the i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e e n e r g i z e d to the open position. c. T h e f u e l i n j e c t o r a u t o m a t i c coil e n e r g i z e s t o the fully open position in 4. 5*1. 5 m i l l i s e c o n d s , and the o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r a u t o m a t i c coil e n e r g i z e s to t h e fully open position in 6.0*1. 5 m i l l i s e c o n d s establishing a n approximate 2 m i l l i s e c o n d fuel lead. T h i s is accomplished by v a r y i n g the r e s i s t a n c e of t h e a u t o m a t i c c o i l s in the f u e l and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r valve. d. The p r o p e l l a n t s flow f r o m t h e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s as soon as t h e y both s t a r t t o open t o the p r e m i x i g n i t e r . However, the f u e l will l e a d the o x i d i z e r by two m i l l i s e c o n d s . e. The p r o p e l l a n t s start to flow, as soon as t h e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s start to open, into t h e p r e m i x i g n i t e r and into t h e combustion c h a m b e r which c r e a t e s s o m e p r e s s u r e , g a s velocity and t h r u s t , and even though it i s v e r y s m a l l , t h e engine i s o p e r a t i n g in a s p a c e environment. f . T h e p r e s s u r e , g a s velocity, and t h r u s t continues t o i n c r e a s e slightly until the v a l v e s r e a c h t h e fully open position. g. At a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12- 1 / 2 m i l l i s e c o n d s , the p r o p e l l a n t s ignite ( h y p e r g o l i c ) , producing a s p i k e of t h r u s t u p w a r d s into t h e a r e a of 70 to 80 pounds. At 14 m i l l i s e c o n d s m i n i m u m , the S C S r e m o v e s t h e e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l f r o m the a u t o m a t i c c o i l s of t h e i n j e c t o r valves. h. T h e t h r u s t of the engine continues v e r y e r r a t i c a l l y , while the v a l v e s b e c o m e d e - e n e r g i z e d and s p r i n g - l o a d c l o s e d . i. At a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21 m i l l i s e c o n d s ( c l o s i n g t i m e of 7. 5 m i l l i s e c o n d s ) on t h e fuel valve and 2 3 m i l l i s e c o n d s ( c l o s i n g t i m e of 8 . 0 m i l l i s e c o n d s ) on the o x i d i z e r v a l v e , the i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e fully c l o s e d . j . The r e s i d u a l p r o p e l l a n t s d o w n s t r e a m of t h e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s continue to flow into the combustion c h a m b e r , d e c r e a s i n g until c o m p l e t e t h r u s t d e c a y of 0 pounds o c c u r s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 65 m i l l i s e c o n d s . k. In o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the t o t a l i m p u l s e f o r t h i s t i m e s p a n of o p e r a t i o n ( f i g u r e 2. 5 - 5 ) , everything u n d e r the e n t i r e t h r u 5 t c u r v e m u s t be integrated.
T h e a u t o m a t i c c o i l s a r e e l e c t r i c a l l y connected in p a r a l l e l f r o m the SCS. The m a n u a l c o i l s in t h e fuel and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r v a l v e s p r o v i d e a m a n u a l d i r e c t backup to the SCS m o d e of operation. The m a n u a l c o i l s of the i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e e l e c t r i c a l l y connected in s e r i e s . T h e r e a s o n s f o r the s e r i e s connection of t h e m a n u a l c o i l s a r e as follows: a. P r e v e n t a m i s m a t c h between t h e opening and closing of the v a l v e s due to any h e a t s o a k - b a c k into the m a n u a l c o i l s , which would change t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e m a n u a l c o i l s and r e s u l t in a m i s m a t c h if the c o i l s w e r e connected in p a r a l l e l . T h e d i r e c t m a n u a l opening t i m e f o r f u e l is 1 3 millisecond-s and- o x i d i z e r is 23 m i l l i s e c o n d s . The closing t i m e f o r f u e l and o x i d i z e r i s 55*Z5 m i l l i s e c o n d s .

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.5-12

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA b. The s e r i e s connection f r o m the fuel m a n u a l coil (positive to negative) t o the o x i d i z e r m a n u a l coil (negative t o p o s i t i v e ) , then to ground, i s t o i n c r e a s e the a r c s u p p r e s s i o n , reducing the a r c at rotation c o n t r o l in t h e d i r e c t RCS m o d e of operation. 2. 5 . 3 . 3 . 2 Injector. The i n j e c t o r contains a p r e m i x i g n i t e r . The p r e m i x i g n i t e r c h a m b e r contains a f u e l and a n o x i d i z e r p a s s a g e t h a t impinge upon e a c h o t h e r (unlike impingement) within the p r e m i x i g n i t e r c h a m b e r . The p r e m i x i g n i t e r c h a m b e r , along with t h e 2 - m i l l i s e c o n d fuel l e a d , p r o v i d e s a s m o o t h e r s t a r t t r a n s i e n t p r i m a r i l y in the p u l s e m o d e of operation and e s p e c i a l l y in the a r e a of m i n i m u m i m p u l s e . The m a i n c h a m b e r portion of the i n j e c t o r will allow eight fuel s t r e a m s to impinge upon eight o x i d i z e r s t r e a m s (unlike impingement) f o r m a i n c h a m b e r ignition. T h e r e a r e a l s o eight fuel h o l e s around the o u t e r p e r i p h e r y of the i n j e c t o r , which p r o v i d e s f i l m cooling to the combustion chamber . 2. 5.3.3.3 Combustion C h a m b e r . The combustion c h a m b e r i s c o n s t r u c t e d of unalloyed molybdenum, which i s coated with a thin l a y e r of molybdenum d i s i l i c i d e t o p r e v e n t oxidation of the b a s e m e t a l . Cooling of t h e c h a m b e r i s by radiation and f i l m cooling. Nozzle Extension. The n o z z l e extension i s attached to the engine by a Waspolloy nut. The nozzle extension i s machined f r o m a cobalt b a s e alloy. T h e stiffener r i n g s a r e m a c h i n e d . 2. 5. 3. 3 . 4 RCS E l e c t r i c a l H e a t e r s . Each of the RCS engine housings contain a n e l e c t r i c a l s t r i p h e a t e r ( f i g u r e 2. 5-3). The e l e c t r i c a l s t r i p h e a t e r s provide p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l by conductance t o t h e engine housing and engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s ; thus the p r o p e l l a n t s . E a c h h e a t e r h a s two t h e r m o switches that m a i n t a i n t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a t a given r a n g e . 2. 5.3.4 P r e s s u r e Versus Temperature Measuring System. The h e l i u m tank supply t e m p e r a t u r e m e a s u r e m e n t and h e l i u m tank supply p r e s s u r e m e a s u r e m e n t ( f i g u r e 2 . 5 - 3 ) f o r e a c h quad a r e utilized by the c r e w and T L M to d e t e r m i n e t h e quantity of p r o p e l l a n t s r e m a i n i n g in the r e s p e c t i v e quad. The n o m o g r a m ( f i g u r e 2. 5 - 6 ) d e p i c t s how to d e t e r m i n e the propellant quantity remaining in p e r c e n t a g e . T h e h e l i u m supply p r e s s u r e i s d e t e r mined in p s i a on panel 12 by the c r e w , a l s o t h e h e l i u m supply t e m p e r a t u r e

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2.5-13

SMZA -03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

3500

3000

2500

3 2

w

I

m

1500

0%
0 LB

80LB 120 LB 160 LB PROPELLANT REMAINING PERCENT OR POUNDS

2046 40 LB

40%

60%

m

100% 200 LB

P-2057A

F i g u r e 2. 5 - 6 .

S / M R C S Nomogram Typical Propellant Remaining REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

.
Page 2.5-14

Mission

B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966 Change Date

SM2A -03-SCO12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA r e a d s in p s i a . T h e h e l i u m supply t e m p e r a t u r e readout of 0 p s i a i s equivalent to 0 ° F and 400 p s i a i s equivalent to 1 5 0 ° F . As an e x a m p l e , if t h e c r e w readout on panel 12 f o r a given quad r e a d s 3400 p s i a h e l i u m supply p r e s s u r e and 265 p s i a h e l i u m supply t e m p e r a t u r e (which i s equivalent t o 100 O F ) , the quantity of p r o p e l l a n t s r e m a i n i n g is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 p e r c e n t o r 120 pounds. The c r e w would utilize t h e RCS indicator s e l e c t switch on panel 12 to s e l e c t the quad d e s i r e d in o r d e r to obtain the h e l i u m tank supply p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e , and d e t e r m i n e the p r o p e l l a n t quantity r e m a i n i n g in p e r c e n t . 2. 5. 3 . 5 Engine T h r u s t i n e Logic. In the S / M RCS, the c o m m a n d s f r o m the stabilization and c o n t r o l s y s t e m cannot be supplied to the SCS channel s w i t c h e s until the c o n t a c t s of the RCS latching r e l a y a r e c l o s e d . Closing of t h e s e c o n t a c t s f o r S / M R C S c o n t r o l m a y b e initiated by the following s i g n a l s ( f i g u r e 2. 5-3): a. With t h e launch e s c a p e t o w e r j e t t i s o n e d and t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l r o t a t e d counterclockwise, an S / M a b o r t o r a n o r m a l S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n i s initiated and the following sequence of e v e n t s o c c u r s . 1. I n f o r m t h e G & N s y s t e m of an a b o r t initiation. 2. Initiate applicable b o o s t e r shutdown. 3. Inhibit the pitch and yaw automatic j e t s of the SCS. 4. I n i t i a t e s an ullage m a n e u v e r signal to t h e r e q u i r e d m a n u a l c o i l s of the S / M RCS engines ( a s long a s the translati-on c o n t r o l i s in c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e , ullage i s t e r m i n a t e d when the t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is returned to the neutral detent). 5. Adapter s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r s a t 1 . 7 seconds a f t e r the a b o r t w a s initiated. 6. E n e r g i z e s t h e RCS latching r e l a y 2-112 s e c o n d s a f t e r the a b o r t w a s initiated allowing the SCS to provide e l e c t r i c a l c o m m a n d s to the a u t o m a t i c c o i i s of t h e S / M RCS engines. In the event the logic f a i l s to e n e r g i z e the RCS latching r e l a y , the RCS CMD switch on panel 16 i s placed t o t h e O N position, providing a m a n u a l backup t o the a u t o m a t i c function. In addition, if the ADAPTER SEPARATION pushbutton on panel 5 is p r e s s e d and held f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 to 2 s e c o n d s , the RCS latching r e l a y i s e n e r g i z e d . b. In a backup to t h e n o r m a l S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n s e q u e n c e , the R C S CMD switch i s m o m e n t a r i l y placed t o t h e ON position, e n e r g i z i n g the RCS latching r e l a y ; the t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is positioned f o r w a r d , providing a t r a n s l a t i o n through t h e SCS t o the r e q u i r e d automatic c o i l s of the S / M RCS engine f o r a tX t r a n s l a t i o n ; and the ADAPTER SEPARATION pushbutton on panel 5 i s held f o r 2 s e c o n d s to initiate a d a p t e r s e p a r a t i o n . (ADAPTER SEPARATION pushbutton p r e s s e d and held f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 to 2 seconds will a l s o e n e r g i z e t h e RCS latching r e l a y . ) In the event the t r a n s l a t i o n contzols a r e unable to provide a n ullage m a n e u v e r , t h e DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton on panel 7 , when d e p r e s s e d

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.5-15

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

and h e l d , p r o v i d e s t h e d i r e c t ullage s i g n a l t o t h e m a n u a l c o i l s of the RCS e n g i n e s , to be e n e r g i z e d to provide a +X t r a n s l a t i o n . T h i s p r o v i d e s a m a n u a l d i r e c t backup to t h e two t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s f o r the ullage m a n e u v e r t o b e p e r f o r m e d b y the S / M RCS. T h e ullage m a n e u v e r i s t e r m i n a t e d upon r e l e a s e of t h e DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton. In the event the SCS a n d / o r j e t s e l e c t i o n logic i s unable t o provide c o m m a n d s to t h e a u t o m a t i c c o i l s of the S / M RCS engines, placing the DIRECT RCS switch on panel 8 t o the ON position p r o v i d e s power to the r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l s only. When t h e rotation c o n t r o l i s positioned fully t o i t s s t o p s in a n y d i r e c t i o n , the r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l will e n e r g i z e the r e q u i r e d m a n u a l c o i l s f o r the d e s i r e d m a n e u v e r .
If the SCS a n d / o r t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic i s unable to provide c o m m a n d s t o t h e a u t o m a t i c c o i l s of t h e S / M RCS engines, it is noted that t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l af the s p a c e c r a f t is disabled.

2.5.4 2.5.4.1

S / M RCS PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA.
Design Data. The following l i s t i s t h e d e s i g n d a t a of t h e S / M RCS components. HELIUM TANKS (4)

4150*50 p s i g at 70*5"F d u r i n g s e r v i c i n g ; a f t e r s e r v i c i n g sitting on launch pad 70*10"F. Capacity 0. 57 Ib, inside d i a m e t e r 8. 84 i n . , wall t h i c k n e s s 0. 105 in., and i n t e r n a l volume 0.205 c u f t .
P r i m a r y - 181*4 psig with a n o r m a l lockup of 183*5 psig. F r o m lockup p r e s s u r e , not d r o p below 177 psig or r i s e above 185 p s i g and s t a b i l i z e t o 181*2 psig within 2 s e c . S e c o n d a r y - Lockup of 187*5 psig. F r o m lockup p r e s s u r e , not d r o p below 177 psig o r r i s e above 194 psig and s t a b i l i z e a t 185*3 psig within 2 s e c .

--

REGULATOR UNITS ( 8 )

PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS ( 4 ) COMMON MANIFOLD

Illuminate CAUTION and WARNING light on panel 10 ( S / M RCS A, B, C , o r D). U n d e r p r e s s u r e 155 p s i a . O v e r p r e s s u r e 215 p s i a . D i a p h r a g m r u p t u r e a t 228*8 psig. F i l t e r - 10 m i c r o n nominal, 2 5 m i c r o n absolute.

HELIUM R E L I E F VALVES (8)

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.5-16

SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Relief v a l v e r e l i e v e s a t 236. 5*11. 5 psig. Relief v a l v e r e s e a t s a t not l e s s than 220 p s i g in the c a v i t y and a h e l i u m flow of l e s s than 20 s t a n d a r d cubic c e n t i m e t e r s p e r h o u r a c r o s s t h e b l e e d d e v i c e and r e l i e f v a l v e a s s e m b l y combined. The b l e e d d e v i c e s h a l l r e o p e n when d e c r e a s i n g p r e s sure has r e a c h e d no l e s s t h a n 20 psig. F U E L TANK ( 4 ) Combined p r o p e l l a n t and u l l a g e volume o f 6 9 . 0 l b s , initially a t 6 0 ° F a t 30*2 p s i g , r e s u l t i n g in a t a n k p r e s s u r e of no m o r e t h a n 215 p s i a when h e a t e d to 8 5 ° F . Outs i d e d i a m e t e r m a x i m u m 12. 62 in. , l e n g t h 2 3 . 7 1 7 (to.060, - 0 . 0 0 0 ) in. Wall t h i c k n e s s 0 . 0 1 7 in. to 0 . 0 2 2 in. H e l i u m inlet p o r t 1 / 4 i n . , f i l l and d r a i n p o r t 112 in. OXIDIZER TANK (4) Combined p r o p e l l a n t and u l l a g e v o l u m e of 1 3 7 . 0 l b s , initially a t 6 5 ° F a t 30*2 p s i g , r e s u l t i n g in a t a n k p r e s s u r e of no m o r e t h a n 215 p s i a when h e a t e d to 8 5 ° F . Outs i d e d i a m e t e r m a x i m u m 12. 62 i n . , length 2 8 . 5 5 (to. 060, - 0 . 0 0 0 ) in. Wall t h i c k n e s s 0 . 017 in. t o 0 . 0 2 2 in. INLINE F I L T E R S ENGINES ( 1 6 ) 5-micron nominal; 15-micron absolute 1 0 0 0 - s e c s e r v i c e l i f e , c a p a b l e of 1 0 , 000 o p e r a t i o n a l c y c l e s . T h r u s t 100 l b s *5 p e r c e n t . E x p a n s i o n r a t i o 40:l a t n o z z l e exit. Cooling F i l m and r a d i a t i o n

-

Inj e c to r type . P r e m i x i g n i t e r o n e on one unlike i m p i n g e m e n t . Eight f u e l annulus f o r f i l m cooling of p r e m i x i g n i t e r , m a i n c h a m b e r e i g h t on e i g h t unlike i m p i n g e m e n t , eight f u e l f o r f i l m cooling of c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r wall.

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2. 5-17

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~

Nozzle e x t e n s i o n

L-605 m a t e r i a l

N o z z l e e x i t d i a m e t e r 5. 6 in. Fuel lead. Automatic coils Manual c o i l s Weight Length PACKAGE T E M P E R A T U R E TRANSDUCER ( 4 )

-

Connected in p a r a l l e l .

- Connected in s e r i e s .

- 4.99 lbs.

-

1 3 . 3 7 5 in.

I l l u m i n a t e CAUTION and WARNING light on p a n e l 10 ( S / M RCS A, B, C, o r D) Under t e m p e r a t u r e 6 3 ° F . Over temperature 175°F. One in E a c h Quad One in E a c h Quad C l o s e at 1 1 5 ° F

H E A T E R S THERMO-SWITCH

C l o s e at 77 ( + l o , -7)"F Open at 104*14"F 36*3.6 w a t t s p e r heater

__--

Open at 1 3 4 ° F '36*3.6 w a t t s p e r heater

2. 5 . 4 . 2

P e r f o r m a n c e Data. R e f e r t o M i s s i o n Modular D a t a Book, SID 66-1177.

2.5.4.3

P o w e r Consumption D a t a S / M RCS and C / M RCS.
~~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~

W a t t s p e r Unit
subsystem and Component Reaction, c o n t r o l Service module RCS Engine h e a t e r s RCS e n g i n e c o i l s RCS HEATER C B ( 4 ) SCS JET SELECTION LOGIC o r DIRECT 8 32 Control No. of Units AC DC

Total W a t t s AC DC

288.0 118.0

34.0

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l 2 Nov 1966

Change D a t e

page

2.5-18

SM2A -03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Watts p e r Unit Subsystem and Component He i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s Control He VALVE C B ( 2 ) He s w (8) PROP. ISOL. C B ( 2 ) PROP.ISOL. sw (4) No. of Units 8 AC DC Total Watts
1

AC

DC 54.0

Propellant isolation valves C o m m a n d m o d u l e RCS Isolation valves

8

49.0

(Ref. S / M / R C S ISOL. C B ) PROP. ISOL. sw ( 2 ) SCS J E T SELECTION LOGIC OR DIRECT

4

49.0

RCS engine c o i l s

24
105. 0

52. 5

:::Intermittent o p e r a t i n g c o m p o n e n t s . 2. 5 . 4 . 4 S / M RCS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n . See figure 2 . 5-7 f o r e l e c t r i c a l power distribution.
2. 5 . 5

S / M RCS OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS. O p e r a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s and r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e t e s t i n g of s y s t e m v a l v e s in a d r y u n s e r v i c e d p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m a r e a s follows: a. H e l i u m i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s and p r o p e l l a n t isolation v a l v e s m i n i m u m e n e r g i z a t i o n t i m e of 0 . 2 s e c o n d and not t o e x c e e d 5 s e c o n d s . b. Engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e a u t o m a t i c c o i l e n e r g i z a t i o n not t o e x c e e d 2 m i n u t e s on t i m e d u r i n g a n y 1 5 - m i n u t e p e r i o d with voltage not exceeding 3 2 v d c . c . Engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e d i r e c t c o i l e n e r g i z a t i o n on t i m e not e x c e e d 3 5 m i n u t e s d u r i n g a n y 6 0 - m i n u t e p e r i o d and voltage not exceed 16 vdc t o e i t h e r coil s e p a r a t e l y o r 3 2 v d c to two c o i l s in s e r i e s .

2 . 5. 6

S / M RCS T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS.

The s u b s e q u e n t l i s t is of all S / M RCS t e l e m e t r y d a t a t h a t is m o n i t o r e d by flight c o n t r o l l e r s and ground s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l .

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM
Mission

B a s i c Date

l 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2-5-19

SM2A-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

SM RCS /

QCYD A

S/M RCS WAD
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F i g u r e 2. 5 - 7 .

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Mission

B a s i c Date

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SM2A-03-SCO 12

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B a s i c Date

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2.5-21

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SM2A 0 3 -SC0 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA H e l i u m e n t e r i n g the p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s c r e a t e s a p r e s s u r e buildup a r o u n d the p r o p e l l a n t positive expulsion b l a d d e r s , f o r c i n g the p r o p e l l a n t s t o b e expelled into the p r o p e l l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s . P r o p e l l a n t s then flow t o v a l v e isolation b u r s t d i a p h r a g m s , which r u p t u r e , and through the p r o p e l l a n t isolation v a l v e s . E a c h s u b s y s t e m supplies fuel and o x i d i z e r to s i x engines. O x i d i z e r and fuel i s d i s t r i b u t e d to t h e 1 2 fuel and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r v a l v e s by a p a r a l l e l feed s y s t e m . The fuel and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r v a l v e s on e a c h engine contain o r i f i c e s which meter the propellant flow t o obtain a n o m i n a l 2 : l o x i d i z e r / f u e l r a t i o by weight. The o x i d i z e r and f u e l impinge, a t o m i z e , and ignite due t o t h e h y p e r g o l i c p r o p e l l a n t s . The i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y b y the G&N s y s t e m o r the SCS. Manual o v e r r i d e d i r e c t c o n t r o l i s provided f o r rotational m a n e u v e r s and d i r e c t ullage only. The i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e s p r i n g - l o a d e d closed. E x t r e m e l y cold t e m p e r a t u r e of the C / M e x t e r i o r i s anticipated p r i o r t o e n t r y o p e r a t i o n s ; t h e r e f o r e , C / M RCS engine p r e h e a t i n g m a y b e n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e initiating p r e s s u r i z a t i o n due t o p o s s i b l e f r e e z i n g of the o x i d i z e r (t11. 8 ° F ) upon c o n t a c t with the engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t h e c r e w m o n i t o r i n g the engine t e m p e r a t u r e s and e n e r gizing the i n j e c t o r valve s o l e n o i d s until a c c e p t a b l e engine t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e obtained. The C / M RCS HTRS switch on panel 200 will apply power to t h e i n j e c t o r valve solenoids f o r engine preheating. Since the p r e s e n c e of hypergolic p r o p e l l a n t s can be h a z a r d o u s upon C / M i m p a c t , t h e r e m a i n i n g p r o p e l l a n t s a r e burned off and t h e RCS purged with h e l i u m p r i o r t o C / M landing. In the event of an a b o r t f r o m t h e pad up to T t 61 s e c o n d s a f t e r liftoff, p r o v i s i o n s h a v e b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d ’t o automatically dump the o x i d i z e r supply o v e r b o a r d , followed b y a h e l i u m p u r g e of the o x i d i z e r t a n k s and dumping of the r e m a i n i n g h e l i u m supply. The f u e l i s retained on b o a r d due t o insufficient t i m e f o r dumping and the C / M i m p a c t s with f u e l t a n k s full, but d e p r e s s u r i z e d .

-

2.5,

a

C / M RCS MAJOR COMPONENTS/SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION. T h e C / M RCS is composed of two s e p a r a t e , n o r m a l l y independent s y s t e m s , designated s y s t e m A and s y s t e m B. The s y s t e m s a r e identical t o o p e r a t i o n , e a c h containing the following f o u r m a j o r s u b s y s t e m s :
0 0 0 0

Pressurization Propellant Rocket engine Temperature control system

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM
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.”

B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966 Change Date’,?

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2.5-24

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S M 2 A -03-SCO 12

A P O L L O O P E R A T I O N S HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

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Figure 2.5-8.

C / M RCS Functional Flow D i a g r a m

REACTION C O N T R O L SYSTEM Mission
I

B a s i c Date

l2
--c
*. -,

1966

C h a n g e Date

P a g e 2. 5-2512.5-26

ULLLuU=c"

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4

SMZA -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2 . 5.8. 1 Pressurization Subsystem. T h i s s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of a h e l i u m supply tank, two d u a l - p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l i e s , two c h e c k valve a s s e m b l i e s , two p r e s s u r e - r e l i e f v a l v e a s s e m b l i e s , and a s s o c i a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n plumbing. 2 . 5 . 8 . 1. 1 Helium Supply Tank. The total h i g h - p r e s s u r e h e l i u m i s contained within a single s p h e r i c a l s t o r a g e tank. Initial f i l l p r e s s u r e i s 4150*50 psig. The l i m i t working p r e s s u r e i s 5000 psig t o a c c o m m o d a t e p r e s s u r e t r a n s i e n t s during filling. The proof p r e s s u r e i s 6667 psig and b u r s t p r e s s u r e i s 7500 psig.
2 . 5. 8. 1. 2

Helium Isolation (Squib-Operated) Valve. The two s q u i b - o p e r a t e d h e l i u m isolation v a l v e s a r e installed in the plumbing f r o m e a c h h e l i u m t a n k t o confine the h e l i u m to a s s m a l l a n a r e a as p o s s i b l e to r e d u c e h e l i u m l e a k a g e during the period the system i s not in u s e . Two squib v a l v e s a r e employed in e a c h s y s t e m t o a s s u r e p r e s s u r i z a tion. T h e v a l v e s a r e opened b y c l o s u r e of the C M PRESS switch on panel 1 6 , the C / M - S / M S E P s w i t c h e s on panel 15, o r upon the r e c e i p t of a n a b o r t signal f r o m the pad up to launch e s c a p e t o w e r j e t t i s o n .

2 . 5. 8. 1. 3

H e l i u m P r e s s u r e Regulator A s s e m b l y . The p r e s s u r e a r e s i m i l a r in type, The differences a r e p r e s s u r e than t h o s e r e g u l a t o r s used in the C / M RCS s u b s y s t e m s A and B o p e r a t i o n , and function t o t h o s e used in the S / M RCS. that the r e g u l a t o r s in the C / M RCS a r e s e t a t a h i g h e r of the S / M RCS.

2.5.8.1.4

Helium Check Valve A s s e m b l y . The check v a l v e a s s e m b l i e s used in C / M RCS s u b s y s t e m s A and B a r e s i m i l a r in t y p e , o p e r a t i o n , and function t o t h o s e used in the S / M RCS.

2 . 5. 8. 1 . 5

Helium Relief Valve. T h e h e l i u m relief v a l v e s used in the C / M RCS s u b s y s t e m s A and B a r e s i m i l a r in type, o p e r a t i o n , and function t o t h o s e used in t h e S / M RCS. The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e that the r u p t u r e p r e s s u r e of the b u r s t d i a p h r a g m in the C / M RCS is h i g h e r than t h a t of the S / M RCS, and the relief valve r e l i e v e s a t a h i g h e r p r e s s u r e in the C / M RCS than that of the S / M RCS.

2 . 5 . 8 . 1. 6

Distribution Plumbing. B r a z e d joint tubing is used to d i s t r i b u t e regulated h e l i u m in each s u b s y s t e m f r o m the h e l i u m s t o r a g e v e s s e l s t o the propellant tanks.

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.5-27

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2. 5. 8. 2 Propellant Subsystem. E a c h s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of one o x i d i z e r t a n k , o n e fuel tank, one o x i d i z e r and f u e l isolation valve, and a s s o c i a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n plumbing.

2. 5. 8. 2. 1

O x i d i z e r Tank. The o x i d i z e r supply i s contained in a s i n g l e , t i t a n i u m alloy, h e m i s p h e r i c a l - d o m e d , c y l i n d r i c a l tank to e a c h s y s t e m . E a c h tank contain: a d i f f u s e r tube a s s e m b l y and a teflon b l a d d e r f o r positive expulsion of the o x i d i z e r s i m i l a r to t h a t of the S / M R C S t a n k a s s e m b l i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e i s the C / M RCS tank a s s e m b l i e s a r e s m a l l e r in s i z e . The b l a d d e r is attached to t h e d i f f u s e r tube a t e a c h end of the tank. The d i f f u s e r tube a c t s a s the p r o p e l l a n t outlet. When the tank i s p r e s s u r i z e d , t h e h e l i u m g a s s u r r o u n d s the e n t i r e b l a d d e r , e x e r t i n g a f o r c e which c a u s e s the b l a d d e r to c o l l a p s e about the p r o p e l l a n t , thus f o r c i n g the o x i d i z e r into t h e d i f f u s e r tube a s s e m b l y and out of the tank outlet into the manifold. Working p r e s s u r e i s 360 psig; proof p r e s s u r e is 480 psig; and the b u r s t p r e s s u r e i s 540 psig. F u e l Tank. The fuel supply i s contained in a s i n g l e , t i t a n i u m alloy, h e m i s p h e r i c a l - d o m e d , c y l i n d r i c a l tank f o r e a c h s y s t e m that is s i m i l a r in m a t e r i a l , c o n s t r u c t i o n , and o p e r a t i o n to that of the o x i d i z e r tank.

2. 5.8. 2. 2

D i a p h r a g m B u r s t Isolation Valve. The b u r s t d i a p h r a g m s , d o w n s t r e a m f r o m e a c h tank a r e installed t o confine the p r o p e l l a n t s into a s s m a l l a n a r e a a s p o s s i b l e throughout the m i s s i o n . Thi's is to p r e v e n t l o s s of p r o p e l l a n t s in the event of l i n e r u p t u r e d o w n s t r e a m of the b u r s t d i a p h r a g m o r i n j e c t o r v a l v e leakage. When the h e l i u m isolation squib v a l v e s a r e initiated open, regulated h e l i u m p r e s s u r e p r e s s u r i z e s t h e p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s , c r e a t i n g the positive expulsion of p r o p e l l a n t s into t h e r e s p e c t i v e m a n i f o l d s t o the b u r s t d i a p h r a g m s , which r u p t u r e , allowing t h e p r o p e l l a n t s t o flow through the p r o p e l l a n t isolation v a l v e s , to the i n j e c t o r v a l v e s on e a c h engine. The d i a p h r a g m i s of the nonfragmentation type; but, in the event of any f r a g m e n t a t i o n , a f i l t e r is i n c o r p o r a t e d to p r e v e n t any f r a g m e n t s f r o m entering the engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s .

2. 5. 8. 2. 3

P r o p e l l a n t Isolation Shutoff Valves. When the b u r s t d i a p h r a g m isolation v a l v e s a r e r u p t u r e d , the p r o p e l l a n t s flow to the p r o p e l l a n t isolation v a l v e s . The isolation v a l v e s in t h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r l i n e s a r e both controlled by a s i n g l e switch on panel 15. The v a l v e s a r e two-solenoid v a l v e s and a r e

~~~~

~~

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion

B a s i c Date

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SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

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SYSTEMS DATA m a g n e t i c a l l y l a t c h e d open and s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d . T h e v a l v e s a r e n o r m a l l y open in r e s p e c t t o fluid flow. T h e C / M p r o p e l l a n t s w i t c h e s A and B on panel 15 w i l l b e p l a c e d to O N a f t e r T + 61 s e c o n d s and w i l l r e m a i n in t h a t position until o r b i t i n s e r t i o n to e n s u r e t h a t t h e p r o p e l l a n t i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s r e m a i n open when s y s t e m s A and B a r e p r e s s u r i z e d upon a b o r t initiation. T h e s w i t c h e s w i l l a l s o b e p l a c e d to ON p r i o r t o C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n and r e m a i n in t h a t p o s i t i o n until c o m p l e t i o n of p r o p e l l a n t j e t t i s o n to a g a i n e n s u r e t h a t t h e v a l v e s r e m a i n in t h e open position. The s w i t c h e s a r e p l a c e d t o c e n t e r - n e u t r a l position a f t e r t o w e r j e t t i s o n until p r i o r to C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n , r e m o v i n g e l e c t r i c a l power f r o m t h e v a l v e s . E a c h v a l v e c o n t a i n s a position s w i t c h which i s in p a r a l l e l t o one position i n d i c a t o r below t h e s w i t c h on p a n e l 15 t h a t c o n t r o l s both v a l v e s . When t h e position s w i t c h in e a c h v a l v e is open, t h e i n d i c a t o r o n p a n e l 15 i s g r e y ( s a m e c o l o r a s t h e p a n e l ) , indicating to t h e c r e w t h e v a l v e s a r e in t h e n o r m a l position. When t h e position s w i t c h in e a c h v a l v e o r one v a l v e i s c l o s e d , t h e i n d i c a t o r on p a n e l 15 i s diagonal l i n e s , indicating t o t h e c r e w t h e v a l v e o r v a l v e s a r e c l o s e d . The v a l v e s a r e c l o s e d in t h e e v e n t of a f a i l u r e d o w n s t r e a m of t h e v a l v e s , l i n e r u p t u r e , o r runaway t h r u s t e r , e t c . T h e v a l v e will o p e r a t e a t 0 t o 360 p s i g at both t h e i n l e t and o u t l e t p o r t s . T h e proof p r e s s u r e i s 540 p s i g and t h e b u r s t p r e s s u r e i s 720 psig. T h e solenoid i s a 28-vdc t y p e with a p u l l - i n v o l t a g e of not m o r e t h a n 15 v o l t s d c , and t h e c u r r e n t not t o e x c e e d 2 a m p e r e s at 30 v o l t s d c . T h e v a l v e a s s e m b l y r e s p o n s e i s 200 m i l l i s e c o n d s m a x i m u m f o r o n e - c y c l e o p e r a t i o n (open-to-closed o r closed-to-open).
2. 5. 8. 2. 4

Distribution Plumbing. B;azed j o i n t tubing i s u s e d t o d i s t r i b u t e p r e s s u r i z e d h e l i u m g a s to t h e p r o p e l l a n t p o s i t i v e expulsion t a n k s in s y s t e m A and s y s t e m B. T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s contain I 1 e x p l o s i v e - o p e r a t e d ( s q u i b ) v a l v e s which p e r m i t changing t h e h e l i u m d i s t r i b u t i o n configuration to a c c o m p l i s h v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s within t h e C / M RCS. E a c h s q u i b v a l v e i s a c t u a t e d b y a n e x p l o s i v e c h a r g e detonated b y a n e l e c t r i c a l h o t w i r e i g n i t e r . A f t e r igyition of t h e e x p l o s i v e d e v i c e , t h e v a l v e r e m a i n s open p e r m a n e n t l y . Two s q u i b v a l v e s a r e utilized in e a c h s y s t e m t o i s o l a t e t h e h i g h - p r e s s u r e h e l i u m g a s supply to t h e s t o r a g e t a n k s until RCS p r e s s u r i z a t i o n i s commanded. Two squib v a l v e s a r e u t i l i z e d t o i n t e r c o n n e c t s y s t e m A and s y s t e m B r e g u l a t e d h e l i u m supply, which e n s u r e s p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of both s y s t e m s d u r i n g d u m p - b u r n and h e l i u m p u r g e o p e r a t i o n s . Two s q u i b v a l v e s in e a c h s y s t e m p e r m i t h e l i u m g a s to b y p a s s t h e p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s , allowing h e l i u m purging of t h e p r o p e l l a n t s u b s y s t e m . One s q u i b v a l v e i s i n s t a l l e d in s y s t e m B r e g u l a t e d h e l i u m l i n e t o p e r m i t h e l i u m d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n in the e v e n t of a l o w - a l t i t u d e a b o r t (pad t o T t 61 second a b o r t ) .

-_

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page

2. 5 - 2 9

SM2A-03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
2. 5. 8 . 3 Engine A s s e m b l y . T h e c o m m a n d module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m engines a r e ablation cooled, b i p r o p e l l a n t t h r u s t g e n e r a t o r s which can be o p e r a t e d in e i t h e r the p u l s e - m o d e o r the s t e a d y - s t a t e mode. E a c h engine c o n s i s t s of a f u e l and o x i d i z e r c o n t r o l v a l v e , which c o n t r o l s the flow of p r o p e l l a n t s by responding to e l e c t r i c a l c o m m a n d s ( a u t o m a t i c ) g e n e r a t e d b y t h e guidance and navigation s u b s y s t e m a n d / o r s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m o r by t h e c r e w ( m a n u a l l y ) and a n i n j e c t o r head a s s e m b l y which d i r e c t s t h e flow of e a c h p r o p e l l a n t f r o m t h e p r o p e l l a n t c o n t r o l v a l v e s t o t h e c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r and t h e combustion c h a m b e r in which the p r o p e l l a n t s a r e burned to produce t h r u s t . E s t i m a t e d engine t h r u s t r i s e and d e c a y i s shown in f i g u r e 2 . 5-9.

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ENGINE ELECTRICAL OFFSIGNAL

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F i g u r e 2 . 5-9.

C / M R C S Engine T h r u s t R i s e and Decay T i m e ( T y p i c a l )
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REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM
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~ ~

2. 5 . 8 . 3. 1

P r o p e l l a n t Solenoid I n j e c t o r C o n t r o l V a l v e s ( F u e l and O x i d i z e r ) . The i n j e c t o r v a l v e s u t i l i z e two c o a x i a l l y wound c o i l s : one f o r a u t o m a t i c and one f o r d i r e c t m a n u a l c o n t r o l . The a u t o m a t i c c o i l i s used when the t h r u s t command o r i g i n a t e s f r o m t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic. The m a n u a l c o i l s a r e u s e d when t h e t h r u s t command o r i g i n a t e s a t t h e r o t a t i o n control (direct mode). The solenoid v a l v e s a r e s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d and e n e r g i z e d open. T h e r e a c t i o n t i m e of t h e v a l v e s , p u l s e m o d e of o p e r a t i o n , r e a s o n f o r p u l s e m o d e , and t h r u s t c u r v e g e n e r a t e d by t h e engine i s s i m i l a r t o the S / M RCS e n g i n e s . The a u t o m a t i c c o i l s in t h e fuel and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r v a l v e s a r e connected in p a r a l l e l f r o m t h e SCS. The manual c o i l s in t h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r v a l v e s p r o v i d e a m a n u a l d i r e c t b a c k u p to t h e a u t o m a t i c s y s t e m . The m a n u a l c o i l s a r e connected in p a r a l l e l f r o m t h e r o t a t i o n controls. Engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e opening t i m e of 5*2 m i l l i s e c o n d s and c l o s i n g of 6*2 m i l l i s e c o n d s f o r t h e a u t o m a t i c c o i l s and opening t i m e of 7 m i l l i s e c o n d s and c l o s i n g of 16 to 18 m i l l i s e c o n d s f o r t h e d i r e c t m a n u a l c o i l s . T h e a c t u a t i o n t i m e s h a l l not v a r y b y m o r e than t 5 0 o r -25 p e r c e n t o p e r a ting t i m e b e t w e e n t40 to t200' F.

2. 5 . 8. 3. 2

Injector. The i n j e c t o r , c o n t a i n s a fuel and o x i d i z e r p a s s a g e t h a t impinge ( u n l i k e i m p i n g e m e n t ) upon a s p l a s h p l a t e within t h e c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i n j e c t o r p a t t e r n i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a n unlike i m p i n g e m e n t s p l a s h - p l a t e i n j e c t o r . T h e r e a r e 16 f u e l and 1 6 o x i d i z e r p a s s a g e s in the injector face.

2. 5. 8 . 3. 3

Thrust Chamber Assembly. The t h r u s t c h a m b e r a s s e m b l y i s f a b r i c a t e d in f o u r s e g m e n t s : t h e c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r a b l a t i v e s l e e v e , the t h r o a t i n s e r t , t h e a b l a t i v e m a t e r i a l , and t h e a s b e s t o s and t h e f i b e r g l a s s w r a p . The engine i s a b l a t i v e cooled.

2. 5 . 8 . 3 . 4

Nozzle E x t e n s i o n . The C / M R C S e n g i n e s a r e mounted within t h e s t r u c t u r e of the C / M . The n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d t o t r a n s m i t t h e g a s e s f r o m t h e engine out t h r o u g h t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e C / M . The n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n s a r e f a b r i c a ted of ablative material.

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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA 2. 5. 8. 3. 5 Engine Solenoid I n j e c t o r Valve T e m p e r a t u r e C o n t r o l S y s t e m . A t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s y s t e m of t h e C / M RCS engine v a l v e s i s employed by e n e r g i z i n g t h e m a n u a l d i r e c t c o i l s on e a c h engine. T e m p e r a t u r e t r a n s d u c e r s a r e mounted on t h e engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e o x i d i z e r s o l e n o i d s . A t e m p e r a t u r e t r a n s d u c e r i s i n s t a l l e d on t h e s u b s y s t e m . A c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e r o l l o x i d i z e r v a l v e , n e g a t i v e yaw o x i d i z e r v a l v e , n e g a t i v e pitch o x i d i z e r v a l v e and on s u b s y s t e m B p o s i t i v e yaw o x i d i z e r v a l v e , n e g a t i v e pitch o x i d i z e r v a l v e , and c l o c k w i s e r o l l o x i d i z e r v a l v e . T h e s e engine i n j e c t o r solenoid o x i d i z e r v a l v e s w e r e s e l e c t e d a s the coldest engines. The t e m p e r a t u r e t r a n s d u c e r s have a range f r o m - 5 0 ° F to t 2 5 0 " F . . T h e t e m p e r a t u r e t r a n s d u c e r s f r o m t h e t h r e e s u b s y s t e m A and B engine o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r v a l v e s p r o v i d e inputs t h e t h e TEST S E L E C T s w i t c h on p a n e l 200, which i s l o c a t e d in t h e l o w e r e q u i p m e n t b a y of t h e c o m m a n d m o d u l e . With t h e FUNCTION S E L E C T s w i t c h on panel 200 p l a c e d t o position B and t h e T E S T S E L E C T r o t a r y s w i t c h on p a n e l 200 placed t o p o s i t i o n s 1 , 2, 3 , 4 , 11, and 1 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e s p e c i f i c engine o x i d i z e r v a l v e t e m p e r a t u r e is m o n i t o r e d a s a d - c v o l t a g e on t h e 0 - t o 5-vdc v o l t m e t e r . Z e r o vdc i s e q u i v a l e n t to - 5 0 ° F and 5 vdc is equivalent to $250" F.

. *-.
A C / M RCS HEATER s w i t c h i s l o c a t e d o n p a n e l 200. T h e C / M RCS HEATER s w i t c h i s p l a c e d t o t h e ON position when any o n e of t h e i n s t r u m e n t e d e a g i n e s a r e below + 6 4 " F , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1. 80 vdc. T h i s m u s t b e a c c o m p l i s h e d within 26 m i n u t e s p r i o r t o C f M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n , providing t h e ,C/M p r o p e l l a n t j e t t i s o n LOGIC s w i t c h i s ON. The f u e l and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r v a l v e m a n u a l c o i l s of a l l C / M RCS e n g i n e s a r e e n e r g i z e d o p e n ( p r i o r t o p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of C / M RCS s u b s y s t e m s A and B ) . A 1 3 - m i n u t e h e a t u p t i m e m a x i m u m o r 1 0 0 " F , which i s m o n i t o r e d on the d - c v o l t m e t e r on p a n e l 200 a s 2 . 5 0 v d c , a s s u r e s e n g i n e i n j e c t o r v a l v e t e m p e r a t u r e is a t t 2 0 " F m i n i m u m . If + 1 0 0 " F , 2. 50 vdc on t h e d - c voltm e t e r i s r e a c h e d f r o m t h e c o l d e s t i n s t r u m e n t e d engine b e f o r e 1 3 m i n u t e s , t h e C / M RCS HEATER s w i t c h i s p l a c e d t o O F F , which d e - e n e r g i z e s t h e engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s and the i n j e c t o r v a l v e s s p r i n g - l o a d c l o s e d . If a t i m e of 1 3 m i n u t e s i s r e a c h e d b e f o r e t 1 0 O 0 F , 2.50 vdc o n t h e d - c voltm e t e r , t h e C / M RCS HEATER s w i t c h i s placed t o O F F . T h i s will p r e v e n t the o x i d i z e r f r o m f r e e z i n g at the e n g i n e i n j e c t o r v a l v e s upon p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of s u b s y s t e m s A and B. T h e C / M RCS HEATER s w i t c h m u s t b e placed t o O F F p r i o r t o C / M RCS p r e s s u r i z a t i o n . T h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e C / M RCS HEATER s w i t c h in conjunction with t h e d - c v o l t m e t e r a n d / o r h e a t i n g t i m e e n s u r e s all o t h e r engine v a l v e s r e a c h t h e a c c e p t a b l e t e m p e r a t u r e l e v e l s . T h e t 1 0 0 " F , 2. 50 vdc, o r t h i r t e e n - m i n u t e t i m e l i m i t a s s u r e s t h a t t h e w a r m e s t engine valve will be l e s s than t 2 0 0 " F .

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.5-32

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2. 5. 8. 3 . 6 Engine T h r u s t O N - O F F L o g i c . All t h r u s t c o m m a n d s f o r C / M attitude p a s s t h r o u g h t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m and t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic. T h e s e c o m m a n d s m a y o r i g i n a t e at t h e following: a. T h e rotation c o n t r o l s b. T h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m c . T h e guidance and navigation s u b s y s t e m . In t h e e v e n t t h e SCS a n d / o r j e t s e l e c t i o n logic is unable to p r o v i d e c o m m a n d s t o t h e a u t o m a t i c c o i l s of t h e C / M RCS e n g i n e s , placing t h e DIRECT RCS switch on panel 8 t o the ON position p r o v i d e s power t o t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l . When t h e rotation c o n t r o l i s positioned fully t o i t s s t o p s in a n y d i r e c t i o n , t h e rotation c o n t r o l e n e r g i z e s t h e r e q u i r e d m a n u a l c o i l s f o r the desired maneuver. When t h e C M SM S E P s w i t c h e s on p a n e l 15 a r e placed t o C M SM S E P position, t h e s w i t c h e s a u t o m a t i c a l l y e n e r g i z e r e l a y s in t h e RCS t r a n s f e r p a n e l s (C19A4) and in t h e RCS c o n t r o l b o x e s (C19A1) ( f i g u r e 2 . 5-10) (providing t h e C M P R O P J E T T LOGIC s w i t c h on p a n e l 8 i s O N ) t h a t t r a n s f e r s t h e SCS and d i r e c t m a n u a l inputs f r o m t h e S / M RCS engine t h t h e C / M RCS e n g i n e s a u t o m a t i c a l l y . ( T h e s e s a m e functions o c c u r on a n y L E S ABORT.) T h e t r a n s f e r m o t o r s in t h e RCS t r a n s f e r p a n e l s (C19A4) and in t h e RCS c o n t r o l b o x e s ( C 1 9 A l ) a r e r e d u n d a n t t o e a c h o t h e r in t h a t t h e y e n s u r e the SCS and d i r e c t m a n u a l inputs a r e t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e S / M RCS e n g i n e s to t h e C / M RCS e n g i n e s . T h e t r a n s f e r m o t o r s in t h e RCS c o n t r o l b o x e s (C19A1) a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l v a c t i v a t e d b y t h e CM SM S E P s w i t c h e s ( p r o v i d i n g t h e CM P R O P J E T T LOGIC s w i t c h i s ON); in addition, t h e y may a l s o b e a c t i v a t e d by t h e m a n u a l b a c k u p of the RCS TRANSFER s w i t c h on p a n e l 16. T h e t r a n s f e r m o t o r s in t h e RCS t r a n s f e r p a n e l s (C19A4) a r e a c t i v a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y only by the C M SM S E P s w i t c h e s ( p r o v i d i n g t h e C M P R O P J E T T LOGIC s w i t c h i s ON). A s a n e x a m p l e , if t h e RCS t r a n s f e r m o t o r in C19A1 failed to t r a n s f e r a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t CM SM S E P , t h e RCS t r a n s f e r m o t o r in C19A4 would s t i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y t r a n s f e r t h e SCS and d i r e c t m a n u a l inputs f r o m t h e S / M RCS e n g i n e s t o t h e C / M RCS e n g i n e s ( p r o v i d i n g t h e CM P R O P J E T T LOGIC s w i t c h is ON). In addition, t h e RCS TRANSFER s w i t c h on panel 16 p r o v i d e s a m a n u a l b a c k u p to t h e C19A1 RCS t r a n s f e r m o t o r s only. Another e x a m p l e , t h e C / M RCS s u b s y s t e m s could be checked out p r i o r t o CM S M SkP b y placing t h e RCS TRANSFER s w i t c h on panel 16 t o CM position, and only t h e RCS t r a n s f e r m o t o r s (C19A1) in t h e RCS c o n t r o l b o x e s would t r a n s f e r t h e SCS and d i r e c t m a n u a l inputs f r o m t h e S / M RCS e n g i n e s t o the C / M RCS e n g i n e s . T h e t r a n s f e r m o t o r s in t h e RCS t r a n s f e r p a n e l s (C19A4) would not t r a n s f e r until C / M S / M S E P ( p r o v i d i n g the C / M P R O P J E T T LOGIC s w i t c h i s ON) and then s t a r t the SM j e t t i s o n controllers.

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date
J 12 " 1966 Change Date

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SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

2. 5.8.4

ProDellant J e t t i s o n . T h e r e a r e two s e q u e n c e s of p r o p e l l a n t j e t t i s o n . One s e q u e n c e i s employed in the event of a n a b o r t while the vehicle i s on the launch pad and through t h e f i r s t 61 s e c o n d s of flight. T h e second s e q u e n c e i s employed f o r a l l o t h e r conditions, whether i t b e a n o r m a l o r an a b o r t m o d e of o p e r a t i o n . T h e s e q u e n c e of e v e n t s b e f o r e and during a n o r m a l r e - e n t r y i s a s follows: a . T h e c r e w will p l a c e the C / M S / M SEPARATION s w i t c h e s to the C / M S / M SEPARATION position on panel 15 o r p l a c e t h e C / M RCS PRESS switch on panel 16 to the ON position, p r i o r to initiating C / M S / M s e p a r a t i o n . The C / M R C S PRESS switch or the C / M S / M SEP s w i t c h e s i n i t i a t e s the h e l i u m isolation squib v a l v e s in C / M R C S s u b s y s t e m s A and B, t h u s p r e s s u r i z i n g both s u b s y s t e m s ( f i g u r e s 2. 5 - 8 and 2. 5-10). The C / M RCS PRESS switch p r o v i d e s a backup to the C / M S / M S E P switches and t h e RCS LOGIC switch on panel 8 m u s t be ON, p r i o r to initiating C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n to p r o v i d e an automatic RCS t r a n s f e r . b. T h e C / M continues t o d e s c e n d a f t e r r e - e n t r y into t h e e a r t h a t m o s p h e r e . A t 24,000 f e e t , b a r o m e t r i c switch is activated which u n l a t c h e s the RCS latching r e l a y , inhibiting any c o m m a n d s f r o m the SCS t o the j e t s e l e c t i o n logic ( f i g u r e 2. 5 - 3 ) ( m a n u a l backup of RCS CMD switch panel 1 6 ) . c. At m a i n p a r a c h u t e l i n e s t r e t c h , the RCS propellant j e t t i s o n DUMP switch on p a n e l 8 i s placed t o the DUMP position a s a n o r m a l m a n u a l function b y the c r e w , initiating the following functions, simultaneously. T h e RCS LOGIC switch on panel 18 m u s t b e ON p r i o r t o placing DUMP switch to DUMP position. 1. I n i t i a t e s the two h e l i u m i n t e r c o n n e c t squib v a l v e s 2. I n j t i a t e s t h e fuel i n t e r c o n n e c t squib valve 3 . I n i t i a t e s t h e o x i d i z e r i n t e r c o n n e c t squib valve 4. T h e fuel and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r valve m a n u a l c o i l s a r e e n e r g i z e d on a l l of t h e C / M RCS engines, excluding the t pitch engines. The t pitch e n g i n e s a r e not e n e r g i z e d due to t h e i r location being adjacent t o the steam vent. The p r o p e l l a n t s a r e jettisoned b y burning the p r o p e l l a n t s r e m a i n i n g in 10 of the 12 engines. The length of t i m e t o b u r n t h e r e m a i n i n g p r o p e l l a n t s will v a r y , depending upon the amount of p r o p e l l a n t s r e m a i n i n g in the fuel and o x i d i z e r t a n k s a t 24,000 feet. If an e n t i r e p r o p e l l a n t load r e m a i n e d , a s a n e x a m p l e , a nominal b u r n t i m e would b e 88 s e c o n d s through 10 of the 1 2 engines. In t h e w o r s t c a s e of only 5 of the 1 2 e n g i n e s ( m a n u a l c o i l s e n e r g i z e d ) , a nominal b u r n t i m e would be 1 5 5 s e c o n d s . d. Upon completion of propellant b u r n , the C / M propellant j e t t i s o n PURGE s w i t c h on panel 8 i s placed to the PURGE position a s a n o r m a l m a n u a l function by the c r e w . When the PURGE switch i s on, the switch i n i t i a t e s the f o u r h e l i u m b y p a s s squib v a l v e s , allowing the regulated h e l i u m p r e s s u r e to b y p a s s around e a c h fuel and o x i d i z e r tank, thus purging t h e m a n i f o l d s through 10 of the 12 engines. Purging r e q u i r e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 5 s e c o n d s o r until h e l i u m depletion.

I

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 c h a n g e Date

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SM2A 0 3 SCO 12

- -

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

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PANEL 8 CIM PROP J E l l LOGIC SWITCH CIM (PANEL 8 ) PROP JETT PANEL 8 CIM SWITCH PROP JETT PURGE SWITCH

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REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission

Basic Date 12 N o v 1966

Change Date

page 2 . 5 - 3 5 1 2 . 5 - 3 6

4 "

5

SM2A -03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
'-

SYSTEMS DATA e. In t h e event of the C / M p r o p e l l a n t j e t t i s o n LOGIC s y i t c h a n d / o r DUMP switch f a i l u r e , the r e m a i n i n g p r o p e l l a n t s m a y b e burned by placing the DIRECT RCS switch on panel 8 t o ON and positioning the two rotation c o n t r o l l e r s t o CCW, CW, - Y , t Y and - P (excluding t P ) position, e n e r gizing t h e m a n u a l fuel and o x i d i z e r i n j e c t o r valve solenoid c o i l s of 10 of the 12 C / M RCS e n g i n e s b u r n e d . At the completion of propellant b u r n , the C / M RCS HELIUM DUMP switch on panel 26 would b e placed ON initiating the f o u r b y p a s s squib v a l v e s , allowing the regulation h e l i u m p r e s s u r e t o b y p a s s around e a c h fuel and o x i d i z e r tank, and purging the manifolds through 10 of t h e 12 engines providing the two r o t a t i o n cont r o l l e r s a r e positioned to CCW, CW, -Y, t Y and - P (excluding t P ) . f . In t h e event t h e C / M p r o p e l l a n t j e t t i s o n LOGIC switch and DUMP switch on panel 8 function c o r r e c t l y and t h e PURGE switch f a i l s , the C / M HELIUM DUMP switch on panel 26 would be placed to ON; t h u s initiating the f o u r h e l i u m b y p a s s squib v a l v e s , allowing the regulated h e l i u m ' p r e s s u r e t o b y p a s s around e a c h fuel and o x i d i z e r tank, and purging the m a n i f o l d s through 10 of t h e 12 engines. g. P r i o r to w a t e r i m p a c t the LOGIC switch on panel 8 m a y b e placed t o t h e O F F position, which would d e - e n e r g i z e the m a n u a l c o i l s of t h e engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s allowing the engine i n j e c t o r v a l v e s t o s p r i n g - l o a d c l o s e d , preventing s e a w a t e r f r o m e n t e r i n g the manifolds through the engine. The DUMP switch placed to the O F F position will a c c o m p l i s h the s a m e function. The sequence of e v e n t s involving a n a b o r t f r o m the pad up to 61 s e c o n d s i s as follows: a. The OXIDIZER DUMP switch on panel 16 i s placed in the AUTO OX DUMP position, and t h e RCS LOGIC switch on panel 8 i s placed in the O N position a t s o m e t i m e in the countdown p r i o r to T=O. b. ' The following e v e n t s o c c u r simultaneously upon t h e r e c e i p t of t h e a b o r t signal. The command may b e g e n e r a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y b y the s e q u e n c e e v e n t s c o n t r o l l e r s u b s y s t e m o r b y m a n u a l l y rotating the translation control counterclockwise. 1. When the a b o r t s i g n a l i s r e c e i v e d , the two s q u i b - o p e r a t e d h e l i u m isolation v a l v e s in e a c h s y s t e m a r e initiated open, p r e s s u r i z i n g s u b s y s t e m s A and B. Manual backup of the C / M PRESS switch, panel 16. 2. T h e s q u i b - o p e r a t e d h e l i u m i n t e r c o n n e c t valve f o r t h e o x i d i z e r t a n k s i s initiated open. If only one of t h e two squib h e l i u m isolation v a l v e s w a s initiated open, both systems a r e p r e s s u r i z e d a s a r e s u l t of the h e l i u m interconnect squib v a l v e interconnect. 3 . T h e s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d fuel and o x i d i z e r isolation shutoff v a l v e s a r e closed t o p r e v e n t f u e l and o x i d i z e r f r o m flowing t o the thrust chamber assemblies. 4. T h e s q u i b - o p e r a t e d o x i d i z e r i n t e r c o n n e c t valve i s initiated open. If only one of the two o x i d i z e r o v e r b o a r d d u m p squib v a l v e s w a s initiated open, the o x i d i z e r m a n i f o l d s of e a c h s y s t e m a r e c o m m o n a s a r e s u l t of the o x i d i z e r i n t e r c o n n e c t squib valve.

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.5-37

SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
5. The squib-operated o x i d i z e r o v e r b o a r d dump v a l v e s r o u t e t h e o x i d i z e r t o a blow-out plug in the aft h e a t shield of the C / M which s h e a r s a pin due to the p r e s s u r e buildup and blows the plug out, dumping the o x i d i z e r o v e r b o a r d . The e n t i r e o x i d i z e r supply i s dumped in a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13 t o 15 s e c o n d s . 6. T h e RCS latching r e l a y will not e n e r g i z e in the event of a n a b o r t f r o m 0 to t 6 1 s e c o n d s due to the. position of the AUTO OX DUMP switch ( f i g u r e s 2. 5-3 and 2. 5-10). T h u s , no c o m m a n d s a r e allowed into t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic f r o m the SCS. 7. The C J M - S I M RCS t r a n s f e r m o t o r - d r i v e n s w i t c h e s a r e autom a t i c a l l y d r i v e n upon the r e c e i p t of the a b o r t s i p a l , allowing e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l s to b e supplied t o the C / M R C S engine i n j e c t o r valves. Manual backup of RCS t r a n s f e r switch, panel 16. c. Eighteen s e c o n d s a f t e r the a b o r t s i g n a l i s initiated, the following e v e n t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y o c c u r simultaneously: 1. T h e h e l i u m i n t e r c o n n e c t squib valve between the f u e l t a n k s i s initiated open. 2 . The h e l i u m o v e r b o a r d d u m p squib v a l v e is initiated open, dumping the h e l i u m p r e s s u r e o v e r b o a r d into the aft equipment c o m p a r t m e n t , r e l e a s i n g t h e h e l i u m p r e s s u r e f r o m both f u e l tanks. 3. T h e b y p a s s squib v a l v e t o the s u b s y s t e m s A and B o x i d i z e r tank i s initiated open, purging both o x i d i z e r s y s t e m s out through t h e o v e r b o a r d d u m p in t h e aft h e a t s h i e l d . 4. F u e l r e m a i n s onboard a t i m p a c t with no p r e s s u r e on the fuel tanks.

. T h e s e q u e n c e of e v e n t s of a n a b o r t , initiated a f t e r 61 s e c o n d s up t o launch e s c a p e t o w e r j e t t i s o n , a r e as follows: a. At 61 s e c o n d s a f t e r lift-off, t h e c r e w a s a n o r m a l m a n u a l function will p l a c e the*AUTO OX DUMP switch on panel 16 to the AUTO RCS CMD posit ion. b. T h e RCS LOGIC switch w a s placed t o t h e ON position p r i o r to TtO. 1. Initiate both h e l i u m isolation squib v a l v e s in C / M RCS, s u b s y s t e m s A and B. Manual backup of C / M RCS PRESS switch on panel 16; thus, p r e s s u r i z i n g C / M RCS s u b s y s t e m s A and B. 2. D r i v e s t h e C / M S / M R C S t r a n s f e r m o t o r s to the C / M RCS position. Manual backup of RCS TRANSFER switch on panel 16 f o r C19A1 R C S t r a n s f e r m o t o r s only. 3. RCS latching r e l a y e n e r g i z e d o n e second a f t e r r e c e i p t of the a b o r t signal. d . At m a i n p a r a c h u t e l i n e s t r e t c h , a s a n o r m a l m a n u a l function, the .RCS p r o p e l l a n t and j e t t i s o n D U M P switch on panel 8 i s placed to the D U M P position initiating functions the same a s a n o r m a l e n t r y .

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 No v 1966 Change Date

Page

2.5-38

SM2A - 0 3 -SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
--

SYSTEMS DATA 2.5.9 2. 5 . 9 . 1 C / M RCS PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA. Design Data. The following l i s t c o n t a i n s d a t a of t h e C M / R C S components: HELIUM TANKS ( 2 ) 4150*50 p s i g at 7 0 " * 5 " F d u r i n g s e r v i c i n g , s e t t i n g on l a u n c h pad 70"*10°F. C a p a c i t y 0 . 57 l b s , i n s i d e d i a m e t e r 8. 84 i n . , w a l l t h i c k n e s s 0 . 105 in. and i n t e r n a l v o l u m e of 365*5 cubic in. a t 4150*50 psig. Remove 98 p e r c e n t of all p a r t i c l e s whose two s m a l l e s t d i m e n s i o n s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n 40 m i c r o n s . Remove 100 p e r c e n t of a l l p a r t i c l e s whose two s m a l l e s t d i m e n s i o n s a r e g r e a t e r than 74 m i c r o n s . REGULATOR UNITS ( 4 ) P r i m a r y - Initial of 291*6 p s i g and s t a b i l i z e within 2 s e c o n d s t o 291*4 psig. Lockup p r e s s u r e m i n i m u m of 284 p s i g and n o t e x c e e d 302 psig. S e c o n d a r y - Lockup 287 t o 308 p s i g and s t a b i l i z e a t 294. 5*7. 5 p s i g within 2 seconds. HELIUM RELIEF VALVES ( 4) D i a p h r a g m r u p t u r e a t 340*8 p s i F i l t e r - 10 m i c r o n s n o m i n a l , 25 m i c r o n s absolute Relief v a l v e s r e l i e v e s at 346*14 p s i g Relief v a l v e r e s e a t s at no l e s s t h a n 327 p s i g Flow c a p a c i t y 0 . 3 l b / m i n at 6 0 ° F and 346*14 p s i g Bleed d e v i c e c l o s e s when i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e h a s r e a c h e d no m o r e t h a n 179 p s i g in t h e c a v i t y and a h e l i u m flow of l e s s than 20 s t a n d a r d c u b i c c e n t i m e t e r s p e r h o u r a c r o s s t h e bleed and r e l i e f v a l v e a s s e m b l i e s combined. T h e bleed d e v i c e s h a l l r e o p e n when d e c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e h a s r e a c h e d no l e s s t h a n 20 psig.

HELIUM ISOLATION SQUIB VALVE F I L T E R

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

Mia s i o n

Basic Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.5-39

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS F U E L AND OXIDIZER I l l u m i n a t e s caution and w a r n i n g light on p a n e l 10 ( C / M RCS A o r B) A f t e r h e l i u m isolation, u n d e r p r e s s u r e 265 p s i a Squib v a l v e a c t u a t i o n , o v e r p r e s s u r e 325 p s i a

FUEL TANKS ( 2 )

Combined p r o p e l l a n t and ullage volume of 45. 2 l b s , initially a t 6 5 ° F a t 30*2 p s i g , r e s u l t i n g in a tank p r e s s u r e of no m o r e than 205 p s i a when heated t o 1 0 5 ° F . Length 17.329 (to.040, - 0 . 0 0 0 ) i n . , o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r m a x i m u m 12.62 i n . , wall t h i c k n e s s 0 . 0 2 2 in. to 0 . 0 2 7 in. Combined p r o p e l l a n t and ullage volume of 8 9 . 2 pounds initially at 6 5 ° F a t 30*2 p s i g , r e s u l t i n g in a t a n k p r e s s u r e of no m o r e than 2 0 5 p s i a when h e a t e d to 8 5 ° F . L e n g t h 1 9 . 9 0 7 (to.040, - 0 . 0 0 0 ) i n . , m a x i m u m o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r 12. 62 i n . , wall t h i c k n e s s 0 . 0 2 2 t o 0 . 0 2 7 in. R u p t u r e at 241*14 p s i g , within 2 s e c o n d s a f t e r r u p t u r e p r e s s u r e i s r e a c h e d a t any t e m p e r a t u r e b e t w e e n 40" t o 1 0 5 ° F . F i l t e r 75 m i c r o n s n o m i n a l , 100 m i c r o n s a b solute.

OXIDIZER TANK ( 2 )

_-

VALVE ISOLATION BURST DIAPHRAGM ( 4 )

ENGINE

200-second s e r v i c e life, 3000 o p e r a t i o n a l cycles Nominal t h r u s t , 9 3 pounds Expansion r a t i o , 9 t o 1 Cooling, ablation I n j e c t o r type, 16 on 16 s p l a s h p l a t e Combustion c h a m b e r r e f r a s i l a b l a t i v e s l e e v e and g r a p h i t e b a s e t h r o a t i n s e r t .

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.5-40

SMZA - 0 3 -SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
--

SYSTEMS DATA Automatic and m a n u a l c o i l s in p a r a l l e l Weight, 8 . 3 l b s Length, 11. 65 in. m a x i m u m Nozzle exit d i a m e t e r , 2. 13 i n c h e s Nozzle e x t e n s i o n s , ablative r e f r a s i l OXIDIZER DUMP BLOWOUT PLUG 2.5.9.2 P e r f o r m a n c e Data. R e f e r t o Mission Modular Data Book, SID 66-1177. 2. 5 . 9 . 3 P o w e r Consumption Data. R e f e r to p a r a g r a p h 2. 5.4.3.
2. 5.10

-

connected

P i n s h e a r s a t 100 psig

C / M RCS OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS. A p r o p e l l a n t isolation v a l v e switch m u s t b e placed t o ON m o m e n t a r i l y p r i o r to lift-off and r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l . At T t 6 1 s e c o n d s a f t e r lift-off the s w i t c h e s m u s t b e placed to O N until o r b i t i n s e r t i o n to e n s u r e t h a t the Valves will r e m a i n open if an LES a b o r t is initiated; then at o r b i t i n s e r t i o n , the s w i t c h e s m a y b e placed t o n e u t r a l . The s w i t c h e s m u s t b e placed to O N p r i o r to C / M RCS p r e s s u r i z a t i o n to e n s u r e v a l v e s r e m a i n open throughout e n t r y .

2. 5 . 1 0 . 1

C / M RCS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r Distribution.
S e e f i g u r e 2. 5-11 f o r e l e c t r i c a l power d i s t r i b u t i o n .

2 . 5 . 11

C / M RCS T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS. The following i s a c o m p l e t e l i s t of the C / M RCS t e l e m e t r y d a t a that
is m o n i t o r e d b y the flight c o n t r o l l e r s and ground s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l .

REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a e i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page

2.5-41

SM2A - 03 -SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

CONTROL R S CONTROL BOX C HELIUM PURGE
CONTROL

1
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NOTES: 1 , P w l l o n t iwlatim v0Iv.1
He DUMP
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mopnotically 1otch.d opm and spring-lmdd c l o d .

2. Tho pmpllanr irolarion VOIW . n r i d i s a t o r i s w .n.gir.d if .ith.r hul or
oxidizer rrrlv. i s i n the Cl& porition.

sM-u-714c

F i g u r e 2. 5-1 1.

C / M RCS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r Distribution D i a g r a m REACTION CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion

Basic Date

12 N o v 1966

Change Date

Page

2.5-42

.

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
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Basic Date

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I966

Change Date

page

2.5-43

SMZA-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
S Y S T E M S DATA

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Mission

B a s i c Date

IZ

1966

Change Date

page

2.5-44

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2 SUBSECTION 2 . 6 ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM (EPS)

2.6. 1

IN T ROD UC T IO N. The e l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m ( f i g u r e 2 . 6 - 1 ) s u p p l i e s all e l e c t r i c a l power r e q u i r e d b y the s p a c e c r a f t t o c o m p l e t e i t s scheduled m i s s i o n . D-C e l e c t r i c a l power i s provided by t h r e e f u e l c e l l power p l a n t s , two S / M j e t t i s o n c o n t r o l l e r b a t t e r i e s located in the s e r v i c e module, and five b a t t e r i e s ( 2 p y r o and 3 e n t r y ) located in t h e c o m m a n d module. A-C e l e c t r i c a l power i s provided b y o n e , o r two, of t h e t h r e e i n v e r t e r s located in the lower equipment bay of the c o m m a n d module. C o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s f o r the EPS a r e positioned in t h e c o m m a n d m o d u l e n e a r t h e a s t r o n a u t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r controlling and m o n i t o r i n g the s y s t e m . The E P S can b e divided into f o u r s u b s y s t e m s a s follows:
0

E n e r g y s t o r a g e : c r y o g e n i c s t o r a g e ; pyrotechnic, e n t r y , and S / M jettison controller batteries fuel c e l l power p l a n t s solid s t a t e i n v e r t e r s , b a t t e r y c h a r g e r

a P o w e r generation: e P o w e r conversion:

e P o w e r distribution: d - c power d i s t r i b u t i o n , a - c power d i s t r i b u t i o n , s e n s i n g c i r c u i t s , c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s .

2.6. 2
2. 6. 2. 1

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION. E n e r g y Stowage. T h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e of e n e r g y f o r t h e EPS i s provided by the c r y o genic s t o r a g e s y s t e m . T h e r e a r e two hydrogen ( f u e l ) and two oxygen ( o x i d i z e r ) c r y o g e n i c s t o r a g e tanks. E a c h tank h a s its a s s o c i a t e d c o n t r o l s , h e a t e r s , and f a n s designed t o g i v e , in a n a u t o m a t i c m o d e , a s i n g l e - p h a s e r e a c t a n t to i t s load throughout the t a n k - d e n s i t y range, when o p e r a t i n g a t normal pressures. A s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e of e n e r g y s t o r a g e i s provided b y b a t t e r i e s . T h e b a t t e r i e s supply s e q u e n c e r logic and p y r o power at all t i m e s , supp l e m e n t a l d - c power f o r high-peak l o a d s , and all e l e c t r i c a l power r e q u i r e d d u r i n g the e n t r y and postlanding p h a s e s after CSM s e p a r a t i o n .

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.6-1

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
2.6.2.2 P o w e r Gene ration. T h r e e Bacon-type fuel c e l l power p l a n t s in the s e r v i c e module g e n e r a t e the d - c power r e q u i r e d f o r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s . The f u e l c e l l power p l a n t s a r e activated p r i o r to launch and o p e r a t e continuously throughout the m i s s i o n until CSM s e p a r a t i o n . N o r m a l l y , f u e l c e l l power plant 1 i s connected t o m a i n d - c b u s A, power plant 3 to m a i n d-c b u s B, and power plant 2 t o both m a i n d - c b u s e s A and B. However, t h e capability i s provided to a l s o connect fuel c e l l power plant 1 t o m a i n d - c b u s B and fuel c e l l power plant 3 to m a i n d - c b u s A. E a c h fuel cell i s r a t e d t o p r o d u c e 29*2 v o l t s dc between 563 and 1420 w a t t s of power. Two fuel cell power p l a n t s a r e capable of providing the n o r m a l power r e q u i r e m e n t s of all s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s . If two fuel c e l l power p l a n t s malfunction, s o m e of t h e e l e c t r i c a l components m u s t b e shut down t o c o n s e r v e power, and t h e r e m a i n i n g power plant with b a t t e r y backup w i l l supply sufficient power to c a r r y the load and i n s u r e s u c c e s s f u l m i s s i o n t e r m i n a t i o n . One fuel c e l l with c o m p l e t e b a t t e r y backup c a n p r o vide m a x i m u m p o w e r r e q u i r e d b y m i s s i o n b u r n s , if the c r y o g e n i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e and fuel c e l l t e m p e r a t u r e i s above 4 2 5 ° F . 2.6.2.3 Power Conversion. P r i m a r y d - c power is converted into a - c power by s o l i d - s t a t e i n v e r t e r s . T h e i n v e r t e r s p r o v i d e 115-volt 4 0 0 - c p s 3 - p h a s e a - c power up to 1250 v o l t - a m p e r e s each. The a - c power i s connected t o t h e two a - c b u s e s which supply power t o a - c l o a d s . During n o r m a l o p e r a t i o n , one i n v e r t e r will power both a - c b u s e s while t h e two r e m a i h i n g i n v e r t e r s a c t as redundant s o u r c e s . F o r peak l o a d s , each a - c b u s will b e powered b y a s e p a r a t e i n v e r t e r . In c a s e of a n a - c o r d - c b u s f a i l u r e , t h e i n v e r t e r s and r e m a i n i n g b u s e s c a n b e isolated. I n v e r t e r switching c i r c u i t s p r e v e n t connecting two i n v e r t e r s on one b u s , but s i m u l t a n e o u s o p e r a t i o n of two i n v e r t e r s i s p o s s i b l e if e a c h i s connected t o a s e p a r a t e bus. A p h a s e synchronizing unit p r o v i d e s i n - p h a s e power when a s e p a r a t e i n v e r t e r i s powering e a c h b u s . The b a t t e r y c h a r g e r is a s e c o n d a r y power c o n v e r s i o n unit, which i s u s e d t o k e e p e n t r y b a t t e r i e s c h a r g e d . The c h a r g e r is a s o l i d - s t a t e device converting a - c power f r o m the i n v e r t e r s and using d - c power f r o m the fuel cells to p r o v i d e c h a r g i n g voltage. 2.6.2.4 P o w e r Distribution. D i s t r i b u t i o n of p r i m a r y d - c power i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y two redundant d - c b u s e s in t h e c o m m a n d module. Additional b u s e s c o n s i s t of t w o separate nonessential buses for servicing nonessential loads, a battery r e l a y b u s f o r power d i s t r i b u t i o n switching, two b a t t e r y b u s e s , and a flight and postlanding bus to s e r v i c e c e r t a i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and the postlanding c i r c u i t s . A-C power is d i s t r i b u t e d b y two redundant a-c b u s e s .

E L E C T R I ~ ~ L ~ E SYSTEM P R
Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.6-2

ENERGY STORAGE
ENTRY BATTERY A
1

I I
I

POWER GENERATION

ENTRY BATTERY C ENTRY BATTERY B

I

I
I

I I

2

I
b

FUEL CELL POWERPLANT

+

No. 1

I

OVERLOAf SENSE ANI REVERSE CURREM REUY

CRYOGENIC SUBSYSTEM

I

"2
- t -

FUEL CELL POWERPUM

+

OVERLOA SENSE A N REVERSE CURREM REUY

2

? I '
3
I
S/M JElTlSON CONTROLLER BATTERY A S/M JETTISON CONTROLLER BATTERY B
To: ECS

FUELCELL POWRPUM

+

OVERLOAC SENSE AN[ REVERSE CURRENT

I

F

j

T

T

Y

A

!

I

BATTERY A

BATTERY B ENTRY MTTERY 1

POWER GENERATION

I
I

POWER CONVERSION

I

I I
I
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PYRO

POWER DISTI

I I

#

BUS A

I
I

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. . .

b

p

P

II

Y

R

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o BUS A ,

-

Miss:

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

POWER DISTRIBUTION

NOTES:
1.
&tor switch mntoch close when main bm tie switch- o n set (0 bot A 6 C and bot D6C Dottety bur mntock rnnain closed on manned S/C. F/C 1 a n b. m n n e c t d )o SM &n D 6 F/C 3to SM &n A. DC &n mntml circuit brooken ore illuttmtd in Figure 2 . 6 1 1 .

2.
3.
4.

Figure 2 . 6 - 1 .

Electrical Power S y s t e m Block D i a g r a m

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM
Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 6 - 3 12 . 6 - 4

POL"

- e

I "

3

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2.6.3 2.6.3.1 MAJOR COMPONENT/SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION.

C r yo g e n ic Sto r a g e.
The cryogenic s t o r a g e s y s t e m ( f i g u r e 2. 6 - 2 ) s u p p l i e s oxygen and hydrogen r e a c t a n t s t o the s p a c e c r a f t . Hydrogen i s supplied to the EPS and oxygen i s supplied t o both E P S and ECS. The design functions of the two s t o r a g e s y s t e m s a r e identical. T h e physical d a t a f o r the c r y o g e n i c s t o r a g e s y s t e m i s given in t h e following l i s t . Design Storage Press. (Psi$) 900*35 900*35 245 ( t 1 5 , - 2 0 ) 245 ( t 1 5 , -20) Min Allowable Operating Pressure 150 150 100 100 psia psia psia psia Approx Tank Qtys a t Min H e a t e r & F a n Cycling 131 t o 82 l b s 131 to 82 l b s 14. 5 to 7. 3 l b s 14. 5 t o 7.3 l b s

Tank Number L O 12 XTA 0006 LH 23 LH 25

Wt of Usable Cryogenic s 320 lb 320 l b 28 l b 28 l b

Flow Rate at Min dq/dm 0.676 0.713 0.070 0.066 lb/hr lb/hr lb/hr lb/hr

The a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l m o d e i s designed t o give a s i n g l e - p h a s e r e a c t a n t flow into t h e F / C and ECS f e e d l i n e s at d e s i g n p r e s s u r e s . T h i s c o n t r o l i s achieved in effect b y controlling the h e a t t r a n s f e r within the s y s t e m . T h e h e a t r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e v a r i e s with density. F i l l d e n s i t y f o r oxygen is a l i t t l e above 70 l b s / f t 3 . As depletion p r o c e e d s f r o m 70 l b s / f t 3 , o r 100 p e r c e n t quantity, t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 28 l b s / f t 3 , o r 40 p e r c e n t quantity, the cycling of t h e f a n s and h e a t e r s f o r r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n will extend until they c y c l e l e a s t a t quantities between 131 and 82 l b s . In the hydrogen s y s t e m , l e a s t amount of h e a t e r and fan c y c l i n g will o c c u r a t q u a n t i t i e s between a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14. 5 and 7.3 l b s . With the s y s t e m in a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n , tank q u a n t i t i e s should r e m a i n within 15 pounds of e a c h o t h e r f o r oxygen and within one pound d i f f e r e n c e f o r hydrogen. T h e p r e s s u r e s w i t c h e s activating the h e a t e r s and f a n s a r e in s e r i e s . The oxygen s w i t c h e s a c t i v a t e when p r e s s u r e d r o p s t o 865 p s i a in both tanks. They d e a c t i v a t e when p r e s s u r e r e a c h e s 935 p s i a in one of the tanks. Keeping the d e s i g n p r e s s u r e p e r m i t s depletion t o follow p r e d i c t a b l e tank d e n s i t i e s and r e s p e c t i v e h e a t r e q u i r e m e n t s . When t h e s y s t e m s r e a c h t h e point w h e r e the h e a t e r and fan cycling i s at a m i n i m u m , t h e h e a t l e a k of t h e tank b e c o m e s sufficient t o m a i n t a i n d e s i g n p r e s s u r e s , provided flow i s within m i n d q / d m v a l u e s a s shown in the p r e c e d i n g l i s t . T h i s realm of o p e r a t i o n is r e f e r r e d to as being in the m i n i m u m d q / d m region. T h e m i n i m u m d q / d m point f o r oxygen i s 23. 5 l b s / f t 3 at t h e n o m i n a l o p e r a t i n g p r e s s u r e of 900 p s i a . T h e value f o r hydrogen is 1.87 l b s l f t 3 a t 250 p s i a . The h e a t r e q u i r e d f o r d e n s i t i e s l e s s than the above r i s e s a b r u p t l y f o r both oxygen and hydrogen. T h e i n t r i n s i c flow output of t h e s y s t e m s is a maximum at t h e point w h e r e m i n i m u m h e a t is r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n p r e s s u r e . T h e t i m e - r a t e of a r r i v i n g a t the m i n i m u m d q / d m point i s dependent on load d e m a n d s , tank p r e s s u r e , and

-ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.6-5

b

SM2A-03-SC012

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA r e a c t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e . With d e s i g n p r e s s u r e s in the t a n k s , s i n g l e - p h a s e r e a c t a n t i s a v a i l a b l e independent of d o w n s t r e a m s y s t e m t r a n s f e r . The m a n u a l m o d e of o p e r a t i o n s i m p l y b y p a s s e s t h e p r e s s u r e switches.

It c a n b e used in c a s e of c o n t r o l f a i l u r e o r when o p e r a t i n g with quantity unbalanced depletion. To avoid e x c e s s i v e t e m p e r a t u r e s , a t h e r m a l s e n s i 2 tive int.erlock device i s in s e r i e s with e a c h h e a t e r e l e m e n t in the 0 and
H2 t a n k s . T h e s e open t h e h e a t e r c i r c u i t s when i n t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e s r e a c h 8 0 ° F and c l o s e when t e m p e r a t u r e s d e c r e a s e t o 7 0 ° F . Tank p r e s s u r e s and q u a n t i t i e s a r e m o n i t o r e d on meters located on MDC-13. O2 t a n k relief v a l v e s initially v e n t at 983 p s i g and r e s e a t a t 970 psig. H2 r e l i e f v a l v e s vent a t 273 p s i g and r e s e a t a t 268 p s i g . The C & W s y s t e m will a l a r m when oxygen p r e s s u r e in e i t h e r tank e x c e e d s 950 p s i a , o r g o e s below 800 p s i a . T h e hydrogen system a l a r m s the C&W s y s t e m when p r e s s u r e in e i t h e r tank e x c e e d s 270 p s i a , o r g o e s below 220 p s i a . Individual tank p r e s s u r e s , q u a n t i t i e s , and r e a c t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e t e l e m e t e r e d to MSFN.

2. 6 . 3 . 2

Batteries.

A t o t a l of s e v e n s i l v e r oxide-zinc s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d in the EPS. F i v e of t h e s e b a t t e r i e s a r e l o c a t e d in the C / M l o w e r equipment bay, the o t h e r two i n s e c t o r I V of the S / M .
T h r e e e n t r y b a t t e r i e s ( A , B. and C ) p r o v i d e t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e of power after CSM s e p a r a t i o n and d u r i n g postlanding o p e r a t i o n s . P r i o r to CSM s e p a r a t i o n , t h e e n t r y b a t t e r i e s p r o v i d e a s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e of power while the fue1,cells provide the p r i m a r y s o u r c e . The e n t r y b a t t e r i e s a r e f o r the following p u r p o s e s : P r o v i d e C / M power after CSM s e p a r a t i o n Supplement f u e l c e l l power d u r i n g peak load p e r i o d s ( S P S g i m b a l motor operation) P r o v i d e power d u r i n g e m e r g e n c y o p e r a t i o n s ( f a i l u r e of two fuel cells) P r o v i d e power f o r E P S c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y ( r e l a y s , i n d i c a t o r s , e t c . ) P r o v i d e s e q u e n t i a l logic p o w e r P r o v i d e power f o r r e c o v e r y a i d s during postlanding p h a s e B a t t e r i e s A and B c a n power p y r o c i r c u i t s upon selection. The e n t r y b a t t e r i e s c a n b e r e c h a r g e d in flight.

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966” ‘Changb Date Page 2.6-6

, FILL VENT OXYCEL;
/

t 02

cOXYGE'i

FILL VALVE

d

I

+2av~c

+-

02

02

02 PRESS

IND IMOC-131
SURGE TANK

T3'

i ;
PRESSURE TANK WANllTY PUANTlTYf+ TANK NO. 2 AC BUS TANK PREWF

I

02 PSlA

2

DENSITY SIGNAL CONDITIONER

PROBE

CONDITIONER
L

OXYGEN FILL VALVE

__*

I

02
\ OXYGEN FILL VENT /

d

*--

02 n..
-1

I
02 02

OXYGEN PURGE VALVE (GSE)

4

02

02 PREG (MDC-101
4
4

02
02 PRESS IND (MDC-131 T&lP
WRGE TANK

02

I
02

T3: SURGETANK
PRESSURE TRANSDUCER (ECS) '

3 BE

-

TEMP SENSOR TANK NO. 1

SIGNAL CONDITIONER

,PROBE

AC

Bus

1 %
02

'

3
I

..., ..... ....

- -0
SYSTEM

b WARNING

L ,

L O2

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i 1

I

L

PRES SUR^
SWITCH NO. 1

-

RELIEF VALVE HEATERS

II

4---

4

'I
02PRESSURE RELIEF

4%
OXYGEN
JSE

HEATERS

lPRESSURE SWITCH NO. 2

1I

TANK NO.

2
AC BUS

XNBR

PROBE

TEMP SIGNAL CONDITIONER

--

OFF

1
i

I

'

r
02

02

TO: ECS

02

Figure 2 . 6

Mission

Basic Date

.

:., ).

,

.-i,

SM2A-03-SC012 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

I-CRYOCENIC TANK FAh; MOTORS ACl (MDC -221

A-C BUS NO. 1

RYOCENIC TANK FAN MOTORS IC2 (MDC-221

A C BUS

ON

TO
HzFANS

IMDC

- 2 SWITCH - U) 4

SM-2A-1118

Figure 2 . 6 - 2 .

Cryogenic Storage S y s t e m ( S h e e t 1 of 2)

M i s s ion

ELECTRICAL P O W E R SYSTEM B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date

page 2 . 6 - 7 1 2 . 6 - 8

i

.

~

HYDROGEN FILL VENT

* -

[

1
; R GN DO E

FILL VALVE

4

HZ

DENSITY SIGNAL CONDITIONER

7

SI

AC BUS

-?

O U A M I N H2 TANK NO. 1

OR8 L B

-

HYDROGEN R UIEF

I
I

t

4-

Hz

TANK QUANTIM

DENSllY SIGNAL CONDITIONER

\ HYDROGEN FILL VENT

HYDROGEN PURGE VALVE IGP)

4

Ht

Hz

Hz

2 CRYOGENIC TANK FAN MOTORS ACZ IMDC 1 - CRYOGENIC TANK FAN MOTORS ACI IMDC

-

FROM CB

- 22)

-F

I

H2 PRESS IMDC-IO1

1
RD E
H

-

fl 1
:: . ..... p
HZ

r---

1
Ht
PRESSURE

DCMAIN CRYOGENIC SYSTEM TANK HEATERS H2-1 MNA IMDC-m

-A
5A

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-

-lH21

D C MAIN

BUS B

CRYOGENIC SYSTEM TANK HEATERS ttz-2 MNB IMDC-22)

M

CONDITIONER

iRS AC2 (MIX 4 ACl (MIX m 5

-

Mission

1

S M Z A -03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

Hy TANK NO. 1 MOTOR SWITCH CONTACTS

0

H2 TANK NO. 2 MOTOR SWITCH CONTACTS ,

TANK NO. 1
I

I
u u

SWITCH CONTACTS
IA

AUTO

I"
D C MAIN

u

LC OFF - l -

I

4
0
CRYOGENlC SYSTEM TANK HEATERS Hz-2 MNB (MOC-ZZl

I MAIN C
BUS B

Hy HEATERS -2 (MDC-131 AUTO

AUTO
OFF -t-

HZ FANS WDC-I31

-

*A

.

Off

ON

NOTE:

1 PRESSURE AND MOTOR SWITCH5 ARE .
SHOWN IN LOW PRESSURE POSITION

2.

TO OPERAK FANS AUTOMATICALLY. (FANS SWITCH TO AUTO1 HEATERSSWITCH(E9 M U 9 A 1 9 BE
POSITIONED TO AUTO

SM-ZA-635E

Figure 2.6-2.

Cryogenic Storage System (Sheet 2 of 2)

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

M i s s ion

Basic Date 1 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page 2 . 6 - 9 1 2 . 6 - 1 0

S M 2 A -03-SCO12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Each e n t r y b a t t e r y i s mounted within a vented p l a s t i c c a s e . The b a t t e r y c e l l s a r e individually e n c a s e d in p l a s t i c c o n t a i n e r s which contain r e l i e f v a l v e s that open a t 40*10 p s i g , venting p r e s s u r e and hydrogen g a s into the b a t t e r y c a s e . E a c h b a t t e r y c a s e i s vented o v e r b o a r d through a manifold leading t o a m a n u a l l y o p e r a t e d valve (BATTERY VENT VALVE), which i s connected t o t h e ECS d u m p line. With t h e valve at i t s n o r m a l position of VENT, t h e b a t t e r y c a s e s a r e vented o v e r b o a r d through the ECS u r i n e l w a t e r d u m p line. In a f a i l u r e m o d e , t h i s would p r e v e n t hydrogen g a s f r o m e n t e r i n g the c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t . With the b a t t e r y vent valve c l o s e d , which would b e the position a f t e r f r a c t u r e of a b a t t e r y c a s e , the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s f o r p r e s s u r e buildup in the b a t t e r y manifold due t o outgassing of the b a t t e r i e s . The vent valve will b e opened a t p r e s s u r e s slightly below CM p r e s s u r e and allow the built-up p r e s s u r e t o vent o v e r b o a r d . B a t t e r y manifold p r e s s u r e c a n be m o n i t o r e d using the a u x i l i a r y DC VOLTS m e t e r , located on panel 200 in the RHFEB, and is t e l e m e t e r e d . The two pyrotechnic b a t t e r i e s supply power to initiate o r d n a n c e d e v i c e s in the S I C . The pyrotechnic b a t t e r i e s a r e isolated f r o m the r e s t of the E P S to p r e v e n t t h e high power s u r g e s in t h e pyrotechnic s y s t e m f r o m affecting t h e E P S and t o e n s u r e s o u r c e power when r e q u i r e d . T h e s e b a t t e r i e s s h a l l not b e r e c h a r g e d in flight. E n t r y b a t t e r y A o r B can b e used as a redundant s o u r c e of power f o r initiating p y r o c i r c u i t s in the r e s p e c t i v e A o r B p y r o system, if e i t h e r p y r o b a t t e r y f a i l s . The two S / M j e t t i s o n c o n t r o l l e r batteries, located in the S / M , supply power t o two j e t t i s o n s e q u e n c e r s to s u s t a i n the S / M R C S r e t r o f i r e , a s well a s f i r i n g the S / M positive r o l l RCS engines two s e c o n d s a f t e r CSM s e p a r a t i o n . T h e s e b a t t e r i e s a r e isolated f r o m t h e r e s t of t h e E P S and cannot be r e c h a r g e d o r m o n i t o r e d in flight. P e r f o r m a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e a c h S I C b a t t e r y a r e a s follows:
~

C apac it y Battery E n t r y A , B, and
(3)

Per Battery
40-amp-hrs
(25 ampere

No. of Cells Per Battery
20

Open Circuit Voltage (Max. 1
3 7 . 8 vdc (37. 2 vdc

Ambient Battery Nominal ' M i n i m u m Temperature Voltage i Voltage

2 9 . 0 vdc 27.0 vdc (35 amps (35 a m p s
load) l o ad)

5 0 " to 1 1 0 ° F

rate) P y r o A and B ( 2 )

in flight)
20 3 7 . 8 vdc (37. 2 vdc

75 a m p s f o r 36 seconds

2 3 . 0 vdc 2 0 . 0 vdc 6 0 " to 1 1 0 ° F (75 amps (75 a m p s

in flight)

load)

' load)
(35.0 vdc open circuit)

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

SM2A-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

I
Battery
Sf M jettison

I
Capacity Per Battery 75 a m p s f o r 36 seconds

No. of Cells Per Battery
20

Open Circuit Voltage

(Ma.1

Ambient Nominal M i n i m u m Battery Voltage Voltage Temperature

c o n t r o l l e r A and B
(2)

37.8 vdc 2 3 . 0 vdc 2 0 . 0 vdc 60" to 1 1 0 ° F (not ( 7 5 a m p s (75 a m p s measurload) load) a b l e in S I C o r by t e l e m e t r y)

NOTE ' P y r o b a t t e r y load voltage i s not m e a s u r a b l e due to the e x t r e m e l y s h o r t t i m e they power pyro loads.

2. 6 . 3 . 3

F u e l C e l l Power Plants. E a c h f u e l c e l l p o w e r plant c o n s i s t s of 31 s i n g l e c e l l s , connected in s e r i e s , and a n a c c e s s o r y section. E a c h s i n g l e c e l l g e n e r a t e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 volt. T h e a c c e s s o r y s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of a n i t r o g e n p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s y s t e m , an oxygen f e e d , a h y d r o g e n f e e d , a p r i m a r y ( h y d r o g e n ) loop, and a s e c o n d a r y (glycol) loop ( f i g u r e 2 . 6 - 3 ) . T h e p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y loops c o n t r o l t h e t e m p e r a t u r e within t h e f u e l c e l l power plant. T h e p r i m a r y loop a l s o e x t r a c t s potable w a t e r f r o m t h e p o w e r plant f o r u s e b y the c r e w . T h e s e c o n d a r y loop r a d i a t e s h e a t f r o m t h e p o w e r plant into s p a c e t h r o u g h r a d i a t o r s l o c a t e d on the e x t e r i o r of t h e S / M . The nitrogen s y s t e m e s t a b l i s h e s a r e f e r e n c e p r e s s u r e in t h e fuel cell. T h e r e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 4 4 l b s of N2 contained in the n i t r o g e n tank u n d e r a p r e s s u r e of 1500 p s i a . T h e n i t r o g e n r e g u l a t o r r e d u c e s t h i s p r e s s u r e to 5 2 p s i a , which is u s e d to p r e s s u r i z e t h e glycol a c c u m u l a t o r , the e l e c t r o l y t e (KOH) in t h e c e l l s , and a s a r e f e r e n c e p r e s s u r e f o r t h e oxygen and hydrogen r e g u l a t o r s . Oxygen, s t o r e d in a c r y o g e n i c s t a t e a t a p r e s s u r e of 9 0 0 * 3 5 p s i a , i s supplied to t h e fuel c e l l p o w e r p l a n t s . Due t o the low-flow r a t e , t h e oxygen a b s o r b s h e a t while flowing through t h e l i n e s , a b s o r b s additional h e a t in t h e p r e h e a t e r , flows to the oxygen r e g u l a t o r , and r e a c h e s t h e fuel c e l l p o w e r p l a n t s in a g a s e o u s f o r m a t t e m p e r a t u r e s above t 1 0 0 " F . T h e r e g u l a t o r i s d e s i g n e d to m a i n t a i n a p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l of 10. 5 p s i a above t h e n i t r o g e n p r e s s u r e , supplying the oxygen to the f u e l c e l l a t a n o m i n a l 62. 5 p s i a . T h e oxygen in t h e s y s t e m i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 99.99 p e r c e n t p u r e . O v e r a p e r i o d of t i m e , t h e i m p u r i t i e s a c c u m u l a t e in t h e r e a c t a n t c o m p a r t m e n t and d e c r e a s e fuel c e l l efficiency. T h i s i s noted by a d r o p in f u e l c e l l p e r f o r m a n c e . To e l i m i n a t e t h e i m p u r i t i e s , t h e fuel c e l l i s p u r g e d . N o r m a l l y a fuel c e l l will b e purged e v e r y 2 4 h o u r s ; h o w e v e r , the a c t u a l p u r g e c y c l e will b e d e t e r m i n e d b y the p r e d i c t e d m i s s i o n power p r o f i l e and t h e p u r i t y of t h e r e a c t a n t a s i t i s c a l c u l a t e d to b e a f t e r
--.-

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966 Change Date

Page

261 . . 2

T DC O BUSES
To. AC

BUS 1

(38)

1

AODULE TEMP C O N D EXH

__

REG OUT PRESS HI

c

7
I5 7

FUEL CELL INDICATORS

lo<

?

-

b

------------F U E L CELL
XI0
SC 2083T

@-

sc

SC 2081T

f
AUX

-

E
sc
sc 20701
2wpr

SC 20711

208n

\

I POWER I

PLANT

I I I I I I

WATER

HYDROGEN

REGULATOR

I
I I
REGENERATOR

[MDC- 15)
PURGE
To: F: ” GLYCOL RADIATOR To: ECS POTABU WATER

HEATERS
HYDROGEN OVERBOARD VENT

LINE

ha: Hydrogon Stomgo Tonb

sc pen
F/C RAD TEMP LOW
SC 2088T SC 2089T
1

-_

-0-

Mission

-

.r

1

,p . *

. . ....
'

.

I

...

SMZA -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

T DC M A I N O

S2W)
QUI PRESS HI

BLSES A 6 8
3 . 8

,

F M L CELL 2 PURGE (MDC-?I) e > A

H PURGE LINE H?R (MDC-15) TO HYDROGEN
-0"

PURGE (MDC-22)

-

To

DC MAIN BUSES A 6 B

-

sc

iQ69P

SC 2070P SC 2071P

H2 PURGE

0 2 PURGE OFF

_ - - _ _ _ - , _ - - -

FUEL CELL

LOAD

- - - - - - - - - 1A

I r

sc 20841 sc 20851 sc 2 x 6 1

MODULE TEMP SKIN 7

- 5s - so

sc 2067P

REG OUT PRESS H I

oz
NITROGEN OVERBOARD VENT

sc p 6 o P

II

I I

c -

ILJ
OXYGEN 'PEHwTER

-

I

I
I

AM-'
A*

REG OUT PRESS HI

B%

NITROGEN TANK

SHUTOFF VALVE

----

t
- - - d

I
% FLOW
SENSOR

SC 2142R

@ E Es ;Dk :

SC 2143R

2
LU/*

FLOW

1

sc2[
@ - F G L CELL INDICATORS
~

I.* y 1.2

-

:* '
-a-

OVEllBOARD VENT

1.

All switches a d indicutbn
unless othervise i n d i w t d .

O N lorated on MDC-18

1

n S/M

0 w p . n Swmg. To& I S/M n

2. FUEL CELL INDICATORS w i t c h s a k t d fuel c l b r rmdouh. el 3 .

must be

placed

)o

I

SC P 2 4 X scrim

x PZSX

p$@l /i'l,
Figure 2.6-3.

F/C 1, 2, d 3 m w s u r m a t No.'s shown in s t q u a tial order.

m 4. A

- indicuta meowrmmt inpuk
Po in
RHFEB

b aux

d c vdh

meter on pond

5.

For TM 6 AUX pommeten refer b par. 2.6.5

I

SM-2A-636F

F u e l C e l l P o w e r P l a n t Flow D i a g r a m

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM

SM2A-03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-

SYSTEMS DATA completion of S / C c r y o g e n i c tank fill. T i m e r e q u i r e d f o r oxygen p u r g e i s 2 m i n u t e s f o r e a c h power plant. Activating the 0 2 p u r g e ;alve allows a n additional flow of up to 0 . 6 l b p e r h r . An e m e r g e n c y p u r g e c a n be p e r f o r m e d if s t e a d y s t a t e c u r r e n t output of a power plant d e c r e a s e s by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 a m p s . P o w e r plant p a r a m e t e r s ( p r i m a r i l y voltage, c u r r e n t , and skin t e m p e r a t u r e ) m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d t o d e t e r m i n e if a n e m e r g e n c y p u r g e is r e q u i r e d . Hydrogen, s t o r e d in a c r y o g e n i c s t a t e at a p r e s s u r e of 245 ( t 1 5 , - 2 0 ) p s i a and regulated down t o a p r e s s u r e of 60. 5 p s i a , flows into the hydrogen r e g e n e r a t o r loop, p a s s i n g through a n in-line h e a t e r and into the fuel c e l l . The i n - l i n e h e a t e r i s an automatic device which a i d s the fuel c e l l power plant in sustaining o p e r a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e at low-power o p e r a t i n g l e v e l s . The hydrogen, o r p r i m a r y r e g e n e r a t o r loop, i s used f o r fuel c e l l t h e r m a l c o n t r o l and p e r m i t s w a t e r r e m o v a l f r o m the fuel c e l l . The h e a t g e n e r a t e d by the r e a c t i o n i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o the s a t u r a t e d H2 fluid. The hot, s a t u r a t e d hydrogen i s d r a w n into the hydrogen exhaust l i n e by the H2 pump. A s e n s o r in t h i s line p r o v i d e s an input to an e l e c t r o n i c switch which c o n t r o l s activation of the H2 in-line h e a t e r . Activation of t h i s h e a t e r is a c c o m plished a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t a hydrogen exhaust t e m p e r a t u r e of 385*5" F, supplying additional h e a t t o hydrogen g a s flowing to t h e f u e l c e l l power plant. The in-line h e a t e r i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y deactivated a t a t e m p e r a t u r e of 390*5"F. After p a s s i n g the i n - l i n e h e a t e r s e n s o r , t h e s a t u r a t e d hydrogen f l o w s to a s e n s o r - c o n t r o l l e d b y p a s s valve. T h i s v a l v e c o n t r o l s the amount of exhaust g a s flowing through the H2 r e g e n e r a t o r . The s e n s o r c l o s e s the b y p a s s valve at 4 2 5 " F , allowing all e x h a u s t g a s t o flow through t h e r e g e p e r a t o r . T h i s h e a t s the r e t u r n i n g hydrogen and s u s t a i n s o p e r a ting t e m p e r a t u r e of the f u e l cell. With the b y p a s s valve in a full r e g e n e r a t i v e pos,ition ( t e m p e r a t u r e s 425" o r l o w e r ) , if fuel c e l l power plant t e m p e r a t u r e continues to d e c r e a s e , t h e i n - l i n e h e a t e r will b e activated t o supply additional h e a t . If power plant t e m p e r a t u r e i s above 4 2 5 " F , the s e n s o r c a u s e s t h e b y p a s s valve to open p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y ( f u l l y open a t 4 9 5 ° F ) allowing e x h a u s t g a s t o flow d i r e c t l y t o t h e c o n d e n s e r . A t r a n s f e r of h e a t f r o m the hydrogen and s t e a m t o t h e glycol t a k e s p l a c e in the c o n d e n s e r . The t e m p e r a t u r e of the hydrogen and s t e a m i s lowered to between 155" and 1 7 5 " F , t h u s liquifying s o m e of t h e w a t e r v a p o r . A s e n s o r in the c o n d e n s e r exhaust, c o n t r o l s a glycol r e g e n e r a t o r b y p a s s v a l v e in t h e glycol r a d i a t o r r e t u r n l i n e which r e g u l a t e s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of the glycol. T h i s , in t u r n , h e l p s c o n t r o l f u e l c e l l t e m p e r a t u r e and m a i n t a i n s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e c o n d e n s e r exhaust within the d e s i r e d r a n g e of 155" to 1 7 5 ° F . The liquid w a t e r and hydrogen then flows through a c e n t r i f u g a l w a t e r s e p a r a t o r p u m p which e x t r a c t s the w a t e r and d e l i v e r s it t o the ECS potable w a t e r s t o r a g e t a n k in t h e C / M . T h e amount of w a t e i produced by e a c h fuel c e l l is in d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o the r e a c t a n t s c o n s u m e d which is r e l a t e d t o power output. (See f i g u r e 2 . 6 - 4 . )

-

E L E C T R I C A L P O W E R SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date page 2.6-15

SM2A-03-SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
3.0

2.5

2.0

I .5

1 .O

0.5

0
0 0.5
1 .o

I .5

2.0

2.5

3.0

GROSS POWER P E R FUEL CELL POWERPLANT

- KILOWATTS

SM-ZA-&ffl

F i g u r e 2. 6-4.

W a t e r P r o d u c t i o n Rate vs P b w e r Output

T h e h y d r o g e n pump c i r c u l a t e s the r e m a i n i n g slightly m o i s t fluid t h r o u g h t h e , r e g e n e r a t o r and b a c k to the f u e l cell. In o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e d e s i r e d r a t i o of w a t e r to KOH in t h e f u e l c e l l , the c o n d e n s e r exhaust t e m p e r a t u r e i s r e g u l a t e d a t a l e v e l SO that s o m e m o i s t u r e i s l e f t in t h e r e t u r n i n g h y d r o g e n as it flows b a c k into t h e cell. The hydrogen in the c r y o g e n i c s y s t e m is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 9 . 9 4 p e r c e n t p u r e . H2 p u r g e valve activation a l l o w s a n additional flow of up to 0. 75 l b s p e r h o u r , and will n o r m a l l y b e p e r f o r m e d f o r a p e r i o d of 80 s e c o n d s p e r p o w e r plant e v e r y 24 h o u r s . The a c t u a l H2 p u r g e c y c l e will a l s o depend on t h e p r e d i c t e d p o w e r p r o f i l e and r e a c t a n t p u r i t y a s c a l c u l a t e d a f t e r c r y o g e n i c tank fill. T h e p e r f o r m a n c e d e g r a d a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the H2 e l e c t r o d e i s negligible and cannot b e s e e n with o n - b o a r d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n (with n o r m a l f degradation). I degradation i s suspected to remain after an emergency 0 2 p u r g e , a n H2 p u r g e m a y be w a r r a n t e d . T h e r e i s s o m e indication that p e r i o d i c H2 purging m a y b e e l i m i n a t e d a l t o g e t h e r , t h e r e b y only p e r f o r m i n g the d e g r a d a t i o n p u r g e w h e n e v e r it m a y b e r e q u i r e d . T h i r t y m i n u t e s p r i o r to H2 purging, t h e H2 PURGE L I N E HTR switch (MDC-15) i s placed in the up position t o e n e r g i z e the H2 fuel c e l l vent line h e a t e r and p r e c l u d e any f r e e z i n g of the m o i s t exhaust g a s in t h e vent l i n e .

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 N o v 1966 Change Date Page

.
2-61-16

SMZA-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
L-

SYSTEMS DATA The s e c o n d a r y loop c o n t a i n s a 6 2 . 5 to 3 7 . 5 m i x t u r e of ethylene glycol and w a t e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s loop s e r v e s to p r e h e a t t h e r e a c t a i l t s and to t r a n s p o r t w a s t e h e a t to the s p a c e r a d i a t o r s . An a c c u m u l a t o r , p r e s s u r i z e d b y t h e n i t r o g e n , p r e s s u r i z e s t h e glycol loop and a l s o a c t s a s a b u f f e r f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n of t h e coolant a s it v a r i e s in t e m p e r a t u r e . Glycol flow t h r o u g h t h e r e g e n e r a t o r is c o n t r o l l e d b y a b y p a s s v a l v e which o p e r a t e s in conjunction with t h e c o n d e n s e r e x h a u s t s e n s o r . When t h e c o n d e n s e r e x h a u s t i s a t 1 5 5 " F , t h e glycol i s r o u t e d through t h e r e g e n e r a t o r t o i n c r e a s e glycol t e m p e r a t u r e and e f f e c t m i n i m u m h e a t t r a n s f e r in t h e c o n d e n s e r . T h e glycol b y p a s s v a l v e is c o m p l e t e l y open a t a c o n d e n s e r e x h a u s t t e m p e r a t u r e of 1 7 5 " F , routing t h e glycol t h r o u g h t h e pump to t h e c o n d e n s e r and on t o t h e oxygen and h y d r o g e n p r e h e a t e r s . S i n c e t h e glycol t e m p e r a t u r e i s l o w e r , a m a x i m u m t r a n s f e r of h e a t in t h e c o n d e n s e r l o w e r s t h e c o n d e n s e r e x h a u s t t e m p e r a t u r e . T h e c o n d e n s e r e x h a u s t t e m p e r a t u r e s e n s o r r e g u l a t e s coolant t e m p e r a t u r e which a f f e c t s t h e amount of w a t e r r e m o v e d f r o m t h e power plant. The 1 5 5 " to 1 7 5 ° F o p e r a t i n g r a n g e will b e s t m a i n t a i n the d e s i r e d r a t i o of w a t e r to KOH in the fuel c e l l .
A 4 0 0 - c p s 3 - p h a s e a - c g e a r pump m a i n t a i n s glycol flow at t h e r a t e of 35 t o 80 l b s p e r h o u r , r a i s i n g t h e p r e s s u r e 6 p s i . After t h e oxygen and h y d r o g e n p r e h e a t e r s , t h e glycol is r o u t e d t h r o u g h the glycol r e g e n e r a t o r

and t o t h e s p a c e r a d i a t o r s , w h e r e h e a t i s r a d i a t e d into t h e s p a c e e n v i r o n m en t . E a c h f u e l c e l l c o n t a i n s e l e c t r o l y t e (KOH) which c o n s i s t s b y weight of 83 p e r c e n t p o t a s s i u m h y d r o x i d e and 17 p e r c e n t w a t e r on initial f i l l , and h a s a c r i t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e of 3 0 0 ° F ( f i g u r e 2. 6 - 5 ) . T h e e l e c t r o l y t e r e m a i n s a solid t o a n a p p r o x i m a t e t e m p e r a t u r e of 2 2 0 ° F ; with a t e m p e r a t u r e in'crease t o 300"F, t h e e l e c t r o l y t e b e c o m e s a liquid and t h e fuel c e l l e l e c t r o c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n b e c o m e s effective. B r i n g i n g t h e fuel c e l l to c r i t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e is a c c o m p l i s h e d u s i n g GSE, and cannot b e p e r f o r m e d f r o m S / C power s o u r c e s . P l a c i n g a load on t h e power plant will m a i n t a i n it above t h i s c r i t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e . 2. 6 . 3 . 4 Inve r t e r s

.

E a c h i n v e r t e r ( f i g u r e 2. 6 - 6 ) i s composed of a c l o c k o s c i l l a t o r , an e i g h t - s t a g e d i g i t a l countdown s e c t i o n , a d - c l i n e f i l t e r , two s i l i c o n controlled rectifiers, a magnetic amplifier, a buck-boost amplifier, a d e m o d u l a t o r , two d - c f i l t e r s , an e i g h t - s t a g e power i n v e r s i o n s e c t i o n , a h a r m o n i c n e u t r a l i z a t i o n t r a n s f o r m e r , an a - c output f i l t e r , c u r r e n t s e n s i n g t r a n s f o r m e r s , a Z e n e r diode r e f e r e n c e b r i d g e , a low-voltage c o n t r o l , and a n o v e r c u r r e n t t r i p c i r c u i t . The i n v e r t e r n o r m a l l y u s e s a 6 . 4 - k c s q u a r e wave s y n c h r o n i z i n g s i g n a l f r o m t h e c e n t r a l t i m i n g equipm e n t ( C T E ) which m a i n t a i n s i n v e r t e r output a t 400*2 c p s . If t h i s e x t e r n a l s i g n a l i s c o m p l e t e l y l o s t , t h e o s c i l l a t o r within t h e i n v e r t e r will p r o v i d e p u l s e s t h a t will m a i n t a i n i n v e r t e r output within *7 c p s . The i n t e r n a l

E L E C T R I C A L P O W E R SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2.6-17

SM2A-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

_SYSTEMS DATA
ELECTROLYTE TEMP (F.)

4mc

-

‘300
350
I

LIQUID

m-

0-1

KOH! 2H20 I I

(KOH. H 2 0 + KOH. ZH20)

I

u

I l l 60

I

I

I l l I I I I 65 m 75 80 PERCENT OF KOH (BY WEIGHT) IN ELECTROLYTE
I
I I I

I

I

I

1

Ill
A

I
85

I

I

1
9

NOTES:

1 . Parcent (83) of KOH in doctrdyt. at initial fill. 2 . Critisol tmnpmtum (3W.F) of .I.ctrdyt. at which elctrochmicrrl rmctiol h i m , on initial start-up
of fuel
5.11.

SM-U-883A

Figure 2.6-5.

KOH H 2 0 P h a s e D i a g r a m

o s c i l l a t o r i s n o r m a l l y s y n c h r o n i z e d b y t h e e x t e r n a l p u l s e which is provided t h r o u g h t h e p h a s e s y n c h r o n i z i n g unit. T h e p h a s e s y n c h r o n i z e r will p r o v i d e t h e s e p u l s e s t o t h e i n v e r t e r a f t e r a m a x i m u m of two s e c o n d s . T h e following p a r a g r a p h s d e s c r i b e t h e function of t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s of t h e inverter. T h e 6 . 4 - k c n e g a t i v e s q u a r e wave p r o v i d e d by t h e c e n t r a l t i m i n g e q u i p m e n t i s applied t h r o u g h t h e p h a s e s y n c h r o n i z e r and t h e o s c i l l a t o r to t h e e i g h t - s t a g e d i g i t a l countdown s e c t i o n . The o s c i l l a t o r h a s two d i v i d e r c i r c u i t s which p r o v i d e a 1600-pps s i g n a l t o t h e m a g n e t i c a m p l i f i e r and two s i l i c o n - c o n t r o l l e d r e c t i f i e r s . T h e e i g h t - s t a g e d i g i t a l countdown s e c t i o n u s e s t h e 6.4-kc s q u a r e wave s i g n a l t o p r o d u c e a s e r i e s of eight 4 0 0 - c y c l e s q u a r e w a v e s , e a c h m u t u a l l y d i s p l a c e d one p u l s e t i m e f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g and following wave. Once p u l s e t i m e i s 156 m i c r o s e c o n d s and r e p r e s e n t s 22. 5 e l e c t r i c a l d e g r e e s . T h i s s e r i e s of s q u a r e w a v e s i s applied to t h e e i g h t - s t a g e power i n v e r s i o n s e c t ion. T h e e i g h t - s t a g e power i n v e r s i o n s e c t i o n , using a c o n t r o l l e d voltage f r o m t h e b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r , a m p l i f i e s t h e s e r i e s of 4 0 0 - c y c l e s q u a r e w a v e s p r o d u c e d b y t h e e i g h t - s t a g e d i g i t a l countdown s e c t i o n . The a m p l i fied s q u a r e w a v e s , s t i l l m u t u a l l y d i s p l a c e d 22. 5 e l e c t r i c a l d e g r e e s , a r e a p p l i e d t o the h a r m o n i c n e u t r a l i z a t i o n t r a n s f o r m e r , which i s d e s c r i b e d in a subsequent paragraph. E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mis sion
.

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

Change D a t e

Page

2.6-18

SMZA -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

25-30 VOLTS D-C INPUT

'
I
I I I I

--- - ---BUCKBOOST AMPLIFIER FILTER

D-C LINE FILTER

*
VOLTAGE

----1 1 I I ,I
HARMONIC NEUTRAL TRANSFORMER

CONTROLLED 4 RECTIFIERS
r

A
(W
~

VOLTAGE

a i
FILTER

I

I I

I

I '

'

1
COUNTDOWN WAVE

CURRENT

E
I

'BUS I
11 5 v 400 CPS

I

-------I
SENSOR

CU RRENT REGULATION

30

BUS 2

To: Signal conditioner,
compmtor, o l d

'

INV 1 TEMP HI C6W light
(MDC-11)

I I
I

CCO175T INVERTER I

I

-DEVELOPMENT , J

MO O

r-I------6.4 KC SQUARE WAVE

I

I-,
OL2 ( K 20) SM-2A-639B

VOLTAGE CONTROL PROTECTION

5 EC TI ON
INV 3

68 ItW 3
NOTE: Unless otherwise spcified: 1. Inverter 1 i s h o w n . 2. A denotes input volhge. INV I INV 2 I N 3
CTE

F i g u r e 2 . 6-6.

Inverter Block Diagram

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
12 Nov 1966 Change Date

Page

2.6-19

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

_SYSTEMS DATA D-C p o w e r to t h e i n v e r t e r is supplied f r o m the m a i n d - c b u s e s through the d - c l i n e f i l t e r . T h i s f i l t e r r e d u c e s the high f r e q u e n c y r i p p l e in the input, and t h e 25 to 30 vdc is applied to the s i l i c o n - c o n t r o l l e r r e c t i f i e r s and b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r . The s i l i c o n - c o n t r o l l e d r e c t i f i e r s , using the f i l t e r e d d - c power and t h e 1600-pps s i g n a l f r o m t h e c l o c k o s c i l l a t o r , p r o d u c e a d - c s q u a r e wave with a n o n - t i m e of g r e a t e r than 90 d e g r e e s f r o m e a c h r e c t i f i e r . T h i s i s f i l t e r e d and supplied to t h e buck-boost a m p l i f i e r w h e r e it i s coupled with t h e amplified 1600-pps output of t h e m a g n e t i c a m p l i f i e r to develop a f i l t e r e d 35 v o l t s dc which i s used f o r a m p l i f i c a t i o n in t h e power i n v e r s i o n stages. T h e b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r , using t h e 1600-pps signal f r o m the m a g n e t i c a m p l i f i e r , the f i l t e r e d d - c power f r o m t h e m a i n duc b u s e s , and an e r r o r s i g n a l f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e Z e n e r diode r e f e r e n c e b r i d g e , p r o v i d e s a v a r i a b l e b i a s voltage to the e i g h t - s t a g e power i n v e r s i o n s e c t i o n . The a m p l i t u d e of t h i s voltage i s c o n t r o l l e d b y the a m p l i t u d e and p h a s e of t h e f e e d b a c k s i g n a l f r o m t h e Z e n e r diode r e f e r e n c e b r i d g e . T h i s b i a s signal i s v a r i e d b y t h e e r r o r s i g n a l to r e g u l a t e i n v e r t e r voltage and c u r r e n t output. T h e d e m o d u l a t o r c o m p e n s a t e s f o r any l o w - f r e q u e n c y r i p p l e in t h e d - c input to the i n v e r t e r . The h i g h - f r e q u e n c y r i p p l e is attenuated by t h e f i l t e r s . T h e d e m o d u l a t o r s e n s e s t h e 35-volt d - c output of the buck-boost a m p l i f i e r and t h e c u r r e n t input to t h e b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r . It c o m p e n s a t e s f o r r i p p l e in t h e 10- to 1000-cps r a n g e . An input voltage d r o p o r i n c r e a s e w i l l be r e f l e c t e d in a d r o p o r i n c r e a s e in t h e 35-volt d - c output of the b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r a s w e l l a s a d r o p o r i n c r e a s e in c u r r e n t input to t h e 6 u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r , A s e n s e d d e c r e a s e in t h e buck-boost a m p l i f i e r v o l t a g e output would b e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r a d e m o d u l a t o r output, t r a n s f o r m e r coupled, to t h e s i l i c o n - c o n t r o l l e d r e c t i f i e r s , causing t h e m to conduct f o r a l o n g e r t i m e , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r f i l t e r e d output. A s e n s e d i n c r e a s e in b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r voltage output, c a u s e d by a n i n c r e a s e in t h e d - c input t o t h e i n v e r t e r , would c a u s e the d e m o d u l a t o r to p r o d u c e a s i g n a l c a u s i n g t h e s i l i c o n - c o n t r o l l e d r e c t i f i e r s to conduct f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s , producing a l o w e r f i l t e r e d output to the b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r . In t h i s f a s h i o n , t h e 3 5 - v o l t d - c input t o t h e power i n v e r s i o n s e c t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d at a r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t level. T h e low-voltage c o n t r o l s a m p l e s the input voltage to t h e i n v e r t e r and c a n t e r m i n a t e i n v e r t e r o p e r a t i o n . S i n c e the buck-boost a m p l i f i e r p r o v i d e s a b o o s t action d u r i n g a d e c r e a s e in input voltage to t h e i n v e r t e r , in an a t t e m p t t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t 35 v o l t s dc t o the power i n v e r s i o n s e c t i o n , t h e high b o o s t r e q u i r e d d u r i n g a l o w - v o l t a g e input would tend to o v e r h e a t the b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r . A s a p r e c a u t i o n a r y m e a s u r e , the low-voltage c o n t r o l will t e r m i n a t e i n v e r t e r o p e r a t i o n by disconnecting o p e r a t i n g voltage t o t h e m a g n e t i c a m p l i f i e r a n d a p o w e r i n v e r s i o n s t a g e when input voltage d e c r e a s e s to between 16 and 19 v o l t s dc.

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 NOV 1966 Change Date Page 2.6-20

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-

SYSTEMS DATA T h e h a r m o n i c n e u t r a l i z a t i o n s e c t i o n , using t h e 4 0 0 - c y c l e , s q u a r e wave output of t h e eight- s t a g e power i n v e r s i o n s e c t i o n , t r a n s f o r m s it into a 3 - p h a s e 4 0 0 - c y c l e 115-volt s i n e wave signal. T h e m a n n e r in which t h e s e t r a n s f o r m e r s a r e wound p r o d u c e s flux c a n c e l l a t i o n which e l i m i n a t e s a l l h a r m o n i c s up t o and including t h e fifteenth of t h e f u n d a m e n t a l f r e q u e n c y . T h e 22. 5 e l e c t r i c a l d e g r e e d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e s q u a r e wave p r o v i d e s a m e a n s of e l e c t r i c a l l y r o t a t i n g t h e s q u a r e wave excited p r i m a r y windings a r o u n d t h e 3 - p h a s e , w y e - c o n n e c t e d , s e c o n d a r y windings, t h u s p r o d u c i n g t h e 3 - p h a s e 4 0 0 - c y c l e s i n e wave output. T h i s 115-volt s i g n a l i s t h e n applied t o t h e a - c output filter. T h e a - c output f i l t e r e l i m i n a t e s t h e r e m a i n i n g h i g h e r h a r m o n i c s . Since t h e l o w e r h a r m o n i c s w e r e e l i m i n a t e d b y the h a r m o n i c n e u t r a l i z a t i o n s e c t i o n , the s i z e and weight of t h i s output f i l t e r w a s r e d u c e d . C i r c u i t r y in t h i s f i l t e r a l s o p r o d u c e s a r e c t i f i e d s i g n a l which i s applied to t h e Z e n e r diode referenc: b r i d g e . The a m p l i t u d e of t h i s s i g n a l i s a function of t h e a m p l i t u d e of a - c output voltage. A f t e r f i l t e r i n g , t h e 3 - p h a s e 115-volt a - c 4 0 0 - c y c l e s i n e wave i s applied t o t h e a - c b u s e s t h r o u g h c u r r e n t s e n s ing t r a n s f o r m e r s . The current-sensing t r a n s f o r m e r section produces a rectified s i g n a l , t h e a m p l i t u d e of which i s in d i r e c t function of i n v e r t e r output c u r r e n t m a g n i t u d e . T h i s d - c s i g n a l i s applied to t h e Z e n e r diode r e f e r e n c e b r i d g e t o r e g u l a t e i n v e r t e r c u r r e n t output. It i s a l s o applied t o an overcurrent t r i p circuit.
~~

The Z e n e r diode r e f e r e n c e b r i d g e r e c e i v e s a r e c t i f i e d d - c s i g n a l , r e p r e s e n t i n g voltage output, f r o m t h e c i r c u i t r y in t h e a - c output f i l t e r . A v a r i a n c e in voltage output u n b a l a n c e s t h e b r i d g e providing a n e r r o r s i g n a l df p r o p e r p o l a r i t y and m a g n i t u d e t o t h e b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r v i a t h e m a g n e t i c a m p l i f i e r . When i n v e r t e r c u r r e n t output r e a c h e s 200 t o 250 p e r c e n t of r a t e d c u r r e n t , t h e r e c t i f i e d s i g n a l applied to t h e b r i d g e f r o m t h e c u r r e n t s e n s i n g t r a n s f o r m e r s i s of sufficient m a g n i t u d e to p r o v i d e a n e r r o r s i g n a l and c a u s e t h e b u c k - b o o s t a m p l i f i e r to o p e r a t e in t h e s a m e m a n n e r as d u r i n g a n o v e r v o l t a g e condition. T h e b i a s output of t h e buckb o o s t a m p l i f i e r , being c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e e r r o r s i g n a l , will b e v a r i e d to c o r r e c t f o r any v a r i a t i o n in i n v e r t e r v o l t a g e o r c u r r e n t output. When i n v e r t e r c u r r e n t output r e a c h e s 250 p e r c e n t of r a t e d c u r r e n t , the o v e r c u r r e n t t r i p circuit i s activated. The o v e r c u r r e n t t r i p circuit monitors a rectified d-c signal r e p r e s e n t i n g c u r r e n t output. When t o t a l i n v e r t e r c u r r e n t output e x c e e d s 250 p e r c e n t of r a t e d c u r r e n t , t h i s c i r c u i t will effect an i n v e r t e r d i s connect in 15*5 s e c o n d s . Lf c u r r e n t output of any s i n g l e p h a s e e x c e e d s 300 p e r c e n t of r a t e d c u r r e n t , t h i s c i r c u i t will effect an i n v e r t e r d i s c o n n e c t in 5*1 second.

-

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date

page 2 . 6 - 2 1

.

SMZA-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA A p h a s e s y n c h r o n i z e r unit ( P S U ) , l o c a t e d in the RHEB ( p a n e l 208), e s t a b l i s h e s i n v e r t e r o u t p u t s S O t h e y a r e in p h a s e when using a s e p a r a t e i n v e r t e r on e a c h of t h e two a - c b u s e s . T h e two i n v e r t e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s p r e v e l a n t d u r i n g d e l t a V ' s a s a s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n in c a s e of a s i n g l e f a i l u r e in t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l . T h e u s e of two i n v e r t e r s d u r i n g d e l t a V ' s r e t a i n s r e d u n d a n c y in the s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m , s i n c e power t h r o u g h a - c b u s 1 i s used f o r a u t o m a t i c t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l and power t h r o u g h a - c b u s 2 i s used f o r m a n u a l thrust v e c t o r c o n t r o l . Central timing equipment (CTE) t r i g g e r pulses, used f o r inverter o p e r a t i o n , a r e supplied t o t h e i n v e r t e r s t h r o u g h t h e PSU. T h e PSU s a m p l e s @ Bf r o m e a c h i n v e r t e r output, and when an i n - p h a s e r e l a t i o n s h i p . i s established, supplies the 6400-cps C T E trigger pulse to the i n v e r t e r s being u s e d . T h e OB input a l s o s u p p l i e s power f o r PSU c i r c u i t r y . The i n - p h a s e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a c q u i r e d by initially providing o u t - o f p h a s e t r i g g e r p u l s e s (6080 t o 6400 c p s ) until t h e two i n v e r t e r s a r e s y n c h r o n i z e d , at which t i m e the C T E s i g n a l i s coupled to t h e i n v e r t e r s . P h a s e l o c k , with a m a x i m u m d i s p l a c e m e n t of *10 d e g r e e s , i s a c q u i r e d in a m a x i m u m of two s e c o n d s . T h e s y n c h r o n i z e r p r o v i d e s t h i s function f o r any c o m b i n a t i o n of p a i r s of the t h r e e a v a i l a b l e i n v e r t e r s . A t w o - p o s i t i o n toggle s w i t c h on t h e PSU, when positioned t o O F F , allows f o r d i r e c t input of C T E s i g n a l s t o t h e i n v e r t e r s in t h e e v e n t of f a i l u r e of t h e s y n c h r o n i z e r unit. However, in t h i s s i t u a t i o n , 'the i n - p h a s e r e l a t i o n s h i p would not b e r e a l i z e d . A t e m p e r a t u r e s e n s o r with a r a n g e of t32" to t 2 4 8 " F i s i n s t a l l e d in e a c h i n v e r t e r t o p r o v i d e MSFN the c a p a b i l i t y of m o n i t o r i n g i n v e r t e r t e m p e r a t u r e . It a l s o p r o v i d e s a n input t o t h e C&WS which will i l l u m i n e a light at an i n v e r t e r o v e r t e m p e r a t u r e of 2 2 6 ° F . 2 . 6 . 3. 5 Batterv Charger. A constant voltage, solid-state battery c h a r g e r (figure 2.6-7), l o c a t e d in t h e C / M l o w e r e q u i p m e n t bay, i s i n c o r p o r a t e d into t h e E P S . T h e b a t t e r y c h a r g e r s e l e c t o r s w i t c h (MDC-18) c o n t r o l s power input to t h e C h a r g e r , a s w e l l a s connecting t h e c h a r g e r output t o t h e s e l e c t e d b a t t e r y ( f i g u r e 2 . 6 - 1 1 ) . When t h e BATTERY CHARGER s e l e c t o r s w i t c h i s p o s i t i o n e d t o e n t r y b a t t e r y A, B, o r C , a r e l a y (K4) i s a c t i v a t e d , c o m p l e t i n g c i r c u i t s f r o m a - c and d - c power s o u r c e s t o t h e b a t t e r y c h a r g e r . A l s o , t h e b a t t e r y c h a r g e r output is c o n n e c t e d to t h e s e l e c t e d b a t t e r y to b e c h a r g e d t h r o u g h t h e MAIN BUS TIE s w i t c h e s ( M D C - 2 2 ) . P o s i t i o n i n g t h e MAIN BUS T I E s w i t c h ( A & C o r B & C ) to O F F , f o r t h e selected b a t t e r i e s , will disconnect main bus loads f r o m the b a t t e r i e s and a l s o c o m p l e t e t h e c i r c u i t f r o m t h e c h a r g e r to t h e b a t t e r y . Only o n e b a t t e r y c a n b e c h a r g e d at a time.

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l2

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SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

11
I C
VcXlACf CONlRcX

Figure 2.6-7.

B a t t e r y C h a r g e r Block D i a g r a m

Mission

T h e b a t t e r y c h a r g e r u s e s 25 t o 30 v o l t s d c f r o m t h e m a i n d - c b u s e s and 115 v o l t s 4OO-cps, 3 - p h a s e a c f r o m e i t h e r of t h e a - c b u s e s . All t h r e e p h a s e s of ac a r e u s e d t o b o o s t t h e 25 to 30-volt d - c input t o p r o d u c e 40 v o l t s d c f o r c h a r g i n g . In addition, p h a s e A of t h e a c i s u s e d to supply p o w e r f o r t h e r e s t of t h e c h a r g e r c i r c u i t r y . The logic n e t w o r k in t h e c h a r g e r , which c o n s i s t s of a t w o - s t a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l a m p l i f i e r ( c o m p a r a t o r ) , a t w o - s t a g e S c h m i t t t r i g g e r , a c u r r e n t s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r , and a v o l t a g e a m p l i f i e r will s e t ' u p t h e initial condition f o r o p e r a t i o n . T h e f i r s t s t a g e of t h e c o m p a r a t o r i s in t h e on m o d e , with t h e second s t a g e in t h e off m o d e , placing t h e S c h m i t t t r i g g e r f i r s t s t a g e in t h e on m o d e with the s e c o n d s t a g e off. T h i s condition p r o v i d e s m a x i m u m b a s e d r i v e t o t h e c u r r e n t a m p l i f i e r which t u r n s t h e switching t r a n s i s t o r t o t h e on m o d e . With t h e switching t r a n s i s t o r on, c u r r e n t flows f r o m t h e t r a n s f o r m e r r e c t i f i e r t h r o u g h t h e switching t r a n s i s t o r , c u r r e n t s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r , and s w i t c h

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM B a s i c Date
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SM2A -0 3 -SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
s i

SYSTEMS DATA choke t o the b a t t e r y being c h a r g e d . A s c u r r e n t flow i n c r e a s e s , the voltage d r o p a c r o s s t h e s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r i n c r e a s e s . The voltage a c r o s s the s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r builds to a l e v e l which t u r n s the f i r s t s t a g e of the c o m p a r a t o r to t h e off m o d e and the second s t a g e t o the on mode. T h i s condition t u r n s off the voltage a m p l i f i e r which r e v e r s e s t h e o p e r a t i o n of the Schmitt t r i g g e r t o f i r s t s t a g e off and second s t a g e on. T h i s p l a c e s the c u r r e n t a m p l i f i e r off, which t u r n s off the switching t r a n s i s t o r . T h e switching t r a n s i s t o r in t h e off m o d e will s t o p c u r r e n t flow f r o m the power s o u r c e , c a u s i n g t h e f i e l d in the choke to continue collapsing and d i s c h a r g i n g into the b a t t e r y through t h e switching diode and t h e c u r r e n t s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r . As t h e E M F in t h e choke d e c r e a s e s , t h e c u r r e n t through t h e s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r d e c r e a s e s , reducing the voltage d r o p a c r o s s the r e s i s t o r . At s o m e point, the d e c r e a s e in voltage d r o p a c r o s s the s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r , r e v e r s e s t h e o p e r a t i o n of the c o m p a r a t o r c i r c u i t , setting up the initial condition and completing one c y c l e of o p e r a t i o n . The output load c u r r e n t , due t o t h e action of the choke, r e m a i n s r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t except f o r the s m a l l v a r i a t i o n through the s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r . T h i s v a r i a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to switch t h e switching t r a n s i s t o r and Schmitt t r i g g e r through the action of t h e c o m p a r a t o r . B a t t e r y c h a r g e r output is r e g u l a t e d b y the s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r until the b a t t e r y voltage r e a c h e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 36 volts. At t h i s t i m e , the voltage c o n t r o l n e t w o r k i s activated and, in conjunction with the s e n s i n g r e s i s t o r , p r o v i d e s a s i g n a l f o r cycling the b a t t e r y c h a r g e r . As the b a t t e r y voltage i n c r e a s e s , the i n t e r n a l impedance of t h e b a t t e r y i n c r e a s e s , d e c r e a s i n g c u r r e n t flow f r o m t h e c h a r g e r . At 39 volts, the b a t t e r y i s f u l l y c h a r g e d and c u r r e n t flow b e c o m e s negligible. ( S e e f i g u r e 2.6-8. ) B a t t e r y c h a r g e r d i s c o n n e c t will b e effected a t a c u r r e n t output gf a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 6 a m p s .

BATTERY VOLTAGE

BATTERY CHARGER OUTPUT (AMPERES)

SM-2A-880

Figure 2.6-8.

B a t t e r y Charging Rate C h a r t
~

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2 . 6 - 2 4

SM2A -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK 'SYSTEMS DATA B a t t e r y input will b e m o n i t o r e d by MSFN t h r o u g h t h e n o r m a l b a t t e r y t e l e m e t r y m e a s u r em ent s

.

2.6.3.6

P o w e r Distribution. D-C and a - c power d i s t r i b u t i o n to c o m p o n e n t s of t h e E P S i s p r o vided b y two r e d u n d a n t b u s e s in e a c h s y s t e m . A single-point ground on t h e s p a c e c r a f t s t r u c t u r e i s used to e l i m i n a t e ground loop e f f e c t s . Sensing and c o n t r o l c i r c u i t s a r e provided f o r m o n i t o r i n g and p r o t e c t i o n of e a c h b u s system. D i s t r i b u t i o n of d - c power ( f i g u r e 2. 6 - 9 ) is a c c o m p l i s h e d with a twow i r e s y s t e m and a s e r i e s of i n t e r c o n n e c t e d b u s e s , individual s w i t c h e s , c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s , and i s o l a t i o n d i o d e s . T h e b u s e s c o n s i s t of the following: Two redundaxit m a i n d - c b u s e s ( A and B) powered by t h e t h r e e fuel c e l l s a n d / o r e n t r y b a t t e r i e s A , B, and C . Two b a t t e r y b u s e s ( A and B) e a c h powered b y i t s r e s p e c t i v e e n t r y b a t t e r y A and B. F l i g h t and postlanding b u s , powered t h r o u g h the m a i n d - c b u s e s , a n d / o r the t h r e e e n t r y b a t t e r i e s , A , B , and C . Two n o n e s s e n t i a l b u s e s , powered t h r o u g h e i t h e r d - c m a i n b u s A o r B B a t t e r y r e l a y bus, powered b y e n t r y b a t t e r i e s A and B through individual b a t t e r y b u s e s. P y r o b u s e s , which a r e i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e m a i n e l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m when powered b y t h e p y r o b a t t e r i e s . A c a p a b i l i t y is p r o vided to connect e n t r y b a t t e r y A o r B t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e A o r B p y r o s y s t e m in c a s e of l o s s of a p y r o b a t t e r y .
S / M j e t t i s o n c o n t r o l l e r s , powered by S / M j e t t i s o n c o n t r o l l e r b a t t e r i e s , which a r e c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e m a i n e l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m .

P o w e r f r o m t h e f u e l c e l l power p l a n t s i s connected to t h e m a i n d - c b u s e s t h r o u g h s i x m o t o r s w i t c h e s ( p a r t of o v e r l o a d / r e v e r s e c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s in t h e S / M which a r e c o n t r o l l e d b y s w i t c h e s in t h e C / M l o c a t e d on MDC-18. F u e l c e l l power c a n b e connected to e i t h e r o r both of t h e m a i n d - c b u s e s . Six e v e n t i n d i c a t o r s show when fuel c e l l output i s connected. When an o v e r l o a d condition o c c u r s , t h e o v e r l o a d - r e v e r s e c u r r e n t s e n s i n g c i r c u i t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s c o n n e c t t h e f u e l c e l l power p l a n t s f r o m the o v e r l o a d e d b u s and p r o v i d e v i s u a l d i s p l a y s f o r i s o l a t i o n of t h e t r o u b l e . A r e v e r s e c u r r e n t condition w i l l d i s c o n n e c t the malfunctioning power plant from t h e d - c s y s t e m . D-C u n d e r v o l t a g e s e n s i n g c i r c u i t s ( f i g u r e 2 . 6 - 1 0 ) a r e a l s o provided t o i n d i c a t e b u s low v o l t a g e conditions. If voltage d r o p s

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2.6-25

SMZA-03-SCOI2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA below 2 6 . 25 v o l t s d c , a n applicable d - c undervoltage light on the caution and warning panel (MDC-11) will illuminate. Since e a c h b u s i s capable of handling a l l EPS l o a d s , a n undervoltage condition should not o c c u r except in a n isolated i n s t a n c e , if too m a n y e l e c t r i c a l units a r e placed on the b u s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r if a malfunction e x i s t s in the EPS. A v o l t m e t e r , on MDC-18, i s provided t o m o n i t o r b u s voltage. An a m m e t e r i s provided on MDC-18 t o m o n i t o r c u r r e n t output of f u e l cells 1 , 2 , 3 , b a t t e r i e s A , B, C , and t h e b a t t e r y c h a r g e r . During e x t r e m e power l o a d s o r e m e r g e n c i e s , p o w e r to the m a i n d - c b u s e s c a n b e supplied f r o m e n t r y b a t t e r i e s A and B b y way of b a t t e r y b u s e s and d i r e c t l y f r o m b a t t e r y C ( f i g u r e 2 . 6 - 1 1 ) . E a c h b a t t e r y b u s i s s e p a r a t e d physically into two p a r t s ( e . g . , b a t t e r y b u s A i s A-1 and A - 2 ) , but r e m a i n connected e l e c t r i c a l l y by m o t o r switch c o n t a c t s which a r e not opened on m a n n e d S / C . A switch to two n o n e s s e n t i a l b u s e s p e r m i t s isolating n o n e s s e n t i a l equipment d u r i n g a s h o r t a g e of power ( t w o f u e l c e l l power p l a n t s out). The postlanding b u s supplies power t o s o m e of t h e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s equipment, float bag No. 1 and No. 3 controls, and t h e ECS postlanding vent control. In flight and up to CSM s e p a r a t i o n , the postlanding b u s r e c e i v e s power f r o m the fuel c e l l s a n d / o r e n t r y b a t t e r i e s through t h e m a i n d-c b u s e s . After CSM s e p a r a t i o n , the e n t r y b a t t e r i e s supply power to the postlanding b u s through the m a i n d-c b u s e s o r d i r e c t l y through individual c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s . Motor switch c o n t a c t s which c l o s e when the MAIN B U S T I E s w i t c h e s a r e positioned O N , c o m p l e t e the c i r c u i t between t h e e n t r y b a t t e r i e s and the m a i n d - c b u s e s and open the connection f r o m the b a t t e r y c h a r g e r . The b a t t e r y r e l a y b u s p r o v i d e s d - c power to t h e d - c and a - c s e n s i n g units, and the fuel c e l l and i n v e r t e r c o n t r o l c i r c u i t s . T h e pyrotechnic b a t t e r i e s supply power to initiate o r d n a n c e d e v i c e s f o r s e p a r a t i o n of the LES, f o r w a r d h e a t s h i e l d , S / M f r o m C / M , and f o r deployment of the d r o g u e and m a i n p a r a c h u t e s d u r i n g a pad a b o r t , higha l t i t u d e abor,t, o r n o r m a l m i s s i o n p r o g r e s s i o n . The S / M j e t t i s o n cont r o l l e r b a t t e r i e s , supply power through t h e S / M j e t t i s o n c o n t r o l l e r s f o r t h e CSM s e p a r a t i o n m a n e u v e r . To o p e r a t e r e c o v e r y c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and o t h e r a i d s a f t e r landing, power i s provided by the e n t r y b a t t e r i e s through t h r e e c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s ( f i g u r e 2.6-11) which a r e n o r m a l l y open until j u s t p r i o r to CSM s e p a r a t i o n . D i s t r i b u t i o n of a - c power ( f i g u r e 2. 6-12) is a c c o m p l i s h e d with a f o u r w i r e s y s t e m v i a two redundant b u s e s , a - c b u s N o . 1 and a - c b u s N o . 2. T h e a - c n e u t r a l bus is connected t o the single-point ground. A-C power i s provided by the s o l i d - s t a t e 11 5/200-volt 4 0 0 - c p s 3 - p h a s e i n v e r t e r s . D - C power is routed t o t h e i n v e r t e r s through the m a i n d - c b u s e s . I n v e r t e r No. 1 c a n be powered t h r o u g h d - c m a i n bus A , i n v e r t e r N o . 2 through d - c m a i n b u s B , and i n v e r t e r No. 3 through e i t h e r d - c m a i n bus A o r B by switch selection. Each of t h e s e c i r c u i t s h a s a s e p a r a t e c i r c u i t b r e a k e r and a power c o n t r o l m o t o r switch. Switches f o r applying power to t h e m o t o r s w i t c h e s a r e located on MDC-18. All t h r e e i n v e r t e r s a r e identical and a r e provided with o v e r t e m p e r a t u r e c i r c u i t r y . A light indicator, in the c a u t i o n / w a r n i n g g r o u p on MDC-11, i l l u m i n a t e s to indicate a n o v e r t e m p e r a t u r e situation. I n v e r t e r o p e r a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e i s t e l e m e t e r e d

ELECTRICAL .POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.6-26

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IUMMlTIi~ UCUWI

4S0tLOCL-CMNMlALC 5 0 I O U - M W E L I A D SCSVAW

Hf I U M C U M I

-t A m 0 CIMLI-COHDI
AWIO UNTEI KEY U U V

I

--t WC A R M

- CoMDt L l N G t
IUccW

Wf E C o v f W

A m 0 ClNILt Y C U L - E"

-

E
L

W

wv

1-

-

E M I Y MTT(IV 4

I

CM M WIN M

A

MAIN IUS TIE (ALC) SWllCH
M l T € t Y CHMGLt SEUCIOI SWltcH

cowL(sI0t w. I WtlGHlING I n
FLOAT M G

No. I

COWL (YoA)

E LOCK (SEO A) U

wsnt MM $to tom
LOGLC

-

MIA

-

% INDKAIW S ( 1 W U A)

PCMW CIMML CONROL-PITCH
M W E t V tEUV IUS

YOLDOUZ ERAME

/

-7
Mis s ion

.. ...

S M Z A -03-SCO12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

ENltY BAWERY I
CM DC M I N IUS

DC O U l N I
DC 0 "

8

U FllGHl A N D lOSll4NDlNG B S
talk BUS TIE lBMl

M 0"T

- Cf LL NO - F U L CfLL No
FU€L

-

WE1 CELL NO I
1

3

SWITCH
CM DC WW.

OAlltRl CWIRGft YLEClMI SWITCH

n A a
I P R l M t Y )I H IC I

cowussoa NO I

i WRIGI l I N G S

Sn G l M u L H o I o (
IPS G I W

Wlot

ORIMAtY Y4wi

ELI LOGIC

isto ni
d IDS A m 1 f N A ~ L 1ISEO 1 1
CONICCOIllV
DC VOLlAGt mrirw nus I
0-45

MLSC

AtM

MASTER LVLM SLQ LOCK Ml I

-

M I X LOGIC fSfQ 1 1

VDC

DC IWIUIORS SW ( U T I)

LE)

ioGic wa I)
~

EDS-IVS NO 3

F IO

SECONO4MG l W L COMROL YCONDAtY GIUML C O M t O L M m t Y U U Y IUS

Y4W

- PIICH
COMtOLLft
S/M JEnlSON CONltOLLft A

untn A

CEACTAM SMmW VALVES

a U C I A M IHUICfF VALVES

-

- FlXL Ut1 No. 1
F M L C I U NO. 3

DC U W f N O L f A G f SIMING UNT DC uNDttVOL1AGL S E W NG U H l

-

MN W A
DC W N 1 A 011 s

-WWI

I N V t t l E t NO. I COMtOL (oc L A C IUS 1) INVltTLt NO. 3 CONTI(X (rC ud 1) IPNtETft NO, 1 COMICX (oc L AC US I ) I N W t l € t NO. I C O N l I a u c 1) I w f t R t NO. 3 COMtOL (oc L AC UJS I) I N M t l E t NO. 2 c w i t a u c I a U AC MI-VNDENOLTAGE L OVIUOAD S M I N C U M I IW I) AC Wit-UNOENOIIAGI L QVEULOU) SEMlNG UNll (IWI 1

S A C l N MU?.M Y

NO. I

SPECIAL EOUI?. M V

NO. 3

SKOAL IMP.

uicn

Et *
VM
XllISON CONROLLEI

S/M l T l l S O N C O M t O L U t I

MllEN I

0" # % Co7I.c" .

,-in

C

l

d

S*C%*JYG

F i g u r e 2.6-9.

D-C P o w e r D i s t r i b u ti on

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM

Mission

Basic Date 1 2 Nov 1966

Change Date
. .

Page 2 . 6 - 2 7 1 2 . 6 - 2 8

CL U"

a,

SMZA -03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-

SYSTEMS DATA

ylo *n3a

M3U4

.-

x

Y

3,

A

n

0
n

2

U

I

i

4r

t

I

6

c

Yi

lI c

sag

E L E C T R I C A L P O W E R SYSTEM
Mission

B a s i c Date

1 2 N o v 1966 Change Date

Page

2.6-29

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA t o t h e MSFN. I n v e r t e r output i s routed through a s e r i e s of c o n t r o l m o t o r s w i t c h e s t o t h e a - c b u s e s . Six s w i t c h e s on MDC-18 c o n t r o l m o t o r s w i t c h e s which o p e r a t e c o n t a c t s to connect o r d i s c o n n e c t t h e i n v e r t e r s f r o m the a - c b u s e s . The m o t o r s w i t c h e s a r e designed to p r e v e n t connecting two i n v e r t e r s t o t h e s a m e a - c b u s a t t h e same t i m e . AC l o a d s a r e p o w e r e d through t h e redundant a - c b u s e s . In s o m e i n s t a n c e s , one p h a s e i s u s e d f o r o p e r a t i o n of equipment; in o t h e r s two, and in o t h e r s a l l t h r e e . O v e r - u n d e r v o l t a g e and o v e r l o a d s e n s i n g c i r c u i t s ( f i g u r e 2 . 6 - 1 1 ) a r e provided f o r e a c h bus. A-C b u s voltage fail and o v e r l o a d l i g h t s i n . t h e c a u t i o n / w a r n i n g g r o u p on MDC-11 p r o v i d e a v i s u a l indication of t h e s e malfunctions. Monitoring of voltage and f r e q u e n c y of e a c h phase on e a c h b u s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y s e l e c t i o n with the AC INDICATORS switch. Readings a r e displayed on s e p a r a t e AC VOLTS and FREQUENCY m e t e r s located on MDC-18. E a c h p h a s e voltage and $ A f r e q u e n c y i s t e l e m e t e r e d t o MSFN s t a t i o n s . 2.6.4 2.6.4.1 PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA. AC and DC Data. AC and DC p e r f o r m a n c e and d e s i g n d a t a f o r the E P S i s a s follows AC Phases Displacement Steady- s t a t e voltage T r a n s i e n t volt age Recovery 3

lZO* 2 d e g r e e s
115*2 v a c ( a v e r a g e of 3 p h a s e s ) 115 ( $ 3 5 , -65) v a c To 115*10v within 15 ms, s t e a d y s t a t e within 50 m s 2 v a c ( w o r s t phase f r o m a v e r a g e )

Un b a1a n c e Frequency limits N o r m a l ( s y n c h r o n i z e d to c e n t r a l timing equipment) E m e r g e n c y ( l o s s of c e n t r a l t i m i n g equipment)

400*2 c q s

400*7 c p s

Wave c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( s i n e wave) 5 percent Maximum distortion 4 percent Highest h a r m o n i c 1.414*10 p e r c e n t C r e s t factor Rating 1250 v a

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date

.

page

2.6-30

WTTERV CHARGERMNA

Figure 2 . 6 - !

Mission

Basic

.-.

SMZA -03 - SCO I 2

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
i

M T T E R Y CWUGERMNB

Figure 2.6-11.

Battery Charger and CM D - C Bus Control Circuits ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

P a g e 2 . 6 - 3 1f 2 . 6 - 3 2

SM2A-03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
INVERTER NO. 1 ONLY ONE INVERTER ANY ONE TIME INVERTER NO. 3 INVERTER NO. 3 AC S M R SIG-AC 2 ANY ONE TIME

e

INVERTERNO. 1

A@
AC SENSE UNIT INDICATORSSW AC SENSE UNIT INDICATORS S W

PUMP MOTORS -FUEL CELL 1 PUMP MOTORS FUEL CELL 2 PUMP MOTORS FUEL CELL 3 pH SENSOR (6) CRYOGENIC FLEL QTY AMPL I ( I C )

PUMP MOTORS FUEL CELL 1

-

pH SENSOR @A)

-

PUMP MOTORS FUEL CELL 2 pH SENSOR (@A) PUMP MOTORS - FUEL CELL 3
pH SENSOR UA)

CRYOGENIC FUEL QTY WPL 2 (ZC) CRYOGENIC FAN MOTORS SYS 2 MTTERY CHARGER TELECOMMUNICATIONS ECS GLYCOL PUMP ECS SUIT COMPRESSOR E S CABIN RECIRC CON1 AND C TEMP CO NT ECS SPACE RAD ISOLATION AND VENT VALVE (PA AND C) STAB. AND CON1 SYS GROW 1 STAB. AND CON1 SYS GROW 2
SPS GAUGING (BC)

- - )

CRYOGENK FAN MOTORS SYS I

-

-

BATTERY CHARGER TELECOMMUNICATIONS E S GLYCOL PUMP C

E S SUIT COMPRESSOR C E S CABIN RECIRC, TEMP CONTROL C AND WASTE MGT BLOWER

-) .

E S SPACE RAD ISOLATION AND VENT C VALVE (#A AND B)

STAO.AND CON1 SYS STAB.AND CON1 SYS
SPS

- GROW I - GROW 2

-

-

GAUGING (BC)

NOTE: UIlerr o t h a r r i ~
noted, . I 1
0-c

LIGHTING L GLN SIG COND (bs)

LIGHTING 6 GLN SIG COND (fin)

lmdi use

2 $

mer.

GAS ANALYZER (#A)

F i g u r e 2.6-12.

A-C P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.6-33

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA DC Steady- s t a t e voltage l i m i t s Normal During postlanding and p r e f l i g h t checkout p e r i o d s Ripple voltage

29*2.0 vdc

27 to 30 vdc 1v P-P

2.6. 4. 2

Power Requirements. P o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e E P S a r e a s follows: Unit Input Power (Watts) Total Input Power (Watts) AC DC

Unit

Control

Unit 2uantity

AC

DC

F U E L CELLS
Hydrogen pump

F U E L CELL PUMP-1, -2, and - 3 s w (MDC-22)
FUEL C E L L PUMP-1, -2, and - 3 s w (MDC-22) F U E L FELL PUMP-1, -2, and - 3 s w (MDC-22) and F U E L C E L L INDICATORS sw (MDC-18)

100.0

300.0

Glycol p u m p

20.0

60.0

pH i n d i c a t o r

2.0

6.0

Power factor correction for above i t e m s Total including pf correction Pressure transduce r s H2 f l o w m e t e r circuits

2.5

7.5

373.5

F U E L C E L L INDICATORS sw (MDC-18)
F U E L C E L L INDICATORS sw (MDC-18)

2.0

18.0

1.0

3.0

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM Mission

Basic Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2-6-34

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

Unit Input Power (Watts) Unit O2 f l o w m e t e r circuits H2 p u r g e line h e a t e r P u r g e solenoid Control F U E L C E L L INDICATOR! sw (MDC-18) H2 PURGE LINE HEATER (MDC- 15) FUEL CELL-1, -2, -3, and H2 PURGE/O2 PURGE sw (MDC-18) None (Automatic on a t t 3 8 5*5 F) ( A u t o m a t i c off at t 390*5 F) Unit Quantity 3 AC DC

T o t a l Input Pow e r (Watts) AC DC 3.0

1.0

2

2.0

4.0

6

17. 5

105.0

F u e l c e l l inline heater

3

160.0

480.0

CRYOGENICS H2 t a n k h e a t e r H2 HEATERS-1 and - 2 sw (MDC-13) O2 HEATERS-1 and - 2 (MDC- 13) 2 20.0
40.0

0 2 tank h e a t e r

2

155.0

310.0

SW'

H2 t a n k fan

H2 FANS-1 and - 2 s w :MDC-13)

4

5.0

to. 0

0 2 tank fan

: MDC - 13)

3 2 FANS -1 and - 2 s w

4

14. 5

58.0

Pressure t r an s duc e r Signal conditioner

ESSENTIAL-3 ( 1 5 3 ) SIB ZRYOGENIC SYSTEM2 T Y A M P L - 1 and - 2 j C C / B (MDC-22) BATTERY CHARGER s e l e c t o r sw (MDC-18)

4

1.5

6.0

4

4.0

.6. 0

BATTERY CHARGER

1

i5. 0 nax

84.0 max

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change D a t e

page

2.6-35

S M 2 A - 0 3 - S C O 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Unit Input Power (Watts) Unit SENSING UNITS D-C u n d e r voltage s e n s i n g unit ( 2 c i r c u i t s ) A-C u n d e r and o v e r v o l t a g e and overload s e n s i n g unit (2 circuits)
I

T o t a l Input Power (Watts) AC DC

Control

Unit Quantity

AC

DC

MAIN BUS A and BR E S E T I O F F sw (MDC-18)

0.5

AC BUS 1 and 2 - R E S E T / O F F sw (MDC-18)

1.0

PHASE SYNCHRONIZER

INV PHASE LOCK ( p a n e l 208)

7.5

7.5

UNIT
INVERTERS ( S e e note) AC INVERTER-1, - 2 , and - 3 s w (MDC-18)

NOTE With a 28-volt d - c input, e a c h i n v e r t e r will operate'at a i r efficiency of 76 p e r c e n t m i n i m u m with a 1250 v o l t - a m p e r e load, 0 . 9 power f a c t o r , and 74 p e r c e n t m i n i m u m with a 625 v o l t - a m p e r e l o a d , 0 . 9 power f a c t o r .
2.6. 5 2.6. 5 . 1

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS, F u e l C e l l P o w e r Plants. F u e l c e l l power p l a n t s a r e designed to function under a t m o s p h e r i c and high v a c u u m conditions. E a c h m u s t b e a b l e to m a i n t a i n i t s e l f at s u s t a i n i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s and m i n i m u m e l e c t r i c a l l o a d s a t both e n v i r o n m e n t e x t r e m e s . To function p r o p e r l y , fuel c e l l s m u s t o p e r a t e under the following l i m i t a t i o n s and r e s t r i c t i o n s :
e e

E x t e r n a l nonoperating t e m p e r a t u r e Operating t e m p e r a t u r e i n s i d e S / M E x t e r n a l nonoperating p r e s s u r e N o r m a l voltage

-20" to t 1 4 0 " F

t30" to t 1 3 0 " F
Atmospheric
27 to 31 vdc

e
0

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
1 2 NOV 1966

Change Date

Page

2-6-36

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
0

M i n i m u m o p e r a t i n g voltage Emergency operation

20. 5 vdc a t 2295 w a t t s ( g r o s s power l e v e l ) 27 v d c 31 vdc 75 a m p e r e s f o r o v e r 1 5 m i n u t e s , 112 a m p e r e s f o r 25 to 300 s e c o n d s 1 second m i n i m u m 563 w a t t s 160 w a t t s

Normal operation
0

M a x i m u m o p e r a t i n g voltage F u e l c e l l d i s c o n n e c t ( o v e r l o a d and r e ver se c u r r e n t r el a y )

0

Maximum r e v e r s e c u r r e n t
0

Minimum sustaining power/fuel cell power p l a n t (with i n - l i n e h e a t e r off) In-line h e a t e r

0

H2 p u r g e l i n e h e a t e r
M a x i m u m g r o s s power u n d e r e m e r g e n c y conditions Nitrogen p r e s s u r e Reactant p r e s s u r e qxygen Hydrogen R e a c t a n t c o n s u m p t i o n / f u e l cell p o w e r plant Power Level Hydrogen Oxygen

4 watts
2295 w a t t s

0

0

52 to 70 p s i a

0

62 to 75 p s i a 60. 5 to 75 p s i a

0

563W 0.0476 0.378

I

2295W 0.262 l b / h r 2.08 l b / h r

0

Electrolyte w a t e r concentration Minimum stack t e m p e r a t u r e f o r self- sustaining operation Approximate external environment t e m p e r a t u r e range outside S / C ( f o r radiation) F u e l c e l l p o w e r plant o p e r a t i n g s k i n t e m p e rat u r e Condenser exhaust operating temperature -260" to t 4 0 0 " F

0

0

0

t 3 8 5 " to t 5 0 0 " F

0

$155" to t 1 7 5 " F

E L E C T R I C A L P O W E R SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 N o v 1966 Change Date

page 2 . 6 - 3 7

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
0

Purging frequency

Nominally e v e r y 24 h r s . (dependent on r e a c t a n t p u r i t y a f t e r tank fill)

0 2 s w i t c h ON t i m e H 2 switch ON t i m e
0

2 minutes 80 s e c o n d s

Additional flow r a t e while purging

02 H2 2. 6. 5. 2
C r v o nenic Sto r a n e Sub s vs tem.

Up to 0.6 l b / h r Up t o 0 . 7 5 l b / h r

T h e c r y o g e n i c s t o r a g e s u b s y s t e m m u s t b e a b l e to meet the following r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n of the f u e l c e l l power p l a n t s and t h e ECS:
0

M i n i m u m u s a b l e quantity Oxygen H yd rog en T e m p e r a t u r e at time of f i l l Oxygen Hydrogen Operating p r e s s u r e range Oxygen H yd r o g e n Temperature probe range Oxygen H yd r o g en M a x i m u m allowable d i f f e r e n c e in quantity balanc e between t a n k s Oxygen t a n k s No. 1 and 2 Hydrogen tanks No. 1 and 2 P r e s s u r e relief v a l v e o p e r a t i o n Crack pressure Oxygen H yd r og e n Reseat pressure Oxygen H yd r o g e n F u l l flow, m a x i m u m relief Oxygen Hydrogen

320 lb e a c h tank 2 8 l b e a c h tank

0

- 2 9 7 ° F (approx) -423 OF ( a p p r o x )

0

865 to 935 p s i a 225 to 260 p s i a

0

-325" to t 8 0 " F -425" t o -200°F

0

15 l b 1 lb

0

998 p s i a 288 p s i a
980 p s i a 283 p s i a 1025 psia 300 p s i a

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
l2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.6-38

SM2A -03-SCO12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2.6.6 T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS. T h e following is a c o m p l e t e list of all EPS t e l e m e t r y d a t a that is m o n i t o r e d by flight c o n t r o l l e r s and ground s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l . T h e l a s t c o l u m n c o n t a i n s t h e n a m e and type of S / C c r e w display. T h e d i s p l a y u t i l i z e s t h e s a m e pickoff o r s i g n a l s o u r c e as t e l e m e t r y , u n l e s s a s e p a r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r is included in t h e d i s p l a y column. An a s t e r i s k (:::) by t h e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r d e n o t e s information which is n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o r d i n g o r t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n d u r i n g P C M low b i t r a t e operation. Measurement Number CC 0175 T CC 0176 T CC 0177 T ;::CC 0178 T 4CC 0179 T *CC 0188 P Normal Operating Range

Description T e m p static i n v e r t e r 1 T e m p static inverter 2 Temp static inverter 3 Temp battery A case Temp battery B case

Sensor Range t 3 2 / t 248 F t 32/ t248a F t32/ t248O
F

C r e w Display

t 4 0 " to t 1 4 0 " F INV 1 T E M P HI C&W light t 4 0 " to t 1 4 0 " F t 4 0 " to t 1 4 0 " F t 5 0 " t o 1 1 0 ° F None ( 2 0 0 ° F entry) t 5 0 " to 1 1 0 ° F None (200°F entry) Auxiliary DC VOLTS Zero meter 113 to 117 v a c A C VOLTS m e t e r 113 t o 117 v a c 113 to 117 v a c 113 to 117 v a c 113 to 117 vac 113 to 117 v a c

P r e s s bat compartment (Manif) cc 0200 v AC voltage m a i n b u s 1 phase A :::cc 0201 v AC voltage m a i n b u s 1 phase B :::cc 0202 v AC voltage m a i n b u s 1 phase C CC 0203 V AC voltage m a i n b u s 2 phase A :kCC 0204 V A C voltage m a i n b u s 2 phase B +CC 0205 V AC voltage m a i n b u s 2 phase C CC 020.6 V DC voltage m a i n b u s A CC 0207 V DC voltage m a i n b u s B :::cc0210 v DC voltage b a t t e r y bus A *cc 0211 v DC voltage b a t t e r y bus B

2 e r o / t 18

psia Zero/t150 vac Z e r o / t 150 vac Zero/t150 vac Zero/tl50 vac Zero/tl50 vac Zero/tl50 vac Z e r o / t 4 5 vdc Z e r o / t 4 5 vdc Z e r o / t 4 5 vdc Z e r o / t 4 5 vdc

A C VOLTS m e t e r
AC VOLTS m e t e r AC VOLTS m e t e r AC VOLTS m e t e r AC VOLTS m e t e r DC VOLTS m e t e r DC VOLTS m e t e r DC VOLTS m e t e r DC VOLTS m e t e r

27 to 31 vdc 27 to 31 vdc 3 5 to 37 vdc open c i r c u i t 27 to 29 vdc on load

E L E C T R I C A L P O W E R SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

we_ 2.6-39

SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Measurement Number

*cc 0212 v

r
Description DC voltage p o s t landing battery
~

SYSTEMS DATA Normal Operating Range

Sensor Range

C r e w Display DC VOLTS m e t e r

*CC 0213 F *CC 0214 V *CC 0217 F

Frequency ac bus 1 phase A DC voltage b a t c h a r g e r

Z e r o / + 4 5 vdc 35 to 3 7 . 2 vdc open c i r c u i t 27 to 29 vdc on load +3a0/+420 393 t o 407 CPS CPS Z e r o / + 4 5 vdc 37 to 39 vdc

FREQUENCY m e t e r DC VOLTS meter FREQUENCY m e t e r DC AMPS m e t e r DC AMPS m e t e r DC AMPS m e t e r None

~

*cc 0222 c
*CC 0223 C *CC 0224 C CC 0232 V *SC 2060 P

+380/+420 F:z:uency a c bus 2 393 t o 407 phase A CP S CPS - 3 / t 1 0 0 a m p - 3 to 30 DC c u r r e n t b a t t e r y A -3/+100 a m p -3 to 30 a m p s DC c u r r e n t b a t t e r y B DC c u r r e n t p o s t landing - 3 / t 1 0 0 a m p - 3 to 30 a m p s battery Z e r o / f 4 5 vdc 25 to 36.5 DC voltage b a t t e r y vdc relay bus Zero/ t 7 5 50 to 5 4 p s i a N2 p r e s s u r e F / C 1 regulated psia

*SC 2061 P

N2 p r e s s u r e F / C 2 r e g u a t ed l

Z ero/+75
psia

50 to 5 4 p s i a

*SC 2062 P

N2 p r e s s u r e F / C 3 r e g ul a t e d

2ero/ t 75

50 to 54 p s i a

psia

*SC 2066 P

0 2 pressure F/C 1 r e g ul a t ed

Zeroit75 psia

59 to 65 p s i a

*SC 2067 P

0 2 pressure F / C 2 regulated

Zero/+75 psia

59 to 65 p s i a

F / C 1 C&W light, REG OUT PRESS HI-Nz event indic a t o r , and auxili a r y DC VOLTS meter. F / C 2 C&W light, REG OUT PRESS H I - N z event indic a t o r , and auxili a r y DC VOLTS meter F / C 3 C&W light, REG OUT PRESS HI-Nz event indic a t o r , and auxili a r y DC VOLTS meter F / C 1 C&W light, R E G OUT PRESS H I - 0 2 event indic a t o r , and auxili a r y DC VOLTS meter F / C 2 C&W light, REG OUT PRESS H I - 0 2 event indic a t o r , and auxili a r y DC VOLTS meter

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a e i c Date
l 2 Nov l 9 6 6

Change Date

page

2.6-40

SMZA-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA Measurement Number ::SC 2068 P Normal Operating Rang e

Description 0 2 pressure F / C 3 regulated

Sensor Range Zero/t75 psia

C r e w Display F / C 3 C&W light, REG OUT PRESS H I - 0 2 event indic a t o r , and auxili a r y DC VOLTS meter F / C 1 C&W light, REG OUT PRESS HI-HZ event indic a t o r , and auxili a r y DC VOLTS meter F / C 2 C&W light, REG OUT PRESS HI-H, event indi-

59 to 65 p s i a

*sc 2069

P

H2 p r e s s u r e F / C 1 regulated

Zero/t75 psia

5 7 . 5 to 63. 5 psia

*SC 2070 P

H2 p r e s s u r e F / C 2 regulated

Z e r o / t 75 psia

57. 5 to 63. 5 psia

*:SC 2071 P

H2 p r e s s u r e F / C 3 regulated

Zero/t75 psia

57.5 to 63. 5 psia

SC 2081 T

T e m p F / C 1 cond exhaust

$1 5O/t25O0 F

t 1 5 7 " to t172"F

SC 2082 T

T e m p F / C 2 cond exhaust

$1 5O/t25O0F

t157" to t172"F

SC 2083 T

T e m p F / C 3 cond exhaust

t l 5 0 / $250 F
O

t157" to t172"F

SC 2084 T

T e m p F / C 1 skin

+ 8 0 / t 5 5 0 'F

t385" to +460 ' F

SC 2085 T

T e m p F / C 2 skin

t80/ t550 F
O

t385" to +460 a F

REG OUT PRESS HI-Hz event indic a t o r , and auxili a r y DC VOLTS meter F / C 1 C&W light, and MODULE T E M P COND-EXH indicator F / C 2 C&W light, and MODULE T E M P COND-EXH indicator F / C 3 C&W light, and MODULE T E M P COND- EXH indicator F / C 1 C & W light and MODULE T E M P - SKIN indicator F / C 2 C&W light and MODULE TEMP-SKIN indicator

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.6-41

SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Measurement Number SC 2086 T Normal Ope r a t i n g Range t 3 8 5 " to t 4 6 0 'F

Description T e m p F / C 3 skin

Sensor Range t80/t55O0F

C r e w Display

SC 2087 T

Temp F / C 1 radiator outlet

- 50 / t 3 0 0

F

-30"

SC 2088 T

Temp F / C 2 radiator outlet

- 5O/t30O0F

-30"

SC 2089 T

Temp F / C 3 radiator outlet

-50/+300" F

-30"

SC 2113 C SC 2114 C SC 2115 C

sc

2120

x

DC c u r r e n t F / C 1 output DC c u r r e n t F / C 2 output DC c u r r e n t F / C 3 output F u e l cell 1 6 u s A di s connect

Zero/tlOO amps Zero/t100 amps Z e r o / t 100 amps Off / on event

18 t o

F / C 3 C&W light and MODULE T E M P - SKIN indicator to t 3 0 0 " F F / C 1 C&W light, F / C RAD T E M P LOW event indicat o r and a u x i l i a r y DC VOLTS m e t e r to +300"F F / C 2 C&W light, F / C RAD T E M P LOW event indicat o r and a u x i l i a r y DC VOLTS m e t e r to + 3 0 0 " F F / C 3 C&W light, F / C RAD T E M P LOW event indicat o r and a u x i l i a r y DC VOLTS m e t e r DC AMPS m e t e r 22 a m p s
-+-

18 to 22 a m p s 18 to 2 2 a m p s Connect e d

DC AMPS m e t e r DC AMPS m e t e r F / C BUS DISCONNECT C&W light and F U E L CELL-1MAIN BUS A switch event indicator F / C BUS DISCONNECT C&W light and FUEL CELL-2MAIN BUS A s w i t c h event indicator F / C BUS DISCONNECT C&W light and F U E L CELL-3MAIN BUS A switch event indicator

sc

2121

x

Fuel cell 2 bus A disconnect

Off / o n event

Connected

sc

2122

x

Fuel cell 3 bus A disconnect

Off/on event

Disconnected

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM

SMZA-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Measurement Number SC 2125 X Normal Ope r a t i n g Range Disconnected

De s c r i p t i o n Fuel cell 1 bus B disconnect

Sensor Range Off / on event

C r e w Display F / C BUS DISCONNECT C&W light and F U E L CELL-1MAIN BUS B switch event ind i c ato r F / C BUS DISCONNECT C&W light and F U E L CELL-2MAIN BUS B switch event indicator F / C BUS DISCONNECT C&W light and F U E L CELL-3MAIN BUS B switch event indicator F / C 1 C&W light and FLOW-H2 indicator F / C 2 C&W light and FLOW-H2 indicator F / C 3 C&W light and FLOW-HZ indicator F / C 1 C&W light and F L O W - 0 2 indicator F / C 2 C&W light and F L O W - 0 2 ind i c a to r F / C 3 C&W light and F L O W - 0 2 indicator F / C 1 C&W light and pH HI e v e n t indicator F / C 2 C&W light and pH HI event ind i c ato r F / C 3 C&W light and pH HI event indicator

SC 2126 X

Fuel cell 2 bus B d i s c onne c t

OffJon event

Connected

SC 2127 X

Fuel c e l l 3 b u s B disconnect

Off/on event

Connected

4SC 2139 R

Flow r a t e H2 F / C 1

Zero/+O. 2 lb/hr Zero/+O. 2 lb/hr Zero/+O. 2 lb/hr Zero/+I. 6 lb/hr Zero/+l, 6 lb/hr Zeroli-l.6 lb/hr N o r m a l / high event N o r m a1/ high event

0 . 0 4 6 to 0.056 lbs/hr
0.046 to 0 . 0 5 6 lbs/hr 0.046 t o 0.056 lbs/hr 0.370 to 0.450 lbs/hr
0. 370 to 0.450 lbs/hr

ikSC 2140 R

Flow r a t e H2 F / C 2

*SC 2141 R

Flow r a t e H2 F / C 3

*SC 2142 R

Flow r a t e 0 2 F J C 1

.

::SC 2143 R

Flow r a t e 0 2 F / C 2

:tSC 2144 R

Flow r a t e 0 2 F / C 3

0. 370 t o 0. 450 Ibs/hr
Normal

:::SC 21 60 X

D f a c t o r w a t e r condiH tion F / C 1 ?H f a c t o r w a t e r condition F / C 2 pH f a c t o r w a t e r condition F / C 3

::SC 2161 X

Normal

::SC 2162 X

N o r m a l / h igh event

Normal

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date pag> 2.6-43

SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~~~

Measurement Number
~~ ~

Description

Sensor Range

Normal Ope r a t i n g Range Open

C r e w Display FUEL CELL REACTANTS e v e n t indicator FUEL CELL REACTANTS e v e n t indicator FUEL CELL REACTANTS event indicator TANK QUANTITYH2- 1 i n d i c a t o r TANK QUANTITYH2-2 i n d i c a t o r TANK QUANTITY0 2 - 1 indicator TANK QUANTITY0 2 - 2 indicator 0 2 PRESS C&W light and TANK PRESSURE-02- 1 indicator 0 2 PRESS C&W light and TANK PRESSURE-02 -2 indicator H2 PRESS C&W l i g h t and TANK PRESSURE-HZ-1 indicator H2 PRESS C&W light and TANK PRESSURE- H2 - 2 indicator None None None None

SC 2323 X

F u e l c e l l 1 s h u t off m o n C l o s e / o p e n event F u e l c e l l 2 s h u t off m o n Clo s e / o pen event F u e l c e l l 3 s h u t off m o n C l o s e / o p e n event Quantity H2 t a n k 1 Quantity H2 t a n k 2 Q u a n t i t y 0 2 tank 1 Quantity O2 tank 2 P r e s s 0 2 tank 1 Zero/+28 lb Zeroli-28 lb Z e r o I t 3 20 lb z e r o / +3 20 lb +50/+1050 psia

SC 2324 X

Open

SC 2325 X

Open

SF 0030 Q SF0031 Q

SF 0032 Q
SF 0033 Q
SF0037 P

t 2 8 l b s to zero +28 l b s t o zero t 3 2 0 lbs to zero t 3 2 0 lbs t o zero 8 6 5 to 935 psia

SF 0038 P

P r e s s 0 2 tank 2

t50/+1050 psia

8 6 5 t o 935 psia

SF 0039 P

Press H2 tank' 1

Zer0/+35O psia

225 t o 260 psia

S F 0040 P

P r e s s H2 t a n k 2

i ero/+35O ! psia

225 t o 260 psia

SF 0041 T SF 0042 T
SF 0043 T
SF 0044 T

T e m p O2 t a n k 1 T e m p O2 t a n k 2 T e m p H2 t a n k 1 T e m p H2 tank 2

-325 /+80 F -3 251 t 8 0 a F -425 / - 200 F
O

-4251 - 2 0 0 ° F

-284" t o -140°F -284" t o -140°F -417" to -340°F -417" to -340°F

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l2

1966

C h a n g e Date

Page

2.6-44

SM2A-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
-_

SYSTEMS DATA T h e a u x i l i a r y DC VOLTS m e t e r , FUNCTION S E L E C T and T E S T S E L E C T s w i t c h e s , located o n panel 200 in t h e C / M R H F E B , p r o v i d e a m e a n s of m o n i t o r i n g v a r i o u s t e l e m e t e r e d m e a s u r e m e n t s within t h e S / C and v e r i f y i n g c e r t a i n p a r a m e t e r s d i s p l a y e d only b y e v e n t i n d i c a t o r s . T h e following l i s t p r e s e n t s t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s t e s t c a n b e m o n i t o r e d using t h e a u x i l i a r y DC VOLTS m e t e r , t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e switch p o s i t i o n s , and the r a n g e of e a c h s e n s o r N o r m a l o p e r a t i n g p a r a m e t e r s of m e a s u r a b l e i t e m s a r e c o v e r e d in t h e t e l e m e t r y l i s t i n g .

.

Switch P o s i t i o n s A u x i l i a r y DC VOLTS M e t e r Indication ( T e l e m e t r y Identity) and Code No.)
N2 p r e s s u r e , p s i a F / C 1 SC 2060 P F / C 2 SC 2061 P F / C 3 SC 2062 P

I
S e n s o r Range
0 to 75 p s i a

Function Select A

Test Select

1

2

0 2 pressure, psia F / C 1 SC 2066 P F / C 2 SC 2067 P F / C 3 SC 2068 P H2 p r e s s u r e , p s i a F / C 1 SC 2069 P F / C 2 SC 2070 P F / C 3 SC 2071 P

0 t o 75 p s i a

0 to 75 psia

.
-50" to t 3 0 0 " F

E P S radiator outlet temp F / C 1 SC 2087 T F / C 2 S C 2088 T F / C 3 SC 2089 T C/M-RCS oxidizer valve t e m p - P engine, s y s A CR 2205 T tY engine, s y s B CR 2203 T - P e n g i n e , s y s B CR 2204 T CW engine, s y s B CR 2206 T CCW e n g i n e , s y s A CR 2201 T - Y engine, s y s A CR 2202 T P I P A t e m p CC, 2300 T IRIG t e m p CG 2301 T
r 5

-50" to t 2 5 0 " F

I

$125" to t 1 3 5 " F

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page

2.6-45

SMZA-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
I
I

Switch P o s i t i o n s A u x i l i a r y DC VOLTS M e t e r Indication ( T e l e m e t r y Identity) and Code N o . ) IMU c u r r e n t H e a t e r C G 2302 C B l o w e r CG 2303 C

Function Select

Test Select

S e n s o r Range
0 to 5 a m p s

7 8

I
B a t t e r y manifold P r e s s u r e , p s i a CC 0188 P E C S r a d i a t o r inlet T e m p S F 0665 T

I
1 9

I
I

0 to 18 p s i a

I
CIMRCS 3xidizer Valve Temp
( O F )

lo

I

t 6 0 " to t 1 5 0 " F

T h e c o n v e r s i o n of t h e p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d t e l e m e t r y m e a s u r e m e n t s t o t h e a u x i l i a r y DC V O L T S m e t e r indication is p r e s e n t e d as follows: AUiliary DC VOLTS Meter Display

N2,02, H2 P r e ssure (PSIA)

E PS Radiator Outlet Temp
(OF)

I
PIPA Temp IRIG Temp
(OF) (OF)

IMU Heater and Battery B l o w e r Man if old Current Pressure (PSIA) (Amps)

ECS
Rad ia t o r Inlet Temp
( O F )

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1. 8 2.0

0 3 6

- 50
-36 -22.

9
12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60

-8
t6 t20 t34 t48 t62 t76 +90 t104 t118 +132 +146 t160 t174 +188 t202 t216 t 230

- 50 -38 - 26 -14 -2 t10
t22 t34 t46 t58 t 70 t82 t94 tl06 t118 t130 t142 t154 t166 t178 t190

t125.0 t125.4 t125.8 t126.2 t126.6 t127.0 t127.4 t127.8 t128.2 t128.6 t129.0 t129.4 t129.8 t130.2 t130.6 t131.0 $131.4 t131.8 t132.2 t132.6 t133.0

t128. 5 t128.9 t129.3 t129.7 t130.1 +130. 5 t130.9 t131.3 t131.7 t132. 1 t132. 5 t132.9 $133.3 $133.7 t134. 1 t134. 5 t134.9 t135.3 t135. 7 t136.1 t136.5

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
1.2 1.4

.

0.00 0.72 1.44 2.16 2.88 3.60
4. 32 5. 0 4 5. 76 6.48 7.20 7.92 8.64 9.36 10.08 10.80 11.52 12.24 12.96 13.68 14.40

t60.0 t63.6 t67. 2 t70.8 t74.4 $78.0 t81.6 t85.2 t88.8 t92.4 t96.0 t99.6 t103.2 tio6.8 t110.4 $114.0 t117.6 $121.2 t124.8 t128.4 t132.0

1.6
1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0

2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
3.2 3.4 3. 6 3. 8 4.0

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.6-46

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA AUiliary DC VOLTS Meter Display 4.2 4.4 4.6 4. 8 5.0 C/MRCS EPS Radiator Oxidizer Outlet Valve Temp Temp
(OF)

NZ, 0 2 ,

HZ
P r e s s u re (PSIA) 63 66 69 72 75

PI P A Temp
( O F )

IRIG Temp
(OF)

(OF)
t202 t214 t226 t238 t250

IMU Heater and Blower Current (Amps) 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0

Battery Manifold Pressure (PSIA) 15.12 15.84 16.56 17.28 18.00

I

ECS Radiator Inlet Temp
( O F )

t244 t258 t272 t286 t300

t133.4 t133.8 t134.2 t134.6 t135.0

t136.9 t137.3 t137.7 t138.1 t138. 5

t135.6 t139.2 t142.8 t146.4 t150.0

E L E C T R I C A L POWER SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change D a t e

page 2 . 6 - 4 7 1 2 . 6 - 4 8

t

SMZA-03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2 SUBSECTION 2 . 7 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM (ECS)

2.7.1

INTRODUCTION. The environmental control system (ECS) is designed to provide a c o n t r o l l e d e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h r e e c r e w m e n within t h e Apollo C / M f o r m i s s i o n s up to 14 d a y s . The s y s t e m a l s o s u p p l i e s s e v e r a l of the m e t a b o l i c r e q u i r e m e n t s , a s well a s functioning i n t h e r e m o v a l of b y - p r o d u c t s r e s u l t ing f r o m t h e n o r m a l m e t a b o l i c p r o c e s s . The c o n t r o l l e d e n v i r o n m e n t c o n s i s t s of a p r e s s u r e suit c i r c u i t f o r u s e during n o r m a l o r e m e r g e n c y conditions, and a s h i r t s l e e v e a t m o s p h e r e within the C / M c a b i n , f o r u s e when n o r m a l conditions p r e v a i l . Oxygen and t h e r m a l l y c o n t r o l l e d w a t e r a r e supplied f o r c r e w c o n s u m p t i o n ; w h e r e a s , c a r b o n dioxide and o d o r s , w a t e r - p r o d u c t i o n , and h e a t output a r e r e m o v e d . In addition, the ECS d i s p e r s e s equipment h e a t l o a d s and p r o v i d e s f o r venting the w a s t e s t o r a g e c o m p a r t m e n t . C o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s a r e l o c a t e d in s e v e r a l a r e a s within t h e C / M c a b i n ; t h e s e , in conjunction with a u t o m a t i c a l l y functioning c o m p o n e n t s , and s e n s i n g and p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s , a i d the c r e w in t h e o p e r a t i o n of the s y s t e m . T h e five s u b s y s t e m s composing the ECS a r e t h e oxygen supply, pressurezvsuit c i r c u i t , c a b i n p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l , w a t e r glycol coolant, and w a t e r supply. The oxygen supply s u b s y s t e m c o n t r o l s t h e inflow of oxygen f o r the e n t i r e -4pollo m i s s i o n . T h i s function i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r , demand r e g u l a t o r s , s t o r a g e t a n k s , check v a l v e s , and m a n u a l shutoff v a l v e s . T h e p r e s s u r e suit s u b s y s t e m a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l s t h e flow, p r e s s u r e , t e m p e r a t u r e , and c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t g a s . In c o n j u n c t i o n with t h e C / M p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m , it a l s o c o n t r o l s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t conditions in the cabin when one, o r a l l of t h e c r e w a r e out of t h e i r p r e s s u r e s u i t s . T h e s e functions a r e p r o v i d e d by w a t e r s e p a r a t o r s , t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s , a suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r , a d e b r i s t r a p , g a s c o m p r e s s o r , CO2-odor a b s o r b e r s , and a w a t e r g l y c o l - t o - g a s heat exchanger. The c a b i n p r e s s u r e a n d t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m a u t o m a t i c a l l y m a i n t a i n s t h e p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e cabin within s p e c i f i e d l i m i t s . T h i s function i s a c c o m p l i s h e d in conjunction with t h e p r e s s u r e suit s u b s y s t e m by m e a n s of r e g u l a t e d oxygen inflow, r e c i r c u l a t i o n b l o w e r s , a h e a t e x c h a n g e r , a t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l and s e n s o r s , v e n t v a l v e s , and o t h e r v a l v e s and c o n t r o l s r e q u i r e d . T h e w a t e r - g l y c o l s u b s y s t e m is a n i n t e r m e d i a t e h e a t t r a n s f e r l o o p which p e r m i t s e x c e s s h e a t to be t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e C / M i n t e r i o r to t h e s p a c e r a d i a t o r s w h e r e i t is r e j e c t e d to the c o s m i c sink. This function is a c c o m p l i s h e d by p u m p s , heat e x c h a n g e r s , ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date

l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date

P a g e 2 . 7-

SMZA-03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA c o l d p l a t e n e t w o r k s , v a l v e s , and c o n t r o l s . The w a t e r supply s u b s y s t e m c o l l e c t s , s t o r e s , and p r o v i d e s w a t e r f o r s u p p l e m e n t a l h e a t t r a n s f e r o p e r a tion, and c o l l e c t s and s t o r e s potable w a t e r f o r consumption by t h e c r e w . T h e s e functions a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by utilizing w a t e r t a n k s , p r e s s u r e controls, cyclic accumulators, and valves. . O t h e r t h a n t h e c i r c u i t r y r e q u i r e d f o r c o n t r o l s a n d d i s p l a y s or e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r , t h r e e points of i n t e r f a c e e x i s t between t h e ECS and o t h e r S I C s y s t e m s . All oxygen supplied to t h e ECS flows f r o m the c r y o g e n i c s t o r a g e t a n k s , which a r e c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t of t h e EPS. The fuel c e l l s , a l s o a p a r t of t h e EPS, f u r n i s h t h e o n b o a r d supply of potable w a t e r that i-s s t o r e d by the ECS. T h e t h i r d i n t e r f a c e point is with t h e w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m , which c o n n e c t s into t h e ECS o v e r b o a r d dump line.

2 . 7. 2

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION. T h e ECS r e q u i r e s a m i n i m u m a m o u n t of c r e w t i m e be spent for n o r m a l s y s t e m o p e r a t i o n . In addition t o p e r i o d i c a l l y m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m i n d i c a t o r s , t h e c r e w i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of s e v e r a l n o r m a l t a s k s on a n i n f r e q u e n t b a s i s . F o r conditions o t h e r t h a n n o r m a l , t h e d u t i e s of the c r e w will i n c r e a s e . E l e c t r i c a l and m a n u a l o v e r r i d e a n d backup c a p a b i l i t i e s e x i s t throughout the ECS t o m a i n t a i n the r e q u i r e d r e l i a b i l i t y l e v e l of the s y s t e m . T h e oxygen supplied t o t h e ECS f r o m t h e s t o r a g e t a n k s i n t h e S/M is u s e d to c a r r y o u t a v a r i e t y of s y s t e m functions. Upon r e a c h i n g t h e ECS, oxygen is a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e g u l a t e d and m a n u a l l y r o u t e d to v a r i o u s s u h s y s t e m c o m p o n e n t s by a s y s t e m of v a l v e s and l i n e s . Also i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y functioning c o m p o n e n t s t o m a i n t a i n suit a n d l o r cabin p r e s s u r e i n t h e event of c a b i n d e c o m p r e s s i o n of equipment malfunction. T h e a t m o s p h e r e of t h e p r e s s u r i z e d cabin, a s well a s t h a t of the p r e s s u r e g a r m e n t a s s e m b l i e s (PGA), is r o u t e d t h r o u g h t h e suit c i r c u i t f o r c o n t a m i n a n t r e m o v a l and h u m i d i t y c o n t r o l . T h e flow, p r e s s u r e , and t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l within t h e s u i t c i r c u i t , a r e m a i n t a i n e d by o t h e r c o m p o n e n t s of t h e s u b s y s t e m . T h i s is a c c o m p l i s h e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y by u s i n g t r a n s d u c e r s , s e n s o r s , and c o n t r o l u n i t s to r e g u l a t e t h e s e functions. M e c h a n i c a l - t y p e oxygen p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s a u t o m a t i c a l l y m a i n t a i n cabin p r e s s u r e within p r e s c r i b e d l i m i t s . The t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e cabin is c o n t r o l l e d by a n a u t o m a t i c unit t h a t reg1 l a t e s t h e output of t h e c a b i n heat e x c h a n g e r with the a i d of s e n s o r s a n d a n t i c i p a t o r s . C a r b o n dioxide and o d o r s a r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e suit c i r c u i t and c a b i n g a s e s by routing t h e g a s flow t h r o u g h two f i l t e r s i n t h e C 0 2 - o d o r a b s o r b e r c a n i s t e r s . E a c h f i l t e r c o n t a i n s sufficient lithium hydroxide ( C 0 2 r e m o v a l ) and a c t i v a t e d c h a r c o a l ( o d o r r e m o v a l ) f o r a 12-hour duty p e r i o d f o r a c r e w of t h r e e . T h e s u i t c i r c u i t and cabin a t m o s p h e r e s a r e a l s o s a m p l e d by a g a s c h r o m a t o g r a p h t h a t will i d e n t i f y up t o 28 g a s c o m p o n e n t s t h a t m a y be p r e s e n t .
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SYSTEMS DATA H e a t , g e n e r a t e d by t h e c r e w a n d t h e m a n y i t e m s of e l e c t r i c a l equipm e n t l o c a t e d in the cabin, is a b s o r b e d by r e c i r c u l a t i n g w a t e r - g l y c o l . T h e h e a t is t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l a s it flows t h r o u g h t h e s u i t h e a t e x c h a n g e r , t h e cabin h e a t e x c h a n g e r , a n d t h e cold p l a t e n e t w o r k f o r t h e e l e c t r i c a l equipment. T h e w a r m w a t e r - g l y c o l is t h e n r o u t e d t h r o u g h s p a c e r a d i a t o r s in t h e S / M , w h e r e t h e h e a t is r a d i a t e d t o s p a c e . Supplementing t h e r a d i a t o r s a n d / o r a s a b a c k u p m o d e , w a t e r e v a p o r a t o r s a r e employed f o r any a d d i t i o n a l t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l of s u i t g a s e s o r insufficiently cooled w a t e r -glycol. P o t a b l e a n d w a s t e w a t e r a r e g e n e r a t e d o n - b o a r d t h e S I C . The potable w a t e r i s a b y - p r o d u c t of t h e E P S fuel c e l l s a n d flows t o t h e ECS w h e r e i t is s t o r e d . Cold potable w a t e r is a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c r e w f o r d r i n k i n g , and hot o r cold potable w a t e r is a v a i l a b l e f o r food r e c o n s t i t u t i o n . W a s t e w a t e r is d e r i v e d f r o m t h e m o i s t u r e t h a t c o n d e n s e s in t h e w a t e r s e p a r a t o r of t h e s u i t e x c h a n g e r . It i s c o l l e c t e d and s t o r e d by t h e ECS a n d u s e d f o r e v a p o r a t i v e cooling i n tlie s u i t h e a t e x c h a n g e r e v a p o r a t o r a n d t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l evaporator. 2.7.3 MAJOR COMPONENT/SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION. P e r t i n e n t d e s i g n d a t a in r e g a r d t o c o m p o n e n t s , t h e i r function within e a c h s u b s y s t e m , and how t h e y i n t e r f a c e i s contained u n d e r m a j o r c o m p o n e n t / s u b s y s t e m d e s c r i p t i o n . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n follows t h e l o g i c a l flow, component by c o m p o n e n t , t h r o u g h e a c h s u b s y s t e m of t h e ECS.
2 . 7. 3. 1

Oxygen Supply S u b s y s t e m . T ~ coy o g e n i c oxygen s t o r a g e t a n k s ( p a r t of t h e e l e c t r i c a l power r s y s t e m ) supply 900*35 p s i a oxygen flow t o t h e ECS. E a c h t a n k c o n t a i n s 320 pounds of oxygen, a n d of t h e t o t a l supply, a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d i s c o n s u m e d by t h e ECS. Oxygen flows u n r e s t r i c t e d i n p a r a l l e l l i n e s f r o m t h e S / M supply t a n k s into t h e C / M . In t h e C / M , oxygen flows i n e a c h supply line through a filter, a capillary r e s t r i c t o r , and a check valve upstream to t h e i r connection t o a c o m m o n d i s t r i b u t i o n line. T o a s s u r e u n i f o r m flow, the capillary r e s t r i c t o r s a r e coiled around a warm water-glycol line to i n c r e a s e t h e oxygen t e m p e r a t u r e . E a c h r e s t r i c t o r a l l o w s a m a x i m u m flow of 4 . 5 pounds p e r h o u r into t h e ECS t o l i m i t t h e d e m a n d s p l a c e d on t h e c r y o g e n i c oxygen s t o r a g e t a n k s a n d enable t h e tank h e a t e r s t o m a i n t a i n the p r e s c r i b e d tank p r e s s u r e s . T h e m i n i m u m flow r a t e will not d e c r e a s e below 3. 4 pounds p e r h o u r a s t h e oxygen d e n s i t y d e c r e a s e s due t o u s a g e . I l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e ECS i n t e g r a t e d s c h e m a t i c ( f i g u r e 2. 7-13) t h e m a n u a l S / M supply shutoff valve, l o c a t e d on t h e LHEB panel 307, i s n o r m a l l y in t h e ON position a n d p l a c e d t o O F F p r i o r t o SCM s e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e e n t r y p h a s e of t h e m i s s i o n . Downstream of the S / M shutoff v a l v e 90W35 p s i a oxygen i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o a s u r g e tank, a n e n t r y 0 2 t a n k , a PLSS f i l l v a l v e , a n d t h e m a i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l y . Oxygen flows t o t h e s u r g e tank t h r o u g h a m a n u a l s u r g e tank i s o l a t i o n v a l v e , l o c a t e d on t h e LHEB panel 307. T h e s u r g e tank p r o v i d e s a r e s e r v o i r of O2 f o r t h e e n t r y m i s s i o n m o d e s , and d u r i n g flow r e q u i r e m e n t s a b o v e t h e 0 . 9 pound p e r hour m a x i m u m ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

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SMZA-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA allowable by the c a p i l l a r y r e s t r i c t o r s . Approximately 3. 7 pounds of oxygen is a v a i l a b l e a t nominal inlet p r e s s u r e of 900*35 p s i a . A s u r g e tank p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r output is displayed by the TANK PRESS 0 2 1 i n d i c a t o r , l o c a t e d o n MDC panel 13. T h e i n d i c a t o r input m u s t be s e l e c t e d by t h e switch position, SURGE TANK, l o c a t e d below t h e indicator. T o r e d u c e the d e m a n d l o a d s on t h e c r y o g e n i c s t o r a g e s y s t e m , high flow r a t e s f r o m the s u r g e tank will m a i n t a i n cabin p r e s s u r e f r o m 5 t o 3. 5 p s i a f o r 5 m i n u t e s , with a 0. 5 - i n c h - d i a m e t e r p u n c t u r e i n t h e cabin. The flow r a t e into the c a b i n i s a function of r e g u l a t o r v a l v e s d o w n s t r e a m of the s u r g e tank. T h e 5-minute p e r i o d a l l o w s unsuited c r e w m e m b e r s t o don PGAs. When i s o l a t e d by t h e s u r g e tank m a n u a l shutoff valve, t h e tank is p r o t e c t e d b y a p r e s s u r e r e l i e f and m a n u a l shutoff valve a s s e m b l y . The r e l i e f portion i s s e t between 1 0 2 0 a n d 1 0 7 0 p s i g . Should t h e r e l i e f v a l v e fail or not r e s e a t p r o p e r l y , the m a n u a l shutoff valve will i s o l a t e the relief v a l v e function f r o m the s y s t e m . Downstream 0 2 supply is a l s o s t o r e d in a one-pound e n t r y 0 2 tank, t h r o u g h a m a n u a l t h r e e - w a y s e l e c t o r valve, a c h e c k valve, and a check v a l v e b y p a s s . When the m a n u a l s e l e c t o r valve is i n t h e F I L L position, the e n t r y 0 2 supply tank r e c e i v e s high p r e s s u r e 0 2 through the check valve b y p a s s . When the tank i s c h a r g e d , the s e l e c t o r valve m a y be positioned t o O F F t o i s o l a t e the tank supply, o r t o O N whereby the 0 2 tank supply m a y a u g m e n t the s u r g e tank function. T h e check valve p r e v e n t s a r e v e r s e flow i n c a s e of e n t r y 0 2 tank damage. An i s o l a t i o n check v a l v e between the two t a n k s p r e v e n t s r e v e r s e flow a n d a m a n u a l valve p e r m i t s c h a r g i n g PLSS oxygen t a n k s f r o m t h e ECS. T h e 9 0 W 3 5 - p s i g oxygen supply, f r o m t h e c r y o g e n i c t a n k s , i s r e g u l a t e d t o 100*10 p s i g by the m a i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 2. 7-1, T h e m a i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a m a n u a l s e l e c t o r v a l v e , two r e g u l a t o r s , and two r e l i e f and check v a l v e s . NORMAL position of t h e m a n u a l s e l e c t o r v a l v e p a r a l l e l s the r e g u l a t o r s . P o s i t i o n No. 1 o r No. 2 s e l e c t s i t s r e g u l a t o r r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e O F F position i s o l a t e s a l l 0 2 supply f o r t h e c r e w a n d cabin. Should a r e g u l a t o r fail open, t h e r e l i e f v a l v e for t h a t r e g u l a t o r will l i m i t the p r e s s u r e to 140 psig downs t r e a m a n d v e n t a m a x i m u m flow of 0. 75 pounds p e r minute into the cabin. T h i s fault should be c o r r e c t e d by s e l e c t i n g t h e a l t e r n a t e r e g u l a t o r only. An oxygen flow t r a n s d u c e r , d o w n s t r e a m of the m a i n r e g u l a t o r , p r o v i d e s a s i g n a l t o the flow i n d i c a t o r , located on the m a i n display console panel 13, and t h e 0 2 FLOW HI light. Although s h o r t p e r i o d s of flow in e x c e s s of 0 . 4 5 pounds p e r hour a r e c o n s i d e r e d n o r m a l , a continuous flow r a t e between 0.45 and 1. 0 pound p e r h o u r should not be t o l e r a t e d . Flow r a t e s above 1. 0 pounds p e r hour a n d f o r a period of 15 s e c o n d s a n d above a c t i v a t e the r e d 0 2 FLOW HI w a r n i n g light located on the caution and w a r n i n g (C%W) panel 11. T h e 15-second t i m e d e l a y p r e v e n t s the O2 FLOW HI light f r o m lighting d u r i n g O2 flow r e q u i r e m e n t s of the c y c l i c a c c u m u l a t o r s t h a t r e m o v e w a t e r from t h e suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r , and during t r a n s i e n t conditions. Continued flow r a t e s in t h i s r a n g e a r e indicative o f cabin l e a k a g e , 0 2 supplied s u b s y s t e m leakage, o r s u b s y s t e m m i s m a n a g e m e n t .

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SYSTEMS DATA

SELECTOR VALVE

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PRESSURE REGUL.ATOR

F i g u r e 2. 7- 1.

Main Oxygen P r e s s u r e R'egulator

Connected t o t h e lOO*lO-psig regulated p r e s s u r e line i s a fluid tank p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a n d relief v a l v e a s s e m b l y , l o c a t e d on t h e OXYGEN CONTROL P A N E L No. 314. It c o n s i s t s of redundant p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s a n d relief v a l v e s which provide oxygen a t r e g u l a t e d p r e s s u r e t o t h e expuls i o n b l a d d e r s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e potable w a t e r tank, w a s t e w a t e r tank, and the w a t e r - g l y c o l ( W / G ) r e s e r v o i r . Two f o u r - p o s i t i o n s e l e c t o r v a l v e s a r e employed a t the i n l e t a n d outlet, and enable i s o l a t i o n of malfunctioning e l e m e n t s o r c o m p l e t e shutoff a s d e s i r e d . T h e p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r i s a n o r m a l l y opened, diaphragm - o p e r a t e d poppet m e t e r i n g valve which functions to r e d u c e lOO*lO-psig supply p r e s s u r e t o 20*2-psig 0 2 p r e s s u r e t o the fluid t a n k s , i n r e l a t i o n t o cabin p r e s s u r e . The r e l i e f valve i n c o r p o r a t e d in t h e a s s e m b l y outlet c h a m b e r functions t o r e l i e v e 0 2 p r e s s u r e in e x c e s s of 25*2 psig into the cabin. Should a r e g u l a t o r diaphragm r u p t u r e , and i s i s o l a t e d by the inlet m a n u a l s e l e c t o r v a l v e , the m a n u a l outlet s e l e c t o r v a l v e m u s t a l s o be positioned t o i s o l a t e the r e l i e f portion of the failed r e g u l a t o r . T h i s p r e v e n t s a feedback f r o m t h e a l t e r n a t e r e g u l a t o r flowing oxygen through t h e r u p t u r e d diaphragm of the failed r e g u l a t o r into the cabin. Should the s e l e c t o r i n l e t valve of t h e a s s e m b l y be placed to position 1, the s e l e c t o r outlet valve m u s t a l s o be placed t o position 1 ( o r NORMAL). If i n s t e a d , t h e s e l e c t o r outlet valve w e r e placed to position 2 , the valve p o r t t o p r e s s u r i z e the t a n k s would be c l o s e d , a n d the p o r t t o the r e l i e f
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SM2A-03-SC012 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA v a l v e would r e m a i n open. T h i s p e r m i t s t h e p r e s s u r e r e l i e f function a f t h e v a l v e t o r e m a i n o p e r a t i v e but p r o h i b i t s s u b s e q u e n t tank p r e s s u r i z a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , when t h e s e l e c t o r o u t l e t v a l v e is s e t t o position 2 , t h e s e l e c t o r i n l e t v a l v e m u s t a l s o be s e t to position 2 ( o r NORMAL). T h e O F F position of t h e i n l e t and outlet s e l e c t o r v a l v e s is n o r m a l l y f o r ground checkout; however, i f both p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s malfunction d u r i n g flight, t h e s e l e c t o r inlet v a l v e m u s t be s e t t o t h e O F F position. T h i s e l i m i n a t e s t h e tank p r e s s u r i z a t i o n function, but d o e s not a f f e c t t h e p r e s s u r e r e l i e f function. In r e s p o n s e to the p o s s i b i l i t y of both r e l i e f v a l v e s malfunctioning, t h e s e l e c t o r outlet valve m u s t be s e t to t h e O F F position. T h i s a c t i o n will e l i m i n a t e both t h e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n and p r e s s u r e r e l i e f functions. T h e lOO+lO-psig oxygen supply is c o n t r o l l e d by the e m e r g e n c y cabin p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r , l o c a t e d on p a n e l 314, to provide i n c r e a s e d oxygen flow t o t h e c a b i n , and p r e v e n t r a p i d d e c o m p r e s s i o n . T h e e m e r g e n c y cabin p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r c o n s i s t s of d u a l a n e r o i d - o p e r a t e d , n o r m a l l y c l o s e d v a l v e s to p r e v e n t o v e r p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of t h e a n e r o i d s , and a m a n u a l f o u r p o s i t i o n s e l e c t o r v a l v e with p o s i t i o n s d e s i g n a t e d No. 1 , No. 2 , NORMAL, and O F F . A P R E S S - T O - T E S T button, which c l o s e s t h e cabin p r e s s u r e s e n s e p o r t a l l o w s a fix bleed of 1 0 0 c c p e r m i n t o p r e s s u r i z e a n a n e r o i d c h a m b e r and d r i v e t h e v a l v e open. N o r m a l l y t h e lOO*lO-psig oxygen supply to t h e c a b i n is c o n t r o l l e d by t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l y . It c o n s i s t s of d u a l , a n e r o i d - a b s o l u t e type n o r m a l l y c l o s e d v a l v e s , and e a c h will d e l i v e r a m i n i m u m of 0 . 2 pound p e r hour oxygen flow a t a cabin p r e s 4 s u r e of 5. MO. 2 p s i a . F a i l u r e m o d e of t h e v a l v e i s n o r m a l l y c l o s e d . m a n u a l c o n t r o l valve m a y be opened and allow a m i n i m u m 6 pounds p e r h o u r flow of 0 2 d i r e c t l y into t h e c a b i n f o r r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n f r o m 0. 0 to 5. 0 p s i a within one h o u r . T h e cabin p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r and t h e e m e r g e n c y c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a r e a s s o c i a t e d with t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m ( p a r a g r a p h 2 . 7. 3. 3). Oxygen d i s t r i b u t i o n a t 100510 p s i g i s routed to a m a n u a l l y o p e r a t e d m e t e r i n g v a l v e , for d i r e c t flow into t h e suit inlet duct. In t h e full open position, oxygen will flow f r o m 0 . 6 to 0. 7 pound p e r m i n u t e . D o w n s t r e a m t h e dual suit d e m a n d p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r and r e l i e f v a l v e , l o c a t e d on LHEB panel 310, c o m p a r e s suit c o m p r e s s o r inlet p r e s s u r e to c a b i n a m b i e n t p r e s s u r e . When t h e c o m p r e s s o r inlet p r e s s u r e is 2. 5 to 3. 5 i n c h e s of w a t e r p r e s s u r e below c a b i n p r e s s u r e , the demand r e g u l a t o r c o n t r o l s O2 flow into t h e suit c i r c u i t a t flow r a t e s up to 0. 007 pound p e r m i n u t e . When the c o m p r e s s o r inlet p r e s s u r e i s above 2 to 9 i n c h e s of w a t e r p r e s s u r e above c a b i n p r e s s u r e , t h e r e l i e f valve v e n t s t h e suit c i r c u i t g a s e s t o t h e c a b i n a t a m a x i m u m flow r a t e of 0 . 6 6 pound p e r minute. N o r m a l l y t h e c o m p r e s s o r inlet manifold is r e g u l a t e d to a n a v e r a g e of 6. 10 i n c h e s of w a t e r above c a b i n a m b i e n t p r e s s u r e . When cabin a m b i e n t p r e s s u r e is l e s s than 4 p s i a , a 100 c c m bleed within the demand r e g u l a t o r i s u s e d to m a i n t a i n t h e suit c i r c u i t p r e s s u r e a t 3. 7 5 * 0 . 2 5 p s i a . With c a b i n a m b i e n t p r e s s u r e below 3. 5 p s i a and a 0. 66 pound p e r m i n u t e suit l e a k a g e , t h e demand r e g u l a t o r should s u s t a i n suit c i r c u i t p r e s s u r e a t 3. 7550. 25 p s i a . -4 f o u r - p o s i t i o n manual s e l e c t o r v a l v e with c o n t r o l p o s i t i o n s d e s i g n a t e d a s No. 1, No. 2 , both, and O F F p r o v i d e s i s o l a t i o n of a fault. T h e demand p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r and r e l i e f v a l v e a r e d e s c r i b e d in p a r a g r a p h 2. 7. 3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Oxygen r e g u l a t e d a t lOO*lO-psig p r e s s u r e is u s e d a s a motive f o r c e in t h e r e m o v a l of w a s t e w a t e r f r o m the suit c i r c u i t and then expelled into the suit heat exchanger.
2 . 7. 3 . 2

P r e s s u r e Suit C i r c u i t S u b s y s t e m . The p r e s s u r e s u i t s u b s y s t e m is a loop o r c i r c u i t designed t o supply a conditioned a t m o s p h e r e f o r a c r e w o f t h r e e , w h e t h e r they be in o r out of t h e i r PGAs. T h e c i r c u i t p r o v i d e s f o r ventilation and cooling f o r t h e c r e w , t h e r e m o v a l of c a r b o n dioxide a n d o d o r s , and the c o n t r o l o f r e l a t i v e humidity. Suit c i r c u i t p r e s s u r e is m a i n t a i n e d by controlling t h e a m o u n t of oxygen entering the subsystem.
A s u p p l y - r e t u r n hose a s s e m b l y i s connected between e a c h c r e w m a n ' s PGA and a s u i t h o s e c o n n e c t o r a s s e m b l y . T h i s a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a c o m bined supply- r e t u r n connection. A t h r e e - p o s i t i o n s u i t flow c o n t r o l valve, which d i v e r t s oxygen into t h e c a b i n when a c r e w m e m b e r i s u n s u i t e d , and a c h e c k v a l v e p r e v e n t s r e t u r n flow f r o m the cabin. N o r m a l o p e r a t i o n i s to d i s c o n n e c t t h e h o s e a t the suit. T h e r e is a l s o a v e n t u r i - t y p e flow l i m i t e r , l o c a t e d u p s t r e a m in e a c h supply l i n e , to l i m i t flow to a n y one s u i t t o a m a x i m u m of 0. 7 pound p e r minute. During the t i m e a c r e w m e m b e r is i n the s h i r t s l e e v e m o d e , the flow c o n t r o l v a l v e i s positioned t o p e r m i t s u i t c i r c u i t flow into t h e C / M cabin, t h r o u g h the s u i t h o s e , which is r e m o v e d a t t h e PGA connection. The r e t u r n s e c t i o n of t h e s u i t h o s e is capped to p r e v e n t c a b i n .. g a s flowing into the s u i t c i r c u i t when c r e w m e n r e m o v e t h e i r s u i t s .

Cabin g a s e s a r e r e t u r n e d t o t h e s u i t c i r c u i t f o r r e m o v a l of c a r b o n dioxide, o d o r s , h e a t , a n d m o i s t u r e . T h e s e g a s e s e n t e r a t the s u i t c i r c u i t r e t u r n a i r v a l v e a s s e m b l y , which c o n s i s t s of two c h e c k v a l v e s in s e r i e s , and a m a p u a l shutoff v a l v e f o r isolating t h e s u i t c i r c u i t i f t h e cabin b e c o m e s c o n t a m i n a t e d . T h e combined c a b i n a n d s u i t c i r c u i t a t m o s p h e r e f i r s t flows through t h e d e b r i s t r a p , w h e r e s m a l l p a r t i c l e s of s o l i d m a t t e r a r e r e m o v e d . T h e t r a p contains a b y p a s s valve in the event t h e f i l t e r s c r e e n b e c o m e s clogged. Two s u i t c o m p r e s s o r s , connected i n p a r a l l e l , m a i n t a i n c i r c u l a t i o n within the s u i t c i r c u i t . N o r m a l l y only one c o m p r e s s o r i s o p e r a t e d a t a t i m e ; h o w e v e r , both m a y be o p e r a t e d f o r a s m a l l advantage in s e n s i b l e heat r e m o v a l with a l a r g e i n c r e a s e in power consumption i n a l l c a s e s except p r e l a u n c h , o r when t h e t h r e e c r e w m e m b e r s a r e unsuited in a 5-psia p r e s s u r i z e d cabin. A d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r between t h e i n l e t and outlet m a n i f o l d s of t h e c o m p r e s s o r s u p p l i e s s i g n a l s f o r indication on the m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e (panel 13). C o m p r e s s o r output i s dependent on t h e mode of o p e r a t i o n . In n o r m a l s p a c e o p e r a t i o n , the o p e r a t i n g c o m p r e s s o r d e l i v e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35 cubic f e e t p e r m i n u t e of s u i t g a s a t a p r e s s u r e r i s e of 10 i n c h e s of w a t e r within the condition of 4 . 9 3 p s i a and 8 8 ° F . When t h e cabin is u n p r e s s u r i z e d , t h e o p e r a t i n g c o m p r e s s o r d e l i v e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 34. 5 cubic feet p e r minute s u i t g a s a t a p r e s s u r e r i s e of 6 . 9 i n c h e s of w a t e r when inlet conditions a r e 3. 51 p s i a a t 8 5 ° F .

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SYSTEMS DATA T h e suit d e m a n d p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r ( f i g u r e 2. 7 - 2 ) c o n t r o l s suit c i r c u i t p r e s s u r e i n n o r m a l a n d e m e r g e n c y m o d e s . It s u p p l i e s oxygen to t h e s u i t s w h e n e v e r t h e suit c i r c u i t i s i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e cabin, and d u r i n g d e p r e s s u r i z e d o p e r a t i o n s . It a l s o r e l i e v e s e x c e s s g a s to p r e v e n t o v e r pressurizing the suits. T h e r e g u l a t o r c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of two redundant d e m a n d r e g u l a t o r s , and a r e l i e f v a l v e . A s e l e c t o r v a l v e i s provided for s e l e c t i n g e i t h e r o r both r e g u l a t o r s , N o r m a l l y both a r e in o p e r a t i o n . E a c h r e g u l a t o r s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of a n a n e r o i d c o n t r o l , and a d i f f e r e n t i a l d i a p h r a g m housed in a r e f e r e n c e c h a m b e r . The d i a p h r a g m is connected by a r o d to t h e demand valve. T h e demand valve will be opened whenever a p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l is s e n s e d a c r o s s t h e d i a p h r a g m . In o p e r a t i o n t h e r e i s a c o n s t a n t b l e e d flow of oxygen f r o m t h e supply into t h e r e f e r e n c e c h a m b e r ,

ANEROID

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,SUIT RELIEF
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F i g u r e 2 . 7-2.

Oxygen Demand P r e s s u r e R e g u l a t o r and Relief Valve ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

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SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA a r o u n d t h e a n e r o i d , and out t h r o u g h t h e c o n t r o l p o r t into the cabin. A s long a s the cabin p r e s s u r e i s g r e a t e r t h a n 3 . 7 5 p s i a , t h e flow of oxygen t h r o u g h t h e c o n t r o l p o r t i s v i r t u a l l y u n r e s t r i c t e d , so t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e within t h e r e f e r e n c e c h a m b e r is e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t of t h e cabin. T h i s p r e s s u r e a c t s on t h e u p p e r s i d e of the d i a p h r a g m , while suit p r e s s u r e is a p p l i e d to the u n d e r s i d e . The d i a p h r a g m c a n be m a d e to open t h e demand valve by e i t h e r i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e f e r e n c e c h a m b e r p r e s s u r e , o r by d e c r e a s i n g the s e n s e d suit p r e s s u r e. T h e i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e mode o c c u r s during d e p r e s s u r i z e d o p e r a t i o n s . A s t h e cabin p r e s s u r e d e c r e a s e s t h e a n e r o i d expands. At 3. 75 p s i a the a n e r o i d w i l l have expanded. sufficiently to r e s t r i c t t h e outflow of oxygen t h r o u g h t h e c o n t r o l p o r t , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g the r e f e r e n c e c h a m b e r p r e s s u r e . D e c r e a s e d suit p r e s s u r e mode o c c u r s whenever the suit c i r c u i t i s i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e cabin, and c a b i n p r e s s u r e i s above 5 p s i a . In the p r o c e s s of r e s p i r a t i o n t h e c r e w will e x h a l e c a r b o n dioxide and w a t e r v a p o r . In c i r c u l a t i n g t h e s u i t g a s e s through t h e C 0 2 - o d o r a b s o r b e r a n d t h e suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r , t h e CO2 and w a t e r a r e r e m o v e d . T h e r e m o v a l r e d u c e s the p r e s s u r e in t h e suit c i r c u i t , which is s e n s e d by t h e r e g u l a t o r on the u n d e r s i d e of t h e d i a p h r a g m . When the p r e s s u r e d r o p s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 i n c h e s H 2 0 below c a b i n p r e s s u r e , t h e d i a p h r a g m will open t h e demand v a l v e . The r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l y c o n t a i n s a poppet-type r e l i e f valve which is i n t e g r a l with t h e suit p r e s s u r e s e n s e p o r t . During o p e r a t i o n s when the c a b i n p r e s s u r e is above 3. 75 p s i a , the r e l i e f v a l v e is loaded by a coil s p r i n g which a l l o w s e x c e s s suit g a s to be vented w h e n e v e r s u i t p r e s s u r e r i s e s 2 to 9 i n c h e s H 2 0 above c a b i n p r e s s u r e . When the c a b i n p r e s s u r e d e c r e a s e s t o 3. 75 p s i a , t h e r e f e r e n c e c h a m b e r p r e s s u r e is i n c r e a s e d by the t h r o t t l i n g effect of t h e expanding a n e r o i d . T h e r e f e r e n c e c h a m b e r p r e s s u r e i s a p p l i e d through d u c t s to two r e l i e f - v a l v e loading c h a m b e r s which a r e a r r a n g e d i n t a n d e m above t h e r e l i e f v a l v e poppet. The p r e s s u r e in t h e loading c h a m b e r s a c t s on t a n d e m d i a p h r a g m s which a r e f o r c e d a g a i n s t t h e r e l i e f valve poppet. The r e l i e f p o r t i o n of the v a l v e is t h u s i n c r e a s e d t o 3. 75 p s i a p l u s 2 t o 9 i n c h e s HZO. Two p a r a l l e l C 0 2 - o d o r a b s o r b e r c a n i s t e r s , d o w n s t r e a m of the suit c o m p r e s s o r s , function i n t h e r e m o v a l of c a r b o n dioxide and o d o r s . A r e m o v a b l e f i l t e r within e a c h c a n i s t e r c o n t a i n s sufficient lithium hydroxide ( f o r CO2 r e m o v a l ) and a c t i v a t e d c h a r c o a l ( f o r o d o r r e m o v a l ) to l a s t 1. 5 m a n - d a y s of o p e r a t i o n . T h i s o p e r a t i o n a l l i m i t r e q u i r e s e a c h f i l t e r be changed, on a n a l t e r n a t i n g b a s i s , e v e r y 12 h o u r s . An i n t e r n a l b y p a s s i s i n c o r p o r a t e d within e a c h f i l t e r to f u r n i s h t h e r e q u i r e d flow during the ECS e m e r g e n c y m o d e ( c a b i n depres3surize.d); but w i l l a l s o i n c r e a s e the flow u n d e r n o r m a l conditions. Although 50 p e r c e n t of t h e flow is p e r m i t t e d to b y p a s s t h e lithium hydroxide, t h e t o t a l flow m u s t p a s s through the c h a r c o a l filter.

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SYSTEMS DATA
T h e CO2-odor a b s o r b e r f i l t e r change s e q u e n c e involves n u m e r i c a l l y identified f i l t e r s and a l p h a b e t i c a l l y identified f i l t e r stowage c o n t a i n e r s . Although t h e f i l t e r s a r e r e p l a c e d in n u m e r i c a l s e q u e n c e , the stowage c o n t a i n e r s a r e not opened i n a l p h a b e t i c a l s e q u e n c e r e l a t i v e t o f i l t e r r e p l a c e m e n t . O d d - n u m b e r e d f i l t e r s will a l w a y s b e i n s t a l l e d in s u i t c i r c u i t c a n i s t e r A ( u p p e r ) and e v e n - n u m b e r e d f i l t e r s i n s t a l l e d in c a n i s t e r B ( l o w e r ) . A f t e r t h e p r o p e r f i l t e r s t o w a g e c o n t a i n e r is l o c a t e d by t h e c r e w m a n , t h e c o r r e c t f i l t e r is obtained a n d t h e f i l t e r change a c c o m p l i s h e d . T h e u s e d f i l t e r is t h e n stowed i n t h e c o n t a i n e r f r o m which t h e u n u s e d r e p l a c e m e n t c a m e . W h e r e two f i l t e r s a r e stowed one above t h e o t h e r , t h e u s e d f i l t e r will a l w a y s be p l a c e d below t h e r e m a i n i n g u n u s e d f i l t e r . T h i s p r o v i d e s a m o r e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e u n u s e d f i l t e r a t t h e next 1 2 - h o u r r e p l a c e m e n t p e r i o d . F i l t e r r e p l a c e m e n t d a t a , s u c h a s f i l t e r n u m b e r and m i s s i o n t i m e , i s r e c o r d e d by t h e c r e w in t h e flight log.
A d i v e r t e r v a l v e l o c a t e d a t t h e c a n i s t e r s inlet i s n o r m a l l y positioned t o d i r e c t g a s flow t h r o u g h both f i l t e r s . In conjunction with check v a l v e s , l o c a t e d a t e a c h c a n i s t e r outlet, r e p o s i t i o n i n g t h e d i v e r t e r valve i s o l a t e s a n expended f i l t e r . A m a n u a l l y o p e r a t e d vent v a l v e f o r e a c h c a n i s t e r a l l o w s e q u a l i z a t i o n to cabin p r e s s u r e p r i o r to t h e r e m o v a l of a f i l t e r .

Suit c i r c u i t g a s e s , upon leaving t h e COZ-odor a b s o r b e r c a n i s t e r a s s e m b l y , a r e a t a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e a n d h u m i d i t y l e v e l than at a n y o t h e r point in t h e s u i t c i r c u i t . H e a t h a s b e e n g e n e r a t e d in flowing through t h e c o m p r e s s o r s a n d t h e c a n i s t e r a s s e m b l y . Also, t h e a l r e a d y humid g a s e s have picked up a d d i t i o n a l m o i s t u r e due to c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n between the c a r b o n dioxide and lithium hydroxide. T h e s u i t heat e x c h a n g e r r e m o v e s t h i s h e a t and humidity f r o m t h e suit g a s e s . N o r m a l l y t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r fluid, w a t e r - g l y c o l , flowing through t h e suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r r e m o v e s t h e s u i t c i r c u i t h e a t l o a d s t o s p a c e t h r o u g h space radiators. A water-glycol evaporator supplements heat t r a n s f e r when t h e s p a c e r a d i a t o r s a r e inadequate. A s u i t e v a p o r a t o r ( p a r t of t h e s u i t heat e x c h a n g e r ) is p r o v i d e d and used only i n t h e event of a n e m e r g e n c y . Under a l l o t h e r conditions t h e suit e v a p o r a t o r c o n t r o l s a r e t o r e m a i n in t h e O F F position. T h e c o n t r o l s w i t c h (SUIT EVAP, AUTO - M.4N, l o c a t e d on panel 13) c o n t r o l s e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r t o t h e s y s t e m . T h i s o p e r a t i o n a l change will not i m p o s e added c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e m i s s i o n ; h o w e v e r , i f t h e w a t e r glycol e v a p o r a t o r should fail when i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r cooling of e l e c t r o n i c s , e t c . , t h i s would be s u f f i c i e n t c a u s e t o t e r m i n a t e t h e m i s s i o n . Should t h e a b i l i t y of t h e suit e v a p o r a t o r s y s t e m d e m o n s t r a t e p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n , t h e c o n t r o l s w i t c h would be p l a c e d t o the AUTO position. When w a t e r - g l y c o l inlet t e m p e r a t u r e s to t h e s u i t h e a t e x c h a n g e r e x c e e d 5 2 ° F o r t h e outlet t e m p e r a t u r e s of t h e suit c i r c u i t g a s e s f r o m the h e a t e x c h a n g e r e x c e e d 6 0 " F , t h e suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r i s b y p a s s e d by t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l flow t h r o u g h a d i v e r t e r valve. When t h e a u t o m a t i c - c o n t r o l l e d d i v e r t e r valve i s i n t h e full b y p a s s p o s i t i o n , an i n t e g r a l s w i t c h in t h e d i v e r t e r v a l v e a s s e m b l y i s a c t i v a t e d . T h e d i v e r t e r valve s w i t c h a c t i v a t e s the suit e v a p o r a t o r s t e a m p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l unit. T h e c o r r e c t s t e a m duct p r e s s u r e is a u t o m a t i c a l l y ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2. 7-10

SM2A -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a given t e m p e r a t u r e e r r o r by t h e s t e a m p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l unit, p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r , and t h e s t e a m p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l valve. Initial opening of t h e s t e a m p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l valve c a u s e s a s w i t c h in that valve a s s e m b l y to a c t i v a t e the w e t n e s s c o n t r o l unit. W a t e r inlet t h r o u g h a solenoid valve to t h e suit e v a p o r a t o r is a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by s e n s i n g the suit e v a p o r a t o r w e t n e s s and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e suit g a s e s a t the h e a t e x c h a n g e r outlet. When suit g a s t e m p e r a t u r e s r e t u r n t o n o r m a l , t h e e v a p o r a t o r mode i s s e q u e n c i a l l y d e a c t i v a t e d and w a t e r - g l y c o l flow is r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . By o v e r r i d i n g t h e s u i t g a s e s t e m p e r a t u r e s e n s o r a t t h e outlet of the h e a t e x c h a n g e r t h e s y s t e m m a y a l s o be a c t i v a t e d , providing t h e SUIT EVAP c o n t r o l switch is in the AUTO position. S i m u l a t e d high heat load i s i n i t i a t e d by t h e SUIT HT EXCH switch ( L H E B -310).

A s t h e m o i s t u r e - l a d e n suit g a s e s a r e c o o l e d , c o n d e n s a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e within t h e h e a t e x c h a n g e r . T h i s m o i s t u r e is a b s o r b e d by a wick-like m a t e r i a l , r e m o v e d by c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n and t h e s u c t i o n of t h e HzO a c c u m u l a t o r , and pumped into t h e w a s t e w a t e r s y s t e m .
T h e two a c c u m u l a t o r s a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , s e l f - c y c l i n g , r e c i p r o c a t i n g pumps. Oxygen a t 100*10 p s i g p e r i o d i c a l l y a c t i v a t e s the pumps on the expulsion s t r o k e , while a r e t u r n s p r i n g is u t i l i z e d f o r t h e s u c t i o n s t r o k e . Only one a c c u m u l a t o r can be o p e r a t e d a t a t i m e with t h e second f o r standby u s e in t h e event of a malfunction. A m a n u a l backup m o d e of a c c u m u l a t o r o p e r a t i o n is a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d . Following t h e d i s c h a r g e of suit c i r c u i t g a s e s f r o m the suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r , t h e n o r m a l flow i s t o t h e t h r e e suit h o s e c o n n e c t o r a s s e m b l i e s . A suit flow r e l i e f valve i s i n c o r p o r a t e d in the b y p a s s line between t h e o u t l e t of t h e suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r and t h e inlet to t h e suit c o m p r e s s o r . T h e valve opens a t a A P of 5. O*O. 2 in. H20 and a u t o m a t i c a l l y m a i n t a i n s a n e a r l y c o n s t a n t flow in the event of suit c i r c u i t flow r e s i s t a n c e fluctuations. 2. 7. 3 . 2 . 1 C 0 2 Sensor. T h e C 0 2 s e n s o r , s i t u a t e d between t h e inlet and outlet m a n i f o l d s of t h e suit c i r c u i t , is a c o m p a c t unit t h a t o p e r a t e s on the i n f r a r e d a b s o r p t i o n p r i n c i p l e . T h e unit m e a s u r e s t h e a m o u n t of i n f r a r e d e n e r g y a b s o r b e d by t h e C 0 2 in t h e a t m o s p h e r i c s a m p l e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e s e n s o r . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by c o m p a r i n g two d i f f e r e n t wavelengths in the i n f r a r e d s p e c t r u m . One wavelength is a b s o r b e d by C 0 2 , while t h e o t h e r a c t s a s a r e f e r e n c e . T h i s e s t a b l i s h e s a r a t i o s i g n a l which i s a m p l i f i e d and r e a d s out a s a d - c voltage p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e of COz in the s a m p l e gas. The s e n s o r i s divided into t h e o p t i c s s e c t i o n and t h e e l e c t r o n i c s section. T h e o p t i c s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s a n i n f r a r e d e n e r g y s o u r c e ( a s m a l l tungsten f i l a m e n t l a m p ) , and o p t i c a l l e n s e s and m i r r o r f o r focusing the beam through two wavelength f i l t e r s and t h e a t m o s p h e r i c s a m p l e onto a d e t e c t o r . Both wavelength f i l t e r s ( 4 . 3 m i c r o n s f o r s a m p l i n g and 4. 0 m i c r o n s for r e f e r e n c e ) a r e a t t a c h e d to a tuning f o r k which v i b r a t e s a t

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2. 7-11

SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

600 c y c l e s p e r s e c o n d . The f i l t e r s move back and f o r t h a c r o s s t h e focused light b e a m , a l t e r n a t e l y t r a n s m i t t i n g e n e r g y a t t h e s a m p l e a n d r e f e r e n c e wavelengths.
T h e b a s i c p u r p o s e of t h e e l e c t r o n i c s s e c t i o n is to d e t e c t and t r a n s f o r m s i g n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . M i n i a t u r i z e d c o m p o n e n t s a r e mounted on s e v e n p r i n t e d c i r c u i t b o a r d s , which a c c o m p l i s h a l l t h e e l e c t r i c a l functions. T h e s e functions include supplying t h e p o w e r f o r t h e i n f r a r e d s o u r c e l a m p and t h e o p e r a t i o n of the tuning f o r k , t h e d e t e c t o r , and the v a r i o u s p r e a m p l i f i e r s and a m p l i f i e r s . T h e output s i g n a l a c t i v a t e s t h e C 0 2 PP HI s y s t e m s s t a t u s light (MDC-11) and the C 0 2 P A R T PRESS i n d i c a t o r (MDC-13). 2. 7. 3. 2 . 2 Gas Chromatograph. T h e g a s c h r o m a t o g r a p h is a n i t e m of G F E t h a t is i n s t a l l e d in s e v e r a l of t h e Apollo Block I s p a c e c r a f t f o r flight qualification p u r p o s e s . T h e unit is c a p a b l e of identifying and m e a s u r i n g the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of 2 8 g a s c o m p o n e n t s , and t h e r e s u l t i n g d a t a i s then t e l e m e t e r e d to MSFN. T h i s c o m p a c t i t e m of e q u i p m e n t i s i n s t a l l e d in the L E B , and it i n t e r f a c e s t h e inlet and outlet m a n i f o l d s of t h e suit c i r c u i t in t h e LHEB. The g a s c h r o m a t o g r a p h o p e r a t e s on t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of routing s a m p l e s of t h e suit c i r c u i t a n d f o r c a b i n a t m o s p h e r e t h r o u g h t h r e e s e p a r a t e c a p i l l a r y c o l u m n s and d e t e c t o r s . L o w - p r e s s u r e h e l i u m is u s e d a s t h e c a r r i e r g a s f o r t h e s a m p l e s t r e a m s . T h e helium supply, even u n d e r continuous d e m a n d , will l a s t t h e length of any p r o p o s e d m i s s i o n . The helium is s t o r e d o i n a r e s e r v o i r a t 6000 p s i g and is r e g u l a t e d to i t s n o r m a l working p r e s s u r e of 42 p s i a . In t h e event of r e g u l a t o r malfunction, p r e s s u r e r e l i e f is*p r o v i d e d by a 200-psig r u p t u r e d i s c . E a c h c a p i l l a r y c o l u m n and d e t e c t o r i d e n t i f i e s a s p e c i f i c n u m b e r of g a s c o m p o n e n t s . One c o l u m n d e t e c t o r w i l l identify five of the p e r m a n e n t g a s e s ; n a m e l y , h y d r o g e n , n i t r o gen, oxygen, m e t h a n e , and c a r b o n monoxide. Another i s c o n c e r n e d only with t h e s e p a r a t i o n a n d d e t e c t i o n of a m m o n i a , c a r b o n dioxide, and w a t e r . T h e t h i r d c o l u m n - d e t e c t o r i d e n t i f i e s 20 t r a c e c o n t a m i n a n t s l i s t e d a s follows: F r e o n 11, m e t h y l a l c o h o l , m e t h y l e n e c h l o r i d e , e t h y l a l c o h o l , b e n z e n e , ?-dioxane, a c e t o n e , h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d , hydrogen sulfide, ethylene oxide, i s o p r e n e , diethyl sulphide, n i t r o g e n dioxide, ethylene glycol, v i n y l i dene c h l o r i d e , m e t h y l c h l o r o f o r m , a c e t y l e n e , d i m e t h y l sulfide, F r e o n 114, and 1, 1 t r i c h l o r o e t h a n e . C r o s s - s e c t i o n ionization-type d e t e c t o r s a r e u s e d in conjunction with t h e t h r e e c o l u m n s f o r g a s component i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The output c u r r e n t of t h e d e t e c t o r s p r o d u c e s a m i n i m u m - s t r e n g t h s i g n a l t h a t m u s t be g r e a t l y a m p l i f i e d , t h e n conditioned f o r t e l e m e t r y . T h e c a p i l l a r y c o l u m n s , t h e d e t e c t o r s , and the e l e c t r o m e t e r a m p l i f i e r s a r e h o u s e d in a n oven, t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of which is m a i n t a i n e d within a v e r y c l o s e t o l e r a n c e . T h e b a l a n c e of t h e e l e c t r o n i c s , i n s t a l l e d in a s e p a r a t e package, c o n s i s t of a t r a n s f o r m e r , a p r o g r a m m e r , and a r e g u l a t e d p o w e r supply. S o l i d - s t a t e c i r c u i t r y is u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y throughout t h e e l e c t r o n i c s of t h e unit.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date page 2 . 7 - 1 2

SMZA-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA T h e g a s c h r o m a t o g r a p h will c o m p l e t e one identification c y c l e in a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 0 m i n u t e s , r e g a r d l e s s of the s a m p l i n g mode s e l e c t e d . S a m p l e s a r e taken f r o m the s u i t c i r c u i t a t m o s p h e r e , the cabin a t m o s p h e r e , o r f r o m e a c h a t m o s p h e r e on a l t e r n a t i n g c y c l e s depending on t h e positioning of a s e l e c t o r switch l o c a t e d on the L E B panel 120. T h e s e l e c t o r switch may be positioned t o CABIN AIR/AUTO/SUIT AIR by c o m m a n d . T h e g a s c h r o m a t o g r a p h is s e r v i c e d a n d i n s t a l l e d by ground s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l p r i o r to flight c r e w i n g r e s s . -4 t h r e e - p o s i t i o n S T A R T / O F F / P R E H E A T switch, c o n t r o l s power for o p e r a t i o n , and m u s t be placed t o the PREHEAT position f o r a minimum of 8 0 m i n u t e s b e f o r e switch is s e t t o START. A push-type switch, A M P L CAL, for bench c a l i b r a t i o n only a n d the S T A R T / O F F / P R E H E A T switch, a r e located on panel 120. During t h e m i s s i o n , the flight c r e w will not be r e q u i r e d t o m a k e c o n t r o l a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e unit u n l e s s d i r e c t e d to do so by MSFN. During d e s c e n t , the r e m a i n i n g helium in the r e s e r v o i r is dumped into the c a b i n by t h e action of a p y r o v a l v e i n s i d e the unit. A full tank ( a b o r t condition) c a n b e e m p t i e d in a m a x i m u m of 3 m i n u t e s . P y r o v a l v e initiation i s s i m u l t a neous with t h e C / M - R C S p r o p e l l a n t purge operation. 2. 7. 3 . 3 Cabin P r e s s u r e a n d T e m p e r a t u r e Control Subsystem. The p r e s s u r i z a t i o n a n d t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l of the C / M c a b i n a r e p r i m a r i l y a u t o m a t i c functions with m a n u a l backup and o v e r r i d e m o d e s provided. Cabin p r e s s u r i z a t i o n is m a i n t a i n e d by t h e cabin p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r as.sembly ( f i g u r e 2 . 7 - 3 ) . T h i s unit c o n s i s t s of dual r e g u l a t o r s and a m a n u a l r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n v a l v e o p e r a t e d by a k n u r l e d knob. Both r e g u l a t o r s o p e r a t e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a s t h e r e i s no s e l e c t o r valve i n c o r p o r a t e d and no off position. T h e r e g u l a t o r s a u t o m a t i c a l l y m a i n t a i n t h e c a b i n at 5 i O . 2 p s i a d u r i n g n o r m a l conditions a n d a t a m a x i m u m oxygen flow r a t e of 1. 3 pounds p e r hour. If t h e c a b i n should become d e p r e s s u r i z e d for any r e a s o n , the r e g u l a t o r s c l o s e a t a p r e s s u r e of 3. 5 p s i a t o c o n s e r v e oxygen. T h e m a n u a l valve, with a m a x i m u m flow r a t e of 7 . 2 pounds p e r h o u r , m a y be adjusted t o m a i n t a i n c a b i n p r e s s u r e in event of r e g u l a t o r malfunction. However, i t i s p r i m a r i l y u s e d t o r e p r e s s u r i z e the c a b i n following d e c o m p r e s s i o n , r e q u i r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 h o u r t o r a i s e t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r e back to 5. OkO. 2 psia. An e m e r g e n c y c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l y ( f i g u r e 2. 7 - 4 ) will flood the cabin with oxygen t o p r e v e n t r a p i d d e c o m p r e s s i o n in the event of cabin wall puncture. A s cabin d e c o m p r e s s i o n is h a z a r d o u s to life only when a c r e w m a n is in the s h i r t s l e e v e mode, the r e g u l a t o r s a r e not s e l e c t e d f o r The r e g u l a t o r u s e until j u s t p r i o r t o a c r e w m a n removing h i s %A.

ENVIRONMENTAL C O N T R O L SYSTEM

M i s s ion

B a s i c Date

l2

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Change Date

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SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-SYSTEMS DATA

-ANEROID

SUPPLY PRESSIJ RE I NLET REP'RESSUR IZATl ON
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IITER

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ECS-24A
Figure 2. 7-3. Cabin P r e s s u r e Regulator

(3)

a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a f o u r - p o s i t i o n m a n u a l s e l e c t o r valve a n d two redundant r e g u l a t o r s which, when s e l e c t e d f o r u s e , a u t o m a t i c a l l y open when the c a b i n p r e s s u r e d r o p s t o 4. 5*0. 1 p s i a . The e m e r g e n c y c a b i n p r e s s u r e m o d e of 3. 5 p s i a is contingent upon Apollo d e s i g n l i m i t s and m e t e o r i t e t e s t s a n d allows u n s u i t e d c r e w m e n t i m e t o don t h e i r PGAs. T h i s minimum p r e s s u r e c a n be m a i n t a i n e d f o r 5 m i n u t e s , providing that m e t e o r i t e h o l e s do not e x c e e d t h e total equivalent a r e a of a hole 0. 5 inch in d i a m e t e r . At t h e end of t h i s t i m e , the p r e s s u r e will d r o p m o r e rapidly, going to 2. 0 p s i a in 10 m i n u t e s and to 1. 0 p s i a in 15 m i n u t e s . The dual cabin p r e s s u r e relief v a l v e ( f i g u r e 2 . 7 - 5 ) provides positive a n d negative p r e s s u r e relief f o r the cabin throughout the e n t i r e m i s s i o n . Although t h e y function a u t o m a t i c a l l y , c a b l e - o p e r a t e d m a n u a l o v e r r i d e c o n t r o l s , l o c a t e d on panel 3 0 7 , a r e provided for a d j u s t m e n t s during flight t o c l o s e relief v a l v e s for i malfunction, o r t o p r e v e n t s e a w a t e r inflow a u r i n g postlanding phase and ground checkout p r o c e d u r e s . When the cabin p r e s s u r e b e c o m e s higher t h a n the e x t e r n a l a m b i e n t p r e s s u r e , the relief v a l v e s l i m i t the d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e t o 6 (to. 2 , - 0 . 4) psi. During the a s c e n t p h a s e , t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e m a y go a s high a s 7 . 0 p s i f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e . C o n v e r s e l y , when the cabin p r e s s u r e b e c o m e s lower than t h e e x t e r n a l a m b i e n t p r e s s u r e (as during d e s c e n t ) , the relief v a l v e s l i m i t the differential p r e s s u r e to a m a x i m u m of 25 inches of w a t e r . The a s s e m b l y is located in t h e s t e a m duct o v e r b o a r d line which p r o v i d e s the m e a n s of venting the positive and negative cabin p r e s s u r e s . ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l2

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F i g u r e 2. 7 - 4 .

E m e r g e n c y Inflow Regulator

Ventilation within the C / M is provided by dual f a n s , which c i r c u l a t e cabin g a s e s through the cabin h e a t e x c h a n g e r . N o r m a l l y , both cabin a i r fans a r e s e l e c t e d by the c r e w f o r s i m u l t a n e o u s operation. If e i t h e r fan malfundtions o r is shut down f o r a n y r e a s o n , a c l o s u r e ( c o v e r ) is manually installed o v e r the inlet of the i n o p e r a t i v e fan t o p r e v e n t backflow. A cabin a i r c o n t r o l l o u v e r , l o c a t e d a t the outlet of the cabin heat e x c h a n g e r , i s manually a d j u s t e d f o r d i r e c t i o n a l flow of g a s e s within the cabin. Although cabin t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l is n o r m a l l y a n a u t o m a t i c function, r e s o r t to m a n u a l backup and o v e r r i d e m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n m a y be utilized. Cabin g a s e s a r e heated o r cooled by t h e i r c i r c u l a t i o n through the cabin heat e x c h a n g e r , which u s e s w a t e r - g l y c o l as the heat t r a n s f e r medium. A c a b i n t e m p e r a t u r e control unit c o m p a r e s a d e s i r e d t e m p e r a t u r e , s e l e c t e d by the c r e w , to the t e m p e r a t u r e that is s e n s e d a t t h e inlet t o the c a b i n a i r fans. Any difference r e s u l t s in a signal that r e p o s i t i o n s the m o t o r - o p e r a t e d cabin t e m p e r a t u r e control valve. This valve r e g u l a t e s the amount of hot o r cold w a t e r - g l y c o l flowing into the cabin h e a t exchanger. A t e a c h e n d of valve full t r a v e l , the total hot o r cold flow is routed through the h e a t exchanger; w h e r e a s , a t i n t e r m e d i a t e v a l v e positions, the w a t e r - g l y c o l flow through the heat exchanger v a r i e s . A c a b i n t e m p e r a t u r e a n t i c i p a t o r , l o c a t e d a t the c a b i n a i r c o n t r o l louver d i s c h a r g e , s e n s e s the t e m p e r a t u r e r a t e o f change a n d s i g n a l s the cabin t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l unit, preventing o v e r c o r r e c t i o n by the c o n t r o l valve.

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F i g u r e 2 . 7-5. Cabin P r e s s u r e Relief Valve

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Ventilation during the postlanding p h a s e i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by c i r c u l a t i n g outside a m b i e n t a i r t h r o u g h t h e cabin. A l l of the equipment n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y out thi! function ( o t h e r t h a n c o n t r o l s ) i s located on the C / M f o r w a r d tunnel c o v e r . Outside a i r is d r a w n into t h e c a b i n through a n i n l e t duct containing a shutoff valve and fan. The inlet duct includes a flexible e x t e n s i o n f o r promoting m o r e efficient ventilation. After c i r c u l a t i n g within the cabin, the a i r is expelled o v e r b o a r d through a n adjacent outlet duct and shutoff v a l v e . Both m o t o r - o p e r a t e d shutoff ( v e n t ) valves and t h e vent fan a r e c o n t r o l l e d by the VENT FAN switch on MDC-25. High- o r low-speed fan o p e r a t i o n is a v a i l a b l e , and e i t h e r switch position will s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a c t i v a t e the fan and open the cabin vent v a l v e s . An a s s e m b l y consisting of a pendulum-type a t t i t u d e s e n s i n g switch and a n a d j a c e n t o v e r r i d e c o n t r o l switch ( P L Y C ) a r e i n s t a l l e d i n the LHEB. The pendulum is f r e e t o move only in the Z - a x i s . Should the C / M r o l l beyond a specified l i m i t o r become i n v e r t e d ( s t a b l e I1 condition), the attitude s e n s i n g switch a c t i v a t e s t h e cabin vent v a l v e s t o the c l o s e d position to p r e v e n t w a t e r ingestion. If a l l e f f o r t s t o r e t u r n t h e C / M to the upright ( s t a b l e I) condition should fail, the PLVC switch (LHEB-141) is s e t t o OPEN. T h i s o v e r r i d e s the closing a c t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s e n s i n g switch by opening both cabin vent v a l v e s a n d flooding the f o r w a r d portion of the C / M . The p r e s s u r e on the tunnel hatch then b e c o m e s equalized, thus allowing its r e m o v a l f o r the e s c a p e of the c r e w . T h e PLVC switchima): a l s o be u s e d t o open the cabin vent v a l v e s if the a t t i t u d e s e n s i n g s w i t c h should fail a f t e r having closed the v a l v e s . In o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e i n a d v e r t e n t opening of the vent v a l v e s in flight, two p r e c a u t i o n s a r e taken. A lockpin is i n s t a l l e d in e a c h vent v a l v e , and the c i r c u i t ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission

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SYSTEMS DATA b r e a k e r applying power t o the P L V s y s t e m is not engaged during flight. T h e r e f o r e , before the P L V s y s t e m c a n be o p e r a t e d , the lockpins m u s t be r e m o v e d (pulled out a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0. 5 in. ) p r i o r t o CSM s e p a r a t i o n and the applicable c i r c u i t b r e a k e r engaged a f t e r landing. 2. 7. 3.4 Water-Glycol Coolant S u b s y s t e m . The w a t e r - g l y c o l coolant s u b s y s t e m is a c l o s e d loop through which a n aqueous ethylene-glycol m i x t u r e ( w a t e r - g l y c o l ) is continuously c i r c u l a t e d . The m i x t u r e r a t i o by weight c o n s i s t s of 62. 5 p a r t s of glycol to 37. 5 p a r t s of w a t e r . B a s i c a l l y , t h e s u b s y s t e m p r o v i d e s a h e a t t r a n s p o r t fluid loop f o r the cabin a t m o s p h e r e , the s u i t c i r c u i t a t m o s p h e r e , t h e e l e c t r o n i c equipm e n t , a n d a portion of the potable w a t e r . It a l s o s e r v e s a s a s o u r c e of h e a t f o r the c a b i n a t m o s p h e r e when r e q u i r e d . A l l of the unwanted h e a t a b s o r b e d by the w a t e r - g l y c o l is t r a n s p o r t e d e i t h e r t o the s p a c e r a d i a t o r s , w h e r e it is r a d i a t e d t o s p a c e , o r to the w a t e r - g l y c o l e v a p o r a t o r , w h e r e it is r e j e c t e d by the evaporation of w a t e r . The w a t e r - g l y c o l ( W / G ) e v a p o r a t o r outlet t e m p e r a t u r e m u s t be m a i n tained between 4 0 " a n d 4 3 ° F (nominal 4 1 . 5 " F ) . S e n s e d a t t h e W/G e v a p o r a t o r inlet f r o m the s p a c e r a d i a t o r s W/G t e m p e r a t u r e s between 4 2 . 9 " and 4 5 . 9 " F (nominal 4 5 ° F ) a c t i v a t e s t h e a u t o m a t i c mixing valve c o n t r o l s y s t e m ( f i g u r e 2. 7-6). H i g h - t e m p e r a t u r e W/G f r o m the w a t e r - g l y c o l pump is m i x e d with t h e l o w e r W/G t e m p e r a t u r e f r o m the s p a c e r a d i a t o r s t o m a i n tain t h e e v a p o r a t o r outlet n o m i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e of 41.. 5 ° F . The m a n u a l o v e r r i d e f o r the mixing valve is l o c a t e d on t h e coolant c o n t r o l panel 311 (GLYCOL E V A P T E M P I N ) a n d a switch l o c a t e d on p a n e l 13 allows s e l e c tion of AUTO o r MAN o p e r a t i o n . T h r e e l i n e s f r o m the w a t e r - g l y c o l pump a s s e m b l y a r e p a r a l l e l e d t o the w a t e r - g l y c o l e v a p o r a t o r inlet. The a f o r e m e n t i o n e d oxygen supply c a p i l l a r y r e s t r i c t o r s a r e wound a r o u n d the line routed t o the s p a c e r a d i a t o r s and relief valves. The o t h e r line is routed t o t h e mixing valve. To i n s u r e p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n of t h e oxygen supply r e s t r i c t o r s , in the l i n e between the c r y o g e n i c 0 2 s t o r a g e in the S / M t o the s u r g e tanks in the C / M during cabin r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n , full w a t e r - g l y c o l flow through the line to the s p a c e r a d i a t o r s is r e q u i r e d . Sufficient heat m u s t be available to p r e v e n t c r y o genic oxygen e n t e r i n g t h e C / M oxygen s y s t e m a n d p r e c l u d e the possibility of f r e e z i n g the water-glycol. To a c h i e v e t h i s , the mixing valve m u s t be manually placed t o the full c l o s e d position 15 to 30 m i n u t e s before r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n a n d r e m a i n c l o s e d until t h e s u r g e tank r e t u r n s to m a x i m u m p r e s s u r e a f t e r r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of the C / M . H i g h - t e m p e r a t u r e w a t e r - g l y c o l between 48" and 50. 5 ° F f r o m the s p a c e r a d i a t o r s a n d s e n s e d a t the e v a p o r a t o r inlet i n i t i a t e s the w a t e r - g l y c o l e v a p o r a t o r t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s y s t e m . Once the e v a p o r a t o r mode i s i n i t i a t e d by the e v a p o r a t o r inlet s e n s o r , a n e v a p o r a t o r outlet s e n s o r s u p p l i e s t h e controlled v a r i a b l e s i g n a l s t o the c o n t r o l l e r . If a heating t e m p e r a t u r e e r r o r i s s e n s e d by t h e e v a p o r a t o r outlet s e n s o r , the s t e a m p r e s s u r e v a l v e begins t o open a n d r e p o s i t i o n s a t a velocity p r o p o r t i o n a l to
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SYSTEMS DATA the t e m p e r a t u r e e r r o r . E v a p o r a t o r wicks a r e m a i n t a i n e d i n a wet condition t o provide i m m e d i a t e boiling when the s t e a m p r e s s u r e valve is opened. Should the s t e a m p r e s s u r e d r o p below 5.0lt0.2 m m Hg a b s , a p r e s s u r e switch o v e r r i d e s the t e m p e r a t u r e s i g n a l and c l o s e s t h e s t e a m p r e s s u r e valve. The o v e r r i d e p r e s s u r e s w i t c h p r o v i d e s adequate p r e s s u r e m a r g i n above the f r e e z i n g p r e s s u r e of 4. 58 m m Hg a b s . A switch in the s t e a m p r e s s u r e valve a s s e m b l y is a c t i v a t e d when t h e valve i s initially c r a c k e d open. The switch a c t i v a t e s t h e w e t n e s s c o n t r o l f o r replenishing w a t e r t o the e v a p o r a t o r through a w a t e r - s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l valve. Signals f r o m t h e wick t e m p e r a t u r e s e n s o r a r e indicative of the r e l a t i v e w e t n e s s of the e v a p o r a t o r wicks. A s w a t e r e v a p o r a t e s , t h e wick s e n s o r t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e s a n d e x c e e d s a n e v a p o r a t o r inlet r e f e r e n c e s e n s o r s i g n a l and c y c l e s the w a t e r c o n t r o l valve open. The r e f e r e n c e input s e n s o r v a r i e s the c o n t r o l a s a function of heat load t o m a i n t a i n the d e s i r e d wick t e m p e r a t u r e with no w a t e r c a r r y o v e r into the s t e a m duct. When the e v a p o r a t o r wicks become replenished with w a t e r , the wick s e n s o r t e m p e r a t u r e d e c r e a s e s and a p p r o a c h e s the s a t u r a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the s t e a m p r e s s u r e and c y c l e s t h e w a t e r c o n t r o l valve closed. The w a t e r control valve c o n t i n u e s to cycle a s long a s w a t e r - g l y c o l cooling by w a t e r evaporation i s r e q u i r ed. The s t e a m p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l valve c a n be e l e c t r i c a l l y repositioned t o c o n t r o l t h e s t e a m p r e s s u r e f o r 40" t o 4 3 ° F outlet glycol t e m p e r a t u r e u s i n g the p r e s s u r e m o n i t o r indicator (panel 13, GLY E V A P - O U T L E T T E M P ) . The c o n t r o l switches (GLYCOL E V A P - STEAM PRESS) m u s t be placed t o the MAN position, and then to INCR f o r open and DECR f o r closing t h e s t e a m p r e s s u r e valve. The H 2 0 FLOW switch ( p a n e l 13) should be in the AUTO position f o r the a u t o m a t i c w e t n e s s c o n t r o l t o be effective. Should t h e w e t n e s s , c o n t r o l fail, the w a t e r i n l e t control v a l v e c a n be e n e r g i z e d open by placing the H 2 0 FLOW switch to ON. When o p e r a t i n g in this m o d e , a p o r t a b l e indicating unit should be u s e d t o p r e v e n t w a t e r c a r r y o v e r into the s t e a m duct. T h e p o r t a b l e indicating unit c o n s i s t s of a f o u r - p o s i t i o n s e l e c t o r switch f o r s e l e c t i n g O F F , WICK T E M P . , E V A P INLET T E M P . AND NUL. The unit h a s its own 175-hour b a t t e r y - o p e r a t e d power supply. WICK TEMPERATURE i n d i c a t o r m a r k i n g s a r e 4 0 " t o 7 0 " F , WATERGLYCOL INLET TEMPERATURE i n d i c a t o r m a r k i n g s a r e 40" to 1 0 0 " F , and the NUL indicator m a r k i n g s a r e a r e d line a c r o s s the midlength s e c t i o n of the dial f a c e and i s m a r k e d above the r e d line on t h e dial WATER ON, a n d below on dial WATER O F F . A w a t e r c o n t r o l tabulation c h a r t ( f i g u r e 2. 7 - 7 ) f o r operation of W / C e v a p o r a t o r i n the m a n u a l mode, is provided showing wick t e m p e r a t u r e v e r s u s i n l e t glycol t e m p e r a t u r e . The portable indication unit should a l s o be u s e d when m a n u a l w a t e r bypass c o n t r o l v a l v e (GLY E V A P WATER CONTROL BYPASS panel 317) is used. The p o r t a b l e indic a t o r unit w i l l connect t o 539 (panel 311). The m a i n w a t e r - g l y c o l flow next e n t e r s the cabin t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l valve, w h e r e i t is routed e i t h e r t o the c a b i n h e a t exchanger o r t o the r e m a i n i n g t h e r m a l coldplates. The a c t i o n i s dependent upon the t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l unit, which a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l s t h e movements of the m o t o r - o p e r a t e d cabin t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l valve. The v a l v e i s S O c o n s t r u c t e d that in the cabin full cooling mode, the total flow of cool w a t e r - g l y c o l ( 1 6 7 pounds p e r h o u r ) is routed f i r s t through the cabin
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Evaporator Inlet Temperature Sensor
( O F )

Wick T e m p e r a t u r e Sensor

E v a p o r a t o r Inlet T e m p e r a t u r e Sen so r
(OF)

Wick T e m p e r a t u r e Sensor
(OF)

(OF)
41. 62 42. 1 3 42.65 43. 1 5 43.65 44. 1 4 44.63 45.11 45.58 46. 04 46. 50 46.95 47.39 47.82 48.25 48.67 49. 08 49.49 49. 89 50. 30 50. 39 51.07 51. 45 51.83 52.20 52. 56 52. 92 53.27 53.62 53.96 54. 30 F i g u r e 2. 7-7.

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 a7 88 89

90
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

65
66 67 68 69 70

54.63 54.96 55.28 55.60 55.9 1 56.21 56.51 56.80 57.08 57.37 57.66 57.93 58.19 58.46 58. 71 58.96 59.2 1 59.46 59. 71 59.94 60.17 60.40 60.63 60.85 61.06 61.28 61.49 61.69 61.90 62. 10

W a t e r Flow C o n t r o l C h a r t

h e a t e x c h a n g e r and t h e n t h r o u g h t h e t h e r m a l c o l d p l a t e s . In t h e c a b i n full h e a t i n g m o d e , t h e t o t a l flow is r o u t e d t h r o u g h t h e t h e r m a l c o l d p l a t e s first, w h e r e t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l a b s o r b s h e a t , and f r o m t h e r e flows t h r o u g h t h e cabin heat exchanger, The intermediate valve positions a r e f o r the partial cooling o r p a r t i a l h e a t i n g m o d e s . In t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n s , t h e quant i t y of c o o l o r w a r m w a t e r - g l y c o l flowing t h r o u g h t h e heat e x c h a n g e r is r e d u c e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e d e m a n d f o r cooling o r heating. Although t h e a m o u n t of w a t e r - g l y c o l flowing t h r o u g h t h e c a b i n h e a t e x c h a n g e r will v a r y , t h e t o t a l flow t h r o u g h the t h e r m a l c o l d p l a t e s w i l l a l w a y s be 200 pounds p e r h o u r . ( S e e f i g u r e , 2, 7-8. ) An o r i f i c e r e s t r i c t o r i s i n s t a l l e d between t h e c a b i n t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l v a l v e a n d t h e i n l e t t o t h e c o l d p l a t e s . Its p u r p o s e is t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t flow r a t e t h r o u g h t h e c o l d p l a t e s by r e d u c i n g t h e
~ ~ ~ ~

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SMZA 0 3 SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

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E q u i p m e n t Coldplate F l o w D i a g r a m

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

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SMZA - 0 3 -SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
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SYSTEMS DATA heating m o d e flow r a t e to t h a t of t h e cooling mode flow r a t e . Another o r i f i c e r e s t r i c t o r , l o c a t e d i n t h e coolant line f r o m the IMU, m a i n t a i n s a c o n s t a n t flow r a t e t h r o u g h t h i s component r e g a r d l e s s of s y s t e m flow fluctuations. T h e t o t a l flow leaving t h e c a b i n t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l valve e n t e r s the w a t e r - g l y c o l pump a s s e m b l y which p r o v i d e s t h e continuous coolant c i r c u l a t i o n within the s u b s y s t e m . T h e a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of two w a t e r - g l y c o l p u m p s , two pump o u t l e t c h e c k v a l v e s , a full-flow f i l t e r , an a c c u m u l a t o r , a n d a n a c c u m u l a t o r i s o l a t i o n shutoff v a l v e . The t n o p u m p s , mounted in p a r a l l e l , can only be o p e r a t e d one a t a t i m e with t h e s e c o n d pump f o r s t a n d b y redundancy. E a c h pump outlet c h e c k valve p r e v e n t s coolant backflow t h r o u g h the nonoperating pump. W a t e r - g l y c o l e n t e r i n g t h e a s s e m b l y f i r s t p a s s e s t h r o u g h the f u l l - f l o w f i l t e r b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the pumps. T h e r e is a l s o a s i d e p a s s a g e that l e a d s t o the a c c u m u l a t o r . T h e p u r p o s e of t h e a c c u m u l a t o r is t o m a i n t a i n c o r r e c t pump inlet p r e s s u r e and to c o m p e n s a t e f o r s m a l l a m o u n t s of l e a k a g e a n d / o r t h e r m a l e x p a n s i o n / c o n t r a c t i o n . The m a n u a l shutoff valve in t h e s i d e p a s s a g e is c l o s e d to i s o l a t e t h e a c c u m u l a t o r in c a s e of a p u n c t u r e d bellows, which would p e r m i t t h e coolant t o l e a k into t h e c a b i n , c a u s i n g contamination. If t h e w a t e r -glycol a c c u m u l a t o r quantity i n d i c a t o r on the m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e shows a s t e a d y d e c a y to z e r o , a l e a k i n t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l s y s t e m is t h e p r o b a b l e c a u s e . However, a n indication showing a slow s t e a d y d e c r e a s e , which s t o p s a t a point above z e r o , is p r o b a b l y due to t h e r m a l c o n t r a c t i o n indicating t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l t e m p e r a t u r e is below t h e n o m i n a l r a n g e . L o c a t e d d o w n s t r e a m of the pump a s s e m b l y is t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l pump outlet p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r which m e a s u r e s t h e s t a t i c p r e s s u r e of t h e w a t e r -glycol a t the pump outlet, t h u s giving a n indication of pump p e r f o r m a n c e . At t h i s point in the s u b s y s t e m , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of the w a t e r - g l y c o l h a s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d due t o t h e a b s o r p t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s heat l o a d s . The t o t a l flow of hot w a t e r - g l y c o l is r o u t e d t h r o u g h a p a s s a g e in t h e s t e a m p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l v a l v e t o p r e v e n t i c e f r o m f o r m i n g within t h e v a l v e opening. Icing a t t h i s location could r e s u l t in valve malfunction a n d / o r blocking of t h e s t e a m duct. T o p r e v e n t i c e f r o m f o r m i n g a t t h e o u t l e t of t h e s t e a m d u c t , two redundant e l e c t r i c h e a t e r s a r e u s e d . The two 3-watt h e a t e r e l e m e n t s i n s i d e t h e duct extend a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 i n c h e s u p s t r e a m f r o m t h e outlet. The w a t e r - g l y c o l n e x t flows t o t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l e v a p o r a t o r inlet t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l v a l v e ( p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ) . The hot w a t e r -glycol t h a t is not u s e d f o r mixing by t h i s valve is r o u t e d to t h e s p a c e r a d i a t o r s f o r cooling. Any p r e s s u r e l o s s e s in t h e s p a c e r a d i a t o r c i r c u i t , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e n u m b e r of r a d i a t o r s in o p e r a t i o n , will be l i m i t e d by the a c t i o n of the d u a l w a t e r - g l y c o l p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s . T h e s e two v a l v e s a r e in p a r a l l e l and a r e l o c a t e d between the inlet and o u t l e t l i n e s of t h e r a d i a t o r c i r c u i t . J u s t u p s t r e a m of e a c h p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e i s a m a n u a l shutoff v a l v e . By c o n t r o l l i n g t h e shutoff v a l v e s , one r e l i e f v a l v e a t a t i m e is n o r m a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r u s e with t h e s e c o n d f o r s t a n d b y redundancy. When a A P of
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SMZA -03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

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SYSTEMS DATA 11 p s i is r e a c h e d , t h e r e l i e f v a l v e s open to bypass coolant t o t h e r a d i a t o r r e t u r n line, c l o s i n g a t a A P of 8. 5 psi. In o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e w a t e r glycol c l o s e d loop, t h e r e l i e f v a l v e s function a s a bypass when a l l s p a c e r a d i a t o r i s o l a t i o n v a l v e s a r e c l o s e d o r when the w a t e r - g l y c o l r a d i a t o r s h u t off valve is c l o s e d . T h i s is a m a n u a l shutoff valve t h a t c o n t r o l s the flow of w a t e r - g l y c o l f r o m t h e C / M to t h e S / M . It is p l a c e d to t h e c l o s e d position s h o r t l y b e f o r e CSM s e p a r a t i o n t o p r e v e n t t h e coolant in the C / M f r o m flowing o v e r b o a r d a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n . Two s p a c e r a d i a t o r s with a n a r e a of 30 s q u a r e feet e a c h a r e l o c a t e d on opposite s i d e s of the S / M i n s e c t o r s I1 and V. E a c h r a d i a t o r p a n e l c o n t a i n s two s e p a r a t e s e t s of t u b e s . The flow of w a t e r - g l y c o l t h r o u g h t h e f o u r tube c i r c u i t s is individually r e g u l a t e d by a m o t o r - o p e r a t e d r a d i a t o r i s o l a t i o n valve l o c a t e d o n t h e inlet s i d e of e a c h tube c i r c u i t . The f o u r v a l v e s a r e r e m o t e l y c o n t r o l l e d f r o m t h e C / M and give t h e c r e w s o m e d e g r e e of l a t i t u d e in t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of cooling a r e a . However, t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e of t h e v a l v e s is to i s o l a t e tube c i r c u i t s should they develop l e a k s . A c h e c k v a l v e in e a c h tube c i r c u i t o u t l e t line p r e v e n t s the backflow o f coolant f r o m e n t e r i n g a n y r a d i a t o r tube c i r c u i t that is leaking. F r e e z i n g within the r a d i a t o r s is t h e point a t which flow c e a s e s , and m a y be p r e v e n t e d by maintaining the inlet t e m p e r a t u r e above 7 5 ° F . T h i s t e m p e r a t u r e is obtained on the A U X DC VOLTS m e t e r ( R H F E B - 2 0 0 ) o r f r o m MSFN i f the c r e w is unable to l e a v e t h e c o u c h e s . The w a t e r - g l y c o l , a f t e r leaving t h e s p a c e r a d i a t o r s a n d r e - e n t e r i n g t h e C / M , flows through a c a p i l l a r y r e s t r i c t o r . T h i s is placed in the line to m a k e t h e p r e s s u r e d r o p through t h e r a d i a t o r s c o m p a t i b l e with t h a t through t h e w a t e r -glycol t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l v a l v e during ‘the mixing mode. Upon leaving t h e r e s t r i c t o r , the w a t e r - g l y c o l flows t h r o u g h two c h e c k v a l v e s in s e r i e s . T h e s e v a l v e s p r e v e n t coolant f r o m flowing o v e r b o a r d following CSM s e p a r a t i o n , A t e m p e r a t u r e s e n s o r , l o c a t e d between t h e s e c h e c k v a l v e s , g i v e s a n indication on the m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e of t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of the coolant leaving t h e r a d i a t o r s . The i n d i c a t o r is l o c a t e d on MDC- 13. Under n o r m a l s p a c e flight conditions t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l r e s e r v o i r is i s o l a t e d f r o m the coolant s u b s y s t e m by t h e p r o p e r positioning of t h r e e glycol r e s e r v o i r m a n u a l shutoff v a l v e s . The w a t e r - g l y c o l r e s e r v o i r inlet and outlet v a l v e s a r e c l o s e d , and the r e s e r v o i r b y p a s s v a l v e between t h e inlet and outlet l i n e s is opened. During t h e p r e l a u n c h and a s c e n t p h a s e s , h o w e v e r , the position of t h e s e t h r e e v a l v e s is r e v e r s e d t o p e r m i t coolant flow through the r e s e r v o i r . The one gallon of w a t e r - g l y c o l contained i n t h e r e s e r v o i r is then u t i l i z e d a s a h e a t sink, which b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y during the a s c e n t phase. The s p a c e r a d i a t o r s a r e not effective during a s c e n t and e v a p o r a t i v e cooling t a k e s p l a c e only a f t e r t h e a m b i e n t p r e s s u r e r e a c h e s 0. 05 p s i a , which is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150, 000 f e e t a l t i t u d e ( T t 2 m i n u t e s and 1 0 seconds).
If a w a t e r - g l y c o l l e a k should o c c u r , the coolant s u b s y s t e m m a y be r e f i l l e d f r o m the l i m i t e d supply in t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l r e s e r v o i r a f t e r the l e a k is i s o l a t e d . T h e glycol r e s e r v e shutoff v a l v e , l o c a t e d in the line f r o m

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

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SM2A -03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA t h e r e s e r v o i r t o t h e inlet s i d e of t h e pump, is u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . A s t h e r e s e r v o i r c o n t a i n s a b l a d d e r t h a t is u n d e r 20*2 psig oxygen p r e s s u r e , p o s i t i v e expulsion of the coolant is a s s u r e d . The p r e s s u r i z e d r e s e r v o i r m a y a l s o s e r v e a s an a c c u m u l a t o r f o r t h e coolant s u b s y s t e m , i f t h e r e g u l a r w a t e r - g l y c o l a c c u m u l a t o r b e c o m e s i n o p e r a t i v e and is i s o l a t e d . The flow of w a t e r - g l y c o l , e i t h e r through t h e r e s e r v o i r o r bypassing it, next e n t e r s t h e w a t e r -glycol e v a p o r a t o r ( p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ) , thus c o m p l e t i n g t h e coolant loop. During p r e l a u n c h o p e r a t i o n s , t h e flow of t e m p e r a t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d w a t e r - g l y c o l is f u r n i s h e d by GSE through l i n e s connected t o the f i l l and vent couplings in the S / M . The s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d w a t e r -glycol shutoff v a l v e , u p s t r e a m of t h e o u t l e t coupling, is c o n t r o l l e d a t the GSE and is opened t o p e r m i t coolant flow t h r o u g h t h e s p a c e c r a f t loop and back to t h e GSE.

2. 7.3.5

W a t e r Supply S u b s y s t e m . T h e p r i m a r y function of t h e w a t e r supply s u b s y s t e m is t h e s t o r a g e and c o l l e c t i o n of potable and w a s t e w a t e r . P o t a b l e w a t e r p r o d u c e d by t h e fuel c e l l s and w a s t e w a t e r r e c o v e r e d f r o m t h e suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r w a t e r s e p a r a t o r a r e s t o r e d in s e p a r a t e t a n k s in t h e C / M . Supplementing t h i s supply a r e two w a t e r t a n k s in t h e S / M t h a t contain potable w a t e r for refilling t h e C / M potable w a t e r s t o r a g e tank. T h e w a t e r s u p p l y s u b s y s t e m a l s o s u p p l i e s hot and cold potable w a t e r to t h e c r e w and w a s t e w a t e r to t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l e v a p o r a t o r and suit h e a t e x c h a n g e r f o r e v a p o r a t i v e cooling. The wate9. p r o d u c e d by the f u e l c e l l s in the S / M is a s t e a d y s o u r c e of potable w a t e r and is s t o r e d in a 36-pound c a p a c i t y tank l o c a t e d in t h e aft c o m p a r t m e n t of t h e C / M . T h e tank, which c o n t a i n s a b l a d d e r , is p r e s s u r i z e d with oxygen a t 20*2 psig by t h e tank p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r and r e l i e f v a l v e a s s e m b l y , t h u s a s s u r i n g p o s i t i v e expulsion of fluid. F u e l c e l l w a t e r flows i n t o t h e tank a t a potential p r e s s u r e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 61. 5 p s i a , which is high enough t o o v e r c o m e t h e tank p r e s s u r e . The potable w a t e r tank m a y be s e r v i c e d b e f o r e flight by t h e m a n u a l l y o p e r a t e d s e r v i c i n g v a l v e , which i s a l s o in t h e a f t c o m p a r t m e n t a n d not a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e c r e w . A quantity i n d i c a t o r on t h e m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e g i v e s t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s obtained by t h e tank quantity t r a n s d u c e r . Located i n a w a t e r l i n e between t h e fuel c e l l s and t h e potable w a t e r tank is a c h e c k v a l v e and t h e potable tank inlet shutoff v a l v e . The c h e c k valve p r e v e n t s any r e v e r s e flow of potable w a t e r . The shutoff v a l v e , when c l o s e d , p r e v e n t s f u e l c e l l w a t e r t h a t h a s b e c o m e cont a m i n a t e d f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e C / M potable w a t e r network. T e m p e r a t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d potable w a t e r i s a v a i l a b l e to t h e c r e w f r o m two c o m p o n e n t s within t h e C / M . Cold w a t e r , which is m a i n t a i n e d to 5 0 ° F ( a t t h e w a t e r c h i l l e r ) , i s a v a i l a b l e a t both t h e food p r e p a r a t i o n w a t e r supply u n i t a n d t h e w a t e r d e l i v e r y unit. Hot w a t e r , h o w e v e r , i s a v a i l a b l e only a t t h e food p r e p a r a t i o n w a t e r supply unit. T h i s component u t i l i z e s a s m a l l tank with a n e l e c t r i c h e a t e r to r a i s e t h e w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e t o 154"*4"F. By s e l e c t i n g t h e , p r o p e r v a l v e , hot o r cold w a t e r i s m e t e r e d out f o r food r e c o n s t i t u t i o n o r o t h e r c r e w n e e d s . T h e w a t e r d e l i v e r y unit is u s e d by the
E N V I R O N M E N T A L CONTROL SYSTEM

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SMZA -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA c r e w exclusively f o r drinking p u r p o s e s . It c o n s i s t s of a housing containing a c o i l e d flexible tube and a w a t e r d e l i v e r y valve f o r u s e with t h e individual mouthpieces of the t h r e e c r e w m e n . U p s t r e a m of t h i s unit i s the drinking w a t e r supply shutoff valve t h a t is c l o s e d i f t h e w a t e r d e l i v e r y valve should leak. Waste w a t e r collected f r o m m o i s t u r e condensate within the s u i t h e a t e x c h a n g e r i s d r a w n into one of the cyclic a c c u m u l a t o r s and f r o m t h e r e pumped into the w a s t e w a t e r network. If, however, t h e r e is a w a t e r demand by e i t h e r the w a t e r - g l y c o l e v a p o r a t o r o r t h e s u i t h e a t exchanger e v a p o r a t o r , the w a s t e w a t e r flows d i r e c t l y t o the w a t e r c o n t r o l valve of the a p p r o p r i a t e e v a p o r a t o r . T h e 56-pound capacity w a s t e w a t e r tank contains the p r e s s u r ization a n d quantity m e a s u r i n g f e a t u r e s of the potable w a t e r tank. A s e r v i c i n g valve is l o c a t e d on the w a t e r c o n t r o l p a n e l in t h e C / M cabin and, t h e r e f o r e , is a c c e s s i b l e to the c r e w , i f n e c e s s a r y . Although w a s t e w a t e r n e v e r e n t e r s the potable w a t e r network, potable w a t e r m a y e n t e r t h e w a s t e w a t e r network u n d e r c e r t a i n conditions. If the potable tank b e c o m e s full, the d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e between t h e n e t w o r k s will eventually o v e r c o m e the 6.0+0. 5 p s i a t t h e w a s t e tank inlet v a l v e , thus p e r m i t t i n g w a t e r flow. P o t a b l e w a t e r a l s o e n t e r s t h e w a s t e w a t e r network if t h e w a s t e tank i s e m p t y and t h e r e is a w a t e r d e m a n d by e i t h e r e v a p o r a t o r . The low p r e s s u r e c r e a t e d by t h i s w a t e r demand is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w a s t e tank inlet valve activation. T h e v a l v e a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s a manual shutoff f e a t u r e f o r u s e if the relief valve portion malfupctions. Closing the valve t h u s p r e v e n t s t h e p r e m a t u r e dumping of potable w a t e r into the w a s t e w a t e r network. ,.A check valve, located d o w n s t r e a m of t h e relief valve, s e p a r a t e s t h e potable and w a s t e w a t e r networks by p e r m i t t i n g flow in one d i r e c t i o n only.

.

To p r e v e n t o v e r p r e s s u r i z i n g the w a t e r supply s u b s y s t e m , a p r e s s u r e r e l i e f a s s e m b l y is i n s t a l l e d d o w n s t r e a m of t h e check v a l v e s that s e p a r a t e t h e potable and w a s t e w a t e r networks. The a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a s e l e c t o r v a l v e and two redundant p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s i n p a r a l l e l . When the potable a n d w a s t e w a t e r t a n k s a r e full, the continued supply of w a t e r produced by t h e fuel c e l l s will be dumped o v e r b o a r d by t h e s e r e l i e f v a l v e s . N o r m a l l y , both v a l v e s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r s i m u l t a n e o u s u s e , a n d dumping o c c u r s when the w a t e r p r e s s u r e r e a c h e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 32 p s i above the outside a m b i e n t p r e s s u r e . Another l i n e , with two check v a l v e s in s e r i e s , b y p a s s e s fuel c e l l w a t e r output d i r e c t l y t o the p r e s s u r e relief a s s e m b l y . However, t h i s action will t a k e p l a c e only in event the w a s t e tank inlet valve f a i l s closed. The b y p a s s p r e v e n t s fuel c e l l w a t e r flow f r o m being blocked, t h e r e b y preventing total fuel c e l l fail-ure due t o flooding within the c e l l s . To provide sufficient w a t e r f o r a m a x i m u m d u r a t i o n e a r t h o r b i t a l m i s s i o n , two 56-pound w a t e r t a n k s a r e i n s t a l l e d i n the S/M. T h e s e tanks a r e s i m i l a r t o the C / M w a s t e w a t e r tank but l a c k the quantity m e a s u r i n g capability. A s e p a r a t e tank p r e s s u r i z i n g s y s t e m is u s e d for positive expulsion of the w a t e r . Nitrogen a t 9 0 0 psig is s t o r e d in a s m a l l tank that is p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t o v e r p r e s s u r e by a relief valve s e t a t 1045*25 psig. In
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ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
l2

1966 Change Date

page

2.7-25

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA a d d i t i o n t o a n i t r o g e n f i l l v a l v e , t h e r e is a p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r and r e l i e f v a l v e t o r e d u c e and r e g u l a t e n i t r o g e n p r e s s u r e in the w a t e r t a n k s . T h e s e t a n k s a r e p r e s s u r i z e d a t 40*2 p s i g , and t h e r e l i e f valve will function a t 44 t o 48 psig. A t t h e w a t e r outlet of e a c h t a n k , t h e r e is a m a n u a l f i l l valve and a s o l e n o i d shutoff valve. The shutoff v a l v e s a r e c o n t r o l l e d by t h e WASTE H2O T K R E F I L L s w i t c h in t h e C / M . T h e s e v a l v e s c o n t r o l t h e flow of w a t e r f r o m t h e t a n k s to a c o m m o n l i n e in the S / M that s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n n e c t s i n t o t h e potable w a t e r l i n e f r o m t h e f u e l c e l l s . When the C / M potable w a t e r t a n k quantity is low, i t w i l l be r e f i l l e d f r o m t h e s e S / M w a t e r t a n k s a t a flow r a t e of 2.92 pounds p e r minute.

2. 7 . 3 . 6

E C S - W a s t e Management S y s t e m I n t e r f a c e . Although the w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m (WMS) and C / M b a t t e r y v e n t ing n e t w o r k a r e not s u b s y s t e m s of t h e ECS, they w i l l be c o v e r e d a s s u c h in t h e AOH b e c a u s e of s y s t e m i n t e r f a c e . T h e i n t e r f a c e mentioned is i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e E C S w a t e r overflow line. A l l of the u r i n e and t h e f e c a l o d o r s of t h e WMS, as w e l l a s g a s p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e C / M b a t t e r i e s , a r e a l s o routed o v e r b o a r d t h r o u g h this s i n g l e ECS w a t e r d u m p line. I n c o r p o r a t e d a t the o u t l e t of t h e dump l i n e ( u r i n e / w a t e r ) is a 0. 055 inch o r i f i c e nozzle that r e s t r i c t s g a s flow to a m a x i m u m of 1 c f m and liquid flow to l e s s than 1 cfm. The g a s flow is l i m i t e d t o p r e v e n t e x c e s s i v e l o s s of cabin a t m o s p h e r e during f e c a l c a n i s t e r u s a g e . The r e s t r i c t i o n on liquid flow, in conjunction with a 5 . 7 - w a t t , continuously o p e r a t i n g d u m p n o z z l e h e a t e r , p r e v e n t s t h e f o r m a t i o n ' o f i c e a t t h e n o z z l e , which could block a l l flow. T h e fu?ction of c o n t r o l l i n g a n d / o r d i s p o s i n g of w a s t e s o l i d s , liquids, and g a s e s is a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e WMS. Except for t h e f e c a l c a n i s t e r and o t h e r i t e m s of stowed e q u i p m e n t , t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n of t h e s y s t e m is l o c a t e d i n t h e RHEB. The WMS is b a s i c a l l y divided into t h e u r i n e l f e c a l and the vacuum c l e a n e r s u b s y s t e m s . S e v e r a l components t h a t are no l o n g e r functional have not been r e m o v e d f r o m t h e WMS, as shown in f i g u r e 2. 7 - 9 . T h i s is due t o r e c e n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h a t would not p e r m i t t h e i r r e m o v a l b e c a u s e of s c h e d u l e i m p a c t . The c o m p o n e n t s f o r t h e u r i n e p o r t i o n of t h e u r i n e / f e c a l s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t of a s e p a r a t e u r i n e s a m p l e v o l u m e m e a s u r i n g s y s t e m unit (USVMS) f o r e a c h c r e w m e m b e r . ( R e f e r t o s e c t i o n 5 . ) The unit is u s e d f o r e a c h u r i n a t i o n in o r d e r to p r o v i d e a u r i n e s a m p l e , with the r e m a i n d e r of the c o n t e n t s being dumped o v e r b o a r d in t h e following m a n n e r . The USVMS is f i r s t a t t a c h e d by q u i c k - d i s c o n n e c t t o a n i n l i n e f i l t e r , which r e m a i n s a t t a c h e d (by q u i c k - d i s c o n n e c t ) to t h e w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t d u m p line. The USVMS v a l v e is s e t t o t h e DUMP p o s i t i o n , followed by s e t t i n g t h e WASTE MANAGEMENT-SELECTOR v a l v e on RHEB-201 to URINE F E C E S and t h e a d j a c e n t O V B D DRAIN v a l v e t o DUMP. A 5 - p s i d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e , p r o v i d e d by t h e valve s e t t i n g s , w i l l e m p t y the c o n t e n t s of t h e collection bag o v e r b o a r d t h r o u g h the u r i n e f w a t e r d u m p line. Should a USVMS unit f a i l , d i r e c t o v e r b o a r d u r i n a t i o n m a y be a c c o m p l i s h e d by u s i n g t h e u r i n e

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ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission

Basic Date

l2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.7-26

SMZA -03-SCO12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

URINENATER
DUMP NOZZLE A N D HEATER

F i g u r e 2. 7 - 9 .

W M S Functional Flow Diagram

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page 2 . 7 - 2 7

SM2A -0 3-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA r e c e p t a c l e , which is a backup component. T h e PHA u r i n e collection d e v i c e (UCD) m a y be u s e d d u r i n g p r e l a u n c h , and if SO, is e m p t i e d i n m u c h the s a m e way. The t r a n s f e r v a l v e (of t h e u r i n e r e c e p t a c l e l t r a n s f e r valve a s s e m b l y ) is i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e UCD a f t e r it is r e m o v e d f r o m t h e PGA. The u r i n e r e c e p t a c l e is then a t t a c h e d by q u i c k - d i s c o n n e c t to the f i l t e r on the w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t dump line. The WASTE MANAGEMENT-SELECTOR and OVBD DRAIN v a l v e s a r e s e t to t h e URINE F E C E S and DUMP p o s i t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y , emptying t h e c o n t e n t s o v e r b o a r d . Upon completion, t h e PGA UCD i s stowed i n t h e PGA stowage bag. Although t h e WMS blower w i l l o p e r a t e w h e n e v e r the SELECTOR v a l v e is s e t t o t h e URINE F E C E S position, f u n c t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n of t h e blower is f o r vacuum cleaning only. F o r t h e f e c a l p o r t i o n of t h e u r i n e l f e c a l s u b s y s t e m , c o m p o n e n t s c o n s i s t only of t h e f e c a l c a n i s t e r and h o s e a s s e m b l y . N o r m a l l y stowed out of t h e way, t h e c a n i s t e r is s e c u r e d t o t h e c e n t e r C 0 2 - o d o r a b s o r b e r f i l t e r s t o r a g e c o n t a i n e r a t t h e LEB. T h e . h o s e is then a t t a c h e d by quickd i s c o n n e c t t o t h e f i l t e r on t h e w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t d u m p line. The WASTE MANAGEMENT-SELECTOR valve is s e t t o URINE F E C E S and the OVBD DRAIN v a l v e is s e t to DUMP. D i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e of 5 p s i is t h u s c r e a t e d , routing t h e o d o r s o v e r b o a r d t h r o u g h the u r i n e l w a t e r d u m p line. The v a c u u m c l e a n e r s u b s y s t e m is m a d e up of t h e vacuum a s s e m b l y and a n 8-foot flex h o s e , which a r e stowed in the vacuum stowage c o m p a r t m e n t . After r e m o v i n g t h e vacuum c l e a n e r f r o m t h e s t o r a g e c o m p a r t m e n t , i t is p l a c e d i n o p e r a t i o n by s e t t i n g t h e WASTE MANAGEMENT-SELECTOR v a l v e t o VACUUM CLEANER. T h i s s i n g l e a c t i o n a c t i v a t e s t h e WMS blower and opens t h e v a l v e p o r t that c o n n e c t s t h e vacuum c l e a n e r l i n e to t h e blower. T h e WMS blower p r o v i d e s a g a s flow of 5 cfm a t a A P of - 4 . 9 i n c h e s H 2 0 to e f f e c t i v e l y r q m o v e d e b r i s , e i t h e r s o l i d o r liquid. A p o r o u s bag, i n s e r t e d into t h e vacuum a s s e m b l y , t r a p s the d e b r i s while t h e g a s e s a r e exhausted into t h e C / M cabin. T h e C / M b a t t e r y venting n e t w o r k c o n s i s t s of a manifold, . a BATTERY VENT valve (RHEB-202), and l i n e s t h a t a r e routed to connect into t h e u r i n e / w a t e r dump line. The vent v a l v e is to r e m a i n in the VENT position d u r i n g n o r m a l o p e r a t i o n to provide u n r e s t r i c t e d flow f o r i n t e r m i t t e n t b a t t e r y r e l i e f v a l v e o p e r a t i o n . Only in event of a b a t t e r y c a s e r u p t u r e o r vent manifold l e a k a g e will t h e vent v a l v e be c l o s e d . T h i s p r e v e n t s l o s s of c a b i n a t m o s p h e r e o v e r b o a r d , the r e by, c o n s e r v i n g oxygen.

2. 7. 3. 7

E l e c t r i c a l Pow e r Distribution. T h e t y p e s of e l e c t r i c a l power r e q u i r e d f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e ECS a r e 28 v o l t s dc and 1 1 5 / 2 0 0 - v o l t s 4 0 0 - c y c l e s 3-phase a c . (See f i g u r e 2 . 7 - 1 0 . ) The l a r g e r m o t o r s of t h e s y s t e m utilize 200-volt 3 - p h a s e p o w e r , w h e r e a s t h e s m a l l e r m o t o r s and c o n t r o l c i r c u i t s o p e r a t e f r o m a single p h a s e of t h e a c a t 115 v o l t s . E x c e p t f o r t h e postlanding ventilation s y s t e m , t h o s e c o m p o n e n t s using 2 8 v o l t s dc w i l l r e c e i v e power f r o m the fuel c e l l s b e f o r e CSM s e p a r a t i o n and f r o m b a t t e r i e s a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n . The postlanding v e n t i l a t i o n s y s t e m will o p e r a t e f r o m b a t t e r i e s , exclusively.
____ ~ _ _ _ _

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l2

1966 Change'Datk'

P a g e 2. 7-28

POTABLE WATER QUANTITY TRANSDUCER

H 0 SHUTOFF V h V E TANK 2

-

.

E
cc

I

WASTE WATER QUANTITY TRANSDUCER

PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS

HEATER-FOOD PRE PA R 1 IO N A TRANSDUCERS

7'r'
(WEB-5)

H 2 0 SHUTOFF VALVE TANK 1

-

INSTRUMEMATION POWER C O M R O L ESSEMIAL -2

-

FTI"S-1
FAIL SEMOR

TRANSDUCERS POWER SUPPLY

UNIT N O . 1

UNIT N 0 . 2

.

..

.

. .

.

. -

I .

...

*

.

.

"

H 0 SHUTOFF VmVE TANK 2

-

EVAP WATER CONTROL VALVE

STEAM PRESSURE CONTROL

T
HEATEP-FOOD PRE P F A T IO N A ANSDUCERS

I

I I

fSS.

POSTUNDING VENT FANP BUS-FLOAT BaG 2 L INSTRUMENTS IESS-MN B

1

HTeMN A (RHEB-5)

HTRS-MN 8 (RHEB-5)

(MDC-25)

db5A

iy
IMTRJMENTATlON POWER CONTROL ESSENTIAL -2

POSTUNDING VENT FAN

-

HIGH

(RHE8-6)

SUIT EVAP DIVERTER VALVl CONTROL U N l l

r

L I
PLV FAN

LIl
VALVES (2)

i

SUIT EVAP
DIVERTER VALVE

STEAM PRESSURE

1
UNIT
'A PRESSURE IOL SECTION

I

CHROMA TOGRAPH

L

I

I
NOTE: Unless othamisa listed, all circuit brsoken o n located on MDC-22.

1

1

I-I
ECS-

L

<a .

j s
ECS-

ECSCABIN AIR FANAC 2#A

Y

m J
ECSGLKOL PU* AC 2-

6.

SUIT MDC

0,
VALVES (2) DIVERTER VALVE

h
AUTO MAN
S T E A M m€ss C O M R O L UNIT

SUIT N A P DIVERTER VALVE CONTROL UNIT

NAP WETNESS CONTROL UNIT

SUIT

WATER-GLYCOL TEMP CONTROL

STEAM PRESS
VALVE

WATER I N F L W CONTROL VALVE

WATER-GLYCOL TEMP CONTROL

Miss ion

i

i

SMZA -03-SCO12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

CABIN TEMP CONTROL

RAD ISOLATION
To: & t u b e

RAD ISOLATION VALVE
TO:

4lube

sector 5
CABIN TEMP CONTROL

CABIN AIR FAN- 1 (MDC-21)

AUTOA
:F

P

MAN

OFF

6

11A ECS RADIATOR1-A (MDC-21)

T
RADIATC 2-A (MD

circuit in sector 5

VALVE To: b t u b e circuit in

RAD ISOLATION VALVE To: 4 * u k circuit in sector 2

(MDC-13)

2- 1)
(MDC-21)

-

1

I
ECS-

(MDC-2 I )

1

I

,

ECS-

CABIN
AIR FANAC 2#A A

ECSUBIN AIR FANAC 2-

ECSCABIN AIR FANAC 2-

ECSRAD VALVEAC I A

I

ECSRAD VALVEAC 21) ECSRAD VALVEAC I B ECSRAD VALVEAC 2A

4

. (

A

. (

A

uc


GLYCOL PUMPSAC 1GLYCOL

r
ECSGLYCOL PUMPSAC 2-

WMPSAC 1ECSGLKOL PUMPSAC 2#A ECSGLYCOL PUMPSAC 2-

P

(0C)
A AC BUI

J

u

I

UB

u

uc
2A

PUMP

I

’UMP 2

1
-0L

4
N0.2

c

I

-

WATER-GLYCOL PUMP

SM24-709G

F i g u r e 2. 7- 10.

ECS Power Distribution Diagram

ENVIRONMENTAL C O N T R O L SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966

Change D a t e

P a g e 2.1-2912.7-30

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA 2.7.4 2.7.4.1 PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA. Metabolic Data. T h e following table contains the a v e r a g e m e t a b o l i c r a t e s , t h e r m a l b a l a n c e , and w a t e r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S / C c r e w m e m b e r s .
Par am e t e r

P r e s s u r i z e d Cabin ( N o rm a l )

D e p r e s s u r i z e d Cabin (Emergency)

T o t a l m e t a b o l i c load BTU p e r m a n / d a y Water production lb p e r man/day C 0 2 production lb per man/day 0 2 , consumption lb p e r manfday W a t e r consumption lb p e r man/day U r i n e production lb p e r m a n / d a y

11,200

12,000

4.0

9.8

2.12 1.84

2.27

1.97 12.4 2.6

6.6
2.6

2.7.4.2

Oxygen Supply Subsystem. P e r f o r m a n c e and d e s i g n data f o r the oxygen supply s u b s y s t e m a r e a s follows:
a M a x i m u m oxygen flow rate to ECS from c r y o g e n i c s t o r a g e tanks: 9.0 l b p e r h r
0

S u r g e tank quantity: 3 . 7 l b ( a p p r o x ) S u r g e tank nominal p r e s s u r e : 900*35 p s i g S u r g e tank p r e s s u r e r e l i e f setting: 1045*25 psig E n t r y tank quantity: 1 l b ( a p p r o x ) E n t r y tank nominal p r e s s u r e : 900*35 p s i g E n t r y tank p r e s s u r e relief setting: None Regulated working oxygen p r e s s u r e : 100*10 p s i g P r e s s u r e relief setting: 130*10 p s i g Flow r a t e : 0.7 lb p e r m i n max Regulated tank p r e s s u r i z a t i o n oxygen p r e s s u r e : 20*2 p s i g P r e s s u r e relief setting: 25*2 p s i g F l o w r a t e : 0.075 l b p e r m i n (one r e g u l a t o r ) a n d 0. 15 l b p e r min (two r e g u l a t o r s )

0

0

0

.-

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date

Page

2.7-31

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2.7.4.3 P r e s s u r e Suit C i r c u i t Subsystem. P e r f o r m a n c e and d e s i g n d a t a f o r the p r e s s u r e s u i t c i r c u i t s u b s y s t e m a r e a s follows:
0 0 0

H e a t e x c h a n g e r cooling capacity:

2100 BTU p e r h r max (Gly o r evap)

W a t e r e v a p o r a t i o n rate:

1.97 lb p e r h r max

Regulated d e m a n d p r e s s u r e N o r m a l : 2.5 to 3.5 in. H 2 0 below cabin p r e s s u r e E m e r g e n c y : 3.75 i 0 . 2 5 p s i a F l o w r a t e : 0.67 l b p e r m i n max Suit c o m p r e s s o r v o l u m e t r i c flow N o r m a l flight: 35 c f m E m e r g e n c y flight: 33.6 c f m Automatic t e m p e r a t u r e control: Max 0 2 flow into s u i t circuit: valve) 45" to 5 5 ° F

0

0 0

0.66 l b p e r m i n ( r e g u l a t o r o r m a n u a l

2.7.4.4

Cabin P r e s s u r e and T e m p e r a t u r e C o n t r o l S u b s y s t e m . P e r f o r m a n c e and d e s i g n d a t a f o r the c a b i n p r e s s u r e a n d t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m a r e as follows: H e a t e x c h a n g e r cooling capacity:
0

1250 BTU p e r h r max

Regulated cabin p r e s s u r e : 5.0*0.2 p s i g F l o w r a t e : 0.65 lb p e r h r (one r e g u l a t o r ) and 1. 3 l b p e r h r (two r e g u l a t o r s ) E m e r g e n c y inflow p r e s s u r e ( m a x i m u m of 0 . 5 in. d i a m e t e r total l e a k a g e ' a r e a ) : 3.5 p s i a f o r 5 m i n u t e s F l o w r a t e : 0.67 lb p e r m i n m a x Cabin p r e s s u r e relief P o s i t i v e relief: 6.0 (to. 2, -0.4) p s i g Negative relief: 10 to 25 in. H 2 0

0

0

e D i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e ( C / M cabin-to-aft section) N o r m a l a s c e n t : 7.0 p s i g max. A b o r t a s c e n t : 8.6 p s i g max.
0

Automatic t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l (flight): 70" t o 80°F

0 2 r e q u i r e d f o r cabin r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n , 0 to 5 p s i g a t 7 0 ° F : 9. 1 lb
2.7.4.5
W a t e r -Glycol Coolant Subsystem.

P e r f o r m a n c e and design d a t a f o r t h e w a t e r - g l y c o l coolant s u b s y s t e m a r e a s follows:
0
0

R e s e r v o i r quantity: 9 lb ( a p p r o x ) T o t a l s y s t e m quantity ( l e s s r e s e r v o i r ) : E v a p o r a t o r cooling capacity:
18 lb (approx)

0

7620 B T U p e r h r m a x

ENVIRONMENTAL C O N T R O L SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
l2

1966

Change Date

page

2.7-32

SM2A-03-SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
0
0

W a t e r evaporation rate: A c c u m u l a t o r quantity: P u m p flow:

7.5 l b p e r h r m a x 1.36 lb (approx)

0
0

200 lb p e r h r

Pump pressure Inlet: 7.5*1.5 p s i g Outlet (flight): 3 8 ( t 8 , -12) p s i a Automatic t e m p e r a t u r e control:
4 0 " to 50. 5 ° F

0

2.7.4.6

W a t e r Supply Subsystem. P e r f o r m a n c e and d e s i g n d a t a f o r the w a t e r supply s u b s y s t e m a r e a s follows : P o t a b l e tank quantity:
0 0 0

36 l b 56 l b 112 l b (2 tanks)

Waste tank quantity:

S / M w a t e r tank quantity:

S / M n i t r o g e n tank quantity ( p r e s s u r a n t ) : capacity of 3 . 7 lb, filled to 1.5 l b (approx) N i t r o g e n tank f i l l p r e s s u r e :

0 0 0 0

900 p s i g
1045*25 p s i g 40*2 p s i g 44 to 48 p s i g

N i t r o g e n tank p r e s s u r e relief setting: Nitrogen s y s t e m r e g u l a t e d p r e s s u r e :

Nitrogen s y s t e m p r e s s u r e relief setting:

0

O v e r b o a r d dump p r e s s u r e : a p p r o x 32 p s i above outside a m b i e n t F l q w rate: 2. 5 l b p e r m i n max Food p r e p a r a t i o n w a t e r supply unit Capacity: 1. 9 l b Hot w a t e r : 154"*4"F Cold w a t e r : 50°F (at w a t e r c h i l l e r )

0

2.7.4.7

W a s t e Management System.
P e r f o r m a n c e and d e s i g n data f o r t h e w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m i s a s follows:
0

U r i n e / w a t e r dump nozzle orifice:

0.055 in.

2.7.4.8

ECS P o w e r Consumption Data. T h e following l i s t contains the l a t e s t available data on e l e c t r i c a l power c o n s u m e d by components of the ECS. T h e wattage f i g u r e s a r e f o r the e a r t h o r b i t p h a s e only, a n d apply to o p e r a t i o n s during the n o r m a l mode ( p r e s s u r i z e d cabin).

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l2 l966

.
Page
2.7-33

Change Date

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

No, of JnitE
Watts p e r Unit AC DC T o t a l Watts AC DC

Subsystem a n d Component OXYGEN S U P P L Y
0 2 flow t r a n s d u c e r

Control

ECS-TRANSDUCERP R E S S GROUPS-2 c b (2) E C S - T RANS DUCERP R E S S GROUPS-2 c b (2)

1

2.4

2.4

0 2 press transducer

1

0.8

0.8

PRESSURE SUIT CIRCUIT Suit c o m p r e s s o r A P sensor SUIT C 0M P R E SS 0RS sw E C S - TRANSDUCERP R E S S GROUPS- 1 cb (2) ECS - TRANSDUCERP R E S S GROUPS - 2 cb (2) SUIT E V A P s w

2
1

85.0 1.28

t 85.0
170.0 1.28

C02 sensor

1

1.0

1.0

D i v e r t e r valve c o n t r o l unit D i v e r t e r control valve

1

2.5 :7.2 2.5
t7.2

2.5

- ..

SUIT E V A P s w
SUI? E V A P s w SUIT E V A P s w SUIT E V A P s w SUIT E V A P s w SUIT E V A P s w

1

:7.2
2. 5
r7. 2

Steam p r e s s c o n t r o l
unit S t e a m p r e s s cont valve Steam d u c t abs p r e s s sensor W e t n e s s c o n t r o l unit W a t e r inflow c o n t r o l val ve Wetness s e n s o r W a t e r - gl y t e m p sensor E v a p o u t l e t air t e m p sensor

1 1
1

1. 28 5.0

1.28 5. 0

1 1
1

:::3. 0

:#3.0

SUIT E V A P s w SUIT E V A P s w

0.2 0.001

0.2 0.001

1
1

SUIT E V A P s w

0.001

0.001

* I n t e r m i t t e n t o p e r a t i n g componehts t O n l y one component o p e r a t e s a t a t i m e

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission

Basic Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page

2.7-34

SMZA-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
--

SYSTEMS DATA

No. of Jnitz 1

W a t t s p e r Unit
AC DC
0. 8

Total W a t t s AC DC
0.8

Subsystem a n d Component Suit p r e s s t r a n s d u c e r

Control ECS-TRANSDUCERPRESS GROUPS- 1 cb (2)

-

Suit t e m p s e n s o r

E CS - TRANSDUCER T E M P GROUP c b ( 2 )

1

0.04

0 . 04

CABIN PRESSURE & T E M P CONTROL C a b i n air fan CABIN AIR FAN- 1 & 2 s w (2) CABIN T E M P - A U T O / MAN s w CABIN T E M P - A U T O / MAN s w ECS-TRANSDUCERT E M P G R O U P cb (2) ECS-TRANSDUCERT E M P GROUP cb ( 2 ) ECS-TRANSDUCERPRESS GROUPS - 2 cb ( 2 )
2

19.0

38.0

Cabin t e m p control unit Cabin t e m p cont valve

1

2.5

2.5

1

r7.2

*7.2

Cabin t e m p s e n s o r Cabin t e m p anticipatox

1 1

0.001

0.001

Cabin p r e s s transducer

1

0. 8

0. 8

WATER -GLY COL COOLANT W a t e r - glycol pump P u m p outlet p r e s s t r an sdu c e r E C S GLYCOL s w ECS-TRANSDUCERPRESS GROUPS- 1 cb ( 2 ) ECS-TRANSDUCERPRESS GROUPS- 1 cb ( 2 )
2

36. 0
0. 8

t36. 0
0. 8

1

Water-gly a c c u m qty sensor

1

0. 8

0. 8

‘::Intermittent o p e r a t i n g c o m p o n e n t s +Only one component operates at a time

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov l 9 6 6 Change Date Page 2.7-35

SM2A-03-SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

No. Watts p e r Unit of Unit$ AC DC T o t a l Watts AC
2.5

Subsystem a n d Component Water-gly t e m p control unit Water-gly temp control valve W a t e r -gly t e m p sensor

Control GLYCOL E V A P T E M P IN s w GLYCOL E V A P T E M P IN s w GLYCOL E V A P T E M P IN s w ; GLY EVAP-STEAM P R ESS-AUTO/MAN S W ; GLYCOL E V A P H 2 0 FLOW sw GLY E V A P - S T E A M P R E S S -A UT O/MA N sw GLY E V A P - S T E A M PRESS-INCR / D E C R sw

-1

DC
~~

2.5

1

r7.2

*7.2

5

0.001

0.005

Steam p r e s s control unit

1

2.5

2.5

S t e a m p r e s s cont valve

1

k7.2

=7.2
----

S t e a m duct p r e s s switch

E CS - T R A NSD UCE R -

1

TBD

TBD

TBD

TBD

PRESS GROUPS- 1
cb (2)
GLYCOL E V A P - H 2 0 FLOW sw GLYCOL EVAP-HZO FLOW sw GLYCOL EVAP-H2O FLOW s w

W a t e r c o n t r o l unit

1

5. 0

5.0

Water control valve

1

*3.0

*3. 0

Wick t e m p s e n s o r

1

0.28

0. 28

Rad o u t l e t t e m p sensor Rad i s o l a t i o n valve

E CS - TRA NSDU C E R T E M P GROUP c b ( 2 ) E C S RADlATOR s w

1

0 . 04

0. 04

4

$14. 4

::57. 6

(4)
*Intermittent operating components

-

--ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 l966 Change Date Page 2.7-36

SMZA -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA No. of Jnitt Watts p e r Unit AC DC T o t a l Watts AC DC

Subsystem and Component WATER S U P P L Y P o t w a t e r qty transducer

Control

1

ECS-TRANSDUCERWASTE & P O T HZOMN A & B c b (2) ECS-TRANSDUCERWASTE & POT H 2 0 MN A & B cb (2) P O T H 2 0 HEATER sw H 2 0 ACCUM-AUTO/ MAN s w

1. 2 8

1.28

Waste w a t e r qty transducer

1

1.28

1. 28

Food p r e p w a t e r supply unit H 2 0 accum control unit H 2 0 accum valve

1

*45.0

r45.0

1

3.0

3.0

H 2 0 ACCUM-ON/ O F F sw
ECS-H2O ACCUMMN A & B c b ( 2 ) WASTE H 2 0 TK REFILL sw

2

*3* 0

::3* 0

H 2 0 accum fail sensor S / M w a t e r tank shutoff valve MISCELLANEOUS WMS blower

1

1.5

1.5

2

160.0

:160. 0

WASTE MANAGEMENT S E L E C T O R valve ECS-STEAM DUCT HTR-MN A & B c b (2) ECS-STEAM DUCT H T R - M N A & B cb (21

1

c20.0

*20.0

Urine /water dump no z z l e h e a t e r

1

5. 7

5. 7

S t e a m duct heater

2

3.0

6. 0

T e m p x d u c e r pwr supply

E CS - TRANSDUCER T E M P GROUP cb (2 1

1

10.5

10.5

' :?'Inte1 m i t t e n t o p e r a t i n g components

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.7-37

SMZA-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~

Subsystem a n d Component Temp sensor amplifier

Control ECS-TRANSDUCERT E M P GROUP c b (2) ECS-TRANSDUCERT E M P GROUP cb (2)

No. Watts p e r Unit of Units AC DC

T o t a l Watts AC 0.2 DC

5

0.04

Steam duct t e m p s e n s o r signal conditione r

1

1.5

1.5

Gas chromatoeraoh

I

GAS ANAL-AC

1 cb

1

9

9

* I n t e r m i t tent ope r a t i n g components

2.7.5
2.7. 5. 1

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS

ECS Caution P l a c a r d s .
Caution notes b o r d e r e d by yellow and black s t r i p e s a p p e a r a d j a c e n t t o the postlanding vent v a l v e s in the f o r w a r d tunnel a r e a . The notes r e a d , "POST LANDING VENT VALVE-PULL P I N BEFORE OPERATING VENT FAN. ' I If the pins w e r e not in place d u r i n g flight, i n a d v e r t e n t opening of the cabin v e n t v a l v e s would i m m e d i a t e l y d u m p all c a b i n p r e s s u r e , with possible catastrophic results.
A p l a c a r d o n e a c h CO2-odor a b s o r b e r c a n i s t e r c o v e r cautions the c r e w m a n to "PUSH BUTTON B E F O R E OPENING, I ' and includes a n a r r o w to indicate dire,ction button should be pushed. T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n m u s t be followed any time a c a n i s t e r c o v e r is t o be opened. By p r e s s i n g the pushbutton, the d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e is equalized and the c o v e r m a y then be removed.

T h e caution note on LHEB-314 p e r t a i n s to filling the PLSS oxygentanks and, t h e r e f o f e , is not appLicable to e a r t h o r b i t a l (Block 1) m i s s i o n s . It r e a d s , "CAUTION 900 PSI CLOSE VALVE B E F O R E REMOVING C A P . ' ' 2.7.5.2 ECS Caution Notes. Design r e s t r i c t i o n s r e q u i r e that c e r t a i n p r o c e d u r e s be followed when positioning the inlet and outlet s e l e c t o r valves of t h e tank p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a n d relief valve a s s e m b l y . If t h e i n l e t s e l e c t o r valve is p l a c e d to position 1 ( o r 2 ) . the outlet s e l e c t o r valve m u s t a l s o be p l a c e d to position 1 ( o r 2) or to NORMAL position. T h i s p r e v e n t s shutting off the supply of oxygen f o r p r e s s u r i z i n g the potable and w a s t e w a t e r tanks and the w a t e r - g l y c o l r e s e r v o i r . C o n v e r s e l y , i f the outlet s e l e c t o r valve is placed to position 1 ( o r 2 ) , the i n l e t s e l e c t o r valve m u s t be placed to position 1 ( o r 2 ) o r to NORMAL position.

~

_

_
~

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page

2.7-38

SM2A -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA 2. 7. 5 . 3 ECS G e n e r a l Data. S e v e r a l E C S c o n t r o l s a r e i n a c c e s s i b l e d u r i n g the m i s s i o n . T h o s e affected a r e l o c a t e d behind the two r e m o v a b l e Y - a x i s a t t e n u a t o r p a n e l s in the LHEB. They include a l l c o n t r o l s mounted o n LHEB-311, t h e s u i t c i r c u i t r e t u r n a i r m a n u a l valve, and t h e d i v e r t e r v a l v e handle f o r t h e C 0 2 - o d o r a b s o r b e r c a n i s t e r s . The a t t e n u a t o r p a n e l s a r e i n p l a c e d u r i n g the e n t i r e m i s s i o n , but a r e r e m o v e d to gain a c c e s s to t h e s e ECS c o n t r o l s , and t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y r e i n s t a l l e d . They p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e b e a r i n g s u r f a c e f o r the Y - a x i s a t t e n u a t o r shock s t r u t pad f o r t h e landing i m p a c t . T h e c i r c u i t b r e a k e r f o r the postlanding v e n t i l a t i o n s y s t e m i s not engaged until a f t e r landing i m p a c t . T h i s p r e c a u t i o n , in conjunction with the lockpins p r e v i o u s l y i n s e r t e d i n t h e postlanding v e n t v a l v e s , a s s u r e s t h a t the c a b i n p r e s s u r e w i l l not b e i n a d v e r t e n t l y dumped d u r i n g flight. High-oxygen flow d u r i n g c a b i n r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n , o r when filling a n e m p t y (150 p s i a m i n ) s u r g e tank, m a y c a u s e w a t e r - g l y c o l f r e e z i n g . T h i s will o c c u r when t h e r e is l e s s t h a n full flow t h r o u g h t h e w a r m w a t e r - g l y c o l l i n e upon which t h e flow r e s t r i c t o r s a r e wound. F u l l c o o l a n t flow a t t h i s l o c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , m a y be a s s u r e d i n the following m a n n e r . Between 1 5 a n d 30 m i n u t e s p r i o r t o a n t i c i p a t e d high oxygen flow, s e t the GLYCOL E V A P - T E M P IN s w i t c h (MDC-13) t o MAN, a n d o v e r r i d e t h e GLYCOL E V A P T E M P I N v a l v e (LHEB-311) to the f u l l cool position. R a d i a t o r h e a t r e j e c t i o n (as f r e e z i n g ) i s a function of r a d i a t o r i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r & and r a d i a t o r o r i e n t a t i o n . T h u s , if the r a d i a t o r i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e d e c r e a s e s to 7 5 " F , t h e S / C m u s t be p l a c e d i n a 2 t o 5 R P H ( 0 . 2 to 0. 5 d e g r e e p e r s e c o d d ) r o l l rate. During t h i s t i m e r a d i a t o r i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e m u s t not d e c r e a s e below 7 0 " F , o r t h e individual r a d i a t o r o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e below 30 O F . 2.7. 5 . 4 Cabin Depressurization Rates. The t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e C / M cabin to b e c o m e d e p r e s s u r i z e d i s c o n t i n g e n t upon how p r e s s u r e is r e l e a s e d . If t h e c a b i n is intentionally d u m p e d , the t i m e i t t a k e s t o r e a c h z e r o p r e s s u r e will be a s shown in f i g u r e 2 . 7 - 11, s h e e t 1 of 2 . H o w e v e r , if the p r e s s u r e i s l o s t a s t h e r e s u l t of m e t e o r o i d p u n c t u r e s , the t i m e w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the s i z e and n u m b e r of h o l e s . F i g u r e 2 . 7-11, s h e e t 2 of 2 , only r e f l e c t s flow r a t e d a t a f o r m e t e o r o i d h o l e s t h a t do n o t e x c e e d a t o t a l e q u i v a l e n t a r e a of 0. 5 in. i n d i a m e t e r . The s a m e c h a r t a l s o a p p l i e s to t h e flow r a t e of o n e c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e l i e f valve t h a t h a s f a i l e d open while i n the NORMAL position.
2. 7. 5 . 5

Cabin R e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n R a t e s . The C / M cabin may be r e p r e s s u r i z e d by u s i n g e i t h e r of two flow r a t e s . TO r e t u r n t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r e to n o r m a l i n the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e t i m e , t h e conditions a s s e t f o r t h i n f i g u r e 2 . 7-12, s h e e t 1 of 2 , m u s t be c o m p l i e d with. The flow r a t e , h o w e v e r , i s d e p e n d e n t upon a full supply of oxygen in the ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2 NOv 1966

Change Date

Page

2-7-39

S M 2 A -03-SCO12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION 5 TO 0 PSlA INTENTIONAL DUMP TIME 6 MI N, 1 1 SEC

-

-

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

I .5

1 .o

0.5

0

TIME

- MINUTES

CONDITIONS: I .

EMERGENCY CABIN PRESSURE selector valve set to OFF

2 . CABIN REPRESS manual valve set to clore.

3 . CABIN PRESSURE RELIEF valve
4.

set to

DUMP.

Normal cabin pressure ngularon autanatically close at

3.5 p i a .

SM-2A-890

F i g u r e 2 . 7-11.

Cabin D e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n R a t e s (Sheet 1 of 2 )

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission Basic Date l 2

I

1966

Change Date

page

2.7-40

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

--

SYSTEMS DATA

CABIN DEPRESSURIZATION 5 TO 0 PSlA UNINTENTIONAL DUMP TIME 45 MIN, 40 SEC*

-

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1 .o

0.5

0 0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

TIME

- MINUTES

CONDITIONS: 1 .

EMERGENCY CABIN PRESSURE selector valve set to NORMAL.

2. CABIN REPRESS manual valve set to close
3 . CABIN PRESSURE RELlEFvalves set to NORMAL.

4. Noma1 cabin pressure regulaton autanotiwlly clored at 3 . 5 psia.
5 . EMERGENCY CABIN PRESSURE selector valve set to OFF p i t i o n when pressure reaches 3 . 5 psia (5 minutes).

*Depressurization is through a 0.5-inchdiameter (or equivalent) mateomid puncture, or the maximum flow through one CABIN PRESSURE RELIEF valve that hilr open while in the NORMAL porition.

SM-2A-888

Figure 2. 7-11.

Cabin D e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n R a t e s (Sheet 2 of 2)

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL S Y S T E M Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

Page

2,7-41

SM2A -03 -SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

CABIN REPRESSURIZATION 0 T 5 PSIA+ O MINIMUMTIME 52 MIN, 22 SEC

-

-

---

TIME -MINUTES

CONDITIONS: 1. EMERGENCY CABIN P E S R selector valve set t o NORMAL. RSU E
2. CABIN REPRESS manual valve set to OPEN.

3 . When surge tank p m u n i n d i a t w decto 1 p i a , EMERGENCY M CABIN P E S R wlectar valve set to OFF; suge tank minimum RSU E p n u u m (150 p i a ) maintained by regulating CABIN REPRESS manual
valve until valve i s full open and surge tank p n u u n starts to incrarse.
4.

Normal cabin pressure regulaton a u t m a t i c a l l y open at 3.5 pi0

5. When surge tank p n w n again decreases to 150 p i a , CABIN REPRESS m a n w l valve regulated to maintain this minimum surge tank p n u u m .
6. When cabin preuura indicator m a c h a 5.0 pia, n o m 1 cabin p n u u r e regutaton autamatially close and CABIN REPRESS manual Valve set t 0 C l M C . t Requires 9.1lb oxygen at 70°F cabin tcmpemture

SM-2A-089A

F i g u r e 2. 7-12.

Cabin R e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n R a t e s (Sheet 1 of 2 )

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.7-42

SlM2A - 0 3 - S C 0 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
. .

SYSTEMS DATA

CABIN REPRESSURIZATION 0 TO 5 PSlAY E NORMAL TIME 74 MIN, 25 S C

-

-

TIME

- MINUTES

CONDITIONS: 1 . EMERGENCY CABIN P E S R selector valve set to OFF. RSUE

2. CABIN REPRESS manual valve set to OPEN.
3. Nom1 cabin pressure regulaton autanatically open a1 3.5 p i a .
4 . When cabin pressure indicator reaches 5 . 0 p i a , normal cabin pressure mguloton autanaticolly close and CABIN REPRESS manual valve set to c l p e .

* Requires 9.1lb oxygen at 70°F cabin temperature

Figure 2. 7-12.

Cabin R e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n R a t e s (Sheet 2 of 2 )

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.7-43

S M 2 A -03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA s u r g e tank. When the s u r g e tank i s not f u l l , o r the r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n t i m e is not c r i t i c a l , t h e conditions f o r the flow r a t e a s shown in f i g u r e 2. 7-12, s h e e t 2 of 2. a r e u s e d . 2.7.6 T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS. T h e following i s a c o m p l e t e l i s t of a l l ECS t e l e m e t r y d a t a t h a t i s m o n i t o r e d by flight c o n t r o l l e r s and g r o u n d s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l . T h e l a s t c o l u m n c o n t a i n s t h e n a m e and type of S I C c r e w d i s p l a y . The d i s p l a y u t i l i z e s t h e s a m e pickoff o r s i g n a l s o u r c e a s t e l e m e t r y , u n l e s s a s e p a r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r is included in the d i s p l a y column. An a s t e r i s k (:::) by the m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r d e n o t e s i n f o r m a t i o n which is not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o r d i n g o r t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n d u r i n g P C M low-bit rate operation. Normal Operating Range 5.0*0.2 psia

Measurement Number C F 0001 P

Description P r e s s u r e cabin

Sensor Range
0117 p s i a

C r e w Display PRESS - CABIN indicator T E M P - CABIN indicator P A R T PRESS C 0 2 i n d i c a t o r and CO2 PP HI C & W light TANK PRESS - 1 0 2 indicator

C F 0002 T

Temp cabin

401125°F

7 0 " to 8 0 ° F

C F 0005 P

P r e s s CO partial 2

0 1 3 0 mm Hg

:7.6 mm Hg

* C F 0006 P

P r e s s s u r g e tank

50/1050 p s i a 3 0 0 * 3 5 p s i a

%+CF 0 0 8 T 0

T e m p s u i t supply manf

L0/95"F

55 " F

T E M P - SUIT indicator WATER - QUANTITY indicator WATER - QUANTITY indi c a t o r PRESS - SUIT indicator

C F 0009 Q

Quantity w a s t e w a t e r tank Quantity potable H 2 0 tank P r e s s suit demand reg sense P r e s s suit c o m p r e s s o r diff P r e s s glycol pump outlet

U/lOO%

Variable

C F 0010 Q

U/lOO%

Variable

C F 0012 P

0117 p s i a

3 . 75*0.25
3sia

C F 0015 P

311 p s i d

Min 0. 3 to 0 . 4 L P SUIT COMPR indicator Isid 37 to 45 p s i a PRESS GLY DISCH indicator

C F 0016 P

0160 p s i a

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

Page

2.7-14

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Measurement Number Sensor Range Normal Operating Range >45'F

Description

C r e w Display None

WF 0017 T

T e m p glycol e v a p outlet 2 0 / 9 5 ' F steam T e m p glycol e v a p outlet 2 5 1 7 5 ° F liquid

C F 0018 T

4 0 " to 50. 5 ° F

GLY E V A P OUTLET T E M P indicator GLY ACCUM QUA NT ITY indi c a t o r E C S RAD - O U T L E T T E M P i n d i c a t o r and GLYCOL T E M P LOW C & W light None

C F 0019 Q

Quantity glycol a c c u m

0 / 10 0 7 0

40 to 60%

C F 0020 T

Temp space radiator outlet

-

5 0 1t 1 0 0 " F

Variable

:::CF 0025 P

P r e s s p u m p package inlet Back p r e s s glycol evaporator Flow r a t e ECS 0 2

0160 p s i a

7 psi min

C F 0034 P

0.05/0.25 psia 0.211.0 Lb/hr
0 / 150 p s i a

0. 0 9 8 to 0. 154 GLY E V A P STEAM
psia

PRESS indicator

C F 0035 R

3.425 l b / h r

FLOW 0 2 i n d i c a t o r

* C F 0036 P

P r e s s outlet 0 2 r e g supply ' P r e s s HzO and glycol tanks Flow r a t e manifold inlet to s u i t 1 Flow r a t e manifold i n l e t to s u i t 2 Flow r a t e manifold i n l e t LO s u i t 3 D P supply and r e t u r n manif old

100*10 p s i a

None

i'CF 0120 P

0 1 5 0 psia

18 to 35 psid

None

*:CF 0135 R

010.2 l b / h r

TBD

None

:::CF 0136 R

O / O . 2 lb/hr

TBD

None

'::CF 01 37 R

010.2 lb/hr

TBD

None

+ C F 0148 P

0 1 0 . 8 psid

3. 25 to 0. 5 Dsid

None

;'CF 0153 T '::CF 0184 T

T e m p c o m p r e s s o r inlet 5 0 1 125 "F Temp C02 absorber outlet

TBD I'BD

None None

?O/2OOoF

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

.
Page 2.7-45

l966

Change Date

SM2A -03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
.. .-

SYSTEMS DATA Sensor Range
-

Measurement Number
~

Description
~~

Normal Operating Range

Crew Display None None

* C F 0245 T * C F 0326 P

' e m p O2 r e g i n l e t ' r e s s potable H 2 0 tank rain ' r e s s w a s t e H2O tank rain 'emp C P branch 1 ilet 'emp C P branch 1 utlet 'emp C P branch 2 ilet 'emp C P branch 2 utlet
)iff p r e s s coldplate ranch 1

50141 50 "F

'BD

1/50 psia

8 t o 35 psid

WF 0327 P

1/50 p s i a

8 to 3 5 psid

None

:\CF 0481 T

k0/150 " F

? BD

None

l:CF 0482 T

& O / 150 "F

:BD

None

* C F 0483 T

k O / 150 "F

:BD

None

:gCF 0484 T

k0/150 "F

TBD

None

* C F 0549 P

112. 0 p s i d

:BD

None

* C F 0550 P

)iff p r e s s c o l d p l a t e ranch 2
; a s a n a l y s i s - s u i t and abin

1/10 p s i d

:BD

None

C T 0108 K

v /A
50/15O0F

J/A

None

SF 0665 T
S F 0671 T

'emp space radiator ilet ' e m p ECS r a d i a t o r utlet 1 ' e m p ECS r a d i a t o r utlet 2

rariable

None

)/50"F

Tar i a ble

ECS RAD OUT T E M P - 1 indicator

S F 0672 T

1 / 5 0 "F

rariable

ECS RAD OUT T E M P - 2 indicator

Mission

ENVIRONMENTAL C O N T R O L SYSTFM .*; .. B a s i c Date 12 N o v 1966 Change Date

Page

2-7-46

SfM I C/M

I
I

8

I

I

I

I I
I

I I I I
I
I

I

I

I
I

I

I I
I

SIM

OM

I

OVERBOARD

,

,..

..
.
#

.

...

.

...

.

.

-

..

c
~

Mission

SMZA -03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

i

-m

Figure 2. 7 - 1 3 .

E C S Schematic Diagram

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date 1 2 N o v 1966

Change Date

Page 2.7-4712.7-48

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-

SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2 SUBSECTION 2 . 8 TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM 2 . 8. 1 INTRODUCTION. The t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( T / C ) s y s t e m i n c l u d e s the s p a c e c r a f t ( S / C ) c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and d a t a equipment r e q u i r e d f o r v o i c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ; a c q u i s i t i o n , p r o c e s s i n g , s t o r a g e and t r a n s m i s s i o n of o p e r a t i o n a l and flight qualification t e le m e t r y (TLM), t e l evi s ion (TV ), a n d bi omed i c a1 d a t a ; r e c e p tion of u p - d a t a ; and t r a n s m i s s i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e t r a c k i n g and ranging s i g n a l s . At l e a s t p a r t of the T / C s y s t e m w i l l be i n o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g all p h a s e s of the mission-from p r e l a u n c h through r e c o v e r y . The following l i s t s u m m a r i z e s T / C c a p a b i l i t i e s a s utilized on SC-012.
0

S / C i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s between c r e w m a n H a r d l i n e voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and t r a n s m i s s i o n of TV and T L M d a t a to t h e Launch C o n t r o l C e n t e r ( L C C ) v i a the s e r v i c e module u m b i l i c a l (USM) d u r i n g p r e l a u n c h In-flight v o i c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s with the manned spdceflight n e t w o r k (MSFN) Voice t a p e r e c o r d i n g of c o m m e n t s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , opinions, e t c . , with time correlation Acquisition and p r o c e s s i n g of TLM, TV, and o p e r a t i o n a l b i o m e d i c a l d a t a f r o m t h e S / C s t r u c t u r e and s y s t e m s , TV c a m e r a , and c r e w man biomedical s e n s o r s , respectively TLM data storage T r a n s m i s s i o n of r e a l - t i m e o r s t o r e d T L M d a t a Reception of up-data (guidance and navigation, and t i m i n g d a t a and r e a l - t i m e c o m m a n d s ) f r o m the MSFN T r a n s m i s s i o n of C-band t r a c k i n g p u l s e s in r e s p o n s e t o r e c e i v e d r a d a r signals L i m i t e d c a p a b i l i t i e s , f o r S - b a n d o p e r a t i o n , including t r a n s m i s s i o n of voice and T L M d a t a p l u s TV, s t o r e d analog, o r p s e u d o - r a n d o m noise ( P R N ) , ranging c o d e s , and r e c e p t i o n of voice and up-data Postlanding r e c o v e r y a i d s including v o i c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and r e c o v e r y beacon t r a n s m i s s i o n TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-_
Mission

0

B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page

2.8-1

SM2A-03 -SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA
0

G e n e r a t i o n of timing s i g n a l s f o r synchronization of the T / C and other S / C systems.

2.8. 2

FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION. T h e functional d e s c r i p t i o n of the T / C s y s t e m is divided into four p a r t s : v o i c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , d a t a o p e r a t i o n s , t r a c k i n g and ranging, and S-band o p e r a t i o n s . T h e unified S-band s u b s y s t e m (USBS), used f o r a l l S-band o p e r a t i o n s , p r o v i d e s back-up voice, data, t r a c k i n g and ranging capabilities, and the s o l e m e a n s f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n of TV o r analog data.

2.8.2. 1

Voice Communications. Gene r a1

2. 8 . 2. 1. 1

.

All S / C voice, communications (figure 2 . 8 - 1)originate and t e r m i n a t e in the c r e w m e n ' s p e r s o n a l communication a s s e m b l i e s (headsets). Each c r e w m a n h a s two h e a d s e t s ; one is l o c a t e d i n the "bump-hat" f o r u s e while w e a r i n g the c o n s t a n t - w e a r g a r m e n t ; the o t h e r is located in the s p a c e s u i t h e l m e t . E a c h h e a d s e t is c o m p r i s e d of two independently operating e a r phones and two m i c r o p h o n e s with self-contained p r e a m p l i f i e r s . T h e h e a d s e t s a r e used f o r a l l voice t r a n s m i s s i o n and reception. Each c r e w m a n ' s h e a d s e t is connected to the audio c e n t e r ( A / C ) equipm e n t by a s e p a r a t e e l e c t r i c a l umbilical assembly, commonly r e f e r r e d t o as a I t c o b r a cable. I t In addition to the audio c i r c u i t s , e a c h of the t h r e e c o b r a c a b l e s contains w i r i n g f o r the o p e r a t i o n a l biomedical s e n s o r s in the constant w e a r g a r m e n t s and the p u s h - t o - t a l k ( P T T ) c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y . The P T T c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y c o n s i s t s of a pushbutton-type P T T key and a P T T / C W s e l e c t o r switch. With the P T T / C W s e l e c t o r switch in the P T T position, the P T T key p e r m i t s m a n u a l c o n t r o l of voice t r a n s m i s s i o n b y the a p p r o p r i a t e t r a n s m i t t e r a n d m i k e a m p l i f i e r c i r c u i t in the audio c e n t e r module. T h e PTT mode w a s designed t o be used during the launch phase of the m i s s i o n when high n o i s e l e v e l s would p r e c l u d e usage of the VOX c i r c u i t r y . In t h i s mode, the P T T key will enable the m i c r o p h o n e a m p l i f i e r , voice r e c o r d e r , VHF-AM and S-Band t r a n s m i t t e r s i f the l a t t e r t h r e e have t h e i r attendant c o n t r o l s w i t c h e s configured p r o p e r l y . The audio c e n t e r power switch and the c o b r a c a b l e mode switch would be in P T T position during this mode. The C W m o d e w a s a l s o designed to be used d u r i n g the high-noise l e v e l s of the launch phase. In this mode, however, the V H F and S-band downvoice communications l i n k s a r e not enabled. This gives u s a P T T c o n t r o l l e d i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . The voice r e c o r d e r could a l s o be enabled i n this m o d e i f needed. The audio c e n t e r power switch would a l s o be i n t h e P T T position, but the mode switch on the c o b r a cable m u s t be in the CW position, It should be noted that on o l d e r c o b r a c a b l e s , the CW position w a s used only f o r e m e r g e n c y key. Now, t h i s position will be used f o r both

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission
Basic Date

12

NOV

1966 Change Date

Page

2.8-2

SM2A-03 - SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

To:

HEADSET EARPHONES d MIKE AMPLS NOTES: 1 .
There ore three heodsets, t n r w connecting cobm cobler, thne audio control pnels, ond three audio center oqvipnent modulesm e ret for mch crewnun.

2.

Additimol PTT keys ore DIU)lourtd m the tmnrlotim cmtmls.
VOLUU

3. All

cmtrds ond witches shown o n

on

(MOC-13, 23, AND -26) S - 2A-843D M

MDC-20 unless otherwise indicated.

F i g u r e 2.8-1.

Voice Communications

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM M i s s ion Basic Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
2. 8 - 3

SM2 A- 0 3 -SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA e m e r g e n c y key and the P T T i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s functions. P T T k e y s a r e a l s o l o c a t e d o n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s . T h e i r function d u p l i c a t e s t h a t of t h e P T T key with t h e P T T / C W s e l e c t o r i n t h e P T T p o s i t i o n on t h e c o b r a cable. The head of e a c h c o b r a c a b l e h a s two e l e c t r i c a l c o n n e c t o r s , m a r k e d NORM and EMER. N o r m a l l y , the c o n n e c t o r m a r k e d NORM will be u s e d ; h o w e v e r , i n t h e event of f a i l u r e i n o n e of t h e A / C m o d u l e s , t h e affected c r e w m a n m a y connect the c a b l e f r o m his s p a c e s u i t to the c o n n e c t o r m a r k e d E M E R T h i s w i l l connect his audio c i r c u i t s to a n o t h e r A / C module and allow t h e s a m e module to be s h a r e d by two c r e w m e n . A s t r a p h a s been added to t h e c o b r a c a b l e so the P T T button c a n be held i n the ON p o s i t i o n i f d e s i r e d . T h i s would allow a continuous i n t e r c o m i f t h e Audio c e n t e r POWER s w i t c h , (MDC 13, 23, 26) i s i n t h e P T T position. The A / C equipment contains t h r e e s e p a r a t e but i d e n t i c a l m o d u l e s , one f o r e a c h c r e w m a n , and a commonly connected i n t e r c o m bus. T h i s equipment s e r v e s a s a c o n t r o l and d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t e r f o r all S / C audio s i g n a l s . E a c h of t h e t h r e e m o d u l e s h a s a s e p a r a t e but i d e n t i c a l s e t of c o n t r o l s l o c a t e d on MDC-26, -13, and - 2 3 f o r t h e c o m m a n d pilot, s e n i o r pilot, and pilot, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Thus e a c h c r e w m a n is provided with i n d e pendent c o n t r o l of all audio inputs and o u t p u t s to and f r o m his own headset. A POWER switch o n e a c h panel c o n t r o l s application of power to its r e s p e c tive A / C module and s e l e c t s the P T T o r v o i c e - o p e r a t e d r e l a y (VOX m o d e ) of o p e r a t i o n . The P T T m o d e p e r m i t s m o n i t o r i n g of incoming audio s i g n a l s p l u s P T T a c t i v a t i o n of the m i c r o p h o n e a m p l i f i e r , voice r e c o r d e r , and the enabling of any c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t r a n s m i t t e r s i f t h e i r a t t e n d a n t c o n t r o l s w i t c h e s a r e p r o p e r l y configured. The VOX m o d e p e r m i t s t h e m i c r o p h o n e a m p l i f i e r to be a c t i v a t e d by t h e v o i c e - o p e r a t e d switching c i r c u i t r y within t h e audio c e n t e r . The audio output of t h e a m p l i f i e r is t h e n applied to i s o l a t i o n and switching d i o d e s c o n t r o l l e d i n p a r t by the audio c e n t e r c o n t r o l s l o c a t e d o n p a n e l s MDC-26, -13, and - 2 3 . Voice t r a n s m i s s i o n o v e r , t h e a c t i v a t e d unified S-band equipment is allowed by placing t h e S-BAND switch to REC (MDC-26, -13, -23), s e t t i n g t h e c o b r a c a b l e P T T / C W s w i t c h a t P T T and closing the P T T pushbutton on e i t h e r t h e c o b r a c a b l e o r the t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s . Voice t r a n s m i s s i o n o v e r , the H F t r a n s c e i v e r is l i m i t e d to t h e p o s t landing p h a s e of t h e m i s s i o n ; h o w e v e r , t h e R C D R / H F s w i t c h (MDC-26, -13, -23) i n the T / R p o s i t i o n p r o v i d e s a ground f o r the p o w e r c o n t r o l r e l a y in the voice r e c o r d e r . The i n t e r c o m s w i t c h (MDC-26, -13, - 2 3 ) w o u l d a l s o have to be i n t h e T / R p o s i t i o n so the audio s i g n a l would b e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o r d i n g . Voice t r a n s m i s s i o n o v e r , :he a c t i v a t e d VHF-AM t r a n s m i t t e r is allowed by placing t h e VHF-AM s w i t c h to T / R (MDC-26, - 1 3 , -23), s e t t i n g t h e c o b r a c a b l e P T T / C W s w i t c h to P T T , and c l o s i n g the P T T pushbutton on e i t h e r the c o b r a c a b l e o r the t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s . Monitoring t h e VHF-AM is provided b y placing the VHF-AM T / R / O F F / R E C switch to REC.

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12
NOV

1966 Change Date

Page 2 . 8 - 4

SM2A- 0 3 - SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA E a c h audio c o n t r o l panel h a s t h r e e thumbwheel-type p o t e n t i o m e t e r c o n t r o l s : a VOX SENS c o n t r o l f o r adjusting the s e n s i t i v i t y of the VOX c i r c u i t , a n INTERCOM BALANCE c o n t r o l f o r d e c r e a s i n g the l e v e l of the audio s i g n a l s r e c e i v e d f r o m the R F equipment r e l a t i v e to that r e c e i v e d f r o m the i n t e r c o m b u s , and a VOLUME c o n t r o l f o r changing the o v e r a l l l e v e l of all audio s i g n a l s to the e a r p h o n e s . E a c h channel, in the A / C m o d u l e s , a l s o c o n t a i n s sidetone c i r c u i t r y which e n a b l e s a c r e w m a n to m o n i t o r h i s own t r a n s m i s s i o n . 2 . 8. 2. 1. 2 S / C Intercommunications.

S/C i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and h a r d l i n e voice communications a r e conducted via the i n t e r c o m bus, which i s commonly connected to e a c h of t h e t h r e e A / C m o d u l e s , to t h e LCC d u r i n g p r e l a u n c h via t h e USM, and to r e c o v e r y f o r c e s via the s w i m m e r e l e c t r i c a l c o n n e c t o r d u r i n g r e c o v e r y o p e r a t i o n s . To c o m m u n i c a t e , a c r e w m a n m u s t a c t i v a t e h i s A / C module by placing t h e POWER switch to VOX or P T T and s e t t i n g the INTERCOM s w i t c h to T / R .
An A / C i n t e r c o m t r a n s m i s s i o n can only be i n i t i a t e d with the P T T key, i f the P T T position of the power s w i t c h i s s e l e c t e d . In the VOX position, e i t h e r t h e VOX c i r c u i t o r t h e P T T key will i n d i c a t e a n i n t e r c o m t r a n s m i s s i o n . If only a n i n t e r c o m t r a n s m i s s i o n is d e s i r e d , the P T T / C W s w i t c h on the c o b r a c a b l e should be i n the CW position. N o r m a l l y , the A / C m o d u l e s will r e m a i n a c t i v a t e d throughout the e n t i r e m i s s i o n . 2 . 8 . 2. 1. 3 I n - F l i g h t Voice Communications. In-flight voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s with t h e MSFN +ll be conducted o v e r t h e USBS and the VHF-AM t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r equipment. C o n t r o l s f o r t h e S-band and the VHF-AM g r o u p s a r e l o c a t e d o n MDC-20, and MDC-26, -13, and -23. The VHF-AM c o n t r o l s on MDC-20 c o n s i s t of a T / R / O F F / R E C s w i t c h t h a t c o n t r o l s a p p l i c a t i o n of power, a RCVR s w i t c h to c o n t r o l which of two r e c e i v e r m o d e s 1 s i m p l e x , 2 duplex, a r e o p e r a t i o n a l , a SQUELCH c o n t r o l to e s t a b l i s h t h e l e v e l of R F s i g n a l r e q u i r e d to p a s s audio s i g n a l s to the audio c e n t e r , and a VHF ANTENNA s w i t c h to manually s e l e c t t h e u p p e r (tZ), l o w e r ( - Z ) , antenna, Voice t r a n s m i s s i o n via or VHF-AM i s c o n t r o l l e d by the p l a c e m e n t of the VHF-AM s w i t c h (MDC-26, - 13, or -23)to T / R , the c o b r a c a b l e MODE s w i t c h to P T T , and d e p r e s s i n g t h e P T T pu'shbutton on the c o b r a cable. E i t h e r T / R or REC p e r m i t s voice r e c e p t i o n f r o m t h e MSFN. Voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e i n a l l o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s of the USBS, with t h e exception of t h e e m e r g e n c y key mode, providing the S-BAND switch (MDC-26, -13, o r -23) i s placed a t REG. T r a n s m i s s i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by the P T T pushbutton on the c o b r a c a b l e , providing the c o b r a c a b l e MODE s w i t c h i s i n the P T T position. ( R e f e r to p a r a g r a p h 2. 8 . 3. 3. 4 f o r additional i n f o r m a t i o n o n the unified S-band o p e r a t i o n s . ) 2 . 8. 2 . 1.4 R e c o v e r y Voice Communications. After touchdown, t h e H F t r a n s c e i v e r equipment will be utilized f o r voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . I t is c o n t r o l l e d by the RECOVERY-HF s w i t c h e s o n

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date

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2. 8-5

SMZA-0 3 -SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA MDC-20 which include a n O N - O F F switch and a SSB/BCN/AM switch f o r s e l e c t i n g mode. E i t h e r the s i n g l e sideband (SSB)o r amplitude modulat i o n ( A M ) m o d e s m a y be used f o r voice communications. T h e beacon (BCN) mode is used to t r a n s m i t a continuous wave beacon f o r t r a c k i n g purposes. Voice t r a n s m i s s i o n in e i t h e r the SSB o r AM mode c a n be VOX- o r P T T - c o n t r o l l e d when the R C D R / H F s w i t c h (MDC-26, -13, - 2 3 ) is placed to T / R . T h e H F t r a n s c e i v e r utilizes the H F r e c o v e r y antenna. T h i s antenna m u s t b e deployed a f t e r touchdown by setting the POSTLANDING-ANTENNA DEPLOY s w i t c h e s on MDC-25 to t h e i r upper positions, A and B, while the MASTER EVENT S E Q CONT switches 1 and 2 (MDC-24) a r e a t a r m a n d MASTER EVENT SEQ CONT ARM A and B c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s (MDC-22) a r e closed. T h e V H F / A M t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r equipment c a n be used as backup by utilizing VHF r e c o v e r y antenna No. 2 which c a n be s e l e c t e d by setting the VHF ANTENNA switch (MDC-20) to RECOVERY. Also, the C F A E s u r v i v a l t r a n s c e i v e r c a n be used i n s i d e the S / C by connecting i t s coaxial c a b l e to VHF r e c o v e r y antenna No. 1 o r No. 2 a t the coaxial b r a c k e t , MDC-9. T h e s e coaxial c o n n e c t o r s m a y be utilized, d u r i n g the i n t e r v a l p r e c e d i n g the a r r i v a l of the r e c o v e r y f o r c e s , in the m o s t advantageous manner. Any combination of VHF r e c o v e r y beacon, G F A E s u r v i v a l t r a n s c e i v e r , a n d VHF-AM t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r m a y be employed a s w a r r a n t e d by t h e s e r v i c e a b i l i t y of t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s equipment.
U

--

2. 8. 2. 2 2. 8. 2. 2. 1

Data O p e r a t i o n s . General. T / C s y s t e m d a t a capabilities include the p r o c e s s i n g , s t o r a g e , and t r a n s m i s s i o n of T L M data t o the MSFN; the reception and p r o c e s s i n g of u p - t e l e m e t r y d a t a (up-data) r e c e i v e d f r o m the MSFN; and d u r i n g USBE testing, the t r a n s m i s s i o n of TV f r o m the TV c a m e r a . In addition to t r a n s m i t t e d d a t a , v e r b a l c o m m e n t s m a y b e r e c o r d e d on the voice r e c o r d e r . (See f i g u r e 2. 8-2. )

2. 8. 2. 2. 2

T L M T r a n s m i s s i o n and S t o r a g e .
TLM d a t a m a y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be t r a n s m i t t e d via VHF-FM a n d / o r S-band and r e c o r d e d in the DSE f o r delayed t i m e t r a n s m i s s i o n when r e q u e s t e d b y M S F N . The s y s t e m configuration prohibits t r a n s m i s s i o n o r r e c o r d i n g of r e a l t i m e d a t a while t r a n s m i t t i n g s t o r e d data.
T L M d a t a f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o the M S F N c o n s i s t s of analog and digital s i g n a l s obtained f r o m the guidance and navigation s y s t e m , c e n t r a l timing equipment, i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s e n s o r s a n d t r a n s d u c e r s located throughout the S / C s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n a l s y s t e m s , and biomedical s e n s o r s w o r n by

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM .: Mission B a s i c Date 12 NOV 1966 Change Date Page

--..

2. 8-6

R\
OR

INMI-, VCM

0. .

s/c
DISPLAYS

A

I
OPERATIONAL

I T MR

r n u INMI-,
YOMD

(MDC- 19)

a

2-KMC PORTIOI.
SCIN A N T E N h

rz'l

I - Y N D 4Nl

UPPER

(-z)

r

I-UNO

1

j JI EQUIP

9
REAL-TIME COMMAND

(MDC-I 9)

N
CAMERA
b

A G C VOLTAGE

.
VIDEO DOWN-DA TA

AL-TIME PCM DATA STORED

PMP
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USBE

4
I

S-BAND

WA N D R AMPL - 4
DIPLEXER
L

PCM DATA)
J

v

4 I STORED

I

-p
PANEL

PCM DATA ( O N L Y )

-

VHF-FM TRANSMITTER

RELAY BOX

--+OR

ON

- P-DATA

(S-BAND MODE)

(MDC- 19)

,+

UP-DATA (UHF MODE)

EQUIP

M i s s ion

Basic

SYSTEMS DATA

VOICE

[D
4fC-

VOICE RECORD

d
VOICE

(MDC-26, -13, -23)

.-

(MDC-26, -13, -23)

NOTES: I .

All witches shown me on MDC-20 unless otherwise indicated.

2. Not scheduled tor we on SC 012 and SC 014.

Figure 2 . 8 - 2 .

Data Operations

TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Mission

Basic Date

12 Nov 1966 Change Date

page . 8 - 7 1 2 . 8 - 8 2

k

SM2A-0 3 - SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
--

SYSTEMS DATA

2.8.3. 1

I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n Equipment Group. T h e S I C i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n equipment c o n s i s t s of v a r i o u s types of s e n s o r s and t r a n s d u c e r s f o r providing environmental, o p e r a t i o n a l s t a t u s , and p e r f o r m a n c e m e a s u r e m e n t s of the S I C s t r u c t u r e , operational s y s t e m s , and e x p e r i m e n t a l equipment. The outputs f r o m t h e s e s e n s o r s and t r a n s d u c e r s a r e conditioned t o s i g n a l s suitable f o r utilization by the S I C d i s p l a y s , p r e s e n t a t i o n to the P C M T L M equipment, o r both. In addition, v a r i o u s digital s i g n a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o the P C M T L M equipment, including event information, guidance and navigation data, and a t i m e s i g n a l f r o m the C T E . Many of t h e s i g n a l s emanating f r o m the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s e n s o r s a r e of f o r m s o r l e v e l s which are unsuitable f o r u s e by the S / C d i s p l a y s o r PCM T L M equipment. Signal conditioners are used t o convert t h e s e s i g n a l s t u f o r m s and l e v e l s which c a n be utilized. Some s i g n a l s a r e conditioned a t or n e a r the s e n s o r by individual conditioners l o c a t e d throughout the S f C. Other s i g n a l s a r e f e d to the signal conditioning equipment (SCE), a s i n g l e e l e c t r o n i c s package l o c a t e d i n the l o w e r equipment bay. ( R e f e r to signal conditioning equipment i n the Voice and Data Equipment Group. ) In addition to conditioning m a n y of the s i g n a l s , the S C E also supplies 5-vdc excitation power t o s o m e s e n s o r s . T h e S C E c a n be turned on o r off with the POWERS C E switch on MDC-20. T h i s is the only c o n t r o l that the c r e w c a n e x e r c i s e o v e r i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n equipment f o r o p e r a t i o n a l and flight qualification m e a s u r e m e n t s . T h e s e two i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n g r o u p s a r e d i s c u s s e d in the following two p a r a g r a p h s . I n f o r m a t i o n on s c i e n t i f i c a n d s p e c i a l i n s t r u m e n t a tion can be found i n s e c t i o n 4 of t h i s manual, E x p e r i m e n t s and Scientific Equipment.

2. 8 . 3. 1. 1

O p e r a t i o n a l Instrumentation. O p e r a t i o n a l m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e those which a r e n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r a routine m i s s i o n and include t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : in-flight m a n a g e m e n t of the S I C , m i s s i o n evaluation and s y s t e m p e r f o r m a n c e , and preflight checkout of the S / C . The Operational i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s e n s o r s and t r a n s d u c e r s a r e capable of making the following types of m e a s u r e m e n t s : p r e s s u r e , t e m p e r a t u r e , flow attitude, r a t e , quantity, a n g u l a r position, c u r r e n t , voltage, frequency, R F power, a n d "on-off" type events.

2 . 8 . 3 . 1. 2

Flight Qualification Instrumentation. Flight qualification m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e those which will v a r y on different S/C, depending on m i s s i o n objectives and s t a t e of h a r d w a r e d e v e l opment. Most of t h e m will b e pulse-code modulated along with the o p e r a tional m e a s u r e m e n t s and t r a n s m i t t e d to the MSFN. O t h e r flight qualification m e a s u r e m e n t s will be s t o r e d i n t h e F Q R f o r postflight a n a l y s i s only.

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 NoV 1966 Change Date Page 2.8-14

SMZA-0 3 -SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
~

m e a s u r i n g the t i m e l a p s e between t r a n s m i s s i o n of the s i g n a l and reception of the r e s p o n s e s i g n a l the MSFN c a n a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e the S / C range. Once e s t a b l i s h e d , this value c a n then be continually updated by m e a s u r i n g the d o p p l e r shift i n the S-band c a r r i e r . A ranging m o d e c a n be s e l e c t e d a g a i n a t l a t e r t i m e s , t o v e r i f y o r up-date the d o p p l e r data.

2.8.3

MAJOR COMPONENT/SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION.
To f a c i l i t a t e this p r e s e n t a t i o n , the equipment c o m p r i s i n g the T / C s y s t e m (figure 2.8-4) h a s been divided into four groups designated as i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n equipment, voice and d a t a equipment, R F e l e c t r o n i c s equipment, and antenna equipment. Specifically, t h e s e equipment groups contain the following:
I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n equipment g r o u p
0
0

Operational instrumentation Flight qualification i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n Voice and d a t a equipment group

0 0 0
0 0

0
0 0 0 0

Audio c e n t e r ( A / C ) equipment Signal conditioning equipment (SCE) P u l s e - c o d e m o d u l a t i o n - t e l e m e t r y ( P C M T L M ) equipment T e l e v i s i o n (TV) equipment P r e m o d u l a t i o n p r o c e s s o r ( P M P ) equipment Data s t o r a g e equipment (DSE) Flight qualification r e c o r d e r (FQR) equipment Up-data link ( U D L ) equipment C e n t r a l t i m i n g equipment ( C T E ) Voice r e c o r d e r

R F e l e c t r o n i c s equipment g r o u p
0 0
0 0 0 0.

0

V H F / A M t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r equipment H F t r a n s c e i v e r equipment VHF/FM t r a n s m i t t e r equipment Unified S-band equipment (USBE) S-band power a m p l i f i e r equipment C-band t r a n s p o n d e r equipment VHF r e c o v e r y beacon equipment Antenna equipment group

VHF/2-KMC omni-antenna equipment H F antenna equipment VHF r e c o v e r y antenna equipment a C-band beacon antenna equipment
0 0

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
12 Nov 1966

Change Date

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2-8-13

SM2A-03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA A f t e r touchdown, the H F r e c o v e r y antenna m u s t be deployed by setting the POSTLANDING - ANTENNA switches (MDC-25) to DEPLOY A a n d B while the MASTER EVENT SEQ CONT s w i t c h e s (MDC-24) a r e a t PYRO ARM 1 and 2. H F beacon t r a n s m i s s i o n a t a p r e a s s i g n e d frequency of 10.006 m c is a c c o m p l i s h e d by placing the RECOVERY - H F s w i t c h (MDC-20) to ON and the RECOVERY - HF-SSB/BCN/AM switch to BCN. The C F A E s u r v i v a l t r a n s c e i v e r ( p a r t of the c r e w ’ s p e r s o n a l equipm e n t ) c a n a l s o be o p e r a t e d i n a beacon mode. If used i n s i d e the S/C, one of the VHF r e c o v e r y antennas (No. 1 o r No. 2 ) c a n be used by manually connecting i t to the applicable coax connector on MDC-9. T h e V H F antennas and cominunications equipment condition, as d e t e r m i n e d by the c r e w d u r i n g the postlanding p r e - r e c o v e r y p e r i o d , will d e c i d e the utilization of the c o a x i a l c a b l e c o n n e c t o r s located on MDC-9. The c o n n e c t o r s a r e , i d e n t i c a l and the r e c o v e r y equipment coaxial c a b l e s m a y b e interchanged to provide the m o s t beneficial t r a c k i n g configuration. 2.8.2.4 2. 8. 2.4. 1 Unified S-Band O p e r a t i o n s . General. T h e USBS is p r i m a r i l y designed to be used as a d e e p - s p a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s link between the S / C and the’ MSFN. N e v e r t h e l e s s , on m i s s i o n 205 s o m e of i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s will be t e s t e d a n d it m a y be called upon f o r u s e as backup equipment f o r voice communications, P C M d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n , up-data reception, o r S I C t r a c k i n g and ranging when the S / C is within r a n g e of a MSFN s t a t i o n equipped f o r S-band operations. In addition, only the USBS is capable of t r a n s m i t t i n g TV. The USBS c o n s i s t s of the S-band t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r combined in a single e l e c t r o n i c package c a l l e d the unified S-band equipment (USBE) and the S-band power a m p l i f i e r (PA). The function of the S-band P A is t o provide additional power amplification of the USBE t r a n s m i t t e r output. Two l e v e l s of amplification (high and low) a r e possible. A bypass mode is a l s o p o s s i b l e w h e r e i n the S-band P A is t u r n e d off and t h e output of the USBE t r a n s m i t t e r is s e n t t o the S-band antenna equipment “ a s is. The 2 - k m c portions of the upper and l o w e r SCIN antennas a r e used f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n of S-band s i g n a l s . Antenna s e l e c t i o n is m a d e by placing the S-BAND ANTENNA switch (MDC-20) to U P P E R , LOWER, o r AUTO. In the AUTO position, the antenna will be automatically switched if the signal falls below a m i n i m u m threshold. The P M P is controlled i n conjunction with the USBE by the S-BAND s w i t c h e s to provide the p r o p e r v o i c e and data inputs t o the USBE i n a c c o r d a n c e with the S-band m o d e selected. When o p e r a t i n g i n a ranging mode, the MSFN c a n t r a n s m i t a Ilcoded” p s e u d o - r a n d o m n o i s e (PRN) p u l s e to the S / C via the S-band c a r r i e r . T h e S / C USBE will respond by t r a n s m i t t i n g a n identical p u l s e to the M S F N . By

-_-

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.8-12

SM2A-0 3 - SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

C-BAND ANTENNAS

I

2-KMC PORTIONS O F SCIN ANTENNAS

I

I

I

I I

UPPER

T O W E R

(+Z)

I

I I
IN-FLIGHT C-BAND TRACK1 NG --------VHF RECOVERY ANTENNAS

I

~~

I

(MDC-PO)

AGC VOLTAGE

-I I

\.

L Ip '
I
(MDC-ZO)

WF-KN

fI

COAXIAL BRACKET (MDC.

.T.

I
I
IN-FLIGHT S-BAND TRACK1 NG AND RANG1 NG
HF RECOVERY ANTENNA

I

I

'

I

To:

+

RECOVERY BEACON

VHF ANT switch

I
HF TPANSCEIVER (BEACON MODE)

--5
2 . 8.-11

VHF RECOVERY TRACK1 NG
NOTES:
1.
The GFAE wrvivol transceiver con be manually connected to VHF recovery ontenno N o . 1 o N o , 2 o f r the cwxiol brocket M K - 9 . The COOK coble connectors are identicol ond may be interchonged, as required, following estimotion of the postlanding situation.

2.

HF RECOVERY TRACKING

SM-2A-845C

Figure 2 . 8 - 3 .

T r a c k i n g and Ranging

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
12 N o v 1966

Change Date

Page

SMZ A-0 3 -SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA timing d a t a f o r up-dating the c e n t r a l timing equipment (CTE), and r e a l t i m e c o m m a n d s ( R T C s ) f o r providing the MSFN with l i m i t e d c o n t r o l of c e r t a i n on- b o a r d functions. During n o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s , up-data is r e c e i v e d by the U H F / F M r e c e i v e r contained in the up-data link (UDL) equipment. Once r e c e i v e d , the s i g n a l is p r o c e s s e d and decoded, and the i n f o r m a t i o n is routed to the G&N s y s t e m , the C T E , o r UDL-RTC r e l a y box. F o r backup, up-data c a n a l s o be t r a n s m i t t e d by MSFN s t a t i o n s t o the S / C v i a the S-band c a r r i e r . When this o c c u r s , the up-data is r e c e i v e d by the USBE r e c e i v e r which e x t r a c t s the up-data s u b c a r r i e r and r o u t e s i t to the P M P w h e r e the intelligence is r e m o v e d f r o m the signal and s e n t to UDL equipment f o r p r o c e s s i n g , decoding, and distribution. I n this S-band m o d e , the U H F / F M r e c e i v e r is bypassed. Selection of the U H F o r S-BAND m o d e is m a d e with the UP-DATA switch on MDC-20. T h e U P T L M CMD - R E S E T / O F F switch (MDC-19) e n a b l e s the c r e w t o nullify p r e v i o u s RTCs and r e t u r n c o n t r o l t o the S / C . An U P T L M - A C C E P T / B L O C K switch (MDC-14) is a l s o provided s o that G&N up-data c a n be p r e v e n t e d f r o m effecting the c o m p u t e r and the attendant validity s i g n a l being s e n t to the P C M f o r m a t . 2. 8. 2. 3 2 . 8 . 2 . 3. 1 T r a c k i n g and Raneine. In-Flight T r a c k i n g and Ranging. The function of the in-flight tracking and ranging equipment (figure 2. 8 - 3 ) is to a s s i s t the MSFN i n d e t e r m i n i n g S / C position and velocity. T h e p r i m a r y method employed is C-band tracking. The C-band t r a n s p o n d e r o n - b o a r d the S / C is u s e d f o r t h i s purpose. It o p e r a t e s i n conjunction with conventional, e a r t h - b a s e d , r a d a r equipment by t r a n s m i t t i n g r e s p o n s e p u l s e s t o the 'MSFN when r a d a r p u l s e s f r o m the e a r t h a r e received. It mode, depending on the type of o p e r a t e s in a "1-pulse" or a t 1 2 - p u l s e t 1 r a d a r equipment being used a t the n e a r e s t MSFN station. A s i n g l e control, the C-BAND switch on MDC-20, is used to a c t i v a t e the C-band t r a n s p o n d e r i n e i t h e r mode. Backup tracking and ranging capabilities a r e provided by the USBS. 2.8.2. 3.2 R e c o v e r y Tracking. Line-of-,sight and beyond-line-of-sight beacon t r a n s m i s s i o n c a p a bilities a r e provided to a s s i s t r e c o v e r y p e r s o n n e l i n locating the S / C during p a r a c h u t e d e s c e n t and a f t e r touchdown. Line-of-sight beacon t r a n s m i s s i o n is a c c o m p l i s h e d using the VHF r e c o v e r y beacon equipment. T h e beyondline-of-sight capability is f u r n i s h e d by o p e r a t i n g the H F t r a n s c e i v e r i n a beacon mode. During p a r a c h u t e d e s c e n t the VHF r e c o v e r y beacon is activated by s e t t i n g the RECOVERY - VHF-BCN switch (MDC-20) t o ON. T h i s c a u s e s a 2-second, modulated VHF p u l s e to be t r a n s m i t t e d e v e r y 5 seconds f r o m VHF r e c o v e r y antenna No. 1, which is deployed automatically with VHF r e c o v e r y antenna No. 2 when the m a i n p a r a c h u t e s a r e deployed.
~~

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 NOv 1966 Change Date Page

I

2.8-10

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-SYSTEMS DATA the c r e w m a n . S o m e of the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s i g n a l s r e q u i r e conditioning before they can be utilized. T h i s is a c c o m p l i s h e d by the s i g n a l conditioning equipment (SCE) activated by the POWER-SCE switch on MDC-20. The r e m a i n i n g T L M s i g n a l s a r e e i t h e r conditioned a t t h e i r s o u r c e by l o c a l s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n e r s , which r e q u i r e s no a c t i o n on the p a r t of c r e w m e n , o r do not need conditioning. The operational i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s i g n a l s a r e used f o r S / C d i s p l a y s a n d real time or delayed T L M t r a n s m i s s i o n via VHF-FM a n d / o r S-band. Those t o be t e l e m e t e r e d a r e routed to the pulse-code m o d u l a t i o n - t e l e m e t r y ( P C M T L M ) equipment. Most of the flight qualification s i g n a l s a r e routed t o the PCM T L M equipment along with the o p e r a t i o n a l T L M s i g n a l s . A few, however, a r e r e c o r d e d as analog s i g n a l s i n t h e flight qualification r e c o r d e r (FQR) f o r postflight a n a l y s i s only. T h e FQR will be activated a t b r i e f i n t e r v a l s only during c r i t i c a l p h a s e s of the m i s s i o n b y the FLIGHT QUAL RCDR switch on MDC-19. T h e PCM T L M equipment combines the signals t o b e t e l e m e t e r e d and c o n v e r t s t h e m to a single, digital, p u l s e t r a i n which is then fed to the p r e modulation p r o c e s s o r equipment ( P M P ) and the d a t a s t o r a g e equipment (DSE). T h e P C M TLM equipment is activated a t all t i m e s . I t s only c o n t r o l is the T L M INPUTS - P C M switch on MDC-20. T h i s switch is used to s e l e c t the P C M b i t - r a t e . In the HIGH (51. 2 KBPS) position, all T L M inputs t o the P C M TLM equipment a r e p r o c e s s e d and combined into the output signal. The LOW (1.6 KBPS) position e l i m i n a t e s the less e s s e n t i a l p a r a m e t e r s and is u s e d only when a PCM p u l s e t r a i n of reduced bandwidth is r e q u i r e d . The reduced bandwidth allows P C M d a t a to be r e c o r d e d a t a reduced (3.75 i p s ) speed when long p e r i o d s of d a t a r e c o r d i n g a r e r e q u i r e d . T h e ' X M s i g n a l is fed to the P M P a n d DSE simultaneously, f o r r e a l t i m e ( R / T ) t r a n s m i s s i o n a n d / o r s t o r a g e . F o r R / T t r a n s m i s s i o n , the s i g n a l i S p r o c e s s e d through the P M P to the V H F / F M a n d / o r S-BAND t r a n s m i t t e r s . The P M P is controlled b y the P O W E R - P M P switch, the S-BAND g r o u p of s w i t c h e s , and t h e T A P E RECORDER - PLAY switch. When R / T t r a n s m i s s i o n is not possible, the P C M d a t a c a n be s t o r e d i n the DSE, which is c o n t r o l l e d by the T A P E RECORDER group of switches and the T L M INPUTS - P C M switch d i s c u s s e d i n the previous p a r a g r a p h . When played b a c k l a t e r , the s t o r e d PCM d a t a is a l s o p r o c e s s e d through the P M P t o t h e V H F / F M a n d / o r S-BAND t r a n s m i t t e r s f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n . The sole function of the V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r is the t r a n s m i s s i o n of R / T o r s t o r e d P C M data. I t s only c o n t r o l is the VHF-FM - O N / O F F switch on MDC-20. It u t i l i z e s the same antennas as the VHF/AM t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r , namely, the upper o r l o w e r SCIN antenna as s e l e c t e d by the VHF antenna switch. Backup capability f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n of PCM T L M d a t a is provided b y t h e USBS. ( R e f e r to a subsequent d i s c u s s i o n of unified S-band operations. ) 2. 8 . 2 . 2. 3 Up-Data Reception. Up-data which c a n b e t r a n s m i t t e d to the S / C by the MSFN c o n s i s t s of t h r e e types: G & N d a t a f b r .;$-dating the Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r ,
~~

.-.-

T E L E C OMMU NIC AT ION S YST E M
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Page

Mission

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 196'6. *ChalrgC!Date

2 - 8-9

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SMZA-03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

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Telecommunications S y s t e m

T EL EC 0 M M UNIC A T I 0 NS
Mission B a s i c Date 12 N o v 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 8 - 1 5 / 2 . 8 - 1 6

SM2A-0 3 -SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2.8. 3. 2 2.8. 3 . 2. 1 Voice and Data Equipment Group. Audio C e n t e r ( A / C ) Equipment. The A / C equipment ( f i g u r e 2. 8-5) c o n s i s t s of t h r e e s e p a r a t e identical modules located in a s i n g l e e l e c t r o n i c s package i n the l o w e r equipment bay. Each module is controlled independently by i t s own c o n t r o l panel and supplied with 28-vdc power through s e p a r a t e c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s . T h e t h r e e c o n t r o l p a n e l s , MDC-26, -13, and -23, a r e located in s t a t i o n s 1, 2, and 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each of the a s t r o n a u t ' s h e a d s e t s , containing two m i c r o p h o n e s and two microphone a m p l i f i e r s , and two independently operating e a r p h o n e s , is connected to one of the A / C modules by a c o b r a cable. Thus e a c h a s t r o n a u t h a s a s e p a r a t e h e a d s e t , audio c e n t e r module, and audio c o n t r o l p a n e l to provide h i m with individual c o n t r o l of voice t r a n s m i s s i o n and reception. Each A / C module contains a microphone a m p l i f i e r , VOX c i r c u i t r y , a n e a r p h o n e a m p l i f i e r , and v a r i o u s s i g n a l attenuation, switching, and i s o l a t i o n c i r c u i t s . The earphone and microphone a m p l i f i e r s amplify the voice s i g n a l s to and f r o m the headset. The VOX c i r c u i t r y is a v o i c e o p e r a t e d keying c i r c u i t that supplies a ground r e t u r n path n e c e s s a r y f o r activating the microphone a m p l i f i e r and the t r a n s m i t t e r keying r e l a y s in the H F t r a n s c e i v e r , i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m , and the power c o n t r o l r e l a y in the operating voice r e c o r d e r . Audio s i g n a l s a r e provided t o and f r o m the H F t r a n b c e i v e r equipm e n t , VHF/AM t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r equipment, USBE (via the P M P ) , and the i n t e r c o m bus. The i n t e r c o m bus is c o m m o n to all t h r e e m o d u l e s and p r o v i d e s f o r the h a r d l i n e communications between c r e w m e n a n d with the LCC and r e c o v e r y f o r c e s . Inputs and outputs a r e controlled by the RCDR/HF, VHF/AM, S-BAND, and INTERCOM switches on the audio c o n t r o l panels. E a c h of t h e s e s w i t c h e s h a s t h r e e positions: T / R , O F F , and REG. Setting any of the s w i t c h e s to T / R (except S-BAND) p e r m i t s t r a n s m i s s i o n and reception of voice s i g n a l s o v e r i t s r e s p e c t i v e equipment. REC p e r m i t s r e c e p t i o n only, and O F F d i s a b l e s the input and the output. The o p e r a t i o n of the m i c r o p h o n e a m p l i f i e r in e a c h module is controlled by the VOX keying c i r c u i t o r the P T T pushbutton on the c o b r a cable o r the t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r . The VOX c i r c u i t is e n e r g i z e d by the position of the POWER - P T T / O F F / V O X switch on e a c h audio c o n t r o l panel. T h e P T T position p e r m i t s monitoring and activation of the m i c r o p h o n e a m p l i f i e r , voice r e c o r d e r HF, VHF/AM and S-band voice t r a n s m i s s i o n c i r c u i t s by the P T T key. The VOX position p e r m i t s all the functions of the P T T position plus VOX activation of the m i c r o p h o n e a m p l i f i e r , voice r e c o r d e r and H F t r a n s m i t t e r . T h r e e p o t e n t i o m e t e r c o n t r o l s a r e a l s o provided on e a c h audio control Panel: VOX SENS, INTERCOM BALANCE, and VOLUME. The VOX SENS c o n t r o l i s used to a d j u s t the sensitivity of the VOX c i r c u i t r y , d e t e r m i n i n g the amplitude of the voice signal n e c e s s a r y to t r i g g e r the VOX keying

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 NOv 1966 Change Date

page

2.8-17

SM2A-03 - SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
-.--

SYSTEMS DATA

To: R E O INTERCOM SWIMMER CONNECTOR 4

VOLUME

To: MODULE NO. 2

'I
1

VOICE

+

I I
1 NTERCOM

I
1

EARPHONES I N COMMND PILOT'S

T/R

I
SWITCH 6 SWITCH 6 ISOLATION To: ON-BOARD VOICE TAPE RECORDER

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HF KEYING RELAY A N D ON-BOARD T/R VOICE TAPE RECORDER POWER

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A l l controls and witch- o n on MDC-26 u n l m othemise

MIKE AMPL INCMDR'S

VOICE

' 9.

Only Module NO. i and its controls am i n d i w t d . identical except that controls
and switchr am locotd on MDC-13 ond -23,hwdseh am for SENIOR PILOT ond PILOT,
Ond

(COBRA CABLE)

L-~OFF
FUGHT

POWER 0 PTT

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SWITCH

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T/C circuit btsaken om GROUP- 5 and -3, respectively Additioml PTT ptshbuttonr (not i l l m t m t d ) am locotd on tmnrlotion controls. The VOX switch provideso grovrd d u m path thrwgh the POWER switch when enabled by the VOX circuitry SM-24-740F

Audio C e n t e r Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2.8- 18

SMZA- 0 3 -SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~ ~

c i r c u i t . The INTERCOM BALANCE c o n t r o l a d j u s t s the l e v e l of voice s i g n a l inputs f r o m the R F equipment r e l a t i v e to the l e v e l of voice signal inputs f r o m the i n t e r c o m bus. The VOLUME c o n t r o l a d j u s t s the output of the e a r p h o n e a m p l i f i e r , 2 . 8 . 3. 2 . 2 Signal-Conditioning Equipment (SCE). The signal-conditioning equipment ( S C E ) is contained i n a single e l e c t r o n i c s package located i n t h e LEB. (See figure 2. 8-6. ) Its functions a r e t o c o n v e r t v a r i o u s kinds of unconditioned s i g n a l s f r o m the i n s t r u m e n t a tion equipment into compatible, 0 - to 5-volt d - c analog s i g n a l s , and to p r o vide excitation voltages to s o m e of the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s e n s o r s and transducers. The SCE u s e s the following module types: The a c t i v e a t t e n u a t o r , to attenuate high-signal voltages; the a c - ( a m ) to-dc c o n v e r t e r , t o d e t e c t the amplitude v a r i a t i o n s of a n a - c signal; the d c differential a m p l i f i e r , to amplify small s i g n a l s ; the d c d i f f e r e n t i a l bridge a m p l i f i e r , to d e t e c t r e s i s t a n c e changes; the bi-phase d e m o d u l a t o r , to c o n v e r t S I C position r e s o l v e r outputs; the frequency d e m o d u l a t o r , to d e t e c t f r e q u e n c y changes i n a n a - c signal; and the power supply, to provide t 2 0 volts and -20 volts to the SCE c i r c u i t r y , 10 volts as b r i d g e excitation, and 5 volts to excite o t h e r SIC sensors. The conditioned output s i g n a l s f r o m the SCE a r e routed to the d a t a d i s t r i b u t i o n panel (DDP). The DDP p r o v i d e s p a r a l l e l outputs, w h e r e n e c e s s a r y , and r o u t e s the s i g n a l s to the P C M t e l e m e t r y equipment, S / C d i s p l a y s , and GSE connections. The only e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l f o r the SCE i s the two-position POWERSCE toggle switch o n MDC-20. P l a c i n g this s w i t c h to ON a p p l i e s 28 volts d c to the l a t c h winding of the latching r e l a y , which $ l o s e s contacts applying 3-phase a - c power to the power supply module. I n the O F F position, the r e l a y is ,unlatched, removing a - c power f r o m the power supply.

2. 8. 3. 2 . 3

P u l s e - C o d e Modulation T e l e m e t r y ( P C M TLM) Equipment. The function of the P C M T L M equipment ( f i g u r e 2 . 8 - 7 ) is to c o n v e r t TLM d a t a inputs f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s into one serial digital output signal. This s i n g l e output s i g n a l is routed to the P M P for t r a n s m i s s i o n to the MSFN or to the DSE f o r s t o r a g e . The P C M TLM equipment is contained i n two s e p a r a t e units located i n the l o w e r equipment bay: P C M unit 1 and P C M unit 2. Input s i g n a l s to the P C M TLM equipment a r e of f o u r g e n e r a l types: low-level analog, high-level analog, p a r a l l e l digital, and serial digital. Some of the low-level analog inputs a r e supplied d i r e c t l y f r o m the i n s t r u mentation s e n s o r s ; o t h e r d a t a inputs are routed through the d a t a distribution panel (DDP). Two m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n a r e possible: the high- ( n o r m a l ) b i t - r a t e mode of 5 1 . 2 kilobits p e r second (KBS)and the low- ( r e d u c e d ) b i t - r a t e mode of 1. 6 KBS. Operational mode is s e l e c t e d by placing the TLM INPUTS-PCM switch o n MDC-20 t o HIGH o r LOW, as applicable. When the s w i t c h is i n the L O W position, the high P C M b i t - r a t e c a n be c o m m a n d e d by the M S F N via the UDL equipment.

~

TELECOMMUMCATION SYSTEM Mission Basic Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.8-19

SMZA-0 3- SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

SIGNAL CONDlllONlNG EQUlPMENT

1 I

I

-

I

115V3~4WCPS ACIUS2.A

-cPS
LATORS

X S

I

I
A

ZCHANNELS

I SPSI

EPS

RESOLVER wPUT: PITCH, YAW, ROLL

6 CHANNELS

IO SPS

I I

I
I
7 CHANNELS
10 SPS

1

POSTUNDING, MTTERY, MTTERY CHARGER, FUEL CELL

DC D'FRRI AMPLIFIERS ENTUL 7 20t0250MVor

i I
I

To KM ,TELEMETRY M P U.

I

.

I I I
lo: s/c

m
TEMP SENSORS

'DISPUYS

:-

! n
,

!
IOSPSI

4
CTool5V SIG CON0 pos SUPPLY

6IIHANNELS

I I

SENSOR IO VOLTS

F i g u r e 2. 8-6.

Signal Conditioning Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

M i s s ion

B a s i c Date 12

NOV

1966

Change Date

Page

2.8-20

SMZA-0 3 - SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

LO LEVEL ANALOG INPUTS M CHANNELS. HI BIT RATE, I 10 CHANNELS LO BIT RATE

PCM UNIT NO. 1 ANALOG INPUTS

,
LO LEVEL AMPL. *-I

HI LEVEL ANALOG MULTIPLEXER

I

NO.

200 SPS

I W sps

MSPS HI -10 S P S

,:]
HI

OF CHANNELS

I 5 PERCENT

25
85 PERCENT

125 - HI BIT RATE Lo.I sps O M - LO BIT RATE 1W - HI BIT RATE 4 M - LO BIT RATE

1
CODER
8 BIT PARALLEL

, I
I

t
HI-SPEED GATES h CALIBRATOR ANALOG GATE DRIVERS

I
I I I I
L-

PARALLEL D1G I TAL INPUTS HI 811 RATE 28 CHANNELS, 0 LO BIT RATE 26 CHANNELS, 8 BITS P R WORD E
I CHANNEL, 0 32 BITS P R WORl E

DIGITAL DATA

f
I

'

4
1 I

PCM UNIT NO. 2

!

I f
CONTROL
DATA
TRANSFER

NOS. 11 DRIVER -7

I
-+START PULSE PULSE

I

-+,STOP

-l ONLY

I
I,
I

p syr'c B T I

PROGRAMMER

I CHANNEL, 0 16 BITS P R WORI E

x)sps
I ONLY

DIGITAL MULTIPLEXER

II

PARALLEL DIGITAL TRANSFER N0S.I-I2 512 KC I CPS SYNC] Fra'

SOURCE EXT
O INT R

I

I

' I

I

I CHANNEL,

0

16 BITS P R WORI E

osps
FOR h 4 4 T ID SELECOUTPUT
REGISTER

UDL RTC RELAY BOX

I CHANNEL o 24 BITS P R WORI E

DATARATE TIMING

PARALLEL BIT PCM WORDS (8)
KM

.

POWER SUPPLY

UNITS
NO.l h

I

I

t
TELECOMMUNICATIONS PCM TLM

N0.2

5IZKCSUBCARRIER To: IREF PMP Rz SERIAL *PCM DATA e51.2KBPSDATA To LCC RATE TIMING VIA S/C

1

.

DSE

WORD FROM ll5VAC30
Fmm: 0

LEGEND

FRAME RATE

GhN

- - - CONTROL 6 COMMAND CIRCUITS
*
SIGNAL AND POWER
Refer to DSE illustmtion for dditional switch circuitry
S M - -A- 7 i 5 D

NON E S S

u
MDC-22

T/C sw

-

F i g u r e 2.8-7.

P u l s e Code Modulation T e l e m e t r y

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
2.8-21

SMZA-0 3 - SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA 2.8. 3. 2 . 4 T e l e v i s i o n ( T V ) Equipment. The TV equipment c o n s i s t s of a s m a l l , p o r t a b l e , TV c a m e r a ( f i g u r e 2. 8-8)t h a t c a n b e hand-held o r mounted i n one of f o u r l o c a t i o n s i n the c o m m a n d module. Its function i s to a c q u i r e r e a l - t i m e video i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n to the MSFN d u r i n g S-band testing. The f i r s t c a m e r a mounting p o s i t i o n is l o c a t e d below the m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e , and w i l l p e r m i t a f r o n t view of t h e c r e w lying i n t h e i r c o u c h e s . The s e c o n d p o s i t i o n i s l o c a t e d behind t h e head of t h e c e n t e r s e a t , and will p e r m i t viewing of c r e w a c t i v i t i e s i n the m i d d l e of the c o m m a n d module. The s e c o n d p o s i t i o n i s a l s o p r o v i d e d with a five-foot s t r e t c h c a b l e to p e r m i t hand-held u s e of t h e c a m e r a f o r c o v e r a g e of any d e s i r a b l e t a r g e t i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e the S I C . The t h i r d p o s i t i o n is l o c a t e d i n the right-hand equipment bay, and p e r m i t s viewing of a s t r o n a u t s a t w o r k i n that a r e a . The final p o s i t i o n u t i l i z e s a s p e c i a l b r a c k e t which allows t h e TV c a m e r a to look out t h e right-hand docking window. The TV c i m e r a is connected d i r e c t l y to the PWR c a b l e a t t h e f i r s t mounting position. If the TV c a m e r a is to be u s e d i n t h e mounting p o s i t i o n behind the c e n t e r couch, the PWR c a b l e m u s t be connected to the c o n n e c t o r m a r k e d " T V C a m to Hatch J107, ( I and t h e c a m e r a , i n t u r n , should be connected to t h e c o n n e c t o r a t t h a t p o s i t i o n ( J 1 9 1 ) , by the s t r e t c h c a b l e . If the TV c a m e r a i s to be mounted by the right-hand equipment bay, t h e P W R c a b l e m u s t be connected to t h e c o n n e c t o r m a r k e d " T V C a m to RHEB, I t and t h e TV c a m e r a connected t o the c o n n e c t o r a t t h a t l o c a t i o n ( J 1 9 5 ) by t h e s t r e t c h cable. The TV c a m e r a i s c o n s t r u c t e d with a p i s t o l - g r i p type of handle on the bottom, which c a n be extended to f a c i l i t a t e p o r t a b l e u s e . The TV c a m e r a is fitted with a fixed-focus wide-angle l e n s f o r p i c t u r e taking within t h e c o m m a n d module. F o r taking p i c t u r e s of t h e e a r t h o r moon t h r o u g h t h e C / M window, a n i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e z o o m l e n s i s provided. The zoom l e n s h a s a look a n g l e of f r o m 9 d e g r e e s through 30 d e g r e e s . It is fitted with a t h r o u g h - t h e - l e n s type v i e w e r t h a t will e n a b l e the o p e r a t o r to s e e the change i n field of view and r e l a t i v e s i z e of t h e s c e n e while the l e n s is adjusted. The e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y i n t h e c a m e r a is equipped with a n a u t o m a t i c gain c o n t r o l to allow f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a r g e t i l l u m i n a t i o n . The TV c a m e r a is a c t i v a t e d by a s l i d e s w i t c h i n the p i s t o l - g r i p handle, which a p p l i e s 28 volts d c to the c a m e r a p o w e r supply when s e t to on. This e n e r g i z e s the e n t i r e c a m e r a and r e s u l t s i n a video output s i g n a l t h a t i s fed to t h e P M P . In t h e P M P , t h e video s i g n a l i s f r e q u e n c y multiplexed with the t e l e m e t r y d a t a and voice, which is t r a n s m i t t e d to e a r t h via t h e USBE. The USBE m u s t be o p e r a t i n g i n a TV m o d e to p e r m i t this t r a n s m i s s i o n . An AUTO LIGHT CONTROL s w i t c h h a s b e e n added to t h e c a m e r a , p e r m i t t i n g it to c o m p e n s a t e f o r e i t h e r peak o r a v e r a g e s c e n e i l l u m i n a t i o n s f r o m 0. 1 to 30 foot c a n d l e s . 2. 8 . 3 . 2 . 5 P r e m o d u l a t i o n P r o c e s s o r ( P M P ) Equipment. The P M P equipment ( f i g u r e 2 . 8 - 9 ) functions a s a d a t a p r o c e s s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t e r providing n e c e s s a r y i n t e r f a c e , w h e r e r e q u i r e d , between t h e voice, d a t a , and R F equipment. The P M P c o n s i s t s of t e n m o d u l e s mounted in a s i n g l e e l e c t r o n i c s package l o c a t e d i n t h e l o w e r equipment bay. T h e s e m o d u l e s contain f i l t e r s , o s c i l l a t o r s , m o d u l a t o r s , d e m o d u l a t o r s , d e t e c t o r s , switching c i r c u i t s , d i s c r i m i n a t o r s , mixing and keying n e t w o r k s , and a p o w e r supply. TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

12 NOv 1966

Change Date

Page 2.8-22

SM2A-0 3-SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

TARGET VOLTAGE

t

N CAMERA

,To:

PMP ALC
witch

PREAMPLIFIER

HIGHPEAKER

c

I

CLAMP

+ PROCESSING AMPLIFIER
A A

A

VIDEO AMPLIFIER

I I

-r--+-1-+II

- --.-

I 1

SWEEPS AND BEAM CURRENT GENERATOR

----- POWER SUPPLY

I

I

I
I

I

I

To. VIDICON

SLIDE SWITCH O N TV CAMERA HANDLE

ELECTRODES 6 CIRCUIT BOARDS

TELECOMMUNICATIONS GROUP 5 MDC-22 AND POSTLANDING

nus

SM-2A-738C

F i g u r e 2. 8-8.

T e l e v i s i o n Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2 . 8 - 2 3

SMZA-03-SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA
~

The P M P c a n o p e r a t e i n m a n y p o s s i b l e m o d e s . All of the e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s f o r the P M P a r e switches located on MDC-20. The s w i t c h e s which affect the P M P c o n s i s t of the POWER - P M P switch, the S-BAND - VOICE g r o u p of s w i t c h e s , the S-BAND - EMERG switch, and the T A P E RECORDER - PLAY and - RECORD/PLAY switches. Also, d u r i n g e m e r gency key operation, the P T T keys on the c o b r a c a b l e s a n d t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s , c o n t r o l the P M P e m e r g e n c y key network. All of the s i g n a l inputs a v a i l a b l e t o t h e P M P a r e l i s t e d i n the P M P INPUTS table a t the end of t h i s p a r a g r a p h . P M P outputs a r e dependent upon s w i t c h configuration. T h e P M P OUTPUTS table, a l s o a t the end of t h i s p a r a g r a p h , shows the v a r i o u s c o m p o s i t e output s i g n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s along with t h e i r destinations and the s w i t c h positions r e q u i r e d f o r a n y mode of operation. It should be noted that the S-BAND and T A P E RECORDER s w i t c h e s a l s o affect the o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e of the USBE and DSE. One function of the P M P is t o p r o c e s s the P C M T L M s i g n a l obtained f r o m the P C M T L M equipment o r DSE and route i t to the V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r equipment f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o the MSFN. T h i s output will be provided w h e n e v e r a P C M input is available, r e g a r d l e s s of mode and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with o t h e r P M P outputs. A l l r e m a i n i n g P M P functions involve i n t e r f a c e with the USBE. Inputs to the P M P f r o m the USBE a r e the 70-kc up-data and 30-kc up-voice subc a r r i e r s . T h e s e a r e fed into the up-data and up-voice d i s c r i m i n a t o r c i r c u i t s . T h e s e two c i r c u i t s (as w e l l as c i r c u i t r y needed f o r e m e r g e n c y S-band m o d e s ) do not r e q u i r e the F W R - P M P switch to be on. They a r e supplied with power independently whenever the USBE is i n operation. Outputs f r o m the up-data and up-voice d i s c r i m i n a t o r s a r e fed to the UDL and A / C equipment, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e P M P s u p p l i e s a n output to one of the t h r e e USBE inputs, depending on S-band mode as s e l e c t e d by the S-BAND - VOICE group of s w i t c h e s and the S-BAND - EMERG switch. T h e USBE inputs a r e designated PM, FM-1, and FM-2. During n o r m a l S-band modes, the P M P supplies e i t h e r a P M o r F M - 1 output t o the USBE. T h e P M output supplies r e a l - t i m e PCM T L M and voice to the USBE when the USBE is o p e r a t i n g in a n o r m a l voice o r a ranging mode. If the USBE ranging only mode is s e l e c t e d , the PCM T L M portion of the output is eliminated, leaving only voice s i g n a l s in the P M - 1 output. When r e c o r d e d d a t a o r TV d a t a is t o be t r a n s m i t t e d along with PCM T L M and v o i c e d a t a , the F M - 1 output is supplied to the USBE. T h i s mode p e r m i t s the g r e a t e r bandwidth which is r e q u i r e d f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n of this data. T h e r e a r e t w o e m e r g e n c y m o d e s ; e m e r g e n c y voice and e m e r g e n c y key, s e l e c t e d by the S- BAND - EMERC switch and used to p e r m i t e m e r g e n c y t r a n s m i s s i o n of voice o r code o v e r the USBE with the P M P shutdown. With the S-BAND - EMERG switch i n the c e n t e r ( O F F ) position, the PWR - P M P switch c o n t r o l s the application of power to the P M P . However, with the S-BAND - EMERC switch s e t to e i t h e r VOICE o r KEY, a - c power is r e m o v e d f r o m the P M P . In the KEY position, a s e p a r a t e 28-volt d - c
._.-

I

--

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Changd Date

page 2.8-24
I-.

N

f $ F m& + : : PCM T L M EQUIP. ? D STORED 1
*RNG1
--4

< PCM
SWITCHES

c

+ u
i -

I
l-AyR:rON LY

A
I

0
N

I -

‘ I LI
I

0 -

b

I
I

I

L I ,
I

0
TAPE RECORDER PLAY 1 PCM

I I
I

I

P W F M MODE CONTPO REAL-TIME ANALOG MOD

-

NORM
0

I

I

STORED ANALOG MODE

C a

i
F m : DSE

:

STORED ANALOG DATA

I
I

Bus

LANDING GROUP-5
(r

-0

__
__
0

OFF

KEY

NORMAL V o l C V K M W C EMERG KEY MODE CONTROL)
I---

.1

f

4,

XPONDER OFF

20 VDC VOLTAGE 4@ REGUIATOR

USBE W R

AF

From TVCAMERA .* "IDEo

r--I
I
I

---lSOlATlON AMPL
rREAL TIME/
A
I

------------PREMODULATION PROCESSOR

I

FS-BAND

I-~w
I

'ph'NG1
OFF
ORNG

1

Fra

PCMTLMEQUIP
To

REAL + TIMEPcMITLM

DSE 4 DSE

]

STORED

Fmn

+ STORED PCMlTLM I

% PCM
.o

SWITCHES,
A
b

DATA LIMITER

..

-

C

AMPL

_c

LOWPASS FILTER
A

BI-MASE MODULATOR'

BANDPASS RLTER b

PM AMPL'S
4

MlXlP NETWC

ONLY

6

I

v I

0

- - SWITCH

Tv

t
BIOMED

-

. a SWITCH P W F M MODE CONTROL REAL-TIME ANALOG MODE CONTROL

3

STORED A N A L O G MODE CONTROL

I
Fmm. DSE

:

STORED ANALOG DATA

1 I I

4 P
K3

-- _-_ K3

-c
c
ANALOG SCO'S (9)
L

0

-

f
m . AUDIO CENTER EQUPMENT

SPEECH

I5 VAC

uy) CPS

I
VOICE OFF KEY PMP P N R OFF CONTROL N O W 1V o l C V K M h V C EMERG KEY MODE CONTROL

-

I

vco

4

MIXER 6 FILTER

-c

FREQ x2

BANDPASS + FILTER

AMP

rPOWER1 r EMERG - B A N D i pMp S
'C
,ON

t
512KC
+

TUNED

SUBCARRIER . INTERRUPTER

EMERG KEY

AMPL

I

O .UTITPUT sw

1
20 VDC
REGULATOR

t

r-XPONDER
0

co OFF

0
(MDC-20)

XPONDER PWRAMPL

USBE P N R OFF CONTROL

K2
From: CTE

CKT UTIUZATlON
BOX

P l l CIRCUIT (SEE AUDIO CENTER € Q U I ILLUSTRATION. )

0

Figure 2 . 8 - 9 .
~

M i s s ion

Basic D a t e 2

, ,.
.::,.i

. .-.. .

'

SMZA-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

L

AMPL
A

_ + I

LOWPASS FILTER

!
-+
PM <ING

PCM TLh4

I
+ +
OUTPUT
P M

*

To: VHF-FM

XMTR

81-PHASE MODULATOR

* BANDPASS FILTER

--t

AMPL,S

EMITTER FOLLOWER

i

VOICE 6 PCM OR VOICE ONLY (PM) OR EMERG KEY CW w To: USBE I

3NTROL

7 =TpJI I L
MIXING NETWORK ANALOG SCO'S
4

EM,TTER --c FOLLOWER

VOICE (FM-I PLi OR BIOMED
P(IM

N , ANALOG,

U

!
I

+ To:

USBE

I

I
I

r

I
-

0

e

F

m US8E

EMERG VOICE (FM-2)

I
i -

w

T o VSBE

vco

-.c

MXER A FILTER

*

FREQ
x2

BANDPASS FILTER

*

AMpL,s

1

I I 1.

*

I

II

I I

SH USBE i l l m t m t i a , for odditionol w i t c h Lnctiar. 2. +28 vdc to thae points i s supplied by PMP p M r wpply 3 . lhasa c i r c u l k o n not d o n s/c 012. 4 . This contml lirw m v power fmn o a the PCM procuing circulk, doto limllar, bi-phose modulotor, ond K M a n p l l f i e n . 5 . he x ) VDC r w u l o t w supplies p o r o r to

.

- - - - - I - - - - - - - -

-

I

F i g u r e 2.8-9.

Premodulation P r o c e s s o r Equipment TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Mission

B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966

Change D a t e

PageZ. 8 - 2 5 / 2 . 8 - 2 6

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

.. .

SYSTEMS DATA s o u r c e is used to enable the e m e r g e n c y key network only, which p e r m i t s a 512-kc s i g n a l f r o m the C T E to b e keyed by the P T T key i n the c o b r a cable. T h i s signal is applied to the P M input of the USBE. In the VOICE position, voice s i g n a l s f r o m the audio c e n t e r equipment a r e routed d i r e c t l y through the P M P and supplied to the F M - 2 ( e m e r g e n c y v o i c e ) input of the USBE. T h e following m a t r i x shows the switching configurations of the S-band s y s t e m i n several o p e r a t i o n a l modes.

P M P Inputs Signal Type R e a l - t i m e PCM TLM Video Source P C M T L M equipment Application T r a n s m i s s i o n to M S F N via USBE or V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r T r a n s m i s s i o n t o M S F N via USBE T r a n s m i s s i o n to MSFN via USBE T r a n s m i s s i o n t o MSFN v i a USBE o r V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r

TV equipment

Voice

Audio c e n t e r equipment

Recorded PCM TLL

DSE

512-kc s q u a r e wave

CTE

CW t r a n s m i s s i o n t o MSFN
during e m e r g e n c y key mode

512-kc s q u a r e wave

PCM TLM e quipmen t USBE

S u b c a r r i e r f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n of

PCM T L M to MSFN v i a USBE
Detection of up-data r e c e i v e d f r o m MSFN via USBE Detection of up-voice r e c e i v e d f r o m M S F N v i a USBE

70-kc up-data subcarrier 30-kc up-voice s u b c a r rier

USBE

Mission

Basic Date

12 N O v 1966

Change Date

Page

2.8-27

SMZA-03 - SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

0

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TELECOMMUNICATION DATA Mission B a s i c Date

_& _

12 NOv 1966 Change Date

Page

2.8-28

SM2A-03-SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

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42

-TELECOMMUNICATION DATA

Mission

B a s i c Date l 2 NOv 1966

Change Date

Page

2-8-29

SM2A-03- SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
2. 8 . 3 . 2. 6 Data S t o r a g e Equipment (DSE). T h e DSE (figure 2 . 8 - 1O)is a t h r e e - s p e e d , 1 4 - t r a c k m a g n e t i c t a p e r e c o r d e r and r e p r o d u c e r located i n the LEB. It is used to s t o r e d a t a during p h a s e s of the m i s s i o n which inhibit o r p r e v e n t the s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s m i s s i o n of this d a t a t o the MSFN. Data c a n be r e c o r d e d i n p a r a l l e l on five digital channels, and played back d u r i n g a l a t e r p h a s e of the m i s s i o n f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n to the MSFN. Each r e e l contains 2250 f e e t of one-inch-wide, magnetic, Mylar tape. T h e P C M T L M d a t a is obtained f r o m the PCM T L M equipment as a s i n g l e serial pulse t r a i n a t a high b i t - r a t e of 51. 2 KBPS o r a low b i t - r a t e of 1. 6 KBPS, depending on the P C M T L M mode. In the DSE, a s e r i a l - t o p a r a l l e l c o n v e r t e r c i r c u i t c o n v e r t s this signal into four p a r a l l e l digital channels, each of which a s a r e s u l t i n g p u l s e repetition r a t e ( P R R ) of only 12.8 KBPS o r 0 . 4 KBPS (one-fourth of the original PRR). The P C M T L M equipment a l s o f u r n i s h e s a 51.2-kc o r 1. 6-kc s q u a r e wave timing signal to the DSE, which is a l s o divided by four. T h e s e five s i g n a l s , the four channels of P C M T L M and the clock signal, a r e amplified by the five digit a l r e c o r d a m p l i f i e r s and f e d t o the digital r e c o r d heads. Only one analog channel, the 25-kc r e f e r e n c e and timing s i g n a l f r o m the FQR, is scheduled f o r u s e onSCO12. During playback, the playback h e a d s pick up the r e c o r d e d d a t a and p r e s e n t i t t o the d i g i t a l playback a m p l i f i e r s . T h e four p a r a l l e l channels of r e c o r d e d digital d a t a and the clock s i g n a l divided by f o u r a r e picked up by the five digital playback h e a d s and p r e s e n t e d to the five digital playback a m p l i f i e r s . T h e amplified s i g n a l s a r e then routed to the p a r a l l e l - t o - s e r i a l c o n v e r t e r and the r e p r o d u c e module. T h e f o u r digital s i g n a l s a r e converted back to a s i n g l e serial pulse t r a i n which is fed to the P M P equipment. The b i t - r a t e of t h i s output will always be 51. 2 KBPS, even if the r e c o r d e d d a t a w a s originally 1. 6 KBPS. T h i s is due to d i f f e r e n t s p e e d s used i n r e c o r d i n g and reproducing. T h e 51. 2 KBPS high b i t - r a t e PCM s i g n a l is r e c o r d e d a t 15 i n c h e s p e r second ( i p s ) and played back a t the s a m e speed. The low bitr a t e s i g n a l of 1. 6 KBPS i s r e c o r d e d a t 3. 75 i p s , however, and played back a t 120 i p s , a n i n c r e a s e of 32 t i m e s . T h i s i n c r e a s e s the 1 . 6 KBPS P R R to 51. 2 KBPS. T h e DSE is a bidirectional m a c h i n e with a tape t r a n s p o r t m e c h a n i s m capable of f o r w a r d o r r e v e r s e o p e r a t i o n a t any of t h r e e s p e e d s : 3.75 i p s (low speed), 15 i p s ( n o r m a l speed), and 120 i p s (high speed). The low s p e e d of 3. 75 i p s i s used only to r e c o r d low b i t - r a t e P C M T L M data. The DSE playback e l e c t r o n i c s is automatically d i s a b l e d whenever this speed is s e l e c t e d . T h e n o r m a l s p e e d of 15 i p s is used to r e c o r d and play back high b i t - r a t e P C M T L M data. The high s p e e d of 120 i p s i s used f o r f a s t dump of the low b i t - r a t e P C M TLM d a t a which was r e c o r d e d a t 3.75 ips. The high s p e e d is a l s o used f o r f a s t f o r w a r d o r r e v e r s e rewinding. Maximum o p e r a t i n g t i m e s , t o r e c o r d o r play back the e n t i r e 2250 feet of tape, a r e a s follows: 2 h o u r s a t the low speed of 3. 75 i p s , 30 minutes a t the n o r m a l s p e e d of 15 i p s , and 3 . 7 5 m i n u t e s at t h e high s p e e d of 120 ips.

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l 2 NOv 1966

Change Date

Page

2.8-30

SM2A-0 3 -SCO 1 2 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

1
F"
KM

REC RfmO

CONVERTER FWD'REV RELAY

K M DATA

'

ro

PUP

TLM
EOUll

I

t
AMP'S CLOCK PARALLELTO-SERIAL CONVERTER

I
I

I

D

:Y
CLOCK

-4

c K

I

0 ANALOG INWJS '

0

e , INPUT PATCH PANEL

ti ANALOG RECORD AMPLS

: :1

I

I I
I

NOTES I All w t c h e s , h a " ore l0cot.d on MOC-20 2 For ddahoml witch crrcultv, % . PMP e o d K M TLM q w p m.nt

< Ilu,tmt,om
m

3
swircti

No1 scheduled for
YV

5C-012
SM-2A-7590

F i g u r e 2 . 8 - 10.

D a t a S t o r a g e Equipment

Mission

B a s i c Date

12 N O V 1966

Change Date

page 2 . 8 - 3 1

SMZA-0 3 - SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA T a p e speed and d i r e c t i o n a r e controlled by the T A P E RECORDER S P E E D and - F W D / O F F / R E V switches on MDC-20. Other T A P E RECORDER s w i t c h e s a r e the RECORD/PLAY switch which selects the r e c o r d o r playback mode, and the PLAY switch which s e l e c t s t h e type of d a t a t o be reproduced. T h e PLAY switch h a s two positions: P C M and NORM. In e i t h e r position, only P C M T L M d a t a is r e p r o d u c e d and routed to the P M P equipment. The S-BAND - VOICE T A P E s w i t c h m u s t be s e t to T A P E before the T A P E RECORDER - PLAY switch b e c o m e s e f b c t i v e . T h e T L M INPUTS - P C M switch a l s o affects tape r e c o r d e r operation when recording. T h e i n t e r l o c k c i r c u i t i n the DSE s y s t e m c o n t r o l logic, which p r e v e n t s s e l e c t i o n of conflicting o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s , locks the tape s p e e d a t 15 i p s ( n o r m a l ) when the T L M INPUTS- P C M switch is set t o HIGH. When s e t t o LOW, the tape s p e e d is locked a t 3.75 ips. T h e p r o p e r c o n t r o l s w i t c h configuration f o r all DSE m o d e s is shown i n the table a t the end of this paragraph.

-

A n end-of-tape s e n s i n g c i r c u i t in the DSE automatically r e m o v e s power f r o m the tape d r i v e m e c h a n i s m and e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t s when the end of the tape is reached.
S u i t <h P u a t l i o n s

5-BAN& VOICE PLAY PCMNORMANALOG
Any

TAPERECORDEH

SPEED
HIGHNORM LOW NORM

Functions R e c o r d high bit r a t e

TAPEOff ANALOG

-

-

RECORD011-

FWD
011-

PLAY RE< ORD

REV

OFF

t LVD.'
i,r

REV R e c o r d low b i t r a t e

,OFF

Any

LO w

RECORD

F'WD
L,

r

KEV
Playback recorded
hrgh b i t r a t e

TAPE

PCM or NORM
PC M or NORM

NORM

PLAY

i. W'U
or

REV
HIGH PLAY
t YD or

Playback recorded l o w bit r a t e

TAPE

H Ev
NORM

Playback r e c o r d e d * * m i r e d brl r a t e

TAPE

PC M
0r

PLAY

t-WD
or

VORM

REV HIGH

R e p o s i t i o n t a p e to end oi r e e l ( r e w i n d l

OFF

4nY

PLAY

t iVD ,>r tli:v

r
: r r < i m 11 can o o ..S ~ n c e t h e eDSEi is d sbs d l openotro n a lr e sa <thhr inse ,mode s hr rucl d rndo. t p l a yn ebcdecsks. a r yr. r r w t n d -Under p r h e n m ~ ~ r cdu . o be
$1)

V L I ! > C ~ irt,tloi; d

Illegal M o d e s . I. H i g h bit r a l e m u s t be r e c o r d e d a1 n o r m a l s p e e d
UT

tape m o t i o n w r l l s t o p

L.
I.

Low h i t r a t e m u s t be r e c o r d e d a t low s p e e d o r tape m o t i o n w i l l s t o p .

If t a p e

15

p l a y e d b a r k a t l o r s p r c d , I h r t a p e w i l l m o v e . but t h e r e * , I 1

tie nu

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, ~ ~ . * ~ l . n l11, l c h r > r

tranSr,,ittt.r%

4.
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IS

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c.<rbled
% '

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srlrcred (prelerablv

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PLAY1 b e t o r c

tape w i l l m o i v

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 NOv 1966 Change Date Page

.
2.8-32

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
2 . 8.3. 2 . 7

Flight Qualification R e c o r d e r (FQR). The FQR is a 1 4 - t r a c k m a g n e t i c tape r e c o r d e r which is used to r e c o r d c e r t a i n flight qualification m e a s u r e m e n t s d u r i n g c r i t i c a l p h a s e s of the mis sion. (See f i g u r e 2.8-11. ) T h i s d a t a will be u s e d f o r postflight a n a l y s i s only; the FQR h a s no in-flight playback o r t r a n s m i s s i o n capability. It will be. activated i n a r e c o r d mode during the a s c e n t and e n t r y p h a s e s of the m i s s i o n and during SPS burns. Flight qualification d a t a is r e c o r d e d i n analog f o r m . (Digital d a t a cannot be r e c o r d e d on the F Q R . ) Two r e c o r d i n g t r a c k s (one r e c o r d head in each of two r e c o r d - h e a d s t a c k s ) a r e used f o r r e f e r e n c e and t i m e code r e c o r d i n g . T o a c c o m p l i s h this, . a n elapsed t i m e code g e n e r a t o r is used to modulate a narrow-band VCO. The output of the VCO is then m i x e d with the output of a 50 kc r e f e r e n c e o s c i l l a t o r . T h i s c o m p o s i t e s i g n a l is p r e s e n t e d to e a c h of the two r e c o r d heads through two d i r e c t r e c o r d a m p l i f i e r s . T h e FQR o p e r a t e s at a r e c o r d speed of 15 i p s and a rewind s p e e d of 120 ips. . T h e 15 i p s r e c o r d speed allows a t o t a l of 30 m i n u t e s r e c o r d i n g t i m e p e r reel of tape. Because t h e r e a r e no provisions f o r c r e w m e m b e r s to change tape reels during the m i s s i o n , the FQR m u s t be used c o n s e r v atively. Normally, the rewind function will not b e used u n l e s s i t is r e q u i r e d to back the tape up to the beginning during prelaunch a c t i v i t i e s . End-of-tape s e n s i n g i s provided, which will automatically halt the tape motion and r e m o v e power f r o m the e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t s when the end of the tape is r e a c h e d in , e i t h e r direction. C r e w m a n c o n t r o l of the FQR is provided by the FLIGHT QUAL RCDR. 3-positibn toggle switch on MDC-19. In the S T O P position, all a - c and d - c power is removed. Placing the switch to RECORD a c t i v a t e s all e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y and the tape t r a n s p o r t m e c h a n i s m , which m o v e s the tape f o r w a r d a t 15 ips. The REWIND position a c t i v a t e s the tape t r a n s p o r t m e c h a n i s m to move the tape backward a t 120 ips. T h e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r s and n a m e s of the p a r a m e t e r s s t o r e d i n the FQR a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the following l i s t . T h i s does not include the two FQR channels utilized f o r s t o r a g e of r e f e r e n c e and timing code storage.

Me as u r e ment Number

Identity

CG 2010

v

CG 2030 V CG 2050 V CK 0004 A CK 0005 A

X P I P A output, i n phase Y P I P A output, in phase

Z PIPA output, in phase L i n e a r a c c e l e r a t i o n s t r u c t u r e X axis A L i n e a r a c c e l e r a t i o n s t r u c t u r e Y axis A

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Mission

B a s i c Date

12 N V 1966 Change Date O

Page

2.8-33

SMZA-0 3 -SCO 12

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA
..

I
I

I I > I' I

I

REFERENCE OSCILLATOR

+

MIXER

TIME CODE GENERATOR

t
vco
AMPL

DIRECT RECORD AMPL'S

l!
OSCILLATOR

I I I
I

4
50 K C REFERENCE OSCILLATOR
L

I

MIXER

. - , - t

LOW-FREQ ANALOG INPUTS (3)

I
I

I
a

.

t
NARROWBAND VCO'S

----_
I CHANNEL

RECORD AMPL

1 CHANNEL

RECORD HEADS

F": FLIGHT QUAL INSTR

ANALOG INPUTS (9)

I

----c
WIDEBAND VCO'S
9 CHANNELS

RECORD AMPL

I
FLIGHT QUAL RCDR (MDC-19) RECORD

c

I I I

28 VDC
I

FfiFNBUS

NON

TI NSTRUMENTSi PAM XMTR NON ESS

I
I

I

I
CONTROL LOGIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR
To:

TRANSPORT MECHANISM

L

F r m:

TELCOMNON ESS SWITCH

-

-T/C

7

ELECTRONIC CI RCUl TS POWER SUPPLY

--J

I I

I

W
llEI5-04
SM-24-8548

F i g u r e 2. 8 - 11.

F l i g h t Qualification R e c o r d e r Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2 . 8 - 3 4

SMZA-0 3 -SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA Measurement Number CK CR CR CR CR CR CR 2. 8. 3. 2. 8 0006 0514 0520 0623 0624 0625 0626 A

Identity L i n e a r a c c e l e r a t i o n s t r u c t u r e Z axis A CCW r o l l engine p r e s s u r e , s y s t e m A CCW r o l l engine p r e s s u r e , s y s t e m B Fuel line pressure, system A Fuel line pressure, s y s t e m B Oxidizer l i n e p r e s s u r e , s y s t e m A Oxidizer line p r e s s u r e , s y s t e m B

P P P P P P

Up-Data Link (UDL) Equipment. The function of the UDL equipment is to r e c e i v e , verify, and d i s t r i b u t e digital up-dating information s e n t to the S / C by the MSFN a t v a r i o u s t i m e s throughout the m i s s i o n t o up-date o r change the s t a t u s of o p e r a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . The UDL (figure 2. 8-12) c o n s i s t s of a UHF-FM r e c e i v e r , a t r a n s i s t o r mode switch, detecting and decoding c i r c u i t r y , a buffer s t o r a g e unit, output relay d r i v e r s , and a power supply. The UDL provides the m e a n s f o r MSFN to update the AGC, the C T E , and t o s e l e c t c e r t a i n vehicle functions. Two operational m o d e s a r e possible: UHF and S-band. The mode n o r m a l l y used is UHF. In this mode, the incoming 450-mc up-data c a r r i e r is r e c e i v e d by the VHF omni-antenna equipment and fed to the UHF r e c e i v e r i n the UDL. The intelligence is detected f r o m the c a r r f e r and routed through the mode switch t o the sub-bit d e t e c t o r , which c o n v e r t s i t to a serial digital signal. The digital output f r o m the sub-bit d e t e c t o r is fed to the remaining UDL c i r c u i t r y , which s t o r e s and checks the digital d a t a , d e t e r m i n e s the p r o p e r destination of the d a t a , and p r o c e s s e s i t to the a p p r o p r i a t e S / C s y s t e m o r equipment. R e a l - t i m e commands f r o m the r e a l - t i m e command ( R T C ) d r i v e r s a r e supplied to the UDL RTC r e l a y boxwhich contains four, RTC, 2-position, latching r e l a y s . Thus eight r e a l - t i m e commands a r e possible: four " s e t " commands and f o u r " r e s e t " commands. The c h a r t o n the following page lists the eight c o m m a n d s by n u m b e r and function. The S-band up-data mode can be s e l e c t e d when the USBE is in o p e r a tion. In this mode, the UHF r e c e i v e r i n the UDL is deactivated and i t s function is r e p l a c e d by the USBE r e c e i v e r and the PMP. Up-data i n f o r m a tion can be t r a n s m i t t e d to the S / C within the 2-kmc S-band signal. When this signal is received by the USBE receiv.er; the 70-kc s u b c a r r i e r containing the up-data information is e x t r a c t e d and s e n t to the up-data d i s c r i m i n a t o r in the P M P . The r e s u l t i n g composite audio frequency signal is routed to the sub-bit d e t e c t o r i n the UDL. T h e r e a r e t h r e e e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s f o r the UDL equipment. One is the three-position, center-off, UP-DATA switch on IMDC-20. When s e t to the

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

12

NOV

1966

Change Date

Page

2-8-35

' SM2A-0 3 -SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

UDL Rral-Time Conimands

UDL
Command
00

Aclion Deactivates s y s t e m A abort request lighl Aclivalrs system A abort request light Effect on C-band equlpmcnl operation determined by position of C-band s w i t c h on MDL-20

Relay
K I (RESET)

MDC-LO SW PositLon MIX-3

Rcsulls

01

K I (SET)

MUC-3 turns on abort lighl.

OL

K i (RESET)

C-BAND 1 PULSE OFF L PULSE

C-band cqvipmenl cont,nut-s to oprratP in I-pulbr mode. (:-band vqulpmrnl n . m d ~ n s 011.
IO

C-band equipment continues oprrate rn 2-pulse mode.

03

Turns C-band equipmen1 on ~n 2-pulr? mode

K3 (SETI

C-BAND 1 PULSE

C-band equipment continues to operate but swLlrhea to 2-puIsr mode.
E n r r g i r r r C-band equipment which o p r r a t ~ stn 2-pulbc
mode.

OFF

2 PULSE
04

So r f l r c l

on

C-band o p e r a t i o n . VHF-FM

EIIecl on VHF-FM transmission of PCM data drtermined by position of VHF-FMONlOFF and T L M INPUTS-HICH/LOW s w i t c h e s on MDC-LO

K 4 (RESET)

VHF-FM

ON
OFF

N o d e c l on L ransmitlrr.

K O r f f r c l on VHF-FM t r a n s m ~ l trr. PC.M TLM remains PCM TLM output
in 51.L KItS.

1 LM INPUTS PCM HIGH

LOW
05

LI

1.6 KBS.

Turns VHF-FM t r a n s m u t e r on and changes bit r a t e f r o m low lo hLgh

K 4 (SETI

VHF-FM
ON

S o effect on VHF-FM t ran s m L I t~ r.
Energiir, VHF-FM
1ransmilte r .

OFF TLM INPUTS PCM HIGH
LOW

Yo ? l f e r l

on bi: r a l c

S u t l c h r s f r o m 1 . 6 K D 5 lo 51. 2 K D S .

VOTE If data 11 bemg rrcordrd. 1 E E w t l l automatically a t o p 11 TAPE RECORD-SPEED > u t i ( h I) riot poaitionrd 10 111<,11.
Ob

Deactivates s y s t e m B abort request l i g h t Activates bystem B r.-qucst lrghl

KL ( R E S E T )
K L (5ET)

M i>c 3 -

abort

T E L E C OMMUNICA TION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date
Page

2.8-36

SM2A - 0 3 - SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

---

To

RCVR
RET

To
BV

DET d DECODER
6V -6V

6V

RET

IGORT REQUEST

POWER

SUPPLY light

1 I

SYSTEM8

I
UP-DATA

S-YND
OFF
UHF

L
FLIGHT &
POSTUNDING

@
O2

nus
GROUP4

RESET

7.5A

++m wc

NOTES.

I.
2.

A l l RTC Iolching relays
o r e h o r n in ns.1 m i l i o n All r r i t c h a am on

UP T L M CMD (MDC-19)

@
RESET

I

.r--

VHF-FM XMTR

+26 VDC

i

PCM T I M EQUIP

MDC-20 d e s o t h e w i m indicrrtd.

To
I

All

windings

I

I

I

F i g u r e 2 . 8 - 12.

Up-Data Link Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Mission

Basic Date

12 NoV 1966

Change Date

Page

.

2.8-37

SMZA-0 3 - SCO 1 2 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA UHF position, the UHF up-data mode is s e l e c t e d and 28-volt d - c power is applied to the UDL power supply. T h e S-BAND position a l s o applies 28-volt d - c power, but s e l e c t s the S-band up-data m o d e and d e a c t i v a t e s the U H F / F M r e c e i v e r . Another control, located on MDC-19, is the twoposition spring-loaded U P T L M CMD switch. When s e t m o m e n t a r i l y to the RESET position, all " r e s e t " c o m m a n d s l i s t e d i n the UDL real time c o m m a n d s c h a r t a r e commanded. T h i s nullifies all r ' s e t " c o m m a n d s which have been r e c e i v e d f r o m the MSFN. An U P T L M - ACCEPT/BLOCK s w i t c h (MDC-14) is a l s o provided which enables the c r e w to p e r m i t o r p r e vent G&N up-data f r o m affecting the guidance c o m p u t e r . 2.8.3. 2. 9 C e n t r a l T i m i n g Equipment (CTE). The C T E p r o v i d e s p r e c i s i o n s q u a r e wave timing pulses of s e v e r a l f r e q u e n c i e s to t i m e - c o r r e l a t e all S / C t i m e - s e n s i t i v e functions. It a l s o . g e n e r a t e s and s t o r e s the r e a l - t i m e day, h o u r , minute, and second t i m e f r o m - l a u n c h ( T F L ) in binary-coded d e c i m a l (BCD) f o r m a t f o r d i s p l a y and t r a n s m i s s i o n to the M S F N . (See f i g u r e 2. 8-13. ) In the p r i m a r y o r n o r m a l mode of operation, the Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r (AGC) p r o v i d e s a 1024-kc s y n c p u l s e to the C T E . This autom a t i c a l l y s y n c h r o n i z e s the C T E with the AGC and p r o v i d e s a stability of iZ x p a r t s i n 14 d a y s . In the event of s y n c pulse f a i l u r e , the C T E a u t o m a t i c a l l y switches to the s e c o n d a r y mode of operation with no t i m e l a p s e and o p e r a t e s using i t s own c r y s t a l o s c i l l a t o r a t a s t a b i l i t y r e d u c e d to iZ. 2 x p a r t s i n 5 days. T h e CTEocontains two power supplies f o r redundancy. Each one i s supplied f r o m a different power s o u r c e and through s e p a r a t e c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s . T h e s e c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s , CENTRAL TIMING S Y S - MN A and - MN B on M b C - 2 2 , provide the only e x t e r n a l m e a n s of c o n t r o l f o r the CTE. The two power supplies provide p a r a l l e l 6-volt d - c outputs, e i t h e r one of which is sufficient to power the C T E . The timing s i g n a l s g e n e r a t e d b y the C T E , and t h e i r applications, a r e l i s t e d in the CTE Outputs c h a r t . C T E Outputs Signal 512-kc s q u a r e wave Des tination Purpose Synchronization of i n t e r n a l clock

--

PCM TLM equipment

PMP
equipment 6.4-kc s q u a r e wave

Modulating s i g n a l f o r S-band e m e r g e n c y key transmission Synchronization of 400-cycle a - c power

EPS inverters (thee)

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12
NOV

1966

Change Date

Page

2.8-38

SM2A-03-SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

TIMING MONITOR

CENTRAL TIMING EQUIPMENT

From:

AGC

1024 KC

PULSE FAIL DETECTOR
512 K C PMP

SYNC

I

1

I

I

'

+
512 K C

+PCM/TLM
EQUIP

-}
BUS A

5.4 K C

+
4 KC

ACPOWER INVERTERS

6
OUTPUT BUFFER tMPLI Fl ERS POWER SUPPLY

--* scs

28 VDC
5 A MN A

D-C M A I N

A

PP I
START/STOP EXCITATION TIMING PULSE TRAINS 6 RESET
2661T TIME ACCUMULATORSEC. M I N , HR, DAY

+EVENT
TIMER

0 CPS

28 VDC
UP DATA EQUl PMENT

I CPS

---* PCM/TLM EQUl P

' 1
ECS (ONE IO SEC PULSE PER IO M I N )

CENTRAL TIMING

SM-?A-S65E

F i g u r e 2. 8-13.

Central T i m i n g E q u i p m e n t

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission

B a s i c Date

12 Nov 1966

Change Date

Page 2.8-39

SMZA- 0 3 - SCO 12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA Signal 4-kc s q u a r e wave 10-cps s q u a r e wave
1 cps

Destination

Purpose Synchronization of X-axis a c c e l e r o m e t e r integrator Digital event t i m e r

scs
Displays

PCM TLM e quipmen t PCM T L M equipment

Synchronization of s u b f r a m e of P C M d a t a , Displays, and T - T i m e r P u l s e - f a i l detection and indication. (Sampling r a t e equals 10 s a m p l e s / s e c , 5p s e c p u l s e duration. ) P r o v i d e s t i m e code d a t a to T L M in BCD f o r m a t ( T L M m e a s u r e m e n t No. CT0142F, C T-GM5 32 bit).

DC

Binary coded decimal time code
1 pulse p e r 10 m i n u t e s

P C M TLM equipment

ECS

Supplies pulse e v e r y 10 m i n u t e s to ECS c i r c u i t r y which opens a solenoid f o r 10 seconds i n e v e r y 10 m i n u t e s to r e m o v e water f r o m space suits.

2 . 8 . 3 . 2 . 10

Voice R e c o r d e r s Two voice r e c o r d e r s have been provided to enable the c r e w m e m b e r s to k e e p a v o i c e log of m i s s i o n a c t i v i t e s . Both units a r e mounted in the right-hand equipment b a y , one in a n o p e r a t i n g condition and the o t h e r stowed. Changeover to the inoperative r e c o r d e r is m a d e by changing the e l e c t r i c a l power connector. E a c h tape r e c o r d e r provides 450 feet of 114-inch tape which o p e r a t e s a t a speed of 0 . 6 i n c h e s p e r second. T h e u s e of tape r e v e r s a l , a u t o m a t i c head switching, and four individual r e c o r d i n g heads provide ten h o u r s of usable r e c o r d i n g t i m e p e r t a p e r e c o r d e r . The i n f o r m a t i o n contained on the tape cannot be dumped d u r i n g flight but m u s t be played back utilizing suitable GSE. T o r e a d y the connected voice r e c o r d e r f o r operation, the following switch positions m u s t be s e l e c t e d : the RCDR/HF switch t o T / R (MDC-13, - 2 3 , - 2 6 ) , the i n t e r c o m switch t o T / R , the H F power switch to O F F (MDC-20), and the mode s e l e c t o r to SSB o r AM. (See figure 2 . 8-14. ) Actual activation of the voice r e c o r d e r is p o s s i b l e t h r e e ways: two c o r r e c t ; one wrong. T h e f i r s t c o r r e c t activation path h a s the POWER switch a t P T T (MDC-13, - 2 3 , - 2 6 ) and the P T T pushbutton on the c o b r a cable d e p r e s s e d . The o t h e r c o r r e c t method of activation r e q u i r e s the POWER switch to b e a t V O X and the V O X c i r c u i t enabled o r the P T T pushbutton

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 N o V 1966 Change Date Page 2.8-40

SM2A - 0 3 - SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

I
FORWARDREVERSE SENSORS

I

I +I7 VDC

I I
I I

I I I I

I

*I r
I
To: HF

I
-5 VDC +I2 VDC SIGNAL CONDITIONER ELECTRONICS

I I
I

SWITCH

I I
I

TRAN SCEl VE R TRANSMITRECEIVE KEYING RELAY

I

I

I

I I I
I

I

MIXER

y-]
VOICE RECORDER

I I

VOX SENS

=

I I i
I

vco
TIME CODED DATA FROM

MDAS TIMING GENERATOR BUS I 115 VAC AC I

TELECOIMUNICATIONS GROUP 4 +28 vDC , o A FLIGHT AND POSTLANDING BUS

1

TELECOMMUNICATIONS GROUP 1

39

- * A
2A
(MDC-22)

m-

IO

A

(MDC- 22)

BUS 2 115 VAC 3 9 400-

NOTE:

ONLY C O M W N D PILOT AUDIO CENTER MODULE AND CONTROLS ARE INDICATED.

SM-24-955C

F i g u r e 2.8-14.

Voice Tape R e c o r d e r

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2 . 8 - 4 1

SM2A-0 3-SCO12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

_SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~

d e p r e s s e d . The connected voice t a p e r e c o r d e r c a n be i n a d v e r t e n t l y a c t i v a t e d by positioning t h e H F m o d e s w i t c h to BCN (MDC-20). T h i s would continuo u s l y r u n t h e connected voice t a p e r e c o r d e r until i t used up i t s tape. A VOICE RECORD flag i n d i c a t o r (MDC- 19) will d i s p l a y the s t r i p e d a r e a when r e c o r d i n g is i n p r o g r e s s . The i n d i c a t o r g r e y a r e a will be d i s p l a y e d when voice r e c o r d i n g is not i n p r o g r e s s o r the t a p e supply h a s b e e n e x h a u s t e d during recording. The stowed voice r e c o r d e r m a y be placed i n o p e r a t i n g condition by moving t h e R C D R / H F switch to O F F (MDC-13, -23, and -26), removing t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n n e c t o r f r o m t h e e x h a u s t e d r e c o r d e r , and i n s t a l l i n g i t to t h e c o n n e c t o r on the stowed r e c o r d e r . O p e r a t i o n i s r e s u m e d by moving t h e R C D R / H F s w i t c h to T / R (MDC-13, -23, or -26). NOTE To i n c l u d e t h e t i m i n g r e f e r e n c e while r e c o r d i n g o n t h e voice t a p e r e c o r d e r , t h e MDAS MAIN POWER s w i t c h m u s t be O N ( L E B c o m p a r t m e n t C) and the TIMER s w i t c h m u s t be a t "NORMAL. I ' 2. 8. 3. 3 R F E l e c t r o n i c s Equipment Group. The R F e l e c t r o n i c s equipment g r o u p i n c l u d e s all T / C equipment which functions as R F t r a n s m i t t e r s or r e c e i v e r s . The antenna u s e d by t h i s equipm e n t a r e mentioned only b r i e f l y i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h . M o r e i n f o r m a t i o n on the a n t e n n a s c a n be found i n t h e p a r a g r a p h o n antenna equipment. 2.8. 3. 3 . 1 VHF/AM T r a n s m i t t e r - R e c e i v e r Equipment. The VHF/AM t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r equipment ( f i g u r e 2 . 8 - 1 5 ) p r o v i d e s the p r i m a r y m e a n s f o r in-flight voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s with t h e MSFN. It is contained i n t h e s a m e e l e c t r o n i c s package as t h e VHF r e c o v e r y beacon e q u i p m e n t , i n t h e LEB.

Two m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n are p o s s i b l e : s i m p l e x and duplex. The s i m p l e x mode will n o r m a l l y be utilized. The duplex mode w i l l be u s e d on f u t u r e m i s s i o n s f o r EVA and LEM c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . During r e c o v e r y , t h e t r a n s m i t t e r c a n be utilized as a backup VHF r e c o v e r y beacon by holding down t h e P T T key.
The t r a n s m i t t e r o p e r a t e s a t 296.8 m c i n both o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s . The The r e c e i v e 1 f r o n t end o p e r a t e s a t r e c e i v e r c o n t a i n s two "front e n d s . 296. 8 m c and is u s e d f o r s i m p l e x o p e r a t i o n s . F o r dupiex o p e r a t i o n s , the r e c e i v e 2 f r o n t end, which o p e r a t e s a t 259. 7 m c , is s e l e c t e d . The VHF/AM t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r is c o n t r o l l e d by the VHF-AM cont r o l s o n MDC-20. The T / R / O F F / R E C s w i t c h a c t i v a t e s t h e t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r when i n t h e T / R position; the REC position a c t i v a t e s the r e c e i v e r a l o n e ; the O F F position r e m o v e s p o w e r f r o m both. Simplex o r duplex o p e r a t i o n i s s e l e c t e d by placing t h e RCVR switch to 1 o r 2, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e m a i n i n g , thumbwheel-type SQUELCH c o n t r o l c a n be r o t a t e d up or down to i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e the s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e s q u e l c h g a t e . Audio to and f r o m t h e VHF-AM is c o n t r o l l e d by the V H F - A M - T / R / O F F / R E C switch on MDC-13, -23, -26. Voice t r a n s m i s s i o n is p o s s i b l e when t h i s s w i t c h is a t T / R , the POWER s w i t c h is at P T T , the c o b r a c a b l e P T T / C W s w i t c h is at P T T and the P T T key is p r e s s e d . NOTE The POWER s w i t c h c a n a l s o be a t VOX, but a c t u a l keying of t h e VHF/AM m u s t be via t h e P T T c i r c u i t .
~ ~~ ~ ~~

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date

l2

1966

Change Date

page

2.8-42

7

VHFlAM TRANSMITTER-RECEIVER

lo: A U D I O
CENTER EOUlP-

----c

1

AMPLS

t-

SQUELCH GATE

-

DETECTOR

+

IF AMPLS

,
SCHMITT TRIGGER AGC AMPLS

-

I

I

*I

b

0 5 ? n
MIXER

-

259.7 M C

OSC-TRIPLER

-e--

I I J
I

VHF A M SOUElCH

7
IlA121

I
RECEIVER

'

'I-

-------71

RECEiM 1 FRONT E N D
-

v
RF AMP1
4

-

MIXER

C .

294.8 MC

1 - OSC-TRIPLER I

I .
L
? 1

'I I I
8

-----------------------OSC-TRIPLER ---C

------- -.J
h

RF
AMPLS

---+

DRIVERS

-+

POWER AMPLS
A

-

TUNED CAVlTY

S

----*
I

DIR COUPLER

-

---.
7

J

LO-PASS FILTER

296.8 M C

,

From: A U D I O CENTER EQUIP

c -

-

d

AUDIO AMPLS

-*
:

ODULATORS -

-

ISOV PLUS MODULATION

MODULATION

-

POWER To TRANSMITTER

..,. i'

' .

,< '..

3

7

VHFlAM TRANSM IllER-RECEIVER

SQUELCH GATE A

-

_.

DETECTOR

1 AGC
AMPLS
1

. .

+

IF AMPLS

-

I '

A

I .

MIXER

*
i

RF AMPLS 259.7 M C

-

0

'

I
I

t
OK-TRIPLER

4

* I

1
MULTIPLEXER

To: VHF ANTENNA SWITCH

I

I I I

RECEIM

RECEIVER

RECEIVE 2 FRONT END

I

RCVR 1 DISABLE VOLTAGE

RF AMPLS

-

DRIVERS A

-+
>

POWER AMPLS

a

- - + .
TUNED CAVlTY DIR COUPLER
I
I

LO-PASS FILTER

296.8MC

A I
I

I

ISOV PL L S J MODULATION jODULATORS

MODULATION POWER T o TRANSMITTER TRANSISTORS

I

TRANSM Il l E R

-VHF A M

To: FILAMENTS

TO: S-BAND T/R CONTROL

(MDC-26, 13, -23)

-

To: S-BAND P M P
PTT

Figure

Mission

Basic

_.’

SMZA-03-SC012

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

To: VHF ANTENNA
- XER

SWITCH

DC-DC SWITCHER

. a

VHF AM
REGULATOR AND TRANSIENT SUPPRESSOR
2

'

(MDC- 20)

RECEIVE
RECEIVE 2 FRONT END SWITCH

RECl
A N D RC FILTER

+1

sv

I
POWERTO RECEIM I FRONT END

I
I
I
2
1

RCVR

I
*-

+12

-vDc
I

RECEIVE IAND

TR SW

RCVR 1 DISABLE VOLTAGE

t

I

POWER SUPPLY

1 i
!

i

TRANSFORMER

4VAC

I
F i g u r e 2.8-15.

TELECOMMUNCIATIONS GROUP 4

(MDC- 2a
?.SA

FLIGHT A N D PO51 L A N D ING

SM-24-677D

V H F / A M T r a n s m i t t e r - R e c e i v e r Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Mission

Basic Date 1 2 Nov 1966

Change D a t e

Page 2.8-4312.8-44

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS: DATA The VHF p o r t i o n of the u p p e r o r l o w e r SCIN antenna is u s e d d u r i n g flight. VHF r e c o v e r y antenna No. 2 i s u s e d d u r i n g r e c o v e r y . Antenna s e l e c t i o n i s m a d e with the VHF ANTENNA switch on MDC-20.

2. 8. 3. 3. 2

H F T r a n s c e i v e r Equipment. The H F t r a n s c e i v e r equipment ( f i g u r e 2. 8 - 1 6 ) is t h e p r i m a r y m e a n s to a i d r e c o v e r y o p e r a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e postlanding p h a s e of the m i s s i o n by p r o viding long - r a n g e , s i m p l e x , voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and beyond line -of - sight d i r e c t i o n finding c a p a b i l i t i e s . It is contained i n the s a m e e l e c t r o n i c s packa g e as the VHF-FM t r a n s m i t t e r equipment i n the LEB. The H F t r a n s c e i v e r equipment is c o n t r o l l e d by the RECOVERY-HF s w i t c h e s o n MDC-20. The O N / O F F s w i t c h , when p l a c e d to ON, connects d - c p o w e r to the t r a n s c e i v e r . The SSB/BCN/AM s w i t c h i s used to s e l e c t t h e o p e r a t i o n a l mode. T h r e e m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e ; single s i d e band (SSB), beacon (BCN), and a m p l i t u d e modulation (AM). The BCN mode is used to t r a n s m i t a n unmodulated, continuous wave, d i r e c t i o n finding beacon. The SSB and AM m o d e s a r e used f o r l o n g - r a n g e , s i m p l e x , voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . The o p e r a t i n g f r e q u e n c y is 10. 006 m c f o r the t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r i n all m o d e s . The audio c e n t e r equipment s u p p l i e s the audio input to the m o d u l a t o r i n t h e t r a n s l a t o r module and a c c e p t s the d e t e c t e d audio s i g n a l f r o m t h e r e c e i v e r module of the t r a n s c e i v e r . The H F t r a n s m i t t e r i s keyed by VOX o r P T T . The H F r e c o v e r y antenna is used f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n and will be deployed a f t e r touchdown a s p a r t of the postlanding s e q u e n c e of o p e r a t i o n s . The t r a n s c e i v e r m u s t not be o p e r a t k d p r i o r to antenna deployment o r damage may occur.

2. 8. 3 . 3. 3

V H F / F M T r a n s m i t t e r Equipment. The s o l e function of t h e V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r equipment ( f i g u r e 2 . 8 - 1 7 ) i s to t r a n s m i t PCM TLM d a t a to t h e MSFN. T h e s e d a t a a r e supplied to the V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r by t h e P M P i n t h e f o r m of a 3-volt p - p pulsating d - c , modulating s i g n a l a t a r a t e of 51, 200 b i t s p e r second ( b p s ) o r 1600 bps. The bit r a t e depends o n the P C M r a t e s e l e c t e d .

'L

The nominal ( c e n t e r ) f r e q u e n c y of t h e e m i t t e d R F c a r r i e r is 237.8 m c . B e c a u s e the t r a n s m i t t e r is f r e q u e n c y modulated, the 3-volt p - p modulating s i g n a l c a u s e s a f r e q u e n c y d e v i a t i o n of *125 kc. The r e s u l t i n g 10-watt R F output i s fed to the VHF p o r t i o n of the VHF/2-KMC SCIN a n t e n n a s . The only e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l f o r t h e V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r equipment i s the VHF-FM - O N / O F F switch o n MDC-20 which e n e r g i z e s a r e l a y i n the t r a n s m i t t e r , applying a - c p o w e r to the equipment. If the switch is s e t to O F F , the V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r c a n b e a c t i v a t e d f r o m the MSFN by a r e a l t i m e command via the UDL equipment,

~

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.8-45

SM2A-03-SC012
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

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F i g u r e 2 . 8 - 16.

H F T r a n s c e i v e r Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date

l2

lq66

Change Date

Page

2.8-46

SMZA-0 3-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

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F i g u r e 2 . 8 - 17.

V H F / FM T r a n s m i t t e r Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Mission

B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page 2 . 8 - 4 7

SM2A-03-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA 2 . 8. 3. 3. 4 Unified S-Band Equipment (USBE). The USBE (figure 2.8-18) c o n s i s t s of a r e c e i v e r , t r a n s m i t t e r , and power supply contained i n a single e l e c t r o n i c s package in the l o w e r equipm e n t bay. Although p r i m a r i l y designed f o r d e e p - s p a c e communications, the USBE will be t e s t e d o n t h i s m i s s i o n and u s e d a s backup f o r in-flight voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , t r a c k i n g a n d ranging, t r a n s m i s s i o n of P C M data, and r e c e p t i o n of up-data. T h e USBE a l s o p r o v i d e s the s o l e m e a n s f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n of TV The USBE tracking method employed is the two-way o r double-doppler method. I n t h i s technique, a s t a b l e c a r r i e r of known frequency is t r a n s m i t t e d t o the S I C w h e r e i t i s r e c e i v e d by the phase-locked r e c e i v e r , m u l t i plied by a known r a t i o , and then r e t r a n s m i t t e d to the MSFN for comparison. B e c a u s e of t h i s capability, t h e USBE is a l s o r e f e r r e d to as the S-band t r a n s p o n d e r . F r o m the double-doppler t r a c k i n g method, S / C velocity, . a c c e l e r a t i o n , and r a n g e c a n be d e t e r m i n e d , F o r d e t e r m i n i n g S / C range, the MSFN p h a s e - m o d u l a t e s the t r a n s m i t t e d c a r r i e r with a p s e u d o - r a n d o m n o i s e ( P R N ) binary ranging code. T h i s code is d e t e c t e d by the S I C USBE r e c e i v e r and used t o phase-modulate the c a r r i e r t r a n s m i t t e d to the MSFN. T h e MSFN r e c e i v e s the c a r r i e r and m e a s u r e s the amount of t i m e d e a l y between t r a n s m i s s i o n of the code and r e c e p t i o n of the s a m e code, t h e r e b y obtaining a n a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t of range. Once e s t a b l i s h e d ] this r a n g e c a n be continually up-dated by the double-doppler m e a s u r e m e n t s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . The M S F N c a n a l s o t r a n s m i t up-data c o m m a n d s and voice s i g n a l s to the S / C USBE by m e a n s of two s u b c a r r i e r s : 7 0 kc f o r up-data and 30 kc f o r up-voice.
0

The USBE r e c e i v e r is a p h a s e - t r a c k i n g r e c e i v e r that a c c e p t s a 2106.4-mc, phase-modulated R F s i g n a l containing the up-data and up-voice s u b c a r r i e r s and a p s e u d o - r a n d o m noice ( P R N ) code when ranging is d e s i r e d . T h i s s i g n a l is supplied to the r e c e i v e r via the d i p l e x e r in the S-band power a m p l i f i e r equipment and p r e s e n t e d to two s e p a r a t e d e t e c t o r s : the loop p h a s e d e t e c t o r and the ranging phase d e t e c t o r . In the ranging p h a s e d e t e c t o r , the 9. 531-mc I F is detected; and the 70-kc up-data and 30-kc up-voice s u b c a r r i e r s a r e e x t r a c t e d , amplified, and routed to rhe up-data and up-voice d i s c r i m i n a t o r s in the P M P equipment. Also, when operating i n a ranging m o d e , the P R N ranging s i g n a l i s d e r i v e d , f i l t e r e d ] and routed to the USBE t r a n s m i t t e r a s a modulating s i g n a l input to the phase modulat o r . In the loop p h a s e d e t e c t o r , the 9. 531-mc IF s i g n a l is d e t e c t e d by c o m p a r i n g it with the loop r e f e r e n c e frequency, The r e s u l t i n g d - c output i s used to c o n t r o l the f r e q u e n c y of the 19. 0625-mc voltage-controlled o s c i l l a t o r (VCO). T h e output of the VCO is used as the r e f e r e n c e frequency f o r r e c e i v e r c i r c u i t s a s well as f o r the t r a n s m i t t e r . The r e c e i v e r i s a l s o provided with a u t o m a t i c gain c o n t r o l (AGC) and antenna s e l e c t o r c i r c u i t r y which a u t o m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t s the p r o p e r SCIN antenna when the S-BAND ANTENNA switch is i n the AUTO position. T h e AGC c i r c u i t r y a l s o supplies a signal to the S-BAND A N T S - m e t e r located on MDC-19. By o b s e r v i n g this m e t e r and rotating the S I C , the o p t i m u m S I C attitude f o r S-band communications c a n be attained.

~

~

~

~

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date
NOv 1966

Change Date

Page

2.8-48

SM2A-0 3 - SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
-

SYSTEMS DATA

UNIFIED S-BAND EQUIP
70 KC UP-DATA 6

NOTES:

I

All switches r h w n am on MDC-20.

2. 3.
4.

S u PMP illuitmtion
Sea S-Bond P A

for o d d i t i o m l switch circuitry. illustmtion f o r d d i t i o m l rwitch circuitry

(WO)meom nomally open or non-cmducting; (WC)means mrmolly c l a d or c d u c t i n g .

LANDING
BS U
SM- 2A-74lC

F i g u r e 2. 8-18.

Unified S-Band E q u i p m e n t

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM
M i s s ion

B a s i c Date l 2 NoV I 9 6 6

Change Date

P a g e 2.8-49

SM2A-0 3-SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA The USBE t r a n s m i t t e r is capable of t r a n s m i t t i n g a 2287. 5 - m c signal, e i t h e r p h a s e - m o d u l a t e d o r frequency-modulated. In the P M mode, the i n i t i a l t r a n s m i t t e r f r e q u e n c y is obtained f r o m one of two s o u r c e s : the VCO i n the phase-locked USBE r e c e i v e r o r the a u x i l i a r y o s c i l l a t o r i n the t r a n s m i t t e r . When o p e r a t i n g i n the F M mode, the VCO o r a u x i l i a r y o s c i l l a t o r i n i t i a l f r e q u e n c y is not multiplied and used d i r e c t l y , but is used to c o n t r o l the f r e q u e n c y of a t h i r d o s c i l l a t o r , the F M VCO. The F M VCO is the s o u r c e f o r the frequency-modulated 2287. 5 - m c signal. Output m o d e and f r e q u e n c y s o u r c e a r e controlled b y the S-BAND g r o u p of s w i t c h e s on MDC-20. The VOICE and EMERG s w i t c h e s , contained i n t h i s group, a l s o have a n e f f e c t on P M P operation, thus e n s u r i n g compatib i l i t y between USBE and P M P m o d e s . All d a t a to be t r a n s m i t t e d by the USBE is supplied by the PMP. Normally, the i n i t i a l t r a n s m i t t e r frequency is obtained f r o m the r e c e i v e r VCO. In c a s e of f a i l u r e of the VCO o r S-band PA equipment, ,the a u x i l i a r y o s c i l l a t o r c a n b e s e l e c t e d . T h i s is done by moving the OSC switch f r o m PRIM to SEC (with the RNG/RNG ONLY s w i t c h a t the n o r m a l , c e n t e r position) o r by placing the EMERG s w i t c h to VOICE. If the l a t t e r is done, the P M P will provide a voice modulating s i g n a l d i r e c t l y to the a u x i l i a r y o s c i l l a t o r . With all t h r e e S-BAND - VOICE s w i t c h e s and the S-BAND - EMERG switch s e t a t t h e i r c e n t e r positions, the USBE t r a n s m i t s a phase-modulated s i g n a l containing P C M T L M and voice d a t a f r o m the P M P . Setting the RNG/ RNG ONLY switch t o RNG, e n a b l e s the PRN ranging code to be t r a n s m i t t e d a l s o . Setting this s w i t c h to RNC ONLY, adds the PRN ranging code but e l i m i n a t e s the P C M T L M p o r t i o n of the P M input f r o m the P M P . T h i s m o d e ' i s used to i n c r e a s e the s t r e n g t h of the PRN ranging code r e c e i v e d b y the MSFN. The o t h e r two S-BAND - VOICE s w i t c h e s a r e the T A P E and the TV switches. F o r P M operation, both of t h e s e s w i t c h e s m u s t be a t t h e i r c e n t e r , off position. Setting e i t h e r of t h e m to a n y o t h e r position changes the USBE m o d e to F M f o r i n c r e a s e d band-width and s e l e c t s the FM-1 output of the P M P . Thus, t h e s e f o u r switches (the t h r e e VOICE s w i t c h e s and the EMERG s w i t c h ) are used to e s t a b l i s h the o p e r a t i o n a l mode. Only one switch a t a t i m e m a y be placed to any position o t h e r than c e n t e r f o r p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n of the USBE and PMP. F o r f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n of P M P outputs, r e f e r to the d i s c u s s i o n of the P M P equipment. T h e USBE is activated by the S-BAND- XPONDER/XPONDER P W R A M P L switch. Setting this switch to XPONDER o r XPONDER PWR A M P L e n e r g i z e s a r e l a y that a p p l i e s 115 volts a c to the USBE power supply, which p r o v i d e s t 1 5 volts d c and -15 volts d c outputs to the USBE t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r . The R F output of the USBE t r a n s m i t t e r is fed to the S-band power a m p l i f i e r equipment. H e r e , the s i g n a l is e i t h e r bypassed d i r e c t l y to the S-BAND ANTENNA switch o r amplified and then fed t o the S-BAND ANTENNA switch. 2.8. 3 . 3 . 5 S-Band P o w e r Amplifier Equipment. The S-band power a m p l i f i e r ( P A ) equipment (figure 2 . 8 - 1 9 ) is u s e d to a m p l i f y the R F output f r o m the USBE t r a n s m i t t e r when additional s i g n a l TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.8-50

SMZA-0 3-SCO 1 2

A P O L L O ,OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

----------.--.
S-BAND POWER AMPLIFIER
TO

USBE

: " F
USBE

NOTE. All latching n l a y latch and unlatch coils a n designated 1and U,

115VAC

Fm:

SM-2A-7600

F i g u r e 2.8-19.

S-Band P o w e r A m p l i f i e r Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM M i s s ion B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date page

2.8-51

SM2A-03-SC012 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
_-

SYSTEMS DATA s t r e n g t h is r e q u i r e d f o r adequate r e c e p t i o n of the S-band s i g n a l b y the MSFN. It c o n s i s t s of a diplexer, a traveling-wave tube f o r amplification, p o w e r s u p p l i e s , and the n e c e s s a r y switching r e l a y s and c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y . T h e S-band P A is contained i n a s i n g l e e l e c t r o n i c s package located i n the l o w e r equipment bay. A l l r e c e i v e d and t r a n s m i t t e d S-band s i g n a l s p a s s through the S-band P A d i p l e x e r . T h e 2106.4-mc S-band c a r r i e r r e c e i v e d by the S / C e n t e r s the S-band P A diplexer f r o m the S-band antenna equipment. T h e d i p l e x e r p a s s e s the s i g n a l s t r a i g h t through to t h e USBE receiver. T h e 2287. 5 - m c output s i g n a l f r o m the USBE t r a n s m i t t e r e n t e r s the S-band P A w h e r e it is e i t h e r bypassed d i r e c t l y to the d i p l e x e r and out to the S-band antenna equipm e n t , o r amplified f i r s t a n d then fed to the d i p l e x e r . T h e r e a r e t h r e e power a m p l i f i e r m o d e s of operation: bypass, low power, and high power. Two of the S-BAND s w i t c h e s on MDC-20 a r e used to c o n t r o l the S-band power a m p l i f i e r . Setting the XPONDER/XPONDER PWR A M P L s w i t c h t o the XPONDER P W R A M P L position e n e r g i z e s the USBE power supply and a p p l i e s 3 - p h a s e 115-volt a - c power to the S-band PA through r e l a y K1 i n the c i r c u i t utilization box. T h i s a l s o a c t i v a t e s the 90-second t i m e - d e l a y r e l a y i n the S-band PA. Upon i n i t i a l application of power, only the low-voltage power supply is e n e r g i z e d , which applies power t o the t r a v e l i n g wave tube h e a t e r . A f t e r 90 s e c o n d s , the R F s i g n a l f r o m the USBE t r a n s m i t t e r is switched f r o m the bypass c i r c u i t to the a m p l i f i e r c i r c u i t and 3-phase 115-volt a-c power i s applied t o e i t h e r the low power o r high power s e c t i o n of the high-voltage power supply, which supplies the c o r r e c t o p e r a t i n g v o l t a g e s to the r e m a i n i n g e l e m e n t s of the traveling-wave o tube. Selection of the low power (LOW) r high power (HIGH) mode is c o n t r o l l e d by the S- BAND - PWR A M P L - HIGH/LOW switch. 2.8.3.3.6 C-Band T r a n s p o n d e r Equipment An e a r t h - b a s e d C-band t r a c k i n g a n d ranging s y s t e m is used to provide S / C position d a t a to the MSFN during the launch, n e a r - e a r t h , and e n t r y p h a s e s of the m i s s i o n . The function of the S / C C-band t r a n s p o n d e r equipm e n t ( f i g u r e 2. 8 - 2 0 ) is to effectively extend the r a n g e of the s y s t e m beyond that which would b e p o s s i b l e using skin-tracking techniques only. Upon r e c e p t i o n of a p r o p e r l y coded pulsed i n t e r r o g a t i o n f r o m the e a r t h - b a s e d equipment at 5690 m c , the C-band t r a n s p o n d e r t r a n s m i t s a r e s p o n s e p u l s e to the e a r t h after a 3 - m i c r o s e c o n d delay a t 5765 mc. T h e C-band t r a n s p o n d e r contains f o u r r e c e i v e r s , a t r a n s m i t t e r , a power supply, and a s s o c i a t e d c i r c u i t r y f o r c o m p a r i n g and decoding r e c e i v e d s i g n a l s and switching antennas. T h e r e a r e f o u r C-band antennas, one f o r e a c h r e c e i v e r , l o c a t e d a r o u n d the p e r i m e t e r of the command module. The i n t e r r o g a t i o n m a y be r e c e i v e d by a n y one o r m o r e of the four antennas and routed through c i r c u l a t o r s to the a s s o c i a t e d r e c e i v e r s . If the p u l s e s a r e p r o p e r l y coded the c o m p a r a t o r d e t e r m i n e s which antenna received the s t r o n g e s t s i g n a l and a c t i v a t e s the switch d r i v e r , which d r i v e s the R F

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.8-52

SMZA-03-SCO1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

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SM-2A-724D

F i g u r e 2. 8-20.

C-Band T r a n s p o n d e r Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Mission

B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966

Change Date

page 2 . 8 - 5 4

.

SM2A-03- SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
__-

SYSTEMS DATA switch to the proper antenna position. T h r e e microseconds a f t e r i n t e r r o g a tion, the t r a n s m i t t e r sends a response pulse to the selected antenna. This 3-microsecond delay gives the R F switch time to operate. It a l s o enables MSFN personnel to simultaneously o b s e r v e the transponder reply and the skin t r a c k reply on the s a m e visual display device (cathode r a y tube) f o r comparison. Two modes of operation can be selected: 1 pulse o r 2 pulse. Mode selection will depend on the type of e a r t h - b a s e d r a d a r equipment that is being used a t a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a in the o r b i t a l path. During the launch and ascent phases of the m i s s i o n , the 2-pulse mode will be used. The only external control f o r the C-band transponder equipment is the C-BAND three-position toggle switch on MDC-20. The O F F position removes a - c power f r o m the equipment; the 1 PULSE and 2 PULSE positions apply a - c power to the equipment and s e l e c t the mode of operation. Activation and mode selection can a l s o be commanded f r o m the MSFN by a r e a l time command via the UDL equipment. 2. 8 . 3. 3. 7 VHF Recovery Beacon Equipment. The VHF recovery beacon equipment (figure 2. 8-21) provides a l i n e of-sight direction finding capabilities to aid i n locating the S / C during the recovery phase of the mission. It is located i n the s a m e e l e c t r o n i c s package a s the VHF/AM t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r equipment i n the LEB. The beacon signal emitted i s a n interrupted 243-mc c a r r i e r , modulated by a 1000-cps s q u a r e wave. The signal is transmitted f o r 2 seconds, then interrupted f o r 3 seconds. Manual control of the equipment i s provided by the RECOVERY VHF-BCN, two-position O N / O F F switch on MDC-20.

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The output of the VHF recovery beacon equipment is fed to VHF recovery antenna No. 1, which is deploved automaticallv when the main chutes &e deployed.
I

2. 8. 3. 3. 8

GFE VHF Survival B e a c o n / T r a n s c e i v e r . The VHF b e a c o n / t r a n s c e i v e r is a hand-held G F E i t e m to be used in the recovery phase of the Apollo mission. The unit, plus a n e x t r a battery, i s s t o r e d with the survival equipment. Figure 2.8-22 shows the t h r e e m a j o r p a r t s of the unit, the t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r assembly, the battery pack assembly, and the q u a r t e r wave antenna. The r e c e i v e r - t r a n s m i t t e r a s s e m b l y and battery pack a s s e m b l y m a t e to f o r m a water-tight unit measuring 8 by 4 - 1 / 2 by 3 inches. The antenna i s an 11- 1/2-inch-long tapered flexible s t e e l tape, t e r m i n a t e d i n a coaxial R F connector, and i s normally s t o r e d i n a retaining spool and clip on top of the radio unit. The radio i s capable of line-of-sight operation i n e i t h e r of two modes (beacon o r voice) through use of e i t h e r i t s own antenna o r a suitable connected remote antenna. The t r a n s m i t t e r output is protected against damage while operating due to accidental shorting of the antenna o r submergence of the unit i n s a l t water. In the beacon mode, the t r a n s m i t t e r o p e r a t e s unattended, f o r periods up to 24 hours, to t r a n s m i t a n interrupted 1000-cps tone, amplitude modulated 25 percent on the 243-mc R F c a r r i e r . In the

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission Basic Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.8-55

S M Z A - 0 3 - S C O12

APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
SYSTEMS DATA

VHF RECOVERY ANTENNA No. I

VHF RECOVERY BEACON

OSCILLATOR OUADRUPLER (243 MC)

RF AMPL'S

- - b

b

LO-PASS FILTER

MODULATION AMPL

DRIVER AMPL

POWER AMPL

+
r

A

*

I

I KC UODULAnON

tmmc
POWER

VOLTAGE REGULATOR

1
MULTIVIBRATO

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

A
GROUP 3

RECOVERY VHFBCN ON
0

OFF

6

SM-2A-478A

F i g u r e 2.8-21.

V H F R e c o v e r y Beacon Equipment

TELECOMMUNICATION S Y S T E M
Mission B a s i c Date

l2 NOV 1966 Change Date

Page

2.8-56

SM2A- 0 3 - SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA

,ANTENNA

ANTENNA 51

F i g u r e 2.8-22.

Survival B e a c o n / T r a n s c e i v e r Radio

voice m o d e , the radio provides two-way AM voice communication through u s e of a n i n t e g r a l s p e a k e r - m i c r o p h o n e and PUSH-TO-TALK switch.
2. 8. 3. 4

Antenna Equipment Group. The antenna equipment group contains a l l of the S / C antennas and a n c i l l a r y equipment u s e d i n the T / C s y s t e m . ( S e e f i g u r e s 2 . 8 - 2 3 and 2. 8-24. )

2.8. 3. 4. 1

VHF/2-KMC Omni-Antenna Equipment. The V H F / 2 - k m c omni-antennas and c o r r e s p o n d i n g a n c i l l a r y equipment c o n s i s t s of t y o V H F / 2 - k m c SCIN a n t e n n a s , a VHF m u l t i p l e x e r , a VHF antenna switch, a 2 - k m c antenna switch, and the n e c e s s a r y signal and cont r o l c i r c u i t s . The function of t h i s equipment i s to provide capabilities f o r radiation and pickup of R F s i g n a l s i n the VHF and S-band s p e c t r u m s . The VHF portion of this equipment i s used i n conjunction with the up-data link (UDL) r e c e i v e r , the V H F / F M t r a n s m i t t e r , and the VHF/AM t r a n s m i t t e r r e c e i v e r o n two f r e q u e n c i e s . The 2 - k m c portion of t h i s equipment is used with the USBE. The VHF m u l t i p l e x e r is a p a s s i v e , six-channel, filtering device which e n a b l e s s i x items of V H F t r a n s m i t t i n g o r r e c e i v i n g equipment to utilize one VHF antenna simultaneously. The s i x channel f i l t e r s a r e composed of two o r t h r e e tuned c a v i t i e s , e a c h of which function a s bandpass f i l t e r s . NO power i s r e q u i r e d by the device and t h e r e a r e no e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s .

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date

.
Page 2.8-57

SMZA-0 3 - SCO 12 APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

I

HF RECOVERY ANTENNA (14
NON-SURVIVI NG

Fl)

2-KMC

VIEW

e
VHF RECOVERY ANTENNAS ANTENNA SURVIVING KIN ANTENNA’

0

VHF

VHF/2-KMC SCIN ANTENNAS (2) SURVIVING SCIN ANTENNA

-X

I

+z
NON-SURVIVING

C-MND

VIEW

P/

0

..

C-BAND ANTENNAS (4)

RECOVERY INTERCOM SWIMMER CONNECTOR

-Z

I

F i g u r e 2 . 8-23.

Antenna L o c a t i o n s

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mission B a s i c Date l 2

1966

Change Date

page

2.8-58

SMZA-0 3 -SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK SYSTEMS DATA
VHF RECOVERY ANTENNAS -Z SCIN ANTENNA
21

+Z SCIN ANTENNA

I

HF RECOVERY ANTENNA
I

C-BAND ANTENNAS

No. 2

No. 1

AL

Ah

AL

AL

C-BAND TRANSPONDER

I I

I

I

HF

1

VHF ANTENNA RECOJERY UPPER

I

I I I
I

I I I

BEACON

FUGHT A N D , POST LANDING BUS

r
0

-

E::c 7T
-LOWER

TELECOMMUNATIONS

1 s ;
S-BAND ANTENNA AUTO
UPPER

I XPONDEI

L W AMP R

I

THRESHOLD

I

RECEIVER

I
I I I I

I
VHF MULTIPLEXER TRANSMlllER

I

I
I
1

I I
VH F/AM XMTRAND RCVR 1 (296.8 MC)

t
POWER AMPL

I

NE G:

4 1 controls lomted on 1 M D C - D unless otherwise indicated

I I

I

----VHF/AM RCVR 2 (259.7 MC)
SM-2A-721C

I

I

-

F i g u r e 2 . 8 24.

Antenna R F a n d C o n t r o l C i r c u i t r y

TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM

M i s s ion

B a s i c Date

12 NOV 1966

Change Date

Page

2-8-59

SM2A-0 3 -SCO 12 A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

The VHF/Z-kmc S U N antennas are dual-purpose antennas with approximately h e m i s p h e r i c a l radiation patterns. F i g u r e s 2.8-25 and 2.8-26 show the propagation p a t t e r n s of the VHF-UHF and S-band portions of the antenna, respectively. The word f t S C I N fis a n acronym f o r "SCImitar" and "Notch. I f Because of its c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape, that portion of the antenna used for VHF is called a s c i m i t a r . In the broad end of the s c i m i t a r i s a notch whi