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SID 65-1317

APOLLO
OPERATIONS
HANDBOOK
COMMAND AND
SERVICE MODULE.
SPACECRAFT 012

Prepared Under Direction of


NASA-MSC MISSION OPERATIONS BRANCH
FLIGHT CREW SUPPORT DIVISION

/-

N O R T H A M E R I C A N A V I A T I O N , INC.
SPACE and INFORMATION SYSTEMS DIVISION
* SM2A-03-SC012

APOLLO OPERATIONS H A N D B 0 0 k

COMMAND AND SERVICE MODULE

SPACECRAFT 012

C o n t r a c t NAS9- 1 5 0
E x h i b i t I; P a r a g r a p h 1 0 . 3
tifli.

- DATED I
\ THIS P U B L I C A T I O N S U P E R S E D E S SM2A-O3_SCO12
L 16 S E P T E M B E R 1966.

PREPARED BY NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, INC.


SPACE AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS DIVISION
TRAINING AND SUPPORT DOCUMENTATION
DEPARTMENT 671

A C R E W A B B R E V I A T E D C H E C K L I S T , S M 2 A - 0 3 - S C 0 1 2 / CL, IS
PUBLISHED AS A S E P A R A T E DOCUMENT.

PUBLISHED U N D E R A U T H O R I T Y OF THE N A T I O N A L A E R O N A U T I C S A N D SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

SID 65-1317
* 1
I'

12 NOVEMBER 1966
t
SM2A- 03-SCOlL

A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES NOTE: The portion of the text alfrcted by the current chanRcs i s
indicated by a \enical line an the outer marlins of the page.

TOTAL N U L I B E R O F PAGES I N THIS PUBLICATION IS 816,


CONSISTING O F T H E FOLLOWING:

Page Page

Title 2.8- 1 t h r u 2.8-70


A thru E L. 9 - 1 t h r u 2.9- 38
i thru xii 2. 10-1 t h r u 2. 10-10
1 - 1 t h r u 1-20 2. 1 1 - 1 t h r u 2. 1 1 - 6
2-1 t h r u 2 - 2 3 - 1 t h r u 3-212
2.1- t h r u 2 . 1-10 4 - 1 t h r u 4-50
2.2- t h r u 2. 2-48 5-1 t h r u 5-20
2.3- t h r u 2 . 3-72 6-1 t h r u 6-52
2.4- t h r u 2.4-38 7-1 t h r u 7-2
2.5- t h r u 2 . 5-44 8-1 t h r u 8 - 2
2. 6 - t h r u 2. 6-48 A- 1 t h r u A - 6
2.7- t h r u 2. 7-48

CHANGE INFORMATION

T h i s handbook i s s u b j e c t t o continuous c h a n g e o r r e v i s i o n , on a p r i o r i t y
b a s i s , t o r e f l e c t c u r r e n t e n g i n e e r i n g o r m i s s i o n c h a n g e s , o r to i m p r o v e content
o r a r r a n g e m e n t . The c o n t e n t a n d the c h a n g e s a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e a b o v e
L i s t of Effective P a g e s , a n d b y the following m e a n s :

R e c o r d of P u b l i c a t i o n : The publication d a t e of e a c h b a s i c i s s u e and e a c h c h a n g e


i s s u e is l i s t e d on page B as a r e c o r d of all e d i t i o n s .

P a g e Change D a t e : E a c h page in t h i s handbook h a s s p a c e f o r e n t e r i n g a change


d a t e . T h e l a t e s t publication d a t e w i l l b e e n t e r e d in t h i s s p a c e e a c h t i m e a page
is changed f r o m the b a s i c i s s u e .

*The asterisk indicates pager changed. added. or dclctrd by the current change.

M a n u a l s will be distributed as directed by t h e NASA Apollo Program Office. All requests for
manuals should be directed to t h e NASA Apollo SpacecraH Program Office at Houston, Texas.

A
shl2A - 0 3 - sc 0 1 2
A P O L L O O P E R A T I O N S HANDBOOK

RECORD O F PUBLICATION

T h i s i s s u e of t h e Apollo O p e r a t i o n s Handbook,
S p a c e c r a f t 0 12, d a t e d 12 November 1966, c o n s t i t u t e s
a r e v i s i o n of t h e handbook, d a t e d 16 S e p t e m b e r 1966.
Subsequent c h a n g e s m a y be i s s u e d t o m a i n t a i n i n f o r -
m a t i o n c u r r e n t with s p a c e c r a f t c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h r o u g h
c o m p l e t i o n of t h e m i s s i o n . T h i s r e c o r d will r e f l e c t
the publication d a t e of any r e l e a s e d c h a n g e s .

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page B/C


.
S.M2A -03-SCO 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

LATE TECHNICAL CHANGES

The i t e m s l i s t e d below r e p r e s e n t t e c h n i c a l c h a n g e s which have been a p p r o v e d too


l a t e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e 12 November 1966 p r i n t i n g of t h e Apollo O p e r a t i o n s Handbook.

Source D e s c r i p t i o n of Change Section Affected

MCR Change S / M RCS fuel f r o m blended h y d r a z i n e 2. 5


A1735 m i x t u r e to m o n o m e t h y l h y d r a z i n e

MCR Addition of i n v e r t e r s y n c h r o n i z e r power panel 2,3


1591 which p r o v i d e s c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s f o r t h e c o n t r o l
REV 3 . of power t o t h e p h a s e s y n c h r o n i z e r unit.

FEO T h i s is a n o m e n c l a t u r e c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e 2. 8 a n d 3
M-53025 S - B a n d s w i t c h on t h e MDC p a n e l s No. 13, 2 3
( 10 - 13 -66) a n d 26. T h i s c h a n g e is r e q u i r e d due t o w i r i n g
c h a n g e s . T h e S-Band s w i t c h w a s m a r k e d
" P T T " , "OFF" a n d "VOX". T h e s w i t c h is
now m a r k e d "OFF", "OFF" a n d " T / R " .

MCR Modification of C r e w Couch Lockouts. T h i s


A1733 MCR r e m o v e s t h e lockout s o l e n o i d a c t u a t o r
( 1 0 - 1 1-66) and wire harness f r o m the X - X axis s t r u t
lockout m e c h a n i s m . Add an a d a p t e r t o t h e
lockout m e c h a n i s m a s s e m b l y t o f i x in t h e
locked position. T h e s w i t c h on p a n e l No. 9
a n d t h e w i r e h a r n e s s a s s e m b l y on t h e s t r u t s
will b e r e m o v e d .

Mission B a s i c Date 12 N o v 1966 Change Date Page D


s .\12 A - 0 3 - sc 0 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYNOPSIS O F SIGNIFICANT CHANCES

T h i s tabulation d o e s not l i s t all c h a n g e s , a d d i t i o n s , , a n d / o r d e l e t i o n s i n t h e handhook.


Its p u r p o s e is to a s s i s t the r e a d e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n i c a l c h a n g e s i n e a c h
system.

P A R T I. TECHNICAL CHANGES

Hand book Handbook


Section( s ) S y s t e m (s )
Aff e c t e d Description Aff e c t e d
~~

Updated lockout m e c h a n i s m s on s h o c k s t r u t s . GEN

Updated f o r w a r d h a t c h c o v e r . GEN

R e v i s e d RCSC c i r c u i t d i a g r a m to i n c l u d e e n t r y b a t t e r y SE Q
backup p o w e r to p y r o b u s .

H2 p u r g e l i n e h e a t e r E PS

F u e l cell H2 a n d 0 2 r e a c t a n t shutoff v a l v e s holding EPS


voltage control

C r y o g e n i c s y s t e m r e s p o n s e and o p e r a t i o n E PS

1
L R e v i s e d , u p d a t e d , and a s s e m b l e d e n d - t o - e n d c i r c u i t PROP
and s y s t e m d i a g r a m s . Added e l e c t r i c a l power d i s t r i b -
ution d i a g r a m s and p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s . Added
o p e r a t i n g r a n g e s and p a n e l r e f e r e n c e s to m e a s u r e m e n t
lists.

Added t a b u l a r d a t a f o r c o l o r m a r k i n g s contained on SPS, E P S


i n d i c a t o r d i s p l a y s a n d updated a r t . and ECS

Added t y p i c a l c h a r t s f r o m MMDB t o d e t e r m i n e S / C RCS, S P S


consumable data. and E P S

Added d a t a on S / C a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s , RCS

Updated S P S Delta V a n d E n g i n e G i m b a l Angle c h a r t s . s PS

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page


S M Z A -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O O P E R A T I O N S HANDBOOK
.

*-

FOREWORD

This handbook and its contents a r e r e s t r i c t e d to the r e q u i r e -


m e n t s f o r S p a c e c r a f t 012. It p r e s e n t s , i n o n e d o c u m e n t , d e s c r i p t i o n s
of the s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s and e q u i p m e n t , and l i s t i n g s of t h e flight
c r e w o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s n e c e s s a r y f o r the s a f e and e f f i c i e n t
function of the s p a c e c r a f t throughout its planned m i s s i o n . T h i s
handbook i s d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r u s e by t h e flight c r e w , and
s e c o n d a r i l y f o r u s e by the m i s s i o n flight c o n t r o l l e r s , flight p l a n n e r s ,
and t r a i n e r o p e r a t o r s .

NASA c o m m e n t s o r s u g g e s t e d c h a n g e s to t h i s handbook s h o u l d
be a d d r e s s e d to the F l i g h t Planning Section, FCSD, MSC, Office
Code C F 32, Telephone HU3-4271.
SM2A -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

TABLEOFCONTENTS

Section Title Page

1 GENERAL INFORMATION. 1-1

1.1 S p a c e c r a f t 012 Configuration . 1-1


1.1.1 LES A s s e m b l y . 1-1
1.1.2 Command Module 1-4
1.1.2.1 Forward Compartment . 1-6
1.1.2.2 Crew Compartment . 1-6
1.1.2.3 S / C C o n t r o l s and D i s p l a y s 1-6
1.1.2.4 C / M Mechanical Controls 1-6
1.1.2.5 C r e w E q u i p m e n t and E q u i p m e n t B a y s . 1-12
1.1. 2 . 6 Food and W a t e r . 1-15
1. 1 . 2 . 7 Waste Management . 1-15
1. 1. 2. 8 Su r v iv a1 E q u i p m e n t . 1-15
1.1.2.9 Aft C o m p a r t m e n t 1-15
1. 1 . 3 S e r v i c e Module . 1-16
1. 1 . 4 Spacecraft L E M Adapter . 1-16
1. 1 . 5 Spacecraft Systems . 1-16
1.2 Launch Vehicle Configuration . 1-16
1.2.1 S-1B Booster 1-19
1.2.2 S-IVB Second S t a g e . 1-19
1.3 M i s s i o n 209A Weight Status . 1-19
1.4 P o s t l a n d i n g and R e c o v e r y 1-19

2 SYSTEMSDATA . 2- 1

2.1 Guidance and C o n t r o l . 2.1-1


2.1.1 S y s t e m s I n t e r f a c e , Guidance and C o n t r o l 2.1-1
2.1.2 Coasting Flight . 2.1-1
2. 1 . 3 Powered Flight . 2.1-2
2. 1.4 Atmospheric Flight . 2.1-2
2.2 Guidance and Navigation S y s t e m s ( G & N ) 2.2-1
2.2.1 Introduction . 2.2-1
2.2.2 Functional Description . 2.2-1
2.2.2. 1 Operational Modes . 2.2-7
2.2.3 Major Component/Subsystem Description 2.2-11
2. 2 . 3 . 1 Inertial Subsystem . 2.2-11
2.2.3. 2 Optical Subsystem , 2.2-13
2.2.3.3 C o m p u t e r Sub s y s t e m 2.2-16
2. 2 . 4 P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a 2.2-40
2.2. 5 Ope r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s 2.2-40
2.2. 5.1 S I C Attitude 2.2-40
2.2.5.2 IMU O p e r a t i o n . 2.2-41

...
Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 C h a n g e D a t e Page 111
SMZA-03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section Title Page


-/

2.2.5.3 Optics Operation 2.2-41


2. 2 . 6 Telemetry Measurements . 2 . 2-41
2.2.7 G&N P o w e r Consumption . 2.2-45
2.2.8 Interface Signals 2. 2-46
2.3 S t a b i l i z a t i o n and C o n t r o l S y s t e m (SCS) . 2. 3-1
2.3.1 Introduction 2. 3 - 1
2.3.2 Functional Description . 2.3-3
2.3.2.1 Control Capabilities 2.3-3
2 . 3 . 2. 2 Apollo R e f e r e n c e A x e s . 2.3-7
2. 3 . 2 . 3 Sub s y s t e m s 2.3-8
2.3.3 Flight Control P r o f i l e s . 2.3-42
2.3.3. 1 Ascent . 2.3-44
2.3.3.2 Coasting Flight ( E a r t h Orbital) . 2.3-45
2.3.3.3 Powered Flight ( E a r t h Orbital) . 2.3-48
2. 3. 3 . 4 Entry , 2.3-51
2.3.4 Major Component/Subsystem Description . 2.3-53
2 . 3 . 4. 1 Rate Gyro Assembly 2.3-53
2.3.4. 2 Attitude G y r o A c c e l e r o m e t e r A s s e m b l y 2.3-54
2.3.4.3 P i t c h , Roll, and Yaw E l e c t r o n i c C o n t r o l
Assemblies . 2.3-55
2.3.4.4 Auxiliary Electronic Control Assembly 2.3-56
2.3.4. 5 D i s p l a y and Attitude G y r o A c c e l e r o m e t e r As*sembly
Electronic Control Assembly 2.3-56
2. 3.4.6 Rotation C o n t r o l s 2.3-57
2.3.4.7 Translation Controls 2.3-57
2. 3.4. 8 Flight D i r e c t o r Attitude Indicator . 2.3-61 --
2.3.4.9 Attitude S e t / G i m b a l P o s i t i o n I n d i c a t o r . 2.3-65
2 . 3 . 4 . 10 Velocity C h a n g e I n d i c a t o r 2.3-66
2 . 3 . 4 . 11 Electrical P o w e r Distribution 2.3-67
2.3. 5 P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a 2.3-67
2.3.6 .
O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s 2.3-67
2.3.6. 1 S / C Attitude Change 2.3-67
2.3.7 Telemetry Measurements 2.3-71
2.4 S e r v i c e P r o p u l s i o n S y s t e m (SPS) . 2.4-1
2.4.1 Functional Description . 2.4-1
2.4.2 Major Component/Subsystem Description . 2.4-2
2.4.2. 1 P r e ss u r ization Subsystem 2.4-2
2.4.2. 2 Propellant Subsystem 2.4-6
2.4.2.3 B i p r o p e l l a n t Valve A s s e m b l y . 2.4-7
2.4.2.4 Engine Injector . 2.4-9
2.4.2.5 Ablative C o m b u s t i o n C h a m b e r . 2.4-9
2.4.2.6 Nozzle Extension 2.4-9
2.4.2. 7 Flight Combustion Stability Monitor (FCSM) 2.4-9
2.4.2.8 SPS E l e c t r i c a l H e a t e r s . 2.4-11
2.4.2.9 T h r u s t Mount A s s e m b l i e s 2.4-1 1
2 . 4 . 2 . 10 P r o p e l l a n t Utilization and Gauging S u b s y s t e m (PUGS) . 2.4-18
2.4.3 P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a 2.4-30

Mis s ion Basic Date l2 1966 C h a n g e Date Page iv


SM2A -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section Title Page

2.4.3. 1 Design Data 2.4-30


2.4.3.2 Performance Data . 2.4-33
2.4. 3. 3 P o w e r Consumption Data . 2.4-33
2.4.3.4 .
SPS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n 2.4-35
2.4.4 .
O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s 2.4-35
2.4. 5 Telemetry Measurements 2.4-35
2.5 R e a c t i o n C o n t r o l S y s t e m (RCS) . 2.5-1
2.5.1 Introduction 2. 5 - 1
2. 5 . 2 S / M RCS F u n c t i o n a l D e s c r i p t i o n . 2. 5 - 1
2.5.3 S / M RCS M a j o r C o m p o n e n t / S u b s y s t e m D e s c r i p t i o n . 2.5-4
2. 5 . 3 . 1 P r e s sur i z a t i o n S u b s y s t e m 2.5-7
2.5.3.2 Propellant Subsystem 2. 5 - 8
2.5.3.3 Engine A s s e m b l i e s . 2.5-9
2.5.3.4 P r e s s u r e Versus Temperature Measuring System . 2.5-13
2.5.3.5 Engine Thrusting Logic . 2.5-15
2.5.4 S / M RCS P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a 2. 5 - 1 6
2. 5 . 4 . 1 Design Data 2.5-16
2.5.4.2 Performance Data . 2. 5-18
2.5.4.3 P o w e r C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a S / M RCS and G / M RCS . 2.5-18
2. 5 . 4 . 4 S / M RCS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n 2.5-19
2.5.5 . S / M RCS O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s . 2.5-19
2. 5 . 6 S / M RCS T e l e m e t r y M e a s u r e m e n t s 2.5-19
2.5.7 C / M RCS F u n c t i o n a l D e s c r i p t i o n . 2.5-23
2. 5. 8 C / M RCS M a j o r C o m p o n e n t s / S u b s y s t e m D e s c r i p t i o n . 2.5-24
2. 5. 8. 1 Pressurization Subsystem 2.5-27
2.5.8. 2 Propellant Subsystem 2. 5 - 2 8
2.5.8.3 Engine Assembly 2.5-30
2 . 5. 8 . 4 Propellant Jettison . 2.5-34
2.5.9 C / M RCS P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a . 2.5-39
2. 5.9. 1 Design Data 2.5-39
2. 5 . 9 . 2 Performance Data . 2.5-41
2. 5 . 9 . 3 Power Consumption Data . 2.5-41
2.5.10 C / M RCS O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s . 2.5-41
2 . 5. 10. 1 C / M RCS E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n 2.5-41
2.5.11 C / M RCS T e l e m e t r y M e a s u r e m e n t s . 2.5-41
2.6 E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r S y s t e m (EPS) . 2.6- 1
2.6. 1 Introduction 2.6-1
2.6.2 Functional Description . 2.6-1
2.6.2.1 Energy Storage . 2.6-1
2.6.2. 2 P o w e r Generation . 2.6-2
2.6.2.3 Power Conversion . 2. 6 - 2
2.6.2.4 P o w e r Distribution . 2.6-2
2.6.3 Majo r Component / S u b s y s t e m De s c r iption . 2.6-5
2 . 6. 3. 1 Cryogenic Storage . 2.6-5
2. 6. 3. 2 Batteries . 2.6-6
2 . 6 . 3. 3 F u e l C e l l P o w e r Plants . 2.6-12
2.6.3.4 Inverters . 2.6-17

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page


SM2A-03-SCO 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOk

Section Title Page


--
2.6.3.5 Battery Charger . 2.6-22
2.6. 3.6 P o w e r Distribution . 2.6-25
2.6.4 P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a . 2.6-30
2 . 6 . 4. 1 AC and DC D a t a . 2.6-30
2.6.4.2 Power Requirements . 2.6-3.4
2.6. 5 O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s 2.6-36
2 . 6 . 5. 1 Fuel Cell Power Plants . ,2.6-36
2. 6. 5. 2 Cryogenic Storage Subsystem . 2.6-38
2.6.6 Telemetry Measurements 2.6-39
2.7 Environmental Control System (ECS) . 2.7-1
2.7.1 In t r od uc t 1on 2.7-1
2.7. 2 Functional Description . 2.7-2
2.7.3 M a j o r Component/ S u b s y s t e m De s c r i p t i o n 2.7-3
2.7.3.1 Oxygen Supply S u b s y s t e m 2.7-3
2.7.3. 2 P r e s s u r e Suit C i r c u i t S u b s y s t e m . 2.7-7
2.7.3.3 C a b i n P r e s s u r e and T e m p e r a t u r e C o n t r o l S u b s y s t e m . 2.7-13
2. 7. 3 . 4 Water-Glycol Coolant Subsystem . 2.7-17
2.7.3. 5 W a t e r Supply S u b s y s t e m 2.7-24
2.7.3.6 ECS- W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e m I n t e r f a c e 2.7-26
2.7.3.7 Electrical Power Distribution . 2.7-28
2.7.4 P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a 2.7-31
2.7.4.1 Metabolic Data . 2.7-31
2.7.4.2 Oxygen Supply S u b s y s t e m 2.7-31
2.7.4.3 P r e s s u r e Suit C i r c u i t S u b s y s t e m . 2.7-32
2.7.4.4 C a b i n P r e s s u r e and T e m p e r a t u r e C o n t r o l
Subsystem . 2.7-32 -.-
2.7.4.5 Water-Glycol Coolant Subsystem . 2.7-32
2.7.4.6 W a t e r Supply S u b s y s t e m . 2.7-33
2.7.4.7 Waste Management System . 2.7-33
2.7.4.8 ECS Power Consumption Data . 2.7-33
2.7.5 O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s 2.7-38
2.7.5.1 E C S Caution P l a c a r d s 2.7-38
2. 7. 5 . 2 ECS Caution Notes . 2.7-38
2.7. 5.3 E C S General Data 2.7-39
2.7. 5.4 Cabin D e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n R a t e s . 2.7-39
2 . 7 . 5. 5 Cabin Repressurization R a t e s . 2.7-39
2.7.6 T e 1em e t r y iM e a s u r e m e n t s 2.7-44
2.8 Telecommunication System . 2.8-1
2.8. 1 Introduction 2.8-1
2.8.2 Functional Description . 2.8-2
2.8.2. 1 Voice C o m m u n i c a t i o n s . 2.8-2
2.8.2. 2 Data Operations 2.8-6
2.8.2.3 T r a c k i n g and Ranging 2.8-10
2 . 8. 2. 4 Unified S - B a n d O p e r a t i o n s 2.8-12
2.8.3 M a jo r Component / S u b s y s t e m De sc r ipt ion 2.8-13
2.8.3. 1 Instrumentation Equipment Group . 2.8-14
2 . 8 . 3. 2 Voice and D a t a E q u i p m e n t G r o u p . 2.8-17

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 C h a n g e Date Page vi


SM2A -03-SCO 1 2
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Section Title Page

2.8.3. 3 R F Electronics Equipment Group . 2.8-42


2.8.3.4 Antenna E q u i p m e n t Group . 2.8-57
2.8.3. 5 Electrical P o w e r Distribution . 2. 8-62
2.8.4 P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a 2.8-62
2.8.5 O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s 2.8-b7
2 . 8 . 5. 1 Antennas 2.8-67
2 . 8 . 5. 2 Data S t o r a g e E q u i p m e n t . 2. S-67
2 . 8. 5. 3 Unified S-Band S y s t e m . 2.8-08
2.8.5.4 General 2.8-68
2. 8. 6 Telemetry Measurements 2.8-69
2.9 Sequential S y s t e m s . 2.9-1
2.9.1 Introduction 2.9-1
2.9. 2 Functional Description . 2.9-1
2 . 9 . 2. 1 Sequential E v e n t s C o n t r o l S y s t e m (SECS) 2.9-1
2.9.2.2 E m e r g e n c y Detection System . 2.9-4
2. 9 . 2 . 3 Launch Escape System . 2.9-10
2.9. 2 . 4 E a r t h Landing S y s t e m . 2.9-11
2.9. 3 Major Component/Subsystem Description 2.7-14
2.9.3.1 Sequential Events Control System . 2.9-14
2 . 9 . 3. 2 E m e r g e n c y Detection S y s t e m . 2.9-24
2.9.3. 3 Launch E s c a p e System . 9 . 2.9-32
2.9.3.4 E a r t h Landing S u b s y s t e m . 2.9-33
2.9.4 P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a 2.9-33
2 . 9 . 4. 1 Power Requirements 2.9-35
2.9.5 O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s 2.9-35
2.9.6 Telemetry Measurements 2.9-36
2.10 Caution and W a r n i n g S y s t e m (C&WS) . 2.10-1
2.10.1 Introduction . 2.10-1
2.10.2 Functional Description . 2.10-1
2. 1 0 . 3 Major Component/ Subsystem Description 2. 1 0 - 3
2 . 10.3. 1 Electrical Power Distribution . 2.10-3
2. 10.4 P e r f o r m a n c e and D e s i g n D a t a . 2. 1 0 - 3
2. 10.4. 1 C&WS P o w e r C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a . 2. 1 0 - 3
2.10.5 O p e r a t i o n a l L i m i t a t i o n s and R e s t r i c t i o n s 2.10-3
2 . 10.5. 1 C&WS G e n e r a l D a t a . 2.10-3
2.10.6 Telemetry Measurements . 2.10-10
2.11 M i s c e l l a n e o u s S y s t e m s Data . 2.11-1
2.11.1 Introduction 2.11-1
2.11.2 Clocks 2.11-1
2.11.3 Digital E v e n t T i m e r s . 2.11-1
2. 1 1 . 4 Accelerometer (G-Meter) . 2.11-1
2. 11. 5 C o m m a n d Module I n t e r i o r - L i g h t i n g 2.11-1
2.11.5.1 Functional Description . 2.11-2
2. 1 1 . 6 C o m m a n d Module Uprighting System . 2.11-2
2. 1 1 . 6 . 1 Functional Description . 2.11-2

3 CONTROLS AND DISPLAYS . 3-1

3.1 C o n t r o l s / D i s p l a y s L o c a t o r Index . 3-3

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page vii


SM2A-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section Title Page


.I-

4 PERFORMANCE 4- 1

Introduction . 4- 1
4.1 C r e w D i s p l a y I n s t r u m e n t M a r k i n g s and A c c u r a c y
Data 4- 1
4.1.1 Service Propulsion System Indicators . 4- 3
4.1.2 Reaction Control System Indicators 4-4
4.1.3 Electrical Power System Indicators . 4- 5
4. 1.4 Environmental Control System Indicators . 4-11
4.1.5 Telecommunication System M e t e r s . 4 - 13
4. 1 . 6 Sequential S y s t e m s Indicators 4-15
4.1.7 Miscellaneous Indicators . 4-16
4.2 Consumable Requirements 4-18
4.2.1 S / M RCS P r o p e l l a n t C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a 4-18
4.2.2 C / M RCS P r o p e l l a n t C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a 4-25
4. 2 . 3 SPS P r o p e l l a n t C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a . 4-27
4.2.4 EPS and ECS C o n s u m p t i o n D a t a . 4-30
4.3 RCS and SPS T h r u s t i n g D a t a . 4-34
4.3.1 RCS T r a n s l a t i o n C o n t r o l .. 4-34
4.3.2 RCS Rotation C o n t r o l 4-34
4.3.3 SPS E n g i n e T h r u s t P e r f o r m a n c e . 4-39
4.4 S / C O p e r a t i o n a l C o n s t r a i n t s and L i m i t a t i o n s 4-39
4.4.1 Operational Constraints . 4-39
4.4.2 Operational Limitations . 4-43

5 E X P E R I M E N T S AND SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT DATA 5-1 -

Introduction 5- 1
5.1 Scientific Equipment . 5- 1
5.1.1 M e d i c a l D a t a Acquisition S y s t e m (MDAS) 5- 1
5.1.2 E l e c t r i c a l C a b l e s and A d a p t e r s . 5- 1
5.1.2.1 Octopus Cable . 5-5
5.1.2.2 Cobra Cable T-Adapter . 5-5
5. 1. 2.3 PGA and CWG E l e c t r i c a l A d a p t e r C a b l e s 5-7
5. 1 . 2 . 4 H a r d w a r e P o w e r and Signal C a b l e s 5-7
5.2 M e d i c a1 E x p e r i m e n t s 5-7
5.2.1 I n - F l i g h t E x e r c i s e r ( M - 3 A ) (M003) . 5-7
5 . 2 . 1. 1 Equipment Description . 5-7
5.2.1.2 Experiment Procedures . 5-9
5.2.1.3 Crewman Participation . 5- 10
5.2.1.4 Recovery Requirements . 5- 10
5.2.2 I n - F l i g h t P h o n o c a r d i o g r a m ( M - 4 A ) (M004) . 5-10
5.2. 2. 1 Equipment Description . 5- 10
5.2.2.2 Experiment Procedures . 5-11
5.2.2.3 Crewman Participation . 5-1 1
5.2. 2 . 4 Recovery Requirements . 5-11
5.2.3 Bone D e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ( M - 6 A ) (M006) . 5-11

Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page viii


~

-
S M 2 A - 0 3 SC 0 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section Title Page

5.2.3. 1 Equipment Description . 5-11


5 . 2 . 3. 2 Experiment Procedures . 5-11
5.2.3.3 Crewman Participation . 5-12
5 . 2. 3. 4 Recovery Requirements . 5-12
5. 2 . 4 Human Otolith F u n c t i o n ( V e s t i b u l a r E f f e c t s )
(M-9A) (M009) . 5- 12
5. 2 . 4 . 1 Equipment Description . 5- 12
5.2.4. 2 Experiment P r o c e d u r e s . 5-12
5. 2 . 4 . 3 Crewman Participation . 5-13
5.2.4.4 Recovery Requirements . 5-13
5.2.5 Cytogenetic Blood S t u d i e s ( M - 1 1 ) ( M o l l ) . 5-13
5 . 2 . 5. 1 Equipment Description . 5-13
5 . 2 . 5. 2 Equipment P r o c e d u r e s . 5-13
5 . 2 . 5. 3 Crewman Participation . 5-14
5 . 2 . 5. 4 Re cove r y O p e r a t i o n s 5-14
5.2. 6 C a r d i o v a s c u l a r Reflex Conditioning ( M - 4 8 ) (M048) . 5-14
5. 2 . 6 . 1 Equipment Description . 5-14
5.2.6. 2 Experiment P r o c e d u r e s . 5-15
5. 2. 6. 3 Crewman Participation . 5-15
5.2.6.4 Recovery Requirements . 5-15
5.3 Scientific E x p e r i m e n t s . 5-16
5.3.1 Synoptic T e r r a i n P h o t o g r a p h (S-5A) (S005) . 5-16
5.3.1.1 Equipment Description . 5-16
5.3.1.2 Experiment Procedures . 5-16
5.3.1.3 Crewman Participation . 5-16
5.3.1.4 Recovery Requirements . 5-17
5.3.2 Synoptic W e a t h e r P h o t o g r a p h y (S-6A) (S006) . 5-17
5.3. 2. 1 Equipment Description . 5-17
5.3.2.2 Experiment Procedures . 5-17
5.3.2.3 Crewman Participation . 5-17
5.3.2.4 Recovery Requirements . 5-17
5.4 Technical Experiments . 5-18
5.4.1 .
In- F l i g h t N e p h e l o m e t e r ( T - 3 ) ( T 0 0 3 ) 5-18
5.4.1.1 Equipment Description . 5-18
5.4.1.2 Experiment Procedures . 5-18
5.4. 1 . 3 Crewman Participation . 5-18
5.4. 1.4 Recovery Requirements . 5-19

6 C R E W PERSONAL EQUIPMENT . 6- 1

Introduction 6- 1
6.1 C r e w C o m p a r t m e n t Configuration and C r e w
Environment 6-1
6. 2 Mirrors 6-2
6.2. 1 I n t e r n a l Viewing M i r r o r s ( C F E ) . 6-2
6. 2. 2 E x t e r n a l Viewing M i r r o r s ( C F E ) . 6-3
6.3 C r e w m a n O p t i c a l A l i g n m e n t Sight (COAS) . 6-4
6.3. 1 Operational Use 6-5

~~

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page ix


S M Z A - 0 3 - sc 0 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
.
-

Section Title Page


.._.
-
6.4 S p a c e Suit A s s e m b l y ( G F P ) . 6-6
6.4. 1 S p a c e Suit Off o r S h i r t s l e e v e E n v i r o n m e n t . 6-6
6 . 4 . 1. 1 Constant Wear Garment . 6-6
6 . 4 . 1. 2 Flight Coveralls 6-6
6 . 4 . 1. 3 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Soft H a t . 6-7
6.4. 1 . 4 Constant Wear G a r m e n t Electrical Adapter . 6-8
6.4. 1.5 E l e c t r i c a l U m b i l i c a l "Sleep" A d a p t e r . 6-9
6.4.2 S p a c e Suit On E n v i r o n m e n t . 6-9
6.4.2. 1 PGA U n p r e s s u r i z e d o r Ventilated . 6-9
6.4.2.2 PGA P r e s s u r i z e d 6-9
6.4.3 PGA D e s c r i p t i o n 6-9
6.4.3.1 PGA Components 6-9
6.5 PGA Stowage 6-12
6.5.1 T o r s o and Glove Stowage . 6-12
6.5.2 H e l m e t Stowage . 6-12
6. 6 PGA Connecting E q u i p m e n t . 6-13
6.6. 1 P r e s s u r e Garment Assembly (PGA) Electrical
Adapter ( G F P ) . 6-13
6.6. 2 Oxygen H o s e ( U m b i l i c a l ) ( G F P ) . 6-13
6.7 C r e w Couches . 6-13
6.7. 1 C r e w Couch S t r u c t u r e 6-14
6. 7. 2 C r e w Couch P o s i t i o n s 6-15
6.7.2. 1 Occupied P o s i t i o n s . 6-15
6.7.2.2 Unoccupied P o sit i o n s 6-16
6.7. 3 C r e w Couch Component D e s c r i p t i o n . 6-17
6.7.3. 1 Headrest . 6-17
6.7.3.2 B a ck r e st 6-18
6. 7.3.3 Armrests . 6-18
6.7.3.4 S e a t P a n and F o o t r e s t 6-18
6.7.3.5 C r e w Couch P a d s 6-19
6.7.4 Mechanical Adjustments . 6-19
6.7.4. 1 Headrest Adjustments 6-19
6.7.4.2 A r m r e s t Adjustments 6-19
6.7.4. 3 Seat P a n Adjustment Directions . 6-21
6. 7 . 4 . 4 F o o t r e s t and F o o t s t r a p A d j u s t m e n t s . 6-22
6.7.4. 5 D-Ring Handle E x t e n s i o n 6-22
6. 7 . 4 . 6 Docking P o s i t i o n A d j u s t m e n t . 6-22
6. 7 . 4 . 7 Shoulder S t r a p Adjustment . 6-23
6.8 Crewman Restraints 6-23
6.8. 1 High G-Load R e s t r a i n t s . 6-23
6 . 8 . 1. 1 Crewman Restraint Harness . 6-23
6.8. 1 . 2 Weightless Restraint 6-24
6.8. 1.3 Guidance and Navigation Station R e s t r a i n t . 6-25
6.8. 1.4 C r e w m a n Sleeping R e s t r a i n t s . 6-26
6.9 F l i g h t Data F i l e ( G F P ) . 6-27
6.9. 1 C o m m a n d e r ' s F l i g h t D a t a File 6-28
6.9. 2 Senior P i l o t ' s Flight Data F i l e 6-28
6.9.3 P i l o t ' s F l i g h t D a t a File . 6-29

M i s s ion B a s i c Date ' l2 1966 C h a n g e Date Page X


Sh12A-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

~~

Section Title Pagc

6. 10 C r e w m a n I n - F l i g h t Tool S e t and Workshelf ( G F B ) . 6-30


6. 10. 1 T o r q u e Wrench ( T o o l A) . 6-31
6. 10. 2 A d a p t e r Handle ( T o o l E) . 6-31
6. 10.3 10-Inch D r i v e r ( T o o l H) . 6-3 1
6.10.4 4-Inch D r i v e r ( T o o l L ) . 6-31
6.10. 5 E m e r g e n c y Wrench ( T o o l B) . 6-31
6 . 10.6 T-Handle (Tool C ) . 6-32
6. 10.7 End Wrench ( T o o l F) ( 2 ) . 6-32
6. 10.8 5/32-Inch Short Driver (Tool J) . 6-32
6 . 10.9 4-Inch T o r q u e S e t D r i v e r ( T o o l R ) . 5-32
6 . 10. 10 I n - F l i g h t Tool Set T e t h e r 6-32
6. 10. 11 D-Ring E x t e n s i o n Handle ( T o o l N ) . 6-32
6.10.12 Operational Use 6-32
6. 10. 13 Stowage 6-32
6 . 1 0 . 13. 1 I n - F l i g h t Tool Set Stowage P o u c h and Tool S e t
Drawer 6-35
6 . 1 0 . 13. 2 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Stowage . 6-35
6. 10. 14 W o rkshelf A s s e m b l y 6-35
6. 10. 14. 1 Usage . 6-36
6. 11 Drinking W a t e r S u b s y s t e m 6-37
6. 12 Food . 6-38
6 . 12. 1 Use 6-38
6. 12. 2 Stowage 6-38
6. 12. 2 . 1 L E B F o o d Stowage C o m p a r t m e n t . 6-38
6. 1 2 . 2 . 2 RHEB A u x i l i a r y Food C o m p a r t m e n t D r a w e r 6-39
6. 12.2.3 L H E B F o o d Stowage C o m p a r t m e n t 6-39
6. 13 P e r s o n a l Hygiene ( G F P ) . 6-39
6. 13. 1 C l e a n s i n g of T e e t h - O r a l Hygiene A s s e m b l y . 6-39
6 .13. 2 Wet C l e a n s i n g Cloth . 6-40
6. 1 3 . 3 D r y Cleaning C l o t h . 6-40
6. 1 3 . 4 Towels 6-41
6 . 13. 5 Tissue Dispensers . 6-41
6. 14 M e d i c a l Supplies ( G F P ) . 6-41
6.14.1 Monitoring E q u i p m e n t 6-41
6. 14. 1. 1 C l i n i c a l P h y s i o l o g i c a l Monitoring I n s t r u m e n t S c t . 6-41
6. 14. 1 . 2 Personal Biomedical Sensors Instrument Assembly , 6-42
6. 14. 1 . 3 Biomedical P r e a m p l i f i e r Instrument Assembly . 6-42
6. 1 4 . 1 . 4 B i o i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n A c c e s s o r i e s Kit . 6-42
6. 14. 1. 5 P e r s o n a l Radiation Do s i m e t e r s 6 -43
6. 1 4 . 2 M e d i c a l Kit ( G F P ) . 6 -43
6. 14. 2.1 Packaging . 6 -44
6. 1 4 . 2 . 2 Stowage 6-44
6 . 14. 2. 3 M e d i c a l Kit Additional U s a g e . 6-44
6.15 S u r v i v a l Kit ( G F P ) . 6-44
6. 15. 1 Stowage 6-44
6. 1 5 . 2 .
S u r v i v a l Kit C o n t a i n e r O p e r a t i o n 6-46
6. 1 5 . 3 .
C o n t e n t s of t h e S u r v i v a l K i t s 6-46

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page xi


SM.! -4- 0 3 - S C 0 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Section Title Page


--
6.15.4 D e s c r i p t i o n and U s e of S u r v i v a l Kit Components . 6-47
6. 15.4. 1 L i f e r aft s 6-47
6. 1 5 . 4 . 2 Beacon/Transceiver . 6-47
6. 15.4. 3 Survival Lights ( 2 ) . 6-48
6. 1 5 . 4 . 4 Survival G l a s s e s ( 3 ) . 6-48
6. 15.4. 5 Survival Knives ( 2 ) . 6-49
6. 1 5 . 4 . 6 Water Cans ( 3 ) . 6-49
6. 15.4. 7 .
D e s a l t i n g K i t s ( 2 ) Plus T a b l e t s ( 1 6 ) 6-49
6. 1 5 . 4 . 8 E m e r g e n c y M e d i c a l S u r v i v a l Kit . 6-49
6. 1 5 . 5 Sea Water Pump (CFE) . 6-49
6 . 16 Stowage 6-50

7 SYSTEM SCHEMATICS . 7- 1

__
Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 C h a n g e Date Page xii
SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
t

GENERAL INFORMATION

SECTION 1

GENERAL INFORMATION

INTRODUCTION.

This s e c t i o n contains i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the Xpollo s p a c e c r a f t 012


configuration, and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the launch v e h i c l e and b o o s t e r u s e d f o r
the m i s s i o n .

1.1 SPACE C RA F T 0 12 CONFIGURA TION.

S p a c e c r a f t 012 ( f i g u r e 1 - 1 ) c o n f o r m s to a Block I CSM configuration


c o n s i s t i n g of a launch e s c a p e s y s t e m ( L E S ) a s s e m b l y , c o m m a n d m o d u l e
( C / M ) , s e r v i c e module ( S / M ) , a n d the s p a c e c r a f t l u n a r e x c u r s i o n module
a d a p t e r (SLA). T h i s s p a c e c r a f t , designed f o r a n e a r t h o r b i t a l m i s s i o n ,
d o e s not contain a l u n a r m o d u l e ( L M ) within i t s a d a p t e r . ( F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n
of the launch vehicle u s e d with s p a c e c r a f t 012, r e f e r to p a r a g r a p h 1 . 2 )

NOTE T h e Block I configuration m i s s i o n s f o r the Apollo


p r o g r a m provide the following:

0 C o m m a n d m o d u l e and s e r v i c e m o d u l e development f o r
e a r t h orbital missions

0 D e m o n s t r a t i o n of s y s t e m s o p e r a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s
including a l l types of a b o r t s , land a n d w a t e r r e c o v e r y ,
S a t u r n IB and S a t u r n V o p e r a t i o n and c a p a b i l i t y , and
s y s t e m s operation during e a r t h o r b i t

0 Development of qualified t e a m s f o r checkout, launch,


m a n n e d s p a c e flight n e t w o r k ( M S F N ) , r e c o v e r y , a n d
flight a n a l y s i s .

1.1.1 LES ASSEMBLY.

T h e LES a s s e m b l y ( f i g u r e 1-1) p r o v i d e s t h e m e a n s f o r s e p a r a t i n g the


C / M f r o m the launch v e h i c l e d u r i n g pad o r s u b o r b i t a l a b o r t s . T h i s a s s e m b l y
c o n s i s t s of a Q - b a l l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a s s e m b l y ( n o s e c o n e ) , b a l l a s t c o m -
p a r t m e n t , c a n a r d s u r f a c e s , pitch c o n t r o l m o t o r , t o w e r j e t t i s o n m o t o r ,
launch e s c a p e m o t o r , a s t r u c t u r a l s k i r t , a n o p e n - f r a m e t o w e r , and a b o o s t
p r o t e c t i v e c o v e r ( B P C ) . T h e s t r u c t u r a l s k i r t a t the b a s e of the housing,
which e n c l o s e s the r o c k e t m o t o r s , is s e c u r e d to the u p p e r portion of the t o w e r .

S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION

M i s s ion B a s i c Date l 2 N o v 1966 Change Date Page 1-1


SMZA -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL INFORMATION

--.-
Q-BALL (NOSE CONE)
PITCH CONTROL MOTOR

JETTISON MOTOR

LAUNCH ESCAPE MOTOR

STRUCTURAL SKIRT

LAUNCH ESCAPE TOWER

TOWER ATTACHMENT (4)

C O W N O MODULE

C/M TO S/M FAIRING

SERVICE MODULE

EPS RADIATOR
ECS RADIATOR

SPACECRAFT LEM
ADAPTER (SLA)- S f 5 ENGINE EXPANSION NOZZLE

S I A PANEL JUNCTION
(BETWEEN FWD AND A f l
PANELS)

5-IVB INSTRUMENT UNIT


( S H W N AS REFERENCE)

F i g u r e 1-1. S p a c e c r a f t 012 Configuration (Sheet 1 of 2)

S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 1-2


s1M2L1-03-sc012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL INFORMATION

XI = 138 WO

x1 = 11s 300

XA - 1133 503
x c = 131 503

xA
-- 1083 176
83 476

AS<

C M-S M SEPARAl1ON PLANE

. S/M

1
XA
X,
-
APOLLO I C RtFtRfNCt STAIIUNI
= L f S REFfRENCf SlAllONS

XI -
Xc = C/M IEFfRENCE SlAllONS
S/M IEFCRENCE SlAlIONS

NOTE
A U A l I M PMlEIIAL DlMfNSlONI
ARE NOT INCLUDED ON C/M

= 583 3w

= M2.m
SM-21-70711

F i g u r e 1-1. S p a c e c r a f t 0 1 2 Configuration ( S h e e t 2 of 2 )

S P A C E C R A F T 0 1 2 CONFIGURATION
Mission B a s i c D a t e ' 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 1-3
-~- -

SMZA -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL INFORiMATION

T h e B P C ( f i g u r e 1 - 2 ) i s a t t a c h e d to the l o w e r end of t h e t o w e r t o p r o t e c t the


_..-
C / M f r o m t h e r m a l h e a t d u r i n g b o o s t a n d f r o m e x h a u s t d a m a g e by the
l a u n c h e s c a p e and t o w e r j e t t i s o n m o t o r s . E x p l o s i v e n u t s , one in e a c h
t o w e r w e l l l e g , s e c u r e the t o w e r to the C / M s t r u c t u r e . ( F o r additional
i n f o r m a t i o n , r e f e r to t h e s e q u e n t i a l s y s t e m s in s e c t i o n 2 . )

1.1.2 COMMAND MODULE.

T h e C / M ( f i g u r e 1 - 3 ) f o r m s t h e s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l c e n t e r , contains
n e c e s s a r y a u t o m a t i c a n d m a n u a l e q u i p m e n t to c o n t r o l a n d m o n i t o r t h e
s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s , a n d c o n t a i n s t h e r e q u i r e d e q u i p m e n t f o r s a f e t y and
c o n f o r m of the c r e w . T h e module i s a n i r r e g u l a r - s h a p e d , p r i m a r y
s t r u c t u r e e n c o m p a s s e d by t h r e e h e a t s h i e l d s ( c o a t e d with a b l a t i v e m a t e r i a l
a n d j o i n e d o r f a s t e n e d to t h e p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r e ) f o r m i n g a c o n i c a l - e x t e r i o r
s h a p e . T h e C / M c o n s i s t s of a f o r w a r d c o m p a r t m e n t , a c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t ,
and an aft compartment.

t-I

H O N E Y C O M B CORED-IAMINATED
FIBERGLASS PANEL

0 3" THICK CORK ABLATOR

TRANSITION R I N G

C/M HEAT SHIELD ABLATOR


FIBERGLASS R I N G
(HARD C O N S T R U C T I O N )
TEFL0 N IMPREGNATED
G I A S SC LOT H
RCS PITCH MOTOR PORTS

SILICONE SPONGE SEAL

- Xc14
RCS ROLL MOTOR P O R T S
M O T O R PORTS
RCS PITCH M O T O R PORTS SM-24-1031

F i g u r e 1-2. Boost Protective Cover

S P A C E C R A F T 0 1 2 CONFIGURATION

M i s s ion B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 1-4


-
SM2A 0 3 -SC 0 1 2
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL INFORMATION

BREAKOUT PLUG
(FOR APEX COVER
r PILOT PARACHUTE)
LAUNCH ESCAPE TOWER
FORWARD HEAT SHIELD ATTACHMENT (TYPICAL)
(APW COVER)
NEGATIVE PITCH
OPTICAL SIGHTING ENGINES
PORTS 1
FWD VIEW1 N G
(RENDEZVOUS)
WINDOWS
CREW

POSITIVE PITCH

AFT HEAT SHIELD

\ I
SIDE W I N D OW \ I ^.. ..... .- ^... UMBI LI;AL'
(TYPICAL 2 PLACES)'
u nATCnW""UW
ROLL ENGINES
(TYPICAL)

NOTE:
CENTER COUCH REMOVED FOR CLARITY. SM-2A-642F

Figure 1- 3. S p a c e c r a f t 0 12 Command Module

S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION
1-5
Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page
SMZA-03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

G E N E R A L INFORMATION

1.1.2. 1 Forward Compartment.

The f o r w a r d c o m p a r t m e n t ( f i g u r e 1 - 3 ) i s the a r e a o u t s i d e the f o r w a r d


a c c e s s tunnel, f o r w a r d of the c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t f o r w a r d bulkhead and i s
c o v e r e d b y the f o r w a r d h e a t s h i e l d . F o u r 9 0 - d e g r e e s e g m e n t s around the
p e r i m e t e r of the tunnel contain the r e c o v e r y equipment, two negative-pitch
r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m e n g i n e s , and the f o r w a r d h e a t shield r e l e a s e
m e c h a n i s m . Most of the equipment in the f o r w a r d c o m p a r t m e n t c o n s i s t s
of e a r t h landing ( r e c o v e r y ) s y s t e m components.

The f o r w a r d h e a t s h i e l d , o r a p e x c o v e r , i s m a d e of b r a z e d s t a i n l e s s -
s t e e l honeycomb and c o v e r e d with ablative m a t e r i a l . It contains four
r e c e s s e d fittings which p e r m i t the launch e s c a p e t o w e r to be attached to the
C / M i n n e r s t r u c t u r e . Jettison t h r u s t e r s s e p a r a t e the a p e s c o v e r f r o m the
C / M a f t e r e n t r y o r a f t e r the launch e s c a p e a s s e m b l y i s s e p a r a t e d during
a n a b o r t . ( F o r additional i n f o r m a t i o n , r e f e r to the sequential s y s t e m s in
s e c t i o n 2. )

1.1.2.2 Crew Compartment.

T h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t o r i n n e r s t r u c t u r e ( f i g u r e - 1-3) i s a s e a l e d
cabin with p r e s s u r i z a t i o n maintained by the e n v i r o n m e n t a l control s y s t e m
( E C S ) . The c o m p a r t m e n t , p r o t e c t e d by a heat shield, contains c o n t r o l s and
d i s p l a y s f o r o p e r a t i o n of the s p a c e c r a f t and s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s ; contains
m e c h a n i c a l a d j u s t m e n t s f o r the c r e w c o u c h e s , r e s t r a i n t h a r n e s s a s s e m -
b l i e s , hatch c o v e r s , window s h a d e s , e t c . ; and i s provided with c r e w
equipment, food and w a t e r , w a s t e m a n a g e m e n t p r o v i s i o n s , s u r v i v a l equip-
m e n t , and scientific e x p e r i m e n t s equipment. A c c e s s h a t c h e s , o b s e r v a t i o n
windows, and equipment b a y s a r e attached a s p a r t of t h e c o m p a r t m e n t s t r u c t u r e .

The c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t h e a t s h i e l d , l i k e the a p e x c o v e r , i s m a d e of
b r a z e d s t a i n l e s s - s t e e l honeycomb and c o v e r e d with ablative m a t e r i a l . T h i s
h e a t shield, o r o u t e r s t r u c t u r e , contains the S / C umbilical connector o u t l e t ,
ablative plugs, and a c o p p e r h e a t sink f o r the o p t i c a l sighting p o r t s in the
l o w e r equipment bay, two s i d e o b s e r v a t i o n windows, two f o r w a r d viewing
windows, and t h e o u t e r c o v e r f o r t h e side a c c e s s hatch which a l s o contains
a n o b s e r v a t i o n window.

1. 1 . 2 . 3 S / C C o n t r o l s and Displays.

Information r e l a t i n g t o c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s f o r o p e r a t i o n of the


s p a c e c r a f t and i t s s y s t e m s i s provided in s e c t i o n 3 .

1.1.2.4 C / M Mechanical Controls.

Mechanical c o n t r o l s ( f i g u r e 1 - 4 ) a r e provided in the c r e w c o m p a r t -


m e n t f o r m a n u a l o p e r a t i o n of the c r e w couch a s s e m b l y , s i d e a c c e s s hatch
c o v e r s , f o r w a r d a c c e s s hatch c o v e r , and m a n u a l o v e r r i d e l e v e r s f o r the

S P A C E C R A F T 0 1 2 CONFIGURATION

Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 1-6


S M 2 A - 0 3 -SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL INFORMATION

CONTROL
VIEW0
ECS CABIN AIR
PRESSURE CONTROLS

RELIEF VALVE A N D /
LINKAGE (2 PLA$ES)
VIEW @
X-X AlTENUATION STRUT
LOCKOUT MECHANISM
(4 PLACES) VIEW 0
Y-Y ATlENUATlON
ATTENUATION STRUT (2 PLACES 1
/ STRUT

COUCH
,BEARING
CORE

W N W L RELEASE
NYLON HOOK
FASTENER
TAPE GRIP
YNW
5 M- 24-75 X

F i g u r e 1-4. C / M M e c h a n i c a l C o n t r o l s ( S h e e t 1 of 3 )

S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION

'-
Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page 1-7
SM2A -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL INFORMATION

INNER WINDOW

SEALED DWVE
SHAFT (BOTH SIDES)

RACKDRIVE &4R

LATCH (6 PLACES)

CREW ACCESS HATCH


(LOOKING INBOARD)
PUSH-PIPE PLUNGER
(INTERNAL RELWE FO
B o o s HATCH COVER)

OUTER WINDOW
LATCH DRIVE SHAFT
(OUTER DRIVE COVERED BY
ABLATIVE PLUG)

BOOST HATCH COVER

EXTERNAL

LATCH DRIVE ROO

noosi HATCH
COVER WINDOW

(TYPICAL)
OUTER MATCH COVER
EMERGENCY EXTERNAL RELEASE
(VIEW ROTATED 180 DEG)
SM-ZA-753C
F i g u r e 1-4. C / M Mechanical C o n t r o l s ( S h e e t 2 of 3 )

S P A C E C R A F T 011: CONFIGURATION

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page 1-8


S M L A - 0 3 - S C O 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL I N F O R M A T I O N

FORWARD ACCESS HATCH COVER


EPS RECEPTACLE
(AFT SIDE OF MAIN
DISPLAY CONSOLE)

CONNECTOR
RACHET WRENCH

AIR OUTLET VALVE


(CLOSED POSITION)

CAUTION DECAL
LOCK PIN

OUTBOARD VIEW
0 POSTLANDING VENTILATION SYSTEM (PLV)
@ FORWARD ACCESS HATCH
LOCK1 NC MECHANI SM
ACCESS HATCH FWD ACCESS
BREECH-LOCK HATCH COVER

IR I N L n P O R T

CROSS-SECTION VIEW

LANYARD (TO AFT iKAM


MTIEMIN ON LEFT
AND CENTER COUCH)

SM-ZA-856A

F i g u r e 1-4. C / M M e c h a n i c a l C o n t r o l s ( S h e e t 3 of 3)

SPACECRAFT 012 CONFIGURATION

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page 1-9


SIM2A - 0 3 - SC 0 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

G E N E RA L I N F 0R h4A T IO N

s o c k e t a t one end) i s mounted on t h e c o v e r and will b e a r a g a i n s t a b r a c k e t


on t h e tunnel w a l l . When t u r n e d by a h a n d c r a n k o r t o r q u e w r e n c h with a
5 / 3 2 - i n c h d r i v e . the j a c k s c r e w will intend and allow the c o v e r to be r o t a t e d
a n d r e m o v e d . T h e c o v e r i s r o t a t e d by u s e of the i n s i d e handholds o r the
o u t s i d e by an i t e m of GSE a n d c a n only be r e t r i e v e d f r o m within the c r e w
c o m p a r t m e n t end of the tunnel.
1.1.2.4.5 Windows and S h a d e s .
FiL-e windows a r e p r o v i d e d through the i n n e r s t r u c t u r e and h e a t shield
of the C / M : two f o r w a r d viewing, two s i d e o b s e r v a t i o n , and the c r e w a c c e s s
h a t c h windows. ( S e e f i g u r e 1 - 3 . ) D u r i n g o r b i t a l flight, p h o t o g r a p h s of
e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s will b e t a k e n t h r o u g h the viewing a n d o b s e r v a t i o n windows.
T h e i n n e r windows ( i n c l u d i n g t h e c i r c u l a r i n n e r h a t c h window) a r e m a d e of
t e m p e r e d s i l i c a g l a s s with 0. 2 5 - i n c h - t h i c k double p a n e s , s e p a r a t e d by 0 . 1
inch of s p a c e , and have a softening t e m p e r a t u r e point of 2 0 0 0 ° F . The o u t e r
windows ( i n c l u d i n g the s q u a r e o u t e r hatch window) a r e m a d e of a m o r p h o u s
f u s e d s i l i c o n with a s i n g l e 0. 7 - i n c h - t h i c k pane. E a c h pane c o n t a i n s a n
a n t i r e f l e c t i n g c o a t i n g on the e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e , and h a s b l u e - r e d r e f l e c t i v e
coating on the i n n e r s u r f a c e f o r f i l t e r i n g out m o s t i n f r a r e d a n d a l l u l t r a v i o l e t
r a y s , a softening t e m p e r a t u r e point of 2 8 0 0 " F , a n d a m e l t i n g point of 31 1 0 ° F .

S h a d e s a r e provided f o r c o n t r o l l i n g e x t e r n a l light e n t e r i n g the C / M


through the t r i a n g u l a r f o r w a r d viewing windows, the s q u a r e s i d e o b s e r v a t i o n
windows, and the c i r c u l a r i n n e r h a t c h window. T h e s e s h a d e s , individually
d e s i g n e d f o r e a c h window c o n f i g u r a t i o n , a r e m a d e of m y l a r f i l m which h a s
b e e n h e a t - t r e a t e d to r o l l up when not held flat. T h e s h a d e s a r e opaque f o r
z e r o light t r a n s m i t t a l , have a n o n r e f l e c t i v e i n n e r a l u m i n i z e d s u r f a c e , two
snap f a s t e n e r s and fabric handles for attaching o r removing f r o m a partic-
u l a r window, and a 3 / 4 - i n c h s t r i p of V e l c r o hook m a t e r i a l a r o u n d the o u t e r
s u r f a c e f o r holding the s h a d e a g a i n s t the V e l c r o pile a r o u n d the p e r i m e t e r of
t h e window. If d e s i r e d , a s h a d e c a n be p e e l e d back f r o m t h e V e l c r o pile
m a t e r i a l and stowed in p l a c e on one s i d e of !he window.

1. 1. 2 . 4 . 6 Cabin P r e s s u r e C o n t r o l s .

Two c o n t r o l l e v e r s f o r m a n u a l l y o p e r a t i n g the ECS c a b i n p r e s s u r e


r e l i e f v a l v e s a r e l o c a t e d n e a r t h e C / M left couch a n d left s i d e window. ( S e e
f i g u r e 1 - 4 . ) T h e s e l e v e r s a r e p r o v i d e d a s a m e c h a n i c a l o v e r r i d e f o r open-
ing a n d c l o s i n g t h e redundant s i d e s of the a u t o m a t i c c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r .
(For additional i n f o r m a t i o n , r e f e r to the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l s y s t e m in
section 2 . )

1.1,2.5 C r e w Equipment and Equipment B a y s .

Each c r e w m e m b e r h a s personal and a c c e s s o r y equipment provided for


h i s u s e in t h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t . M a j o r i t e m s of p e r s o n a l e q u i p m e n t con-
s i s t of a p r e s s u r e g a r m e n t a s s e m b l y ( P G A ) with a t t a c h i n g h o s e and
umbilical, a communications a s s e m b l y , a constant-wear garment, bio-
m e d i c a l s e n s o r s , a n d r a d i a t i o n d o s i m e t e r s . lMajor i t e m s of a c c e s s o r y
e q u i p m e n t s h a r e d by t h e c r e w c o n s i s t of a n in-flight tool s e t and a m e d i c a l
k i t . ( F o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t of c r e w e q u i p m e n t , r e f e r to s e c t i o n 6 . ) ( S p e c i f i c
i t e m s c o n t a i n e d in the C / M e q u i p m e n t and s t o r a g e b a y s a r e l i s t e d i n f i g u r e 1 - 6 . )
S P A C E C R A F T 012 CONFIGURATION

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page 1-12


I (inner corer)
I I
-
FORWARD REFERENCE VIEW -
1
LEFT-HAND FORWARD EQUIPMENT BAY (LHFEB) AND LEFf,
-~ ~

IS C l a k ON
2 16 G&N loo
17 hxtont o
3
4
18 C m atla
19 Clothing
5
20 lruttiol n
6
7 21 1.h c n -
B 22 Oxyq8n 4
23 Wial
9
IO
11 24 Side rhoc
25 Spncewit
12 26 ECS voIv8
13 27 ECS w c y g
+X

2 28 Sigml m n d i t w n i n g .quipent
s p c w i t S~OWOQ* bop ond scientific . q u i p e n ( itorqe (,,I
3 Ga chronotopmph
29 VHF m r l t i p l u e r
4 Flight qwlifisotim t o p n c o d r
30 Dot0 wiring

5 Scientific q u i p ” m m p m n m t A
31 P r d v l o t i m OIOC-I
32 VHF n c o r e t y &con ond VHF-AM t m r u n i t t e m c e i r e r
6 Display/otiitde gyrrroccda-eter (EU)
33 Audio ceniar
7 Food itoras. (5 containen)
34 Centml timing
8 A W t h gyro ond o c a l e m - m t e r
35 TV optics rtom~e(ref)
9 b t . gym
36 h l u - c d e m o d u l o t i o n ( K M ) unit 2 telanetr, q u i p e n t
IO C W p l i n g ond d i i p k y pnl
37 VHF-FM Imrunittar ond HF tmrrrceivar
1I Sr p i l o t w i t mnnector p n c l ond clectricol e ~ n ~ c t (no
or 38 h l w - c d a mdulaticm (PCM) unit I l e l m e t y quip.nt
I2 Cabin air m c i r w l o t i m b n (reo
13
14
IMU M t m l p w l
Liphting contml
39
40 S-bod
41
-.I
Scientific q u i p e n t e w o p r r m o n t C

C-bondtmnpad.r
onplifier

15 F O I W O ~o c w hatch c w e r (nf)
16 P a t l o d i n g ECS air outlet duct 42 C@ ob.orb.r mntoiwr (mf)
43 Food and rort table (in-flight tDol set)
17 P a l l o n d i n g ECS m a r mbla
U Digitol up-ho link
18 Fo-d OCC.L( hatch (nf)
45 Unifid $-bond e q u i m n t
19 Sox~ontb l a c o p eyepieca s t o w
20 Sextont ond t e l a c o p -1 46 Fecal coniiter b i t i d )
21 Computer display and control pml 47 Scientific q u i p n e n t mmporrmmt 8
22 G 6 N control panal IMU
48 &I1 c h o m l ED,
23 S u n i v o l p m r i i i o n (nf) 49 Dolo p c L o g * conloiner lolm m wtbood couch h a )
24 C l i n i c o l monitoring inst-mi wt comportment
50 G I N c a p u t e r
25 P a r sono ollmbly ( P U ) 51 Pitch chonn.1 ED,
52 Auxilioy E D ,
?6 Doto s t o w q u i p e n t
Yaw channel E t *
27 Towel stomg.
RIGHT-HAND FORWARD EQUIPMNT BAY (RHFEB) ANDRIGHT-HANDt

1 C@ obs0rb.r conbiwr (n9


2 W a l e mampnnsnt sn1.m

' 41
42
43
C-bondtmnpwd.r
CQ oborbr c m t o i n r (ref)
F d o d w o k toble (in-flight tml u t )
U Dipitol up-doto lint
45 Unified S - b d q u i p e n t
46 Fecal coniiter h i t i d )
47 Scirntific e q u i m n t m m p O m m t B .
4E bll c h o m l t U
49 h t o pockog. COntoinr (01.0 m w t k d couh h a )
50 GhNcmputer
51 Pitch chonnel E C *
52 Aurilioy E a
9 Yor3PmeI E
U
I

-
Missi
SMZA-03-SC012 3
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
1
I
. k

G E N E F A L INFORMATION
4

,\
'\\

'SENT BAY (RHFEBI AND RIGHT-HANDEPIJIPMENT BAY (RHEB)

I7
I8
I9
20
ZI
21
21
24
25
26
Z?
n
29

F i g u r e 1-6. C / M E q u i p m e n t and S t o w a g e B a y s I
1
I
S P A C E C R A F T 0 1 2 CONFIGURATION

Miss ion Basic D a t e l 2 1966 Change D a t e page 1-13/1-14


SMZA -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1.2.6 F o o d and W a t e r .

Food and w a t e r p r o v i s i o n s , including w a t e r d e l i v e r y a n d food p r e p a r a -


t i o n e q u i p m e n t , a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t LHEB a n d L E B
( f i g u r e 1 - 6 ) f o r t h e length of t h e m i s s i o n . Food m a y b e p r e p a r e d
by adding w a t e r t o p l a s t i c b a g s containing the d e h y d r a t e d food a n d kneading
t h e m i x t u r e . P r e p a r e d food c a n be s q u e e z e d d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e mouth of a n
a s t r o n a u t . Hot o r cold w a t e r is a v a i l a b l e at t h e p o t a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y p a n e l
f o r food r e c o n s t i t u t i o n . Chilled d r i n k i n g w a t e r is supplied t o t h e c r e w t h r o u g h
a f l e x i b l e h o s e f r o m t h e w a t e r d e l i v e r y unit. T h e potable w a t e r is a
b y - p r o d u c t of t h e E P S f u e l c e l l s .

1. 1 . 2 . 7 W a s t e Management.

Waste m a n a g e m e n t p r o v i s i o n s i n the c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t R H F E B and


AESB ( f i g u r e 1 - 6 ) c o n s i s t of e q u i p m e n t f o r c o l l e c t i n g , s t e r i l i z i n g , a n d
s t o r i n g h u m a n f e c a l m a t t e r a n d p e r s o n a l hygiene w a s t e s ( s u c h a s u s e d
c l e a n s i n g p a d s , t o w e l s , e t c . ). F e c a l m a t t e r a n d p e r s o n a l hygiene w a s t e s
a r e c o l l e c t e d i n polyethylene b a g s , d i s i n f e c t e d , a n d s t o r e d i n a vented a r e a .
U r i n e i s e x p e l l e d o v e r b o a r d into s p a c e .

1.1.2.8 S u r viva1 E q u i p m e n t .

The s u r v i v a l k i t s stowed i n t h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t R H F E B ( f i g u r e 1 - 6 )
a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the postlanding p h a s e of the m i s s i o n ( l a n d o r w a t e r ) . The
m a j o r i t e m s contained i n e a c h kit include 6 pounds of w a t e r , a d e s a l t e r k i t ,
a o n e - m a n life r a f t , r a d i o t r a n s c e i v e r , p o r t a b l e l i g h t , s u n g l a s s e s , and a
m a c h e t e . Life v e s t s w o r n by the c r e w d u r i n g lift-off a n d e n t r y a r e stowed
i n t h e s p a c e s u i t stowage bag d u r i n g the o r b i t p h a s e of the m i s s i o n . (See
figure 1-6. )

1. 1 . 2 . 9 Aft C o m p a r t m e n t .

T h e a f t c o m p a r t m e n t ( f i g u r e 1 - 3 ) is t h e a r e a e n c o m p a s s e d by the aft
p o r t i o n of t h e c r e w c o m p a r t m e n t h e a t s h i e l d , a f t h e a t s h i e l d , and aft p o r t i o n
of t h e p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r e . T h i s c o m p a r t m e n t c o n t a i n s 10 r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l
e n g i n e s , a n i m p a c t a t t e n u a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , and s t o r a g e t a n k s
f o r w a t e r , f u e l , o x i d i z e r , a n d g a s e o u s h e l i u m . ( F o u r c r u s h a b l e r i b s , along
the S / C +Z a x i s , a r e provided a s p a r t of the i m p a c t a t t e n u a t i o n s t r u c t u r e t o
a b s o r b e n e r g y during a l a n d i m p a c t . )

The aft h e a t s h i e l d , which e n c l o s e s the l a r g e e n d of the C / M , i s a


s h a l l o w s p h e r i c a l l y c o n t o u r e d a s s e m b l y . It i s m a d e of the s a m e type of
m a t e r i a l s as other C / M heat shields. However, the ablative m a t e r i a l on
t h i s h e a t s h i e l d h a s a g r e a t e r t h i c k n e s s f o r t h e d i s s i p a t i o n of h e a t d u r i n g
e n t r y . E x t e r n a l p r o v i s i o n s a r e m a d e o n t h i s h e a t s h i e l d f o r connecting the
C / M t o the S / M .

~~

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GENERAL INFORMATION

1. 1. 3 SERVICE MODULE

The S / M is a c y l i n d r i c a l s t r u c t u r e f o r m e d by 1 - i n c h - t h i c k a l u m i n u m
honeycomb p a n e l s . R a d i a l b e a m s , f r o m m i l l e d a l u m i n u m a l l o y p l a t e s ,
s e p a r a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e i n t e r i o r i n t o s i x unequal s e c t o r s a r o u n d a c i r c u l a r
c e n t e r s e c t i o n . (See f i g u r e 1 - 7. ) Equipment contained within the s e r v i c e
module i s a c c e s s i b l e t h r o u g h m a i n t e n a n c e d o o r s l o c a t e d s t r a t e g i c a l l y a r o u n d
t h e e x t e r i o r s u r f a c e of the m o d u l e . Specific i t e m s , s u c h a s flight c o n t r o l
s y s t e m (SPS a n d RCS) a n d m o s t of t h e S / C o n - b o a r d c o n s u m a b l e s ( a n d
s t o r a g e t a n k s ) c o n t a i n e d i n the S / M c o m p a r t m e n t s , a r e l i s t e d i n f i g u r e 1 - 7 .

R a d i a l b e a m t r u s s e s on the f o r w a r d p o r t i o n of the S / M s t r u c t u r e
( f i g u r e 1 - 7 ) provide a m e a n s f o r s e c u r i n g the C / M t o the S / M . A l t e r n a t e
b e a m s , o n e , t h r e e , and f i v e , have c o m p r e s s i o n pads f o r s u p p o r t i n g the C I M .
B e a m s two, f o u r , a n d s i x , have s h e a r - c o m p r e s s i o n p a d s , and t e n s i o n t i e s ,
A flat c e n t e r s e c t i o n i n e a c h t e n s i o n t i e i n c o r p o r a t e s redundant e x p l o s i v e
c h a r g e s f o r S / M - C / M separation. These b e a m s and separation devices a r e
e n c l o s e d within a f a i r i n g ( 2 6 i n c h e s high a n d 1 3 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r ) b e t w e e n the
C / M and S/M.

1.1.4 S P A C E C R A F T L E M ADAPTER.

The s p a c e c r a f t LEM a d a p t e r ( S L A ) i s a t r u n c a t e d c o n e which c o n n e c t s


the CSM t o the S-IVB i n s t r u m e n t unit o n t h e l a u n c h v e h i c l e , (See f i g u r e 1 - 1 . )
T h i s a d a p t e r , c o n s t r u c t e d of e i g h t 2 - i n c h - t h i c k aluminum p a n e l s , is 154 inclies
i n d i a m e t e r a t the f o r w a r d end ( C / M i n t e r f a c e ) a n d 260 i n c h e s a t the a f t e n d .
S e p a r a t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t f r o m the S L A is a c c o m p l i s h e d by m e a n s of
e x p l o s i v e c h a r g e s which p e r m i t the f o u r SLA f o r w a r d p a n e l s (above
s t a t i o n 583, 3 ) . t o d i s e n g a g e f r o m the CSM a n d r o t a t e o u t w a r d 45 d e g r e e s f r o m
v e r t i c a l . The f o u r aft p a n e l s r e m a i n a t t a c h e d t o the S-IVB i n s t r u m e n t unit.
F o r m i s s i o n 2 0 4 A , a c r o s s - s h a p e d s t i f f e n e r is i n s t a l l e d within the S L A in
p l a c e of a LEM. The S / M SPS n o z z l e e x t e n d s into the SLX which a l s o h o u s e s
a n u m b i l i c a l c a b l e f o r connecting c i r c u i t s between the launch vehicle and t h e
s pace c r a f t .

1. 1 . 5 S P A C E C R A F T SYSTEMS.

Data r e l a t i n g t o the o p e r a t i o n a l s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s a n d i n t e r f a c e
i n f o r m a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 2 of t h i s handbook.

1.2 L-4 UN CH VEHIC LE C OKFIGURX T ION.

-4 tnro-stage S a t u r n I B launch v e h i c l e , c o n s i s t i n g of a n S-IB b o o s t e r and


a n S-IVB s e c o n d s t a g e , i s s c h e d u l e d to p r o v i d e the r e q u i r e d t h r u s t f o r
i n s e r t i n g S I C 012 into o r b i t ( f i g u r e 1 - 8 . ) A n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n unit, l o c a t e d
between the S-IVB a n d t h e SLA, c o n t r o l s e a c h of the two boost s t a g e s d u r i n g
flight. T h e t o t a l length oi t h e S a t u r n IB launch v e h i c l e , including the s p a c e -
c r a f t , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 2 4 f e e t . .An e m e r g e n c y d e t e c t i o n s y s t e m s e q u e n c e r
d i s p l a y p a n e l , in the C / h l , e n a b l e s the c r e w to m o n i t o r l a u n c h v e h i c l e engine
p e r f o r m a n c e d u r i n g lift-off. ( R e f e r to t h e s e q u e n t i a l s y s t e m s in s e c t i o n 2 . )

Mission
S P A C E C R A F T 0 12 CONFIGURATION-LAUNCH

B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date


VEHICLE CONFIGURATION

Page
.
1-16
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GENERAL INFORMATION

IDIZER T A N K

ECS SPACE

ECS SPACE RADIATOR

EPS SPACE RADIATOR

SECTOR 4
(SKIN PARTIALLY REMOVED
F O R CLARITY)

C / M r e c t o n (top view)

SPS ENGINE
EXPANSION N O Z Z L E
/ 1 and 4 are 50-degree secton
2 and 5 ore 70dagree recton
3 and 6 am &)-degree secton

SERVICE M O D U L E ITEMS
Sector 1
Sector 5
E l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m space radiator Environmental control system space radiator
S u p e r - c r i t i c a l o x y g e n t a n k (two) S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m oxidizer tank
S u p e r - c r i t i c a l h y d r o g e n t a n k (two) Reaction control s y s t e m package ( - Y axis)

Sector 2 Sector 6
Environmental control system space radiator S p a c e r a d i a t o r s e l e c t i o n v a l v e , (two)
S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m oxidizer tank G l y c o l s h u t o f f v a l v e s (two)
Reaction control s y s t e m package (+Y-axis) Reaction control system package (-Z axis)
S p a c e r a d i a t o r i s o l a t i o n v a l v e (two) S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m fuel tank

Sector 3
Center section
S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m fuel tank S e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m h e l i u m t a n k (two)
Reaction control system package ( t Z - a x i s ) S e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m engine
S e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m h e l i u m t a n k s (two)

Sector 4
E l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m s p a c e radiator
Fuel cell power plant ( t h r e e )
Helium s e r v i c i n g panel
Reaction control s y s t e m control unit
E l e c t r i c a l p o w e r s y s t e m power c o n t r o l r e l a y box
S e r v i c e m o d u l e j e t t i s o n c o n t r o l b a t t e r y (two)
S e r v i c e m o d u l e J e t t i s o n c o n t r o l l e r s e q u e n c e r (two)
Water supply tank (two)
SM-2A-643 E

t
Figure 1 - 7 . Spacecraft 012 Service Module

S P A C E C R A F T 0 12 CONFIGURATION

Mission B a s i c Date,12 1966 Change Date Page '-I7


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-..-
G E N E R A L INFORMATION

SICILEM
/ADAPTER
INSTRUMENT

-
/
UNIT
i
S- IVB
STAGE
I

/ S - l STAGE

F i g u r e 1-8. Apollo L a u n c h Vehicle ( S a t u r n IB)

LAUNCH V E H I C L E CONFIGURATION
1-18
hli s s ion B a s i c Date 12 1966 Change Date Page
SiM2A - 0 3 -SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

)1

GENERAL INFOFGVIATION

1.2.1 S-IB BOOSTER.

T h e S - I B b o o s t e r ( f i r s t s t a g e ) f o r S a t u r n IB i s m a n u f a c t u r e d by the
C h r y s l e r C o r p o r a t i o n . T h i s b o o s t e r i s 2 5 7 i n c h e s in d i a m a t e r , 82 f e e t in
length, a n d i s powered by e i g h t Rocketdyne H- 1 engines. E a c h engine,
burning R P - 1 a n d liquid oxygen, p r o d u c e s 200,0 0 0 pounds of t h r u s t f o r a
t o t a l s t a g e t h r u s t o v e r 1, 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 pounds.

1.2.2 S-IVB SECOND STAGE.

T h e S-IVB s e c o n d s t a g e f o r S a t u r n IB is m a n u f a c t u r e d by t h e Douglas
A i r c r a f t Company. T h i s s t a g e is 260 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r , 58 f e e t i n l e n g t h ,
a n d i s powered by a s i n g l e Rocketdyne 5 - 2 engine. T h e e n g i n e , b u r n i n g
liquid h y d r o g e n and oxygen, p r o d u c e s a s t a g e t h r u s t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y
200, 000 pounds, D u r i n g flight, the J - 2 engine u s e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t m i x t u r e
r a t i o s , r e s u l t i n g i n v a l u e s of t h r u s t r a n g i n g f r o m 190, 000 to 2 3 0 , 0 0 0 pounds.

1.3 MISSION 204A WEIGHT STATUS.

NOTE T h e NASA-MSC is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r providing a


d e t a i l e d weight s t a t u s f o r Apollo m i s s i o n 2 0 4 A a s
a v a i l a b l e i n the iMSC R e f e r e n c e T r a j e c t o r y Document.

1.4 POSTLANDING AND RECOVERY,

I n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o postlanding r e c o v e r y a i d s is p r o v i d e d u n d e r
s e q u e n t i a l s y s t e m s in s e c t i o n 2 . P o s t l a n d i n g ventilation f o r the c r e w i s
supplied through two vent v a l v e s i n the f o r w a r d a c c e s s h a t c h c o v e r . ( S e e
f i g u r e 1 - 4 . ) A handpump and flexible h o s e , s t o r e d u n d e r the r i g h t c r e w
couch ( f i g u r e 1-6), i s u s e d to o b t a i n w a t e r f r o m the s e a f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o
potable w a t e r . ( R e f e r to c r e w e q u i p m e n t i n s e c t i o n 6 . ) An Apollo R e c o v e r y
O p e r a t i o n s Handbook w i l l p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of r e c o v e r y equip-
m e n t and r e s c u e p r o c e d u r e s .

L-AUNCH VEHICLE CONFIGUEW TION --hlISSION 2 04A WEIGHT STATUS -


POSTLANDING AND RECOVERY
M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 1 - 1 9 / 1 - 2 0
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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS D-AT-4

SECTION 2

SYSTEMS D.4TA

INTRODUCTION.

S y s t e m s d a t a include d e s c r i p t i o n of o p e r a t i o n s , component d e s c r i p -
tion and d e s i g n d a t a , o p e r a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s , and t e l e m e t r y
m e a s u r e m e n t s . Subsection 2 . 1 d e s c r i b e s the o v e r a l l s p a c e c r a f t navigation,
g u i d a n c e , and c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t s and the r e s u l t a n t s y s t e m s i n t e r f a c e .
S u b s e c t i o n s 2. Z t h r o u g h 2. 1 0 p r e s e n t data grouped by s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s ,
a r r a n g e d in t h e following o r d e r : guidance and navigation, s t a b i l i z a t i o n a n d
c o n t r o l , s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n , r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l , e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r , eniriron-
m e n t a l c o n t r o l , t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , s e q u e n t i a l , and c a u t i o n s a n d w a r n i n g s .
Subsection 2. 1 1 d e a l s with m i s c e l l a n e o u s s y s t e m s d a t a .

M i s s ion
B a s i c Date l 2 Nov l q 6 6 Change D a t e pale 2 - 1 1 2 - 2
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v
SYSTEMS D.4T-4

SECTION 2

SUBSECTION 2 . 1

GUID.4NCE .4ND CONTROL

2.1.1 SYSTEMS INTERFACE. GUIDANCE -4ND CONTROL.

Apollo CSM a t m o s p h e r i c and s p a c e flight i s a c h i e v e d by a p p l i c a t i o n of


c o n t r o l l e d t r a n s l a t i o n f o r c e s a n d r o t a t i o n a l f o r c e m o m e n t s . Guidance and
c o n t r o l i n i t i a t e s and t e r m i n a t e s the t h r u s t a n d r o t a t i o n a l f o r c e s and f o r c e
m o m e n t s a s a function of the m a g n i t u d e of the change r e q u i r e d . Guidance
a n d c o n t r o l p r o v i d e s t h e following b a s i c functions:

Attitude C o n t r o l
Guidance
Navigation

Attitude c o n t r o l i s a function a s s o c i a t e d with s p a c e c r a f t o r i e n t a t i o n


with r e s p e c t t o a n i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e o r a known c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m .
G u i d a n c e i s a function r e q u i r i n g a combination of a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l with r a t e
s t a b i l i z a t i o n and s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s f o r the p u r p o s e of modifying s p a c e -
c r a f t t r a j e c t o r y via m a j o r v e l o c i t y c h a n g e s . Navigation d e t e r m i n e s
s p a c e c r a f t position a n d v e l o c i t y , and p r e d i c t s f u t u r e position.

T o a c c o m p l i s h m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e guidance and navigation,


s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l , s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n , and r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m s ,
p l u s the a s t r o n a u t s , a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a n a u t o m a t i c / m a n u a l c l o s e d loop
control system.

G u i d a n c e and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t y i s grouped into t h r e e p r o f i l e s of flight:


c o a s t i n g , p o w e r e d , and a t m o s p h e r i c . T h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l l o o p s involved
a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e s 2. 1-1 t h r o u g h 2 . 1 - 4 . F i g u r e 2. 1 - 1 i s an
a b b r e v i a t e d i n t e g r a t i o n of all m a j o r e q u i p m e n t s n e c e s s a r y to a c c o m p l i s h
t h e a c t i v i t i e s in a l l t h r e e flight p r o f i l e s . F i g u r e s 2. 1 - 2 t h r o u g h 2. 1 - 4
divide t h e e q u i p m e n t i n t o the p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e f o r e a c h p r o f i l e .

It m u s t be noted that i n f i g u r e 2. 1 - 1 , the loops a r e c l o s e d t h a t


r e p r e s e n t c o a s t i n g flight ( C F ) functions. F o r powered flight ( P F ) o r
a t m o s p h e r i c flight ( A F ) , open t h e c o a s t i n g flight loops and c l o s e c o n t a c t s
r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d e s i r e d loops.

2 . 1.7 COASTING FLIGHT

T h e guidance and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s involved in c o a s t i n g flight a r e


a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e b a s i c functional l o o p s shown in f i g u r e 2 . 1 - 2 .

GUIDANCE -4ND CONTROL

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page 2*1-1


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SYSTEMS DATA

T h e s e l o o p s p r o v i d e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e , a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , a t t i t u d e hold, and
a u t o m a t i c and m a n u a l m a n e u v e r c a p a b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y to a c c o m p l i s h the
s e v e r a l t a s k s involved d u r i n g c o a s t i n g flight. They a r e a l s o the c e n t r a l
r e f e r e n c e and c o n t r o l l o o p s r e q u i r e d for a l l p h a s e s of flight.

A r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e f r a m e i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e G & N i n e r t i a l m e a s -
u r e m e n t unit (IMU), a n d / o r by the SCS body-mounted a t t i t u d e g y r o s
( B M A G s ) , a n d a t t i t u d e g y r o coupling unit (AGCU). I n e r t i a l s e n s o r s s e n s e
S I C m o t i o n c o n t r a r y to t h e r e f e r e n c e f r a m e . T h e s e n s e d a t t i t u d e e r r o r s
a n d r a t e s a r e conditioned t h r o u g h s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s and logic to i n i t i a t e
c o u n t e r m o t i o n s v i a t h e r e a c t i o n j e t c o n t r o l (RCS) which nullifies the o r i g i n a l
motion. T h e 4 G C i n s e r t s a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l a n d m a n e u v e r c o m m a n d s into
t h e loop. T h e r o t a t i o n , t r a n s l a t i o n , and a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e c o n t r o l s i n s e r t
m a n u a l c o m m a n d s into the loop. T h e flight d i r e c t o r attitude i n d i c a t o r
(FDAI) i s the S / C attitude visual display.

2.1. 3 POWERED FLIGHT.

P o w e r e d flight i s c o n s i d e r e d that which will u s e the S / M s e r v i c e


p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m ( S P S ) engine to i n i t i a t e a m a j o r v e l o c i t y change.
F i g u r e 2 . 1 - 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h o s e b a s i c loops n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t a s k s invol\,ed.
-4s shown, the loops a r e a n e x t e n s i o n of t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r c o a s t i n g flight.
Added, a r e t h e ( S P S ) engine on-off t h r u s t l o g i c a n d the SPS g i m b a l c o n t r o l
l o o p s . In c o a s t i n g flight, a l l a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is t h r o u g h the RCS. P o w e r e d
flight, by t h e S P S engine, r e q u i r e s r o l l c o n t r o l through the RCS, a n d pitch
a n d yaw c o n t r o l by g i m b a l i n g t h e SPS engine n o z z l e . P r i m a r y c o n t r o l of
t h r u s t i n g i s by t h e -4GC. However, f i g u r e 2. 1 - 3 s h o w s how v a r i o u s manual
c o n t r o l s c a n be u s e d i n s t e a d of o r t o backup a u t o m a t i c functions.

2.1.4 -4T MOSPHE RI C FLIGHT

A t m o s p h e r i c flight i s e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e e n t r y p h a s e of the
m i s s i o n a t which t i m e the S / C e x p e r i e n c e s a e r o d y n a m i c f o r c e s .
F i g u r e 2 . 1 - 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e b a s i c loops r e q u i r e d f o r c o n t r o l of the S / C
d u r i n g t h i s p h a s e . T h e c e n t r a l loop i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t in f i g u r e 2. 1 - 2 .
T h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t s e r v i c e m o d u l e / c o m m a n d module ( S / M - C / M )
s e p a r a t i o n h a s t a k e n p l a c e , a n d the c o m m a n d module RCS s y s t e m i s u s e d .
A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e a e r o d y n a m i c f o r c e s will s t a b i l i z e the C / M in
pitch and yaw, a n d the e n t r y g - l e v e l ( l i f t vecto:- c o n t r o l ) will i n c r e a s e o r
d e c r e a s e t h r o u g h r o l l c o n t r o l . P r i m a r y c o n t r o l i s a u t o m a t i c , with m a n u a l
r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l a v a i l a b l e , in exrent of a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l m a l f u n c t i o n s .

F o r d e t a i l e d o p e r a t i o n of the s e v e r a l loops involved i n guidance and


c o n t r o l , r e f e r to the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the guidance and na\.igation s y s t e m ,
s u b s e c t i o n 2. 2 , and the s t a b i l i z a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l s y s t e m , s u b s e c t i o n 2 . 3.

GUIDANCE AND CONTROL

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change D a t e Page 2.1-2


PROGRAMSELECTANITIATE
FROM NAVIGATIONS G
OR UPLINK (MSFN) N
LI

1.
VELOCITY
pF T
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I
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ATTITUM CHANGES

VELOCITY CHANGES
SM-2h-947

Figure 2. 1 - 1 . Integrated Flight P r o f i l e Functional Flow Diagram

GUIDANCE AND CONTROL

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 N? 1966 Change Date I Page 2.1-312.1-4


PROGRAM SELECT/INITIATE
FROM NAVIGATIONS
OR UPLINK (MSFN)

'+
I
I I

L--
-

ROTATION DIREC
COMMANDS
1

M N U M MANUAL
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ATTITUDE
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PSEUDO
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. (SC!

-------

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AllllUM I
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ATTITUDE REI
TOTAL

-
DISPLAY, A b
________* AnlTU[W

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AGCU ARS AT^4-
EULER 4 SENSORS
COMPUTER REF A l l ORBITAL RA
ALIGN LOCAL VER’,

I . ..
’ I
.
M i s s ion,
...
SMZA-03-SC012
A P O L m OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
/

RCS ATTITUDE CONTROL


LOO? I
DIRECT CONTROL
1 I
JU MANUAL TRANSLATION
i
MANUAL
I
.ION
.UNDS
TRANSLATION
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(SCS)
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SPACECRAFT
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ATTITUDE REFERENCE, INERTIAL SENSOR,


DISPLAY, A N D FEED0ACK L O O P S

OR0ITAL RATE
LOCAL VTRTICAL
ATTITUDE CMNCES

P SM-ZA-VU

Figure 2. 1-2. Cwsting Flight P r o f i l e Functional Flow Diagram

GUIDANCE AND CONTROL


Mission B a s i c Date-12 Nov 1966 Change Date page, 2 . 1 - 5 / 2 . 1 - 6
1
I N A V I G A T I O N CONTROL LOOP
I

ACCELEROMETER
FROM NAVIGATIONS
OR UPLINK (MSFN)

TIME
'
I
AGC
NAVIGATION
AND
sPS
AND
MANUAL DIRECT
THRUST ON-OFF

GUIDANCE
~ R O G M ~ THRUST ON-OFF
ENGINE

VELOCITY I N
)G
I( CUAMANDS (G61.I)
+ CONTROL
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-
HANGES
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1
i i
I STEERING I
I COWNDS
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II
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A I ATTITUDE
COMMANDS

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I -FDA1 (SCS)7

I 41 ATTITUDE

VELOCITY
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MANUAl ROTATION
ROTATION 4 C O M R O LS DIRECT Ci

-c
COMMANDS (SCS)
--------- 1
-4
MANUAL
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:CEu RATION
'1D VELOCITY
I COMMANDS

ACCELEROMETER I PROPORTIONAL
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ps MANUAL DIRECT i II 2 -
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-ATTITUDE 4
- ATTITUDE ERRORS
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ATTITUIX
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1
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TOTAL
ATTITUDE

I
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ARS

REF SENSORS
*
2zGN ( W A G S ) SCS ATTITUDE CHANGES

VELOCITY CHANGES

Figure 2 .

Mission Ba 8
' . .
-
SM2A 0 3 - SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

--------------c-------
RCS ATTITUDE C O N T R O ~

1 MANUAL
DIRECT CONTROL

TRANSLATION
LOOP

MANUAL
DIRECT
I
I
TRANSLATION
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ATTITUDE REFERENCE, INERTIAL SENSOR,


DISPLAY, A N D FEEDBACK LOOPS
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4
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d

GUIDANCE AND CONTROL


Basic Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2. 1 - 7 / 2 . 1 - 8
Mission
. . . .. . .
I I
I AUTOMATIC GUIDANC'E AND I
I N A V I G A T I O N CONTROL LOOP I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
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I NAVIGATION
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VELOCITY I I
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I ANGLES I
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I
I 1 STEERING ERROR!
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31
ATTITUDE

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ATTITUDE
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..
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MANUAL ROTATION
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COMMANDS (SCS)
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ROPORTIONAL
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1- ATTITUDE REFERENCE, INERTIAL SENSOR


DISPLAY, A N D FEEDMCK LOOPS

ATTITUDE
RATES

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ATTITUDE I+ $MAG
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-
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4 - REF
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Figu

M i s s ion
SMZA-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

1
RCS AlllTUDE CONTROL I
DIRECT CONTROL LOOP
I AERODYNAMIC
I FORCES

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.

f,
-
MANUAL DISABLE
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ATTITUDE REFERENCE, INERTIAL SENSOR,


D I S P U Y , A N D R E D M C K LOOPS

L
JC
S
ATTITUM CHANGES
VELOCITY CHANGES

SM-24-943

Figure 2. 1 - 4 . Atmospheric Flight Profile Functional Flow D i a g r a m

GUIDANCE AND CONTROL


Basic Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 1 -9/2.1-10
M i s s ion

" 3
...
SMZA-03-SCO 1 2
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2

SUBSECTION 2 . 2

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM ( G & N )

2.2.1 INTRODUCTION.
The guidance and navigation ( G & N ) s y s t e m m e a s u r e s s p a c e c r a f t
attitude and velocity, d e t e r m i n e s t r a j e c t o r y , c o n t r o l s s p a c e c r a f t attitude,
c o n t r o l s the t h r u s t v e c t o r of the s e r v i c e propulsion e n g i n e , and p r o v i d e s
a b o r t information and display d a t a . P r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the s p a c e c r a f t
velocity and position, and computation of the t r a j e c t o r y p a r a m e t e r s i s
a c c o m p l i s h e d by the manned s p a c e flight network ( M S F N ) .

T h e G & N s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of t h r e e s u b s y s t e m s a s follows:
0 I n e r t i a l s u b s y s t e m (ISS)
0 C o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m (CSS)
0 Optics s u b s y s t e m (OSS)
T h e i n e r t i a l s u b s y s t e m is composed of a n i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t unit
(IMU), p a r t of the power and s e r v o a s s e m b l y ( P S A ) , p a r t of the c o n t r o l s and
d i s p l a y s , and t h r e e i n e r t i a l coupling d i s p l a y u n i t s (CDUs). The IlMU p r o v i d e s
a n i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e with a gimbaled, t h r e e -degree -of-freedom, g y r o
stabilized stable p l a t f o r m .
T h e c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m is composed of a n Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r
(AGC), and two d i s p l a y and keyboard p a n e l s (DSKY s ) , which a r e p a r t of the
c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s . T h e AGC i s a digital c o m p u t e r which p r o c e s s e s and
c o n t r o l s information t o and f r o m t h e IMU and optics, and s t o r e s p r o g r a m s
and r e f e r e n c e d a t a .
T h e optics s u b s y s t e m is composed of a scanning t e l e s c o p e ( S C T ) , a
sextant (SXT), d r i v e m o t o r s f o r positioning the SCT and SXT, p a r t s of t h e
PSA, p a r t of the c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s , and two optics CDUs. The SCT and
SXT a r e used t o d e t e r m i n e the s p a c e c r a f t position and attitude with r e l a t i o n
to stars and/or landmarks.
T h e t h r e e G&N s u b s y s t e m s a r e configured s u c h t h a t the CSS and OSS
m a y be operated independently. T h i s allows continued u s e of the CSS a n d / o r
OSS in the event of a malfunction in one of t h e s e s u b s y s t e m s o r the ISS.
S y s t e m power r e q u i r e m e n t s and r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l s a r e provided by t h e power
and s e r v o a s s e m b l y ( P S A ) . Major components of the s y s t e m a r e located in
the command module lower equipment bay ( f i g u r e 2. 2-1). S y s t e m c i r c u i t
b r e a k e r s , caution and w a r n i n g i n d i c a t o r s , and one of the D S K Y s a r e located
on the m a i n d i s p l a y console.
2.2.2 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION.
T h e guidance and navigation s y s t e m p r o v i d e s c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r the
f ol lowing:
0 I n e r t i a l velocity and position ( s t a t e v e c t o r ) computation
0 Optical and i n e r t i a l navigation m e a s u r e m e n t s

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM


SMZA - 0 3-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

GUIDANCE -4ND NAVIGATION S Y S T E M


2.2-2
Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
-
SlM2A 0 3 -sco 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTE-MS D-4T.A

0 S p a c e c r a f t attitude m e a s u r e m e n t and c o n t r o l

0 G e n e r a t i o n of guidance c o m m a n d s d u r i n g CSXI-powered flight and


C / L I atmospheric entry.

T h e G & K s y s t e m i s initially a c t i v a t e d and aligned d u r i n g the p r e l a u n c h


p h a s e . D u r i n g the a s c e n t p h a s e , the s y s t e m m e a s u r e s velocity and a t t i t u d e ,
c o m p u t e s position, c o m p a r e s the a c t u a l s p a c e c r a f t t r a j e c t o r y with a p r e -
d e t e r m i n e d t r a j e c t o r y , and d i s p l a y s p e r t i n e n t d a t a . The flight cre\v u s e s
the d i s p l a y e d i n f o r m a t i o n a s a n a i d f o r d e c i s i o n t o a b o r t o r continue the
m i s s i o n . H o w e v e r , s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l i s m a i n t a i n e d by the S-IVB guidance
until CSM/S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n . Upon s e p a r a t i o n , the G&N s y s t e m a s s u m e s the
guidance and navigation functions u s i n g the d a t a a c q u i r e d d u r i n g a s c e n t .

D u r i n g p e r i o d s when o n b o a r d velocitv a n d / o r attitude change > e n s i n g


i s not r e q u i r e d , the I l I U i s placed i n s t a n d b y o p e r a t i o n t o c o n s e r v e e l e c t r i c a l
p o w e r . T h e -AGC i s u s e d m o r e extensivelx. t h a n the I U U , h o w e v e r , i t will
a l s o be p l a c e d in standby o p e r a t i o n t o c o n s e r v e e l e c t r i c a l power. I\ hen t h e
guidance and navigation function i s t o be r e s t o r e d , the I l l U and -AGC a r e
r e a c t i v a t e d , with the .AGC u s i n g the l a s t c o m p u t e d velocitv a s the b a s i s f o r
f u r t h e r velocitL c o m p u t a t i o n s , New positional d a t a m u s t be a c q u i r e d i r o m
o p t i c a l sightings or L I S F N t h r o u g h t e l e m e t r y o r voice c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .

Initial position and attitude i n f o r m a t i o n a s well a s p e r i o d i c updating o i


t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s m a d e t h r o u g h u s e of the o p t i c s . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d
by the n a v i g a t o r m a k i n g two o r m o r e l a n d m a r k a n d / o r s t a r s i g h t i n g s . The
s i g h t i n g s a r e m a d e by a c q u i r i n g the s t a r - l a n d m a r k with the SCT a n d l o r S X T .
When the viewed object i s c e n t e r e d , a m a r k c o m m a n d i s initiated. The -AGC
r e a d s the optics a n g l e s , 11,lU a n g l e s , and t i m e , i n conjunction with i n t e r n a l
p r o g r a m s ,to d e t e r m i n e the s p a c e c r a f t position. T h i s position i n f o r m a t i o n
and the s p a c e c r a f t velocity a r e u s e d t o c o m p u t e a n e s t i m a t e d t r a j e c t o r y .
T h e a c t u a l trajector:. i s c o m p a r e d with p r e v i o u s t r a j e c t o r \ . d a t a t o g e n e r a t e
the t r a j e c t o r y e r r o r , i f a n y , f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e . O p t i c a l m e a s u r e m e n t s
a r e a l s o u s e d i n aligning the IXIU t o a s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e o r i e n t a t i o n .

The IMU (figure 2. 2 - 2 ) contains t h r e e inertial rate integrating gyros


( I R I G s ) , t h r e e a n g u l a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a c c e l e r o m e t e r s ( -ADAS), and t h r e e
pulsed i n t e g r a t i n g pendulous a c c e l e r o m e t e r s (PIP-As). The IRIGs, PIP-As,
and o n e -ADA a r e mounted o n t h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m which is g i m b a l e d to p r o -
vide t h r e e d e g r e e s of f r e e d o m . T h e two r e m a i n i n g -AD.As a r e mounted o n
the m i d d l e gimbal. T h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e i s m a i n t a i n e d 12)-
the IRIGs and - l D - A s i n conjunction with e l e c t r o n i c s t a b i l i z a t i o n loops. -An!-
d i s p l a c e m e n t of the p l a t f o r m is s e n s e d by the IRIGs which produce output
s i g n a l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of d i s p l a c e m e n t . T h e
AD-As s e n s e the d i s p l a c e m e n t r a t e and p r o d u c e output r a t e c o n t r o l s i g n a l s
t o m a i n t a i n c o r r e c t s t a b i l i z a t i o n loop c o n t r o l r e s p o n s e . The IRIG and -4D.A
s i g n a l s a r e applied t o s e r v o a m p l i f i e r s , which condition the s i g n a l s t o d r i v e
g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s . T h e g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s t h e n r e s t o r e the i n i t i a l
p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n by d r i v i n g the g i m b a l s until the l R I G s i g n a l s a r e nulled.

GUIDANCE AND N.4VIG-4TIOK S Y S T E l l

Mission B a s i c Date 12 ~ O 1966


V Change Date Page 2. 2 - 3
SMZA-0 3 -SCO1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

T h e P I P A s a r e o r t h o g o n a l l y mounted and s e n s e c h a n g e s i n s p a c e c r a f t
v e l o c i t y . An a c c e l e r a t i o n o r d e c e l e r a t i o n r e s u l t s in output s i g n a l s which
a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the m a g n i t u d e and d i r e c t i o n of t h e velocity change.
T h e output s i g n a l s a r e applied t o the ACC which u s e s the i n f o r m a t i o n t o
update s p a c e c r a f t velocity d a t a . Continual updating of velocity i n f o r m a t i o n ,
with r e s p e c t t o the i n i t i a l s p a c e c r a f t position and t r a j e c t o r y , e n a b l e s the
AGC t o p r o v i d e c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y , p o s i t i o n , and t r a j e c t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n .

T h e IMU a l s o p r o v i d e s a s p a c e s t a b i l i z e d r e f e r e n c e f o r s p a c e c r a f t
a t t i t u d e s e n s i n g a n d c o n t r o l . Attitude change s e n s i n g i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by
m o n i t o r i n g the s p a c e c r a f t attitude with r e f e r e n c e t o the s t a b l e p l a t f o r m .
R e s o l v e r s a r e mounted at the g i m b a l a x e s t o provide s i g n a l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
of the g i m b a l a n g l e s . I n e r t i a l CDUs c o n t a i n r e s o l v e r s which r e p e a t the
p l a t f o r m a t t i t u d e . Attitude m o n i t o r i n g i s afforded by c o m p a r i n g the IXlU
r e s o l v e r output s i g n a l s with t h e CDU r e s o l v e r s i g n a l s . If the a n g l e s d i f f e r ,
e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e + g e n e r a t e d and applied t o the s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s y s -
t e m . If the attitude e r r o r i s l a r g e r t h a n the s e l e c t e d deadband l i m i t s , the
SCS f i r e s the a p p r o p r i a t e RCS e n g i n e s . T h e s p a c e c r a f t is r o t a t e d back t o
t h e i n i t i a l r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e and t h e e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e nulled (within
d e a d b a n d limits).

T h e AGC p r o v i d e s a u t o m a t i c e x e c u t i o n of c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s , a u t o -
m a t i c c o n t r o l of ISS and OSS m o d e s , a n d , i n conjunction with the DSKYs,
m a n u a l c o n t r o l of ISS and OSS m o d e s and c o m p u t e r d i s p l a y s . T h e -4GC
- ._-
c o n t a i n s a t w o - p a r t m e m o r y which c o n s i s t s of a l a r g e n o n - e r a s a b l e s e c t i o n
and a s m a l l e r e r a s a b l e section. Non-erasable m e m o r y contains mission
and s y s t e m p r o g r a m s and o t h e r p r e d e t e r m i n e d d a t a which a r e w i r e d i n
d u r i n g a s s e m b l y . D a t a r e a d o u t f r o m t h i s s e c t i o n i s n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e and
cannot be changed d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n . T h e e r a s a b l e s e c t i o n of m e m o r y p r o -
v i d e s f o r d a t a s t o r a g e , r e t r i e v a l , and o p e r a t i o n s upon m e a s u r e d d a t a and
t e l e m e t e r e d information. Data readout f r o m this section i s destructive,
p e r m i t t i n g c h a n g e s i n s t o r e d d a t a t o be m a d e a s d e s i r e d . I n f o r m a t i o n
within t h e m e m o r y m a y be c a l l e d u p f o r d i s p l a y on the two DSKYs. T h e
DSKYs e n a b l e the flight c r e w t o e n t e r d a t a or i n s t r u c t i o n s into t h e AGC,
r e q u e s t d i s p l a y of d a t a f r o m .4GC m e m o r y , and o f f e r an i n t e r r u p t c o n t r o l
of AGC o p e r a t i o n . The AGC t i m i n g s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s t i m i n g s i g n a l s of
v a r i o u s f r e q u e n c i e s f o r i n t e r n a l u s e and t o o t h e r o n b o a r d s y s t e m s which
r e q u i r e a c c u r a t e or s y n c h r o n i z e d t i m i n g . Data within the AGC i s t r a n s -
m i t t e d t o ,MSFN t h r o u g h a "downlink" t e l e m e t r y function. T e l e m e t e r e d
d a t a i s t r a n s m i t t e d a s a function of a n AGC p r o g r a m or b y r e q u e s t f r o m
LMSFN. D a t a within the ACC m a y be updated through a n "uplink" telemetr:;
f u n c t i o n c o n t r o l l e d by M S F N . The XGC p e r f o r m s guidance functions b y
executing internal p r o g r a m s using predetermined trajectory p a r a m e t e r s ,
a t t i t u d e a n g l e s f r o m t h e i n e r t i a l CDUs, velocity c h a n g e s f r o m the PIPAs,
and c o m m a n d s f r o m t h e DSKYs ( c r e w ) t o g e n e r a t e c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s .
T h e navigation f u n c t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d by u s i n g s t o r e d s t a r - l a n d m a r k d a t a ,
o p t i c s a n g l e s f r o m the o p t i c s CDUs, and velocity c h a n g e s f r o m the PIPAS
i n the e x e c u t i o n of navigation p r o g r a m s .

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATIaG.


' r . . .
SYSTEM
. ..- .. 2 . 2-4
Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change DatB ' ' Page

\
NOTES: I. AGC inpuh a d outpub shorn are
pment at variRn times, depcdinp IMU INNER G
upan mode of opemtion, but not POSITION CC
concurrently.

2. There caponenh are phpically

-
mounted om the IMU but illvrtmted
a shown for clarity.

Y-IRIG TO
I SHAFT
COMMAM
(ISS FINE
ALIGN MC
I ONLY)
COUPLING
I
I SHAFT DRIVE
SIGNAL
DlSPuy
UNlT
A !
SHAFT CRIVE SIGNALC
MU MIDDLE G I
OSlTlON COM
I
1 DRNE I UPLINK DATA FROM MSFN

I
-
SCANNING YGTAL
TELESCOPE
VISUAL AND SEXTANT
MOLL0
%E:'
UNDMARKS
4 4 -
GUIDANCE
COMPUTER
A N D HORIZON
I
I
TRUNNION
DRIVE I MANUALiMODE S I G N A U
Z-IRIG T
COMMAM)
on
(ISS FINE
IXUNNION ALIGN MOI
I ONLY)

I
COUPLlNG
DISPUY
UNIT
I TRUNNION DRIVE SIGNALS
MU OUTER GIA
- -
I DRIVE SIGNAL
I
OSlTlON COU

I
I ATTITUDE
I (*) AND (-) X
AVELOCllY
IMPULSE
I
1
CONTROL DOWNU
+ DATA
TO MSFP
I X-IRIG TORC

I THRUST C O W M S
TO REACTION
COMMANDS
(IS FINE
A U G N MOD
CONTROL SYSTEM
I
I
.,, ,. . .... c .-
I
...*-.).,<..*
... . _._,:. .
'

.+ .
INNER GIMB4L
RESOLVER SIGNAL

IMU INNER GIMBAL


'OSITION C O M M A M S . 4
I IMU/CDU
c GIMBAL INNERGIMBAL DIFFERENCE
POSITION COUPLING SIGNAL S/C BODY PITCH C
ANALOG DISPUY
CONVERTER 'OMMANE AND OFFSET PITCt
UNIT ATTITUDE ERROR S I
1
I I
1 A SHAFT ANGLE 1 TO INNER
GIMML
COAEE
YAW~ITCH
I J ~.-
ALIGN.
RESOLVER
Y-IRIG TORQUE AMP

- Y-IWG TORQUE (GIMBAL


A X E S TO (FUNCTI'
CALIBRATION GENERATOR AND MI[
NAV BASE
A U G N MODE AXES)
S H A F l ANGLE SIGNALS ONLY)

-
MIDDLE G I W A L
RESOLVER SIGNAL

-
WAFT CRIVE SIGNAL" AU MIDDLE GIMBAL
' COMMANDS- IMU/CD U
OFFSET YAW
_INK DATA FROM MSFN ATTITUDE E R R m !

4 DlSPUY AND
KEYBOARD
COMMANDS
MOLL0
GUIDANCE
COMPUTER i
I
1 A SHAFT ANGLE
I
I TO MIDDLE
G l M M L COARS

-
(2 LOCATIONS)
A L I G N NAP

-
Z-IRIG TORQUE S/C BODY YAW AT
COMMANDS 3T FIXED ERROR SIGNAL
Z-IRIG TORQUE
RESOLVER

)
'ANIJAL*MODE S I G N A U (IS5 FINE GENERATOR TO OUTER
(NAV (FUNCTION
ALIGN MODE GIMBAL COARS
ONLY) EASE AXES MIDDLE, A h
UNNION ANGLE SIGNALS A U G N AMP
I TO S/C GIMIIALS)
OUTER G l M M L AXES)
RESOLVER SIGNAL S/C W D Y ROLL

ISUNNION DRIVE SIGNALS MU OUTER GIMBAL


-I ATTITUDE ERROR SI

QSlTlON COMMANDS I

DISPLAY SIGNAL
16X-OFFSET ROLL ERROR SIGNAL (ENTRY
($ AND (-) Y
AVELOCITY
I
(*) AND (-)X 1 b SHAFT ANGLE J
AVELOC ITY
1 I DOW NLI N K
+ DATA
TO MSFN TERNARY
SWITCH AND X-IRIG TORQUE
X-IRIG TORQUE CALIBRATION GENERATOU
COMMANDS
(ISS FINE
A U G N MODE ONLY) SPS E N G I N E ON/OFF COMMANDS
I

I
1
SUPPORT GI#

s/c M)DY PITCH ATTITUDE


AND OFFSET PITCH
I, PITCH A
CORREC
B
E
4 SIGNALS

ATTITUDE ERROR SIGNAL

\ I I OUTER
GIMBAL,
I
I 1
I
(FUNCTIONS OF INNER REACTION
AND MICDLE GlMeALS) COMROL

I 1 SYSTEM STABLE MEMBER


IlhlhICD r,....,,

OFFSET YAW
ATTITUDE ERRCX SIGNAL
i I
I
YAW
ECA
fAW ATTITUDE

I
CORRECTION
SIGNALS
A
t
-I,
s/C BODYYAW ATTITWE
I
I I

!
II
SIGNU GIMWL RESOLVER
EYOR I
ANGLE SIGNAL TO
(FUNCTIONS OF INNER,
MIDDLE, AND OUTER FLIGHT DIRECTOR
GIMALS) AllITUDE INDICATOR
MIDDLE G I h U A L q

SIGNALS

TCH GIMBAL
OMMANCS

I 1 YAW GIMBAL SERVICE


PROPULSION

I COMMANDS SYSTEM

I
AUXILIARY THRUST ON/OFF
ECA C0MMAN)s

-I
(+) AND (-) 2 VELOCITY C H A I G E SIGNALS
(+) AND (-1 X VELOCITY CHANGE SIGNALS
(+) AND (-) Y VELOCITY CHANGE SIGNALS

*
..
,
A,.:, &. :. ' . - '
-. . ,

,A,'! . ,
SMZA -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

c
SYSTEMS DATA

/ TORQUE MOTOR DRIVE SIGNAL


I
I

Figure 2. 2 - 2 . G & N S y s t e m Functional Block Diagram

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date' . l 2 1966 Change Date page 2 . 2 - 5 1 2 . 2 - 6


- -
S M 2A 0 3 S C 0 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS D.4T-4

T h e o p t i c s provide a c c u r a t e s t a r and l a n d m a r k a n g u l a r m e a s u r e -
m e n t s . Sightings a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by the navigator u s i n g the SXT and
SCT. T h e o p t i c s a r e positioned by d r i v e m o t o r s c o m m a n d e d by the o p t i c s
hand c o n t r o l l e r o r manually u s i n g a u n i v e r s a l t o o l , a s d e s i r e d . The shaft
a x e s a r e p a r a l l e l . T r u n n i o n a x e s m a y be o p e r a t e d i n p a r a l l e l o r o f f s e t ,
a s d e s i r e d . T h e S C T is a unity power i n s t r u m e n t providing a n a p p r o x i -
m a t e 6 0 - d e g r e e field of view. I t i s u s e d t o m a k e l a n d m a r k s i g h t i n g s and
t o a c q u i r e and c e n t e r s t a r s o r l a n d m a r k s p r i o r t o S X T u s e . The SXT
p r o v i d e s 28-power m a g n i f i c a t i o n with a 1. 8 - d e g r e e field of view. The
SXT h a s two l i n e s of s i g h t , e n a b l i n g it to m e a s u r e the included angle
between two o b j e c t s . T h i s r e q u i r e s two l i n e s of sight which e n a b l e the
two viewed o b j e c t s t o be s u p e r i m p o s e d . F o r a s t a r - l a n d m a r k s i g h t i n g ,
the l a n d m a r k line of sight i s c e n t e r e d along the S X T s h a f t a x i s . T h e s t a r
i m a g e i s moved t o w a r d t h e l a n d m a r k by r o t a t i n g the shaft and t r u n n i o n
a x e s until the two viewed o b j e c t s a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d . The s h a f t and
t r u n n i o n a n g l e s a r e r e p e a t e d by t h e optic CDUs. When the n a v i g a t o r i s
s a t i s f i e d with i m a g e p o s i t i o n s , he i s s u e s a m a r k c o m m a n d to the -4GC.
T h e -4GC r e a d s the o p t i c s C D U a n g l e s , I M U CDU a n g l e s , and t i m e , and
c o m p u t e s the position of the s p a c e c r a f t . T h e AGC b a s e s the computation
on s t o r e d s t a r and l a n d m a r k d a t a which m a y a l s o be u s e d by the .AGC to
r e q u e s t s p e c i f i c s t a r s o r l a n d m a r k s f o r navigational s i g h t i n g s . Two o r
m o r e s i g h t i n g s , on two o r m o r e d i f f e r e n t s t a r s , m u s t be t a k e n t o p e r f o r m
a c o m p l e t e position d e t e r m i n a t i o n .

2 . 2 . 2. 1 Operational Modes.

T h e G&N s y s t e m i s o p e r a t e d in s i x b a s i c o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s .
S e l e c t i o n of any one mode i s a c c o m p l i s h e d manual!y b y the flight c r e w o r
a u t o m a t i c a l l y by the ACC. T h e b a s i c m o d e s a r e a s follows:

0 Xlonitor ( i n i t i a t e d by S C S mode s e l e c t i o n )
0 Z e r o encode
0 C o a r s e align
0 Fine align
0 Attitude c o n t r o l
0 Entry
T h e s y s t e m c o n f i g u r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o o p e r a t e in an)- of the m o d e s is
e s t a b l i s h e d by r e l a y switching.

The m o n i t o r mode is u s e d a t launch, a s c e n t , and d u r i n g o r b i t until


C S M / S - I V B s e p a r a t i o n , t o p r o v i d e flight path d a t a f o r c r e w d i s p l a y s . The
c o a r s e a l i g n , fine a l i g n , a n d z e r o encode m o d e s a r e u s e d to
a l i g n the IXlU a f t e r standby p e r i o d s o r t o a c q u i r e a new s t a b l e p l a t f o r m
o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e attitude c o n t r o l mode p r o v i d e s f o r s p a c e c r a f t attitude
c o n t r o l and navigation c o m p u t a t i o n s t o m e a s u r e position and v e l o c i t y . The
e n t r y mode p r o v i d e s c o n t r o l of t h e s p a c e c r a f t lift v e c t o r d u r i n g e n t r y
phase.

C U I D A N C E 4 N D N AV I G =Z TI ON S YS T E 11

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov l966 Change Date Page 2.2-7


SMZA -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

--
SYSTEMS DATA

T h e ISS a n d CSS w i l l b e o p e r a t e d i n on-standby c y c l e s t o c o n s e r v e


e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r . During standby o p e r a t i o n , t h e ISS m a i n t a i n s IMU t e m p e r -
a t u r e , and the CSS m a i n t a i n s AGC t i m i n g functions. The OSS i s s h u t off
when not i n u s e . Since s t a n d b y o p e r a t i o n t i m e v a r i e s f o r e a c h of the
s u b s y s t e m s , standby is not c o n s i d e r e d a s b a s i c mode.

2 . 2 . 2 . 1. 1 M o n i t o r Mode,

D u r i n g p r e l a u n c h o p e r a t i o n s , the G & N s y s t e m is a l i g n e d t o the d e s i r e d


l a u n c h r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e a n d g y r o c o m p a s s e s t o m: i n t a i n t h i s a t t i t u d e .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 m i n u t e s p r i o r t o l a u n c h , t h e g y r o c o m p a s s i n g i s stopped
a n d t h e s y s t e m b e c o m e s i n e r t i a l l y r e f e r e n c e d . Upon lift-off the ACC b e g i n s
m o n i t o r i n g the flight path a n g l e s by d r i v i n g the I n e r t i a l Coupling Display
Units (ICDUs) through p r o g r a m m e d a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s . The ICDU a n g l e s a r e
c o m p a r e d with the IMU g i m b a l a n g l e s to produce flight path e r r o r s i g n a l s
which a r e d i s p l a y e d by the FDAI e r r o r n e e d l e s . T o t a l s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e ,
with r e s p e c t t o the IMU o r i e n t a t i o n , i s d i s p l a y e d by t h e FDAI b a l l .
( P r e l a u n c h FDAI r e a d i n g s a r e 164. 7 6 - d e g r e e r o l l , 5 8 . 3 0 - d e g r e e pitch, a n d
9. 6 9 - d e g r e e yaw, with r e s p e c t t o the navigation a x i s s y m b o l , Display a t
o r b i t i n s e r t i o n is 0 - d e g r e e r o l l , 310. 5 - d e g r e e pitch, and 0 - d e g r e e y a w ,
a s s u m i n g a 1 8 0 - d e g r e e r o l l h a s b e e n p e r f o r m e d and launch pad 3 7 is u s e d . )
D u r i n g b o o s t p r i o r t o l a u n c h e s c a p e t o w e r ( L E T ) j e t t i s o n , the AGC d i s p l a y s
t h e following:

REGISTER 1 - I n e r t i a l flight path a n g l e ; i n e r t i a l velocity with r e s p e c t


to local horizontal i n d e g r e e s .

REGISTER 2 - I n e r t i a l velocity i n ft p e r s e c .

REGISTER 3 - Altitude above l a u n c h pad in n a u t i c a l m i l e s ( N M s )

Upon r e c e i p t of L E T j e t t i s o n s i g n a l s t h e d i s p l a y s change t o the following:

REGISTER 1 - Predicted G s for free-fall and entry a t 60-degree


bank a n g l e .

REGISTER 2 - Altitude of p e r i g e e above the m e a n e q u a t o r i a l r a d i u s


in NMs.

REGISTER 3 - Time of f r e e - f a l l t o 300, 000 i t above m e a n e q u a t o r i a l


r a d i u s i n m i n u t e s and s e c o n d s .

T h i s d i s p l a y e d d a t a p r o v i d e s the flight c r e w with sufficient i n f o r m a t i o n to


m a k e a b o r t o r continue d e c i s i o n s ; h o w e v e r , i f t i m e is not c r i t i c a l , the
d e c i s i o n i s m a d e by the flight cre\v a n d MSFN jointly.

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2 . 2. 2 . 1 . 2 Z e r o E n c o d e ;\lode.

T h e z e r o encode mode e n a b l e s c o r r e c t i o n of the CDC d a t a s t o r e d i n


-4GC. T h i s mode i s u s e d t o e n s u r e t h a t the r e f e r e n c e a n g l e s contained i n
the CDU r e g i s t e r s of t h e XGC c o r r e s p o n d with the a c t u a l CDU a n g l e s . T h i s
is a c c o m p l i s h e d by d r i v i n g t h e CDUs t o z e r o , t h e n c l e a r i n g the -4GC C D U
r e g i s t e r s . T h i s s t a r t s the -4GC CDU r e g i s t e r s a t z e r o and e n a b l e s the
r e g i s t e r s t o m a i n t a i n c o r r e c t CDU a n g l e s by counting p u l s e s f r o m the CDL'
digital encoders.

2. 2. 2. 1. 3 C o a r s e -Align l l o d e .

T h e c o a r s e a l i g n mode e n a b l e s s t a b l e p l a t f o r m a l i g n m e n t to witb.in
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 d e g r e e s of a d e s i r e d p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n . F r e r e q u i s i t e
i n f o r m a t i o n t o a c c o m p l i s h c o a r s e a l i g n m e n t c o n s i s t s oi the d e s i r e d plattorni
o r i e n t a t i o n and p r e s e n t s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e .

The d e s i r e d p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n a n g l e s a r e computed b y a n a1:gn-


m e n t p r o g r a m e x e c u t e d bb- the -4GC. T h e n a v i g a t o r d e t e r m i n e s the s p a c e -
c r a f t attitude immediatelb- p r i o r t o c o a r s e a l i g n m e n t b\- m a k i n g two o r
m o r e sightings on s t a r s o r l a n d m a r k s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n of the s i g h t i n g s .
the =IGC r e a d s the optic a n g l e s and c o m p u t e s the g i m b a l a n g l e s necessar!:
t o a t t a i n the d e s i r e d p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e -1GC g e n e r a t e s dri1.e
s i g n a l s t o position the CDU r e s o l v e r s t o the r e q u i r e d g i m b a l a n g l e s . The
IlIL-CDU r e s o l v e r e r r o r s i g n a l s , g e n e r a t e d by r e p o s i t i o n i n g the C D U s ,
a r e applied t o the g i m b a l t o r q u e s e r v o a m p s Ivhich d r i l - e the g i m b a l t o r q u e
m o t o r s t o position t h e p l a t f o r m t o the d e s i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n .
(1

T h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n will normall>- be s u c h t h a t the X - a x i s


l i e s alorlg the s p a c e c r a f t t h r u s t v e c t o r d u r i n g a l l powered p h a s e s , e x c e p t
a s c e n t , and along the s p a c e c r a f t s t a b i l i t y axis d u r i n g e n t r y .

2 , 2 . 2 . 1. 4 F i n e -Align l i o d e

T h e fine a l i g n mode c o m p l e t e s s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n t o the


r e q u i r e d d e g r e e of a c c u r a c y . The n a v i g a t o r m a k e s two o r m o r e s t a r
s i g h t i n g s , u s i n g o n - b o a r d d a t a and the o p t i c s t o a c q u i r e the d e s i r e d s t a r s .
Upon r e c e i p t of the optic a n g l e s the -4GC c o m p u t e s the I l 1 U a n g l e s n e c e s -
s a r y t o c o m p l e t e the a l i g n m e n t . I n the fine align m o d e , the I l l U a n g l e s a r e
r e p e a t e d by the i n e r t i a l CDUs which a r e m o n i t o r e d by the .AGC t o deterrr.ine
t h e a c t u a l I;\\IU o r i e n t a t i o n . T h e =\GC g e n e r a t e s t o r q u i n g s i g n a l s t o c a n c e l
an)- e r r o r between the a c t u a l I l l K o r i e n t a t i o n and the d e s i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n .
T h e s e t o r q u i n g p u l s e s a r e applied t o the [RIG torquing c o i l s . The I R I G s i n
conjunction with the s t a b i l i z a t i o n l o o p s , r e p o s i t i o n the s t a b l e platforni until
the d e s i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n i s a t t a i n e d . Upon c o m p l e t i o n of fine a l i g n m e n t . the
I M v / C D U r e s o l v e r s i g n a l s a n d the s t a b i l i z a t i o n loop s i g n a l s a r e a t null.

T h e s!-stem c o n i i g u r a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r fine a l i g n mode a l s o a p p l i e s


I X l U r e s o l v e r s i g n a l s t o the SCS a s a p p a r e n t attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s . T o
p r e v e n t t h e s e s i g n a l s f r o m a p p e a r i n g a s a c t u a l s p a c e c r a f t attitude e r r o r s
the SCS m u s t be o p e r a t e d i n a n SCS mode which r e j e c t s G & K derirred s i g n a l s

GUIDXKCE AKD iULAVIG-ATIOK SYSTELI


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SYSTEMS DATA

2 . 2 . 2. 1. 5 Attitude C o n t r o l Mode.

The a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l mode p r o v i d e s s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e change s e n s i n g ,


g e n e r a t e s e r r o r s i g n a l s f o r s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , velocity change
s i g n a l s f o r updating AGC velocity i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d s i g n a l s f o r t i m i n g SPS
engine t h r u s t termination commands.

D u r i n g s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , the IMU g i m b a l r e s o l v e r s s e n s e any


d i s p l a c e m e n t of the s p a c e c r a f t with r e s p e c t t o the s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r i e n t a t i o n
a n d p r o d u c e c o r r e s p o n d i n g e r r o r s i g n a l s . The e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d
d i r e c t l y t o the SCS-FDA1 b a l l f o r e r r o r d i s p l a y a n d t o the i n e r t i a l CDU
r e s o l v e r s . The IMU-CDU e r r o r . s i g n a l s a r e d i s p l a y e d on the IMU c o n t r o l
p a n e l , r e s o l v e d into s p a c e c r a f t a x e s , a n d a p p l i e d to the SCS. If the e r r o r
s i g n a l s i n d i c a t e a n a t t i t u d e e r r o r l a r g e r t h a n the s e l e c t e d d e a d b a n d ,
a p p r o p r i a t e RCS e n g i n e s a r e f i r e d a n d the d e s i r e d s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e i s
restored.

F o r d e l t a V m a n e u v e r s , the G & N s y s t e m p r o v i d e s a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l ,
velocity change s e n s i n g , and t o t a l velocity change c o n t r o l by g e n e r a t i n g
t h r u s t t e r m i n a t i o n c o m m a n d s . P r i o r t o t h r u s t i n g , t h e IiMU i s aligned s o t h a t
t h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m X - a x i s i s p a r a l l e l t o the t h r u s t v e c t o r . The XGC d e t e r -
m i n e s t i m e - t o - i g n i t i o n a n d t o t a l velocity change d e s i r e d , and p e r f o r m s mode
v e r i f i c a t i o n r o u t i n e s . At ignition t i m e t h e AGC f l a s h e s the DSKY d i s p l a y s t o
t h e c r e w f o r i n i t i a t i o n of ignition ( m a n u a l DSKY e n t r y is r e q u i r e d ) . During
t h r u s t i n g , t h e CDU a p p l i e s attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s t o the SCS. Roll e r r o r
s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e RCS e n g i n e s ; h o w e v e r , pitch and ya\v e r r o r s i g n a l s
a r e a p p l i e d t o the S P S engine g i m b a l s r a t h e r t h a n RCS e n g i n e s . T h i s
e n s u r e s a l i g n m e n t of t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r t h r o u g h the s p a c e c r a f t c e n t e r - o f -
g r a v i t y a n d a b n g the c o r r e c t t r a j e c t o r y . The P I P A s on the s t a b l e p l a t f o r m
s e n s e t h e velocity c h a n g e s a n d apply p r o p o r t i o n a l output s i g n a l s t o the -4GC.
The I G C c o m p u t e s and u p d a t e s s p a c e c r a f t velocity, a n d counts down a p r e s e t
c o u n t e r xvith the P I P A s i g n a l s . IVhen the c o u n t e r r e a c h e s z e r o , a t h r u s t
t e r m i n a t i o n s i g n a l i s g e n e r a t e d and a p p l i e d through the S C S e l e c t r o n i c s to
t h e SPS e n g i n e .

2 . 2 . 2 . 1. o Entry.

The e n t r y mode p r o v i d e s f o r g e n e r a t i o n of a t t i t u d e e r r o r and s t e e r i n g


s i g n a l s , s e n s i n g of d e c e l e r a t i o n , a n d c o m p u t a t i o n of velocity c h a n g e s d u r i n g
t h e e n t r > - p h a s e of t h e m i s s i o n . The s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s pro\-ide f o r c o n t r o l of
t h e s p a c e c r a f t lift \ - e c t o r t h r o u g h the SCS, t o inhibit excessilre G-loadings
a n d h e a t buildup, a n d t o c o n t r o l the flight path t o enable landing a t a p r e -
s e l e c t e d s i t e . -4ttitude e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d to the FD-AI attitude e r r o r
needles.

E n t r y c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l lvith the e x c e p t i o n s
t h a t the r o l l r e s p o n s e t i m e i s r e d u c e d , one s t e p of a x i s r e s o l u t i o n i s not
n e e d e d , and the XGC will p r o d u c e s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s to the S C S by d r i v i n g the
r o l l CDU. F r o m i n i t i a t i o n of e n t r y mode until 0. 05G switching, r o l l , pitch,

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a n d yaw e r r o r s i g n a l s provide a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . Upon 0 . OJG s w i t c h i n g , the


pitch and yan- e r r o r s i g n a l s provide d i s p l a y only. P r i o r t o e n t r y , t h e IMU
X - a x i s i s a l i g n e d along t h e s p a c e c r a f t e n t r y velocity v e c t o r . T h i s a l i g n m e n t
e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r navigation b a s e - t o - s p a c e c r a f t body a x i s r e s o l u t i o n .
D e c e l e r a t i o n i s s e n s e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e IMU X - a x i s PIP-A, although c h a n g e s
i n lift v e c t o r o r i e n t a t i o n c a u s e s o m e l a t e r a l m o v e m e n t which i s s e n s e d by
the Y a n d / o r 2 P I P X s . The o u t e r g i m b a l , o r r o l l , 1X r e s o l v e r i s connected
t o the 16X r e s o l v e r i n the R O L L CDU, gil-ing a 1 6 : l i n c r e a s e in attitude
e r r o r s i g n a l and r e d u c i n g the r e s p o n s e t i m e of the r o l l channel. The -IGC
\vi11 produce s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s by executing a p r o g r a m m e d lift v e c t o r down
e n t r y ( t o e n s u r e c a p t u r e ) , 1 8 0 - d e g r e e r o l l t o lift \vector u p , t h e n g e n e r a t e
f u r t h e r s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s \vith r e s p e c t t o G f o r c e s , h e a t buildup, a n d r a n g e
n e e d e d . T h e s e s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s a r e r o u t e d t o the r o l l CDU lvhere a n IMU-
CDU r e s o l \ - e r e r r o r i s g e n e r a t e d a n d r o u t e d t o t h e SCS f o r FD-41 disp1a)-
a n d / o r RCS engine c o n t r o l . The e n t r y m a y be p e r f o r m e d manually \vith the
pilot fl\-ing t o the s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s a s d i s p l a y e d on the FD-AI, o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y
\\-ith the -AGC s t e e r i n g s i g n a l s r o u t e d t o the r o l l RCS e n g i n e s f o r s p a c e c r a f t
c o n t r 01.

2.2.3 iM-AJOR COMPOiVEST/ SUBSYSTEhI DESCRIPTION

2.2.3. 1 Inertial Subsystem.

The function of t h e i n e r t i a l s u b s y s t e m i s t o p r o v i d e a s p a c e - s t a b i l i z e d
i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e f r o m which \.-elocity c h a n g e s and a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s c a n be
s e n s e d . It i s composed of t h e i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t u n i t ( I M U ) , the n a v i g a -
t i o n b a s e ( S B ) , p a r t s of the pon.er and s e r v o a s s e m b l y (PS-A), p a r t s of the
c o n t r o l and display p a n e l s , and t h r e e coupling d i s p l a y u n i t s ( C D U s ) .

2 . 2 . 3. 1 . 1 Sa\-igation Base.

The navigation b a s e ( N B ) i s the r i g i d , s u p p o r t i n g s t r u c t u r e n h i c h


m o u n t s the IMU and o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . The S B i s m a n u f a c t u r e d and
i n s t a l l e d t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s to provide a c c u r a t e a l i g n m e n t of the e q u i p m e n t
mounted on i t . It a l s o p r o v i d e s s h o c k mounting f o r the IMU and o p t i c s .

2 . 2. 3. 1. 2 I n e r t i a l M e a s u r e m e n t Unit.

The i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t unit (IMU) i s the m a i n unit of t h e i n e r t i a l


s u b s y s t e m . It i s a t h r e e - d e g r e e - o f - f r e e d o m s t a b i l i z e d p l a t f o r m a s s e m b l ) . ,
containing t h r e e i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e i n t e g r a t i n g g)-ros ( I R I G s ) , t h r e e pulsed
i n t e g r a t i n g pendulous a c c e l e r o m e t e r s ( P I P - I s ) , a n d t h r e e a n g u l a r d i f f e r e n t i -
ating a c c e l e r o m e t e r s (-IDAS). The s t a b l e m e m b e r i t s e l f i s machined f r o m
a s o l i d block of b e r y l l i u m xvith h o l e s b o r e d f o r mounting the P I P X s , IRIGs,
a n d one of the t h r e e .ADXs. T h r e e g i m b a l a n d s i x i n t e r g i m b a l a s s e m b l i e s ,
\vhich h o u s e t o r q u e m o t o r s and r e s o l v e r s , a r e a l s o p a r t of the I M U a s s e m b l y ,
t o g e t h e r \I-ith p r e a m p l i f i e r s and g i m b a l - m o u n t e d e l e c t r o n i c s . F i g u r e 2. 1-2
sho\vs h o w - the IRIGs a n d the P I P A s a r e mounted r e l a t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r on
t h e s t a b l e m e m b e r ( o r i n n e r g i m b a l ) . The t h r e e g i m b a l a x e s . about lvhich
- e a c h of the g i m b a l s r o t a t e , a r e a l s o shoxvn.

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The s t a b l e p l a t f o r m a t t i t u d e i s m a i n t a i n e d by the IRIGs, ADAs, s t a b i -


l i z a t i o n l o o p e l e c t r o n i c s , and g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s . Any d i s p l a c e m e n t of
t h e s t a b l e p l a t f o r m o r g i m b a l a n g l e s i s s e n s e d by the IRICs and ADAs, which
g e n e r a t e e r r o r s i g n a l s . IRIG e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e r e s o l v e d a n d a m p l i f i e d a t
t h e IMU a n d a p p l i e d t o s t a b i l i z a t i o n loop e l e c t r o n i c s . ADA-produced e r r o r
s i g n a l s a r e s u m m e d with the IRIG e r r o r s i g n a l s . The r e s u l t a n t s i g n a l i s
conditioned a n d a p p l i e d t o t h e g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r s , which r e s t o r e the
de s i r e d attitude.

The s t a b l e p l a t f o r m p r o v i d e s a s p a c e - r e f e r e n c e d mount f o r t h r e e
PIPAS, which s e n s e velocity c h a n g e s . The P I P A s a r e mounted orthogonally
t o s e n s e t h e velocity c h a n g e s along a l l t h r e e a x e s . Any t r a n s l a t i o n a l f o r c e
e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s p a c e c r a f t c a u s e s a n a c c e l e r a t i o n o r d e c e l e r a t i o n n7hich
i s s e n s e d by one o r m o r e P I P A s . E a c h P I P A g e n e r a t e s a n output s i g n a l
p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e magnitude a n d d i r e c t i o n of velocity c h a n g e . T h i s s i g n a l ,
in the f o r m of a p u l s e t r a i n , i s a p p l i e d t o the AGC. The AGC will u s e the
s i g n a l t o update the \relocity i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a l s o g e n e r a t e s i g n a l s t o t o r q u e
e a c h P I P A d u c o s y n b a c k t o null.

The t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e IRIGs a n d P I P A s i s m a i n t a i n e d within r e q u i r e d


l i m i t s d u r i n g both standb)- a n d o p e r a t i n g m o d e s of the IMU. The IMU t e m -
p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s y s t e m c o n t a i n s c i r c u i t s t o supply n o r m a l p r o p o r t i o n a l
t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l n5th the c a p a b i l i t y of b a c k u p o r e m e r g e n c y c o n t r o l i n
c a s e of a p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l m a l f u n c t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n a l t e m p e r a t u r e
c o n t r o l c i r c u i t is the p r i i n a r ) - m e a n s of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e IRIG a n d PIP=\
t e m p e r a t u r e and p r o v i d e s the m o s t a c c u r a t e c o n t r o l . T h i s type of c o n t r o l i s
aL-ailable when e i t h e r the p r o p o r t i o n a l o r a u t o - o v e r r i d e mode is s e l e c t e d
with the I M U T E M P MODE s e l e c t o r s w i t c h . The p u r p o s e of t h e a u t o -
oiFerride mode is t o pro\-ide a u t o m a t i c switching f r o m t h a t mode to
e m e r g e n q - c o n t r o l if t h e r e i s a m a l f u n c t i o n i n the p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l
c i r c u i t . If a m a l f u n c t i o n o c c u r s i n the p r o p o r t i o n a l m o d e , t h e switching t o
e m e r g e n c y c o n t r o l m u s t be p e r f o r m e d m a n u a l l y . In the' p r o p o r t i o n a l m o d e ,
t h e t e m p e r a t u r e is c o n t r o l l e d by t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l
b r i d g e a n d i s ' m a i n t a i n e d a t 135kO. 5 ° F . IVhile i n the e m e r g e n c l - m o d e , i t i s
c o n t r o l l e d bb- the m e r c u r y t h e r m o s t a t and i s held \\.ithin *3"F.

The b a c k u p t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l a n d i n d i c a t o r c i r c u i t is intended f o r
u s e i n t h e e \ - e n t t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l fails. The c o n t r o l s e n s i n g e l e m e n t s
f o r t h i s s y s t e m a r e t h r e e PIPA indicating s e n s o r s (connected i n s e r i e s ) and
s i x IRIG s e n s i n g e l e m e n t s ( c o n n e c t e d i n s e r i e s ) in t\vo s e p a r a t e b r i d g e s .
T h i s s y s t e m c a n m a i n t a i n the t e m p e r a t u r e to n.ithin *1 " F . In t h i s mode of
o p e r a t i o n , a n a l a r m i n d i c a t i o n i s not a\railable to the a s t r o n a u t b e c a u s e of
m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the t e m p e r a t u r e a l a r m a m p l i f i e r c i r c u i t .

2 . 2 . 3. 1 . 3 Coupling a n d Display Units.

T h e r e a r e ii\-e CDL's mounted belo\v the IiMU c o n t r o l panel a t the l o w e r


e q u i p m e n t bal-. T h r e e CDUs f u n c t i o n a s p a r t of the ISS, Xvhile t h e two
r e m a i n i n g C D U s function u.ith t h e OSS. The optic CDUs (OCDUs) a r e
d e s c r i b e d i n p a r a g r a p h 2 . 2 . 3 . 2 . The t h r e e i n e r t i a l CDUs (ICDUs) a r e
i d e n t i c a l a n d ma)- be i n t e r c h a n g e d . DisplaJ- d i a l s on the f r o n t panel of e a c h
pro\-ide a b-digit r e a d o u t . P o s i t i o n i n g of the ICDUs i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by the
-4GC. E a c h ICDU c o n t a i n s a l / - l - s p e e d , 1 / 2 - s p e e d , 1 - s p e e d , a n d l o - s p e e d
r e s o l \ - e r , the functions o i which depend upon t h e ISS mode of o p e r a t i o n . The
a n g u l a r m o v e m e n t s of the r e s o l v e r s a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o d i g i t a l s i g n a l s bl- a
d i g i t a l e n c o d e r , p r o c e s s e d by e n c o d e r e l e c t r o n i c s , and r o u t e d t o -1GC
r e g i s t e r s \vhich m a i n t a i n c u r r e n t ICDU a n g l e s f o r u s e a s d e s i r e d . The XGC
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~
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c o m m a n d s CDU m o v e m e n t s by applying d i g i t a l d r i v e c o m m a n d s t o d i g i t a l -
t o - a n a l o g c o n v e r t e r s . The d r i v e s i g n a l s a r e c o n v e r t e d f r o m d i g i t a l t o a n a l o -g
a n d applTed t o CDU m o t o r d r i v e a m p l i f i e r s which position the C b U s . The
1 - s p e e d and 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s function a s r e c e i \ - e r s of s i g n a l s p r o d u c e d b\-
1 - s p e e d and 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s mounted on the IMU. The 1 / 2 - s p e e d
r e s o l v e r s a r e u s e d t o z e r o the CDUs a n d t h e 1 1 4 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s a r e not
u s e d . The r e s o l v e r s provide input s i g n a l s t o s e l e c t o r c i r c u i t s \vhich provide
m o t o r d r i v e s i g n a l s o r s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s , depending upon ISS
m o d e of o p e r a t i o n . The IMU o u t e r g i m b a l 1 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s i g n a l s a r e
a p p l i e d t o the r o l l CDU 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r t o i n c r e a s e r o l l c o n t r o l r a t e s
during entry.

2.2. 3 . 1.4 Po\ver and S e r v o A s s e m b l y - .

The po\ver a n d s e r v o a s s e m b l y ( P S A ) , l o c a t e d j u s t belo\v the d i s p l a y


a n d c o n t r o l panel i n the lolver e q u i p m e n t bay, s e r v e s a s a c e n t r a l mounting
point f o r m o s t of the G&N e l e c t r o n i c u n i t s s u c h a s power s u p p l i e s and
a m p l i f i e r s . It a l s o c o n t a i n s the b a c k u p e l e c t r o n i c s u s e d t o supply t i m i n g
p u l s e s t o the IMU i n c a s e of a n AGC t i m i n g m a l f u n c t i o n . It c o n s i s t s of 10
r e m o v a b l e t r a y s mounted a d j a c e n t t o e a c h o t h e r a n d c o n n e c t e d to a junction
box. T h e PSX t r a y s u t i l i z e t h r e e w i r i n g h a r n e s s e s t o provide e l e c t r i c a l
connection: one f o r m o d u l e - t o - m o d u l e connection, a n o t h e r f o r module - t o -
j u n c t i o n box c o n n e c t i o n , and a t h i r d f o r module connection t o a 38-pin
f e m a l e t e s t plug on the f r o n t of the PSA t r a y .

2 . 2 . 3.2 Optical Subsystem.

The o p t i c a l s u b s y s t e m is u s e d f o r taking p r e c i s e o p t i c a l s i g h t i n g s on
c e l e s t i a l b o d i e s a n d f o r taking f i x e s on l a n d m a r k s . T h e s e sightings a r e u s e d
f o r aligning t h e IMU a n d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g th’e position of the s p a c e c r a f t . The
s y s t e m i n c l u d e s the navigational b a s e , two of the five CDUs, p a r t s of the
power and s e r v o a s s e m b l y , c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s , a n d the o p t i c s , Ivhich
include the scanning t e l e s c o p e ( S C T ) a n d the s e x t a n t ( S X T ) .

2 . 2 . 3. 2 . 1 Optics.

The o p t i c s c o n s i s t of t h e SCT a n d the SXT mounted i n txvo p r o t r u d i n g


t u b u l a r s e c t i o n s of the o p t i c a l b a s e a s s e m b l y . The SCT a n d SXT s h a f t a x e s
a r e a l i g n e d p a r a l l e l to e a c h o t h e r a n d a f f o r d a c o m m o n l i n e - o f - s i g h t ( L O S )
t o s e l e c t e d t a r g e t s . The t r u n n i o n a x e s m a y b e p a r a l l e l o r the SCT a x i s may
b e o f f s e t depending upon m o d e of o p e r a t i o n .

The s e x t a n t is a highly a c c u r a t e o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t capable of m e a s u r -


ing t h e included a n g l e b e t w e e n two t a r g e t s . Angular s i g h t i n g s of tn.0 t a r g e t s
a r e m a d e t h r o u g h a fixed b e a m s p l i t t e r a n d a m o v a b l e m i r r o r l o c a t e d in the
s e x t a n t h e a d . The s e x t a n t l e n s p r o v i d e s 1. 8 - d e g r e e t r u e field of vie\r \rith
28X magnification. The movable m i r r o r i s capable of sighting a t a r g e t to
5 7 d e g r e e s LOS f r o m the s h a f t axis. The m e c h a n i c a l a c c u r a c l - of the
t r u n n i o n a x i s i s twice t h a t of the LOS r e q u i r e m e n t due t o m i r r o r r e f l e c t i o n
\vhich d o u b l e s any a n g u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t r u n n i o n a x i s .

The scanning t e l e s c o p e is s i m i l a r t o a theodolite i n i t s ability t o


a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r e e l e v a t i o n a n d a z i m u t h a n g l e s of a s i n g l e t a r g e t using a n
e s t a b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e . The l e n s e s provide 6 0 - d e g r e e t r u e field of \-le\\- a t
1X m a g n i f i c a t i o n . The t e l e s c o p e allon.able LOS e r r o r s a r e 1 m i n u t e of a r c
r m s i n e l e v a t i o n with m a x i m u m r e p e a t a b i l i t y of 1 3 a r c i s e c o n d s and
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 a r c l s e c o n d s i n s h a f t a x i s .

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2 . 2 . 3. 2 . 2 Coupling Display Units.

The function of t h e OCDUs is t o position and r e p e a t a n g l e s of t h e S C T and


S X T s h a f t a n d t r u n n i o n a x e s . T h e OCDUs a r e s i m i l a r t o the ICDUs, but m a y
not be i n t e r c h a n g e d due t o i n t e r n a l m e c h a n i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s allowing h i g h e r
OCDU r a t e s . E a c h OCDU h a s a 6-digit d i s p l a y r e a d o u t and c a n be positioned
a u t o m a t i c a l l y by AGC c o m m a n d . CDU a n g l e s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o a d i g i t a l
s i g n a l by a d i g i t a l e n c o d e r , p r o c e s s e d by e n c o d e r e l e c t r o n i c s , a n d r o u t e d to
a n AGC r e g i s t e r . AGC positioning c o m m a n d s a r e a p p l i e d t o a d i g i t a l - t o -
a n a l o g c o n v e r t e r , c o n v e r t e d t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e analog s i g n a l , and a p p l i e d
t o a m o t o r d r i v e a m p l i f i e r i n t h e SXT. R e s o l v e r s i n the SXT function a s
t r a n s m i t t e r s t o CDU r e s o l v e r s which r e c e i v e the position s i g n a l s a n d apply
t h e c o m m a n d e d a n g l e s t o the CDU m o t o r d r i v e a m p l i f i e r s t o po'sition the
CDU m o t o r .

T r u n n i o n CDU 1 /-l-speed and 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s function a s receixrers


a n d provide d r i v e s i g n a l s to the t r u n n i o n CDU m o t o r . The SXT t r u n n i o n
r e s o l v e r s which d r i v e t h e CDU r e s o l v e r s a r e 1 - s p e e d and 6 4 - s p e e d r e s p e c -
t i v e l y , probiding a 1:4 SXT t r u n n i o n t o CDU t r u n n l o n r a t i o . V i s u a l r e a d o u t s
on t h e t r u n n i o n d i s p l a y d i a l s a r e t h u s f o u r t i m e s t h e t r u n n i o n a n g l e and tn.0
t i m e s t h e star l i n e - o f - s i g h t a n g l e f r o m z e r o position. The 1 / 2 - s p e e d
r e s o l v e r , i n conjunction with t h e c o s e c a n t a m p l i f i e r , p r o v i d e s a v a r i a b l e
g a i n computing r e s o l v e r which is u s e d i n the RESOLVED mode of o p e r a t l o n .
The 1 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r i s not u s e d i n t h e t r u n n i o n CDU.

Shaft CDU 1 / 2 - s p e e d and 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s function as r e c e i v e r s and


p r o d u c e d r i v e s i g n a l s t o the s h a f t CDU m o t o r . SXT r e s o l \ v e r s u s e d a s
t r a n s m i t t e r s a r e a l s o 1 / 2 - s p e e d a n d 1 6 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r s , affording a 1 : l
r a t i o ; t h u s , t h e d i s p l a y d i a l s provide d i r e c t r e a d o u t s of the s h a f t a n g l e s .
The 1 - s p e e d r e s o l v e r r e s o l v e s p o l a r c o o r d i n a t e s into r e c t a n g u l a r c o o r -
d i n a t e s f o r t n e PESOLVED m o d e of o p e r a t i o n . The l i - l - s p e e d r e s o l v e r i s
not u s e d in the s h a f t CDU.

2 . 2 . 3. 2 . 3 Operational Modes.

O p t i c s positioning i s a c c o m p l i s h e d automaticall)- by the XGC o r


m a n u a l l y by t h e c r e w . O v e r a l l mode c o n t r o l i s e s t a b l l s h e d by c r e n . s e l e c -
t i o n of t h e Z E R O OPTICS, MANUAL, o r COMPUTER m o d e s on the O P T I C S
panel.

Z E R O OPTICS mode e n a b l e s a u t o m a t i c d r i v e of t h e SXT shaft and


t r u n n i o n m o t o r s t o z e r o . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by applying the SXT r e s o l \ . - e r
output s i g n a l s t o t h e input of the SXT m o t o r d r i v e a m p l i f i e r s . The d r i v e
s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d t o the CDU and S C T r e s o l v e r s which follon. the SXT s h a f t
a n d t r u n n i o n a x e s t o z e r o . A f t e r 6 0 s e c o n d s , the AGC o p t i c s position
r e g i s t e r s a r e c l e a r e d . This mode m a y b e s e l e c t e d by AGC p r o g r a m o r
m a nu a 11>-.

MANUAL m o d e e n a b l e s positioning c o n t r o l of t h e o p t i c s by m a n u a l
m a n i p u l a t i o n of the o p t i c s hand c o n t r o l l e r . The hand c o n t r o l l e r is m e c h -
a n i z e d s u c h t h a t , r i g h t - l e f t m o v e m e n t g e n e r a t e s s h a f t c o m m a n d s , and
up-down m o v e m e n t g e n e r a t e s t r u n n i o n c o m m a n d s . Hand c o n t r o l l e r dri\,e
r a t e s a r e s e l e c t e d by t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e CONTROLLER S P E E D sn.itch.

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...
SYSTEMS DATA

P o s i t i o n s HI, hlED, and LO c o n t r o l the amplitude of the d r i v e s i g n a l t o the


hand c o n t r o l l e r . Hand c o n t r o l l e r d r i v e s i g n a l s a r e applied t o t h e SXT
s h a f t and t r u n n i o n d r i v e a m p l i f i e r s t h r o u g h the CONTROLLER MODE s w i t c h
f o r s e l e c t i o n of DIRECT o r RESOLVED mode. I n DIRECT m o d e , the i m a g e
m o t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d in a p o l a r c o o r d i n a t e r e f e r e n c e f r a m e : i n RESOLVED
m o d e , the i m a g e m o t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d in a r e c t a n g u l a r c o o r d i n a t e r e f e r e n c e
frame.

I n DIRECT m o d e , s h a f t c o m m a n d s move the i m a g e in a c i r c u l a r path


a r o u n d the c e n t e r of the field of view. T r u n n i o n c o m m a n d s d r i v e the i m a g e
i n a s t r a i g h t line a c r o s s t h e c e n t e r of the field of view. T h e a n g u l a r
o r i e n t a t i o n of the t r u n n i o n commanded s t r a i g h t line m o v e m e n t i s a function
of t h e shaft a n g l e ; t h e r e f o r e , d i r e c t i o n of i m a g e c i o i r e m e n t with r e s p e c t
t o the d i r e c t i o n of hand c o n t r o l l e r m o v e m e n t i s a l s o a function of s h a f t
a n g l e . T h e r a t e of i m a g e m o v e m e n t , f o r shaft c o m m a n d s , i s a function
of trunnion a n g l e , w h e r e i n i n c r e a s i n g t r u n n i o n a n g l e s r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s i n g
i m a g e movement r a t e s .

I n RESOLVED m o d e , shaft c o m m a n d s m o v e the i m a g e l e f t - r i g h t in


a s t r a i g h t l i n e . T r u n n i o n c o m m a n d s move the i m a g e up-down i n a s t r a i g h t
line. I m a g e m o v e m e n t i s i n the s a m e d i r e c t i o n a s hand c o n t r o l l e r m o v e -
m e n t and the r a t e of m o v e m e n t i s c o n s t a n t f o r v a r y i n g a n g l e s .

In COMPUTER m o d e , the XGC positions the o p t i c s to a s t a r o r l a n d -


m a r k d e t e r m i n e d by AGC p r o g r a m m i n g . T h i s mode i s p e r f o r m e d by a n
XGC r o u t i n e which is c a l l e d u p a u t o m a t i c a l l y by v a r i o u s a l i g n m e n t p r o -
g r a m s . T h e t a r g e t s t a r o r l a n d m a r k m a y be defined by AGC p r o g r a m m i n g
o r by the c r e w . If the t a r g e t s t a r o r l a n d m a r k i s not s e l e c t e d by .AGC
p r o g r a m m i n g , the c r e w m a k e s a DSKY e n t r y defining e i t h e r the l a t i t u d e ,
longitude, and altitude f o r a l a n d m a r k o r the s t a r code f o r a s t a r . The
AGC d e t e r m i n e s the s p a c e c r a f t attitude by m o n i t o r i n g the I C D U s , and
c o m p u t e s the a n g l e s n e c e s s a r y t o d r i v e the o p t i c s t o the d e s i r e d t a r g e t .
(If t h e a n g l e s n e c e s s a r y t o a c q u i r e the t a r g e t a r e beyond the c a p a b i l i t i e s
of the o p t i c s , t h e AGC f l a s h e s the DSKY d i s p l a y s . ) When t h e n e c e s s a r y
a n g l e s a r e c o m p u t e d , t h e AGC d i s p l a y s t h e d e s i r e d s h a f t a n d t r u n n i o n
a n g l e s on the DSKY and i n i t i a t e s OCDU d r i v e t o t h e s e a n g l e s . When the
AGC h a s c o m p l e t e d d r i v i n g the CDUs, t h e c r e w c h e c k s t h e DSKY-displayed
a n g l e s a g a i n s t the 6-digit CDU d i s p l a y s a n d t h e S C T c o u n t e r s . The creLv
t h e n l o c a t e s and i d e n t i f i e s the t a r g e t i n the S C T , e n a b l e s m a n u a l c o n t r o l ,
and c o m p l e t e s the sighting, The AGC c a n a l s o p e r f o r m z e r o o p t i c s
f u n c t i o n s , i f d e s i r e d , by t h e AGC p r o g r a m .

T h e S C T t r u n n i o n m a y be o p e r a t e d in t h r e e a l t e r n a t e m o d e s , with
r e s p e c t t o the SXT t r u n n i o n , a s d e s i r e d . T h e SL-qVE T E L E S C O P E s w l t c h
e n a b l e s c r e w s e l e c t i o n of ST-AR LOS, L.4KDM-lRK LOS O " , o r O F F S E T
2 5 " . T h e ST-lR LOS position i s n o r m a l l y u s e d I n t h i s position, the SCT
t r u n n i o n i s s l a v e d t o the SXT trunnion. T h e LANDMARK LOS 0 " position,
a p p l i e s a fixed voltage t o t h e S C T t r u n n i o n position loop c a u s i n g i t t o null
a t z e r o . T h i s holds c e n t e r o i the SCT 6 0 " f l e l d of view p a r a l l e l to the

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B a s i c Date l2 l966 Change Date page


. 2.2-15
SMZA -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

SXT l a n d m a r k l i n e of s i g h t . T h e O F F S E T 2 5 " p o s i t i o n a p p l i e s a f i x e d
voltage t o the SCT t r u n n i o n position loop, c a u s i n g it to null a t 25 d e g r e e s
o f f - c e n t e r . T h i s holds t h e S C T field of view s o t h a t the SXT l a n d m a r k line
of s i g h t r e m a i n s v i s i b l e while sweeping t h e SCT s h a f t t h r o u g h 360 d e g r e e s
of r o t a t i o n , providing a n a p p r o x i m a t e 110 - d e g r e e total f i e l d of view,

2 . 2 . 3. 3 Computer Subsystem.

T h e c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m (CSS) c o n s i s t s of the Apollo guidance c o m -


p u t e r ( A G C ) and two d i s p l a y and k e y b o a r d p a n e l s (DSKYs). The AGC and
one DSKY a r e l o c a t e d a t the l o w e r e q u i p m e n t bay. T h e o t h e r DSKY is
l o c a t e d on the m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e . The AGC m o u n t s one s w i t c h on the
f r o n t panel which a p p l i e s p a r t i a l o r full power to the c o m p u t e r to e n a b l e
standbv o r full o p e r a t i o n of the CSS. All o t h e r XGC c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s
a r e l o c a t e d on the DSKYs. The k e y b o a r d s o n the DSKYs a r e s m i l i a r ;
h o w e v e r , the d i s p l a y s on the DSKY in the l o w e r e q u i p m e n t bay a r e m o r e
extensive,

2.2.3.3. 1 Xpollo Guidance C o m p u t e r .

The .Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r (-AGC) is a d i g i t a l c o m p u t e r using a


t w o - p a r t r o p e c o r e m e m o r y . (See f i g u r e 2 . 2 - 3 . ) The AGC p r o c e s s e s
v a r i o u s d a t a t o p r o v i d e c o n t r o l and c o m p u t a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . Input d a t a i s
r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e c r e w , ISS, OSS, iMSFN, and o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s . .-I

T h i s d a t a i s p r o c e s s e d by v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s to p r o v i d e outputs t o the
c r e w , ISS, OSS, M S F N , and o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s in the f o r m of
c o m m a n d s and d i s p l a y s . T h e c o n t r o l functions p e r f o r m e d by the AGC
c o n s i s t of t h e following:

0 Align the I h I U s t a b l e p l a t f o r m .

e P o s i t i o n t h e o p t i c s f o r navigation s i g h t i n g s .

0 C o m m a n d r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m engine f i r i n g s to m a i n t a i n
specific attitude.

0 R e q u e s t initiation and c o m m a n d t e r m i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e
p r o p u l s i o n engine f i r i n g s .

0 P r o v i d e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n p u l s e s t o the c e n t r a l t i m i n g e q u i p m e n t .

0 C o m m a n d t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n to A l S F N .

0 C o m m a n d ISS moding.

0 Command OSS moding.

The r e f e r e n c e d a t a u s e d to g e n e r a t e c o n t r o l s m a y be a c q u i r e d e x t e r n a l l y o r
g e n e r a t e d within the ;IGC. I n i t i a t i o n of the c o n t r o l s may be a c c o m p l i s h e d by
the c r e w u s i n g the D S K Y s , by MSFK via t e l e m e t r ) , o r by a n AGC p r o g r a m .
~ ~ ~

GUIDANCE .AND NAVIGATION SYSTELLI

Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 N0.J 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 2-16


SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

-
MEYORY
I
I
ERASE- I FIXED
ABLE I
A
PARITY FAIL INHIBIT/ENABLE D O W N L I N K

v
SCS MODES
TELEMETRY
I =,SKY
I LISS
S
MODESa CONTROL
DSKYS (CREW)
ISS MODES
OSS ANGLES
MESC (EVENTS)
INPUT
DATA IN CENTRAL
PROCESSOR 4- OUTPUT
OSS MODES 8 CONTROL
SPS E N G I N E

S-IVB I N S T U N I T - I II
I I F P S A REFERENCE
TIMING (REAL TIME) TO A 1 SECTIONS
TO ALL SECTIONS I

SM-2A-827

Figure 2 . 2 - 3 . AGC Functional Block D i a g r a m

Computations a r e p e r f o r m e d t o g e n e r a t e the p r o p e r c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s ,
m a i n t a i n navigation p a r a m e t e r s , and complete v a r i o u s o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s
u n d e r p r o g r a m c o n t r o l . AGC p r o g r a m s a r e s t o r e d in m e m o r y . The
m e m o r y contains two s e c t i o n s , e r a s a b l e and n o n - e r a s a b l e . The e r a s a b l e
s e c t i o n provides s t o r a g e f o r t r a n s i e n t data. Readout i s d e s t r u c t i v e ; t h u s ,
if the d a t a i s to be r e t a i n e d , i t m u s t be w r i t t e n back into m e m o r y .
O t h e r w i s e , the location i s c l e a r e d f o r f u r t h e r u s e a s d e s i r e d . N o n - e r a s a b l e
m e m o r y contains p r o g r a m s , r o u t i n e s , c o n s t a n t s , s t a r and l a n d m a r k c o o r -
d i n a t e s , and o t h e r , p e r t i n e n t d a t a . Readout is non-destructive; t h u s , the
d a t a contained i n this s e c t i o n is not l o s t and cannot be a l t e r e d . AGC p r o -
g r a m s a r e p e r f o r m e d by controlling the flow of data within the six b a s i c
s e c t i o n s l i s t e d a s follows:

a P o w e r supply
0 Input
0 output

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEiM


M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2 . 2-17
SM2A-03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

_-
SYSTEMS DATA

0 Central processor
Memory
0 Timing

P o w e r Supply. T h e power supply c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s . Input to the power


supply i s + 2 8 vdc f r o m the s p a c e c r a f t m a i n d - c bus. The two s e c t i o n s p r o -
vide t 1 3 vdc and + 3 vdc. T h e +13-vdc output p r o v i d e s power to the DSKYs
and, in conjunction with the t 3 - v d c power, to the logic c i r c u i t s . The
t 3 - v d c supply p r o v i d e s power to the timing s e c t i o n as w e l l a s to the logic
c i r c u i t s . D u r i n g standby mode of o p e r a t i o n , the +3-vdc section only i s
o p e r a t e d ; t h u s , power consumption is r e d u c e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 w a t t s .

Input. T h e input s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of four r e g i s t e r s which enable i n t e r -


c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the AGC and the o t h e r G&N s u b s y s t e m s , the
s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s y s t e m , the m i s s i o n s e q u e n c e r , the S-IVE guid-
a n c e , a n d MSFN. The utilization of the r e g i s t e r s i s s u c h t h a t e a c h bit
position in e a c h r e g i s t e r i s a s s i g n e d a s p e c i f i c t a s k . F o r e x a m p l e , bit
p o s i t i o n s 1, 2 , 3, 4, and 5 of input r e g i s t e r 0 a r e a s s i g n e d to r e c e i v i n g the
five bit code g e n e r a t e d when a DSKY key is p r e s s e d . D a t a r e c e i v e d f r o m
the v a r i o u s , s o u r c e s a r e conditionedby the input r e g i s t e r s s u c h t h a t , when
i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d into the logic c i r c u i t s , the signal l e v e l s and timing a r e
c o r r e c t . The d a t a r e c e i v e d by the f o u r input r e g i s t e r s a r e as follows:

Input 0 R e g i s t e r R e c e i v e s 5-bit code f r o m the DSKYs,


block uplink signal f r o m the U P T E L switch,
c o n t r o l s i g n a l s f r o m the SCS mode c o n t r o l
panel, and m a r k c o m m a n d s f r o m the MARK
pushbutton. Also m o n i t o r s the signal f r o m
the t e l e m e t r y bit r a t e detecting c i r c u i t s .

Input 1 R e g i s t e r This r e g i s t e r is f o r m e d by the S c a l e r A


r e g i s t e r of the timing s e c t i o n which m a i n -
t a i n s r e a l t i m e d u r i n g standby o p e r a t i o n ,
and provides update information to the r e a l
t i m e c o u n t e r s when full o p e r a t i o n i s
resumed.

Input 2 R e g i s t e r R e c e i v e s 2 0 0 , 400, 8 0 0 , and 1600 pps


s i g n a l s f r o m the S c a l e r A s e c t i o n of the
t i m i n g s e c t i o n f o r m i n g a n e x t e n s i o n of the
r e a l t i m e c o u n t e r s f o r u s e by o t h e r s p a c e -
c r a f t s y s t e m s which r e q u i r e t i m i n g of t h i s
o r d e r . Also r e c e i v e s d i s c r e t e event s i g n a l s
f r o m the S-IVB i n s t r u m e n t unit, C M f S M
s e p a r a t i o n s i g n a l s f r o m the m a s t e r e v e n t s
sequence controller, failure signals f r o m
the ISS, mode s i g n a l s f r o m the SCS, and
p a r i t y fail s i g n a l s .

~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2. 2-18


SM2A -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

- SYSTEMS DATA

Input 3 R e g i s t e r R e c e i v e s ISS mode s i g n a l s f r o m the ISS


mode r e l a y s and mode s i g n a l s f r o m the OSS,
m o n i t o r s the p o s i t i o n of t h e TRANSFER
s w i t c h , and p r o v i d e s a logic OR gate f o r
3 3 DSKY r e l a y s .

Output. T h e output s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of f o u r r e g i s t e r s which e n a b l e the


AGC t o c o m m u n i c a t e with t h e flight c r e w , ISS, OSS, and o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t
s y s t e m s . T h e u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e r e g i s t e r s is s i m i l a r to t h a t u s e d f o r the
input s e c t i o n ( i . e . , e a c h bit position, or g r o u p of bit p o s i t i o n s i s a s s i g n e d
a s p e c i f i c t a s k ) . T h e t a s k s a s s i g n e d t o t h e v a r i o u s r e g i s t e r s and bit
p o s i t i o n s a r e a s follows:

Output 0 R e g i s t e r P r o v i d e s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n link f r o m the


AGC t o t h e DSKYs by c o n t r o l of 14 banks of
r e l a y s which p r o v i d e d i s p l a y of d a t a and
r o u t i n g of c o n t r o l s i g n a l s t o t h e ISS, OSS,
a n d SCS.

Output 1 R e g i s t e r R e c e i v e s i n t e r n a l AGC a l a r m s i g n a l s and


c a u s e s a l a r m i n d i c a t o r s o n t h e DSKYs to
i l l u m i n a t e . R e c e i v e s KEY RLSE r e q u e s t
f r o m a n AGC p r o g r a m and c a u s e s the KEY
RLSE i n d i c a t o r t o i l l u m i n a t e and f l a s h u n t i l
the DSKY i s r e l e a s e d . R e c e i v e s AGC s i g n a l
i n d i c a t i n g i m p r o p e r DSKY o p e r a t i o n and
c a u s e s the CHECK FAIL i n d i c a t o r to i l l u -
m i n a t e . R e c e i v e s S P S engine f i r i n g s i g n a l
f r o m a n AGC p r o g r a m , c a u s i n g t h e DSKY
to f l a s h a r e q u e s t f o r c r e w i n i t i a t i o n of
engine f i r i n g . R e c e i v e s SPS engine off
c o m m a n d f r o m a n AGC p r o g r a m , r e m o v i n g
t h e engine on s i g n a l . A l s o p r o v i d e s s i g n a l
t o r e s e t the e r r o r i n t e r r u p t t r a p c i r c u i t s ,
i d e n t i f i e s the type of w o r d being t r a n s m i t t e d
by downlink t e l e m e t r y , and i n h i b i t s f u r t h e r
loading of t e l e m e t r y w o r d s when t h e t e l e m -
e t r y word r a t e e x c e e d s 50 w o r d s p e r s e c o n d .

Output 2 R e g i s t e r C o n t r o l s a p p l i c a t i o n of 3200 pps c o n t r o l


p u l s e s t o t h e ISS and OSS.

Output 3 R e g i s t e r S e r v e s as a s p a r e r e g i s t e r f o r the central


p r o c e s s o r when needed.

Output 4 R e g i s t e r C o n t a i n s t h e next word t o be t r a n s m i t t e d by


downlink t e l e m e t r y .

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM


2. 2-19
Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page
SM2A -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

C e n t r a l P r o c e s s o r . T h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r c o n t a i n s the logic c i r c u i t s
and r e g i s t e r s which p e r f o r m t h e p r o g r a m s . P r o g r a m s a r e e x e c u t e d by
p e r f o r m i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s i n a s e q u e n c e c o n t r o l l e d by the sequence g e n e r a -
t o r . T h e r e a r e two b a s i c t y p e s of i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h e f i r s t is the m a c h i n e
i n s t r u c t i o n which c o n s i s t s of r e g u l a r , i n v o l u n t a r y , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s
i n s t r u c t i o n s . R e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e contained within the p r o g r a m and
a r e p a r t of t h e d a t a w o r d s being p r o c e s s e d . Involuntary i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e
p e r f o r m e d a s i n t e r r u p t s to t h e p r o g r a m and a r e g e n e r a t e d e x t e r n a l l y to the
AGC. M i s c e l l a n e o u s i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e u s e d i n t h e c o m p u t e r t e s t only. T h e
s e c o n d b a s i c type of i n s t r u c t i o n is t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s and a r e a
p r o g r a m m e r convenience which a r e c o n v e r t e d u n d e r p r o g r a m c o n t r o l to
m a c h i n e i n s t r u c t i o n s . The e x e c u t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n s is a function of
the sequence generator. The sequence generator combines basic timing
p u l s e s with t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p o r t i o n of a d a t a word and p e r f o r m s the p r o g r a m
in the n e c e s s a r y s e q u e n c e . R e g u l a r m a c h i n e i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e p r o c e s s e d
by t h e s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t o r i n i t i a t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e i n s t r u c t i o n
w i l l p e r f o r m one o r m o r e s u b i n s t r u c t i o n , the l a s t of which will be a s u b -
i n s t r u c t i o n to p r o c e e d to the next i n s t r u c t i o n . Involuntary i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e
i n i t i a t e d by an i n t e r r u p t f r o m a n e x t e r n a l s o u r c e , a f t e r which the i n s t r u c -
t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d i n the s a m e m a n n e r a s a r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n . After
c o m p l e t i o n of the i n v o l u n t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n , a " r e s u m e " c o m m a n d i s e x e c u t e d
and the s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t o r r e t u r n s to the p r o g r a m which was i n t e r r u p t e d .
T h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r p e r f o r m s the d a t a manipulation by adding, s u b -
t r a c t i n g , shifting, e t c . , within a g r o u p of c e n t r a l r e g i s t e r s , a d d e r , and
p a r i t y block. T h e f u n c t i o n s of the r e g i s t e r s a r e a s follows:

A Register Accumulator. S t o r e s the r e s u l t s of a r i t h m e t i c


processing.

LP Register S t o r e s the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s of the


p r o d u c t of a multiply i n s t r u c t i o n .

3 Register U s e d t o c o m p l e m e n t (by r e a d i n g the r e s e t s i d e


of the r e g i s t e r ) , a s t e m p o r a r y s t o r a g e , and a s
a buffer.

Z Register P r o g r a m c o u n t e r . Contains a d d r e s s of next


i n s t r u c t i o n . I n c r e m e n t e d by one a s e a c h i n s t r u c .
t i o n is p e r f o r m e d . ( I n s t r u c t i o n s a r e usually
s t o r e d in m e m o r y sequentially. )

Q Register If t r a n s f e r c o n t r o l o c c u r s the contents of Z a r e


r e a d i n t o and s t o r e d in Q until i n t e r r u p t i s c o m -
pleted. E n a b l e s i n t e r r u p t e d p r o g r a m to r e s t a r t
a t the p r o p e r i n s t r u c t i o n . Also u s e d i n d i v i s i o n .
Stores r e m a i n d e r in complemented form.

Input 0 , 1, 2 , 3 R e f e r to Input s e c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n .

Output 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 R e f e r to Output s e c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n .

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM


a
page 2.2-20
Mission B a s i c Date l2 NOv 19b6 Change Date
S M 2 A - 0 3 -SC 0 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTELIS DATX

G Register P r o v i d e s a c c e s s t o and f r o m m e m o r y . Shifting,


u n d e r p r o g r a m c o n t r o l , t a k e s place i n t h i s
r e g i s t e r . P a r i t y bit i s r e m o v e d and r e s t o r e d
in this r e g i s t e r .

S Register C o n t a i n s a d d r e s s of w o r d t o be c a l l e d f r o m
m e m o r y . If w o r d i s i n fixed m e m o r y , t h i s
s e l e c t s w o r d i n conjunction with B-ANK
register.

BANK R e g i s t e r S e l e c t s bank i n fixed m e m o r y . . O p e r a t e s in


conjunction with S r e g i s t e r .

SQ Register S t o r e s 4 bit o r d e r code of i n s t r u c t i o n w o r d

X , Y, U Registers T h e s e r e g i s t e r s f o r m t h e a d d e r . Two n u m b e r s
t o be added a r e p l a c e d i n X and Y. T h e r e s u l t
i s s t o r e d i n U.

Parity Circuit T h e p a r i t y c i r c u i t c h e c k s the p a r i t y of w o r d s


c o m i n g f r o m m e m o r y t o be odd. I f p a r i t y i s
not c o r r e c t , t h i s c i r c u i t g e n e r a t e s a p a r i t y
a l a r m . Words being r e t u r n e d t o m e m o r y a r e
given the p r o p e r p a r i t y bit by t h i s c i r c u i t .

Data flow within the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r i s initiated by a n i n s t r u c t i o n .


X d a t a w o r d i s brought f r o m m e m o r y t o the G r e g i s t e r . T h e G r e g i s t e r
p r o v i d e s P e m p o r a r y s t o r a g e of the w o r d until i t i s needed. I i the w o r d
c a m e f r o m e r a s a b l e m e m o r y , i t will u s u a l l y be w r i t t e n back into the s a m e
l o c a t i o n d u r i n g the s a m e m e m o r y c y c l e t i m e i t i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o the G
r e g i s t e r . ( T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r y f o r w o r d s f r o m fixed m e m o r y , a s
r e a d o u t i s not d e s t r u c t i v e . ) T h e w o r d i s t h e n r o u t e d to the p a r i t y c i r c u i t s
f o r a p a r i t y c h e c k and t o have the p a r i t y bit r e m o v e d . T h e s e q u e n c e
g e n e r a t o r next c o n t r o l s the t r a n s f e r of t h e d a t a w o r d to the o t h e r r e g i s t e r s
f o r p r o c e s s i n g . If the r e s u l t of t h e p r o c e s s i n g is t o be w r i t t e n back into
m e m o r y , the w o r d is t r a n s f e r r e d back into the G r e g i s t e r , the p a r i t y b i t
i s a d d e d , and the w o r d t r a n s f e r r e d b a c k t o m e m o r y . If the p r o c e s s i n g
c o n s i s t s of a r i t h m e t i c functions, i t is p e r f o r m e d i n the a d d e r ( X , Y , and
U r e g i s t e r s ) . T h e AGC h a s the c a p a b i l i t y t o add only; t h e r e f o r e , s u b -
t r a c t i o n , m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , and d i v i s i o n a r e p e r f o r m e d by c o m p l e m e n t i n g
a n d l o r shifting, t h e n adding.

l l e m o r y . T h e XGC m e m o r y c o n s i s t s of two s e c t i o n s . T h e l a r g e s t s e c t i o n
i s t h e f i s e d m e m o r y . T h i s is a r o p e c o r e type having a capability oi
2 4 , 5 7 6 s i x t e e n bit w o r d s . Readout is n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e and the d a t a c o n -
t a i n e d cannot be changed. All p e r m a n e n t , p r e - d e t e r m i n e d d a t a , s u c h a s
p r o g r a m s , t a b l e s , c o n s t a n t s , s t a r and l a n d m a r k a n g l e s , e t c . , a r e
contained i n t h i s s e c t i o n . +Addressing the d a t a contained i n the iixed

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SYSTEMS DATA

s e c t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e S and BANK r e g i s t e r s . A s m a l l e r e r a s a b l e
section provides t e m p o r a r y storage f o r transient data. E r a s a b l e m e m o r y
i s a c o i n c i d e n t - c u r r e n t c o r e a r r a y with a c a p a c i t y of 1024 s i x t e e n bit w o r d s .
R e a d o u t i s d e s t r u c t i v e , s o i f d a t a i s t o be r e t a i n e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to w r i t e
t h e d a t a back i n t o the l o c a t i o n when i t i s r e a d out. A d d r e s s i n g the d a t a
c o n t a i n e d i n e r a s a b l e m e m o r y is done by the S r e g i s t e r .

T i m i n g . T h e t i m i n g s e c t i o n g e n e r a t e s t h e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n p u l s e s f o r AGC
o p e r a t i o n s and t i m i n g p u l s e s f o r o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s . T h e t i m i n g
s e c t i o n i s divided i n t o the following functional g r o u p s :

Clock Divider T,his g r o u p contains the b a s i c clock


o s c i l l a t o r which h a s a 2 . 048 m c f r e q u e n c y
divided to t i m e v a r i o u s AGC logic functions
and c e r t a i n o u t p u t s , clock the t i m e pulse
g e n e r a t o r , and d r i v e S c a l e r A.

S c a l e r s A and B S c a l e r A c o n t a i n s 17 b i n a r y d i v i d e r s p r o -
ducing s i g n a l s of v a r i o u s f r e q u e n c i e s u s e d
within t h e AGC logic, a s r e f e r e n c e to the
PSA, and t o d r i v e S c a l e r R. S c a l e r B
c o n t a i n s 16 b i n a r y d i v i d e r s producing
t i m i n g s i g n a l s t o the Input 1 r e g i s t e r f o r
m a i n t a i n i n g r e a l t i m e when the AGC i s i n
standby.

S c a l e r s A and B a r e u s e d in conjunction
with the Input 0 r e g i s t e r , TIME 1 , and
TIiME 2 c o u n t e r s to provide r e a l t i m e .

Time Pulse P r o d u c e s 12 b a s i c t i m i n g p u l s e s which


Gene r a t o r define a c t i o n t i m e s . T h e s e p u l s e s a r e
u s e d t o c o n t r o l i n t e r n a l s e q u e n c i n g of
data processing.

Memory Pulse T h i s g r o u p p r o v i d e s t i m i n g p u l s e s to fixed


Generator and e r a s a b l e m e m o r > -to s y n c h r o n i z e r e a d
and w r i t e o p e r a t i o n s .

Start-Stop Logic T h e s t a r t - s t o p logic g e n e r a t e s t h r e e


c o m m a n d s . A m o n i t o r s t o p command
i n h i b i t s the t i m e pulse g e n e r a t o r and s t o p s
AGC d a t a word flow. .A m o n i t o r s t a r t
c o m m a n d g e n e r a t e s the t h i r d s i g n a l which
i s a c l e a r c o m m a n d to the s e q u e n c e
gene r a t o r .

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SYSTEMS DATA

2 . 2 . 3. 3. 2 Display and K e y b o a r d .

The DSKYs f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n behveen the flight c r e x and


t h e ACC. (See f i g u r e 2 . 2 - 4 ) . ) T h e D S K Y s o p e r a t e in p a r a l l e l , with t h e m a i n
d i s p l a y console DSKY providing AGC d i s p l a y and c o n t r o l while the crexv a r e
i n t h e i r c o u c h e s . The two condition lights provided a t the m a i n d i s p l a y c o n -
s o l e DSKY a r e COMPUTER F A I L , which i s a g r o s s ACC f a i l u r e i n d i c a t o r ,
a n d KEY R L S E , \trhich i s a r e q u e s t t o the cre\v to r e l e a s e the DSKY c i r c u i t s
to i n t e r n a l AGC p r o g r a m u s e . The m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e DSKY a l s o h a s a n
U P T E L s w i t c h which e n a b l e s the AGC t o a c c e p t o r block t e l e m e t e r e d d a t a
f r o m MSFN. The DSKY a t the lo\t7er e q u i p m e n t ba)- c o n t a i n s the r e m a i n d e r
of the condition l i g h t s : P R O G ALM, R U P T LOCK, PARITY F A I L , TC
T R A P , TM F A I L , COUNTER F A I L , SCALER F A I L , CHECK F A I L a n d KEY
RLSE. All t h e condition lights e x c e p t KEY RLSE a r e f a i l u r e i n d i c a t o r s .
(KEY RLSE i s a r e q u e s t f o r the cre\v to r e l e a s e the DSKY c i r c u i t s to
i n t e r n a l XGC p r o g r a m u s e . ) T h i s DSKY a l s o h a s a TEST -4LARLL.I p u s h -
button which i s w i r e d t o the a l a r m r e l a y s t o provide a c h e c k of the warning
l i g h t s . The e l e c t r o l u m i n e s c e n t d i s p l a y s a r e i d e n t i c a l on e a c h DSKY a n d
alxvays d i s p l a y i d e n t i c a l d a t a . The i n t e n s i t y of t h e s e d i s p l a y s i s c o n t r o l l e d
by the BRIGHTNESS t h u m b w h e e l s .

T h e exchange of d a t a between the flight c r e w and the .AGC i s u s u a l l y


i n i t i a t e d by c r e w a c t i o n ; h o w e v e r , i t c a n a l s o be i n i t i a t e d by i n t e r n a l
c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s . The exchanged i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d by the
DSKY p r o g r a m . T h i s p r o g r a m allows the following f o u r d i f f e r e n t m o d e s
of operation:

Display of I n t e r n a l Data-Both a o n e - s h o t d i s p l a y and a p e r i o d i -


cally updating d i s p l a y ( c a l l e d m o n i t o r ) a r e provided.

Loading E x t e r n a l Data-& each numerical character i s entered,


it i s d i s p l a y e d in the a p p r o p r i a t e d i s p l a y panel l o c a t i o n .

P r o g r a m C a l l i n g arid Control-The DSKY is u s e d to i n i t i a t e a


c l a s s of r o u t i n e s which a r e c o n c e r n e d with n e i t h e r loading nor
d i s p l a y . C e r t a i n r o u t i n e s r e q u i r e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m the o p e r a t o r
t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t o s t o p o r continue at a given Foint.

Changing M a j o r LMode-The i n i t i a t i o n of l a r g e s c a l e m i s s i o n p h a s e s
c a n be c o m m a n d e d b y the o p e r a t o r .

T h e d a t a involved i n both loading and d i s p l a y c a n be p r e s e n t e d i n


e i t h e r o c t a l o r d e c i m a l f o r m as the o p e r a t o r i n d i c a t e s . If d e c i m a l f o r m
i s c h o s e n , the a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e f a c t o r s a r e supplied by the p r o g r a m .
D e c i m a l e n t r i e s a r e i n d i c a t e d by e n t e r i n g a s i g n ( + , -).

Keyboard O p e r a t i o n . The b a s i c language of c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the


o n e r a t o r and the ACC i s a pair of w o r d s known a s v e r b and noun. V e r b
and noun c o d e s a r e defined in f i g u r e s 2.2-5 and 2 . 2 - 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . E a c h

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SYSTEMS DATA

MAIN DISPLAY CONSOLE


DSKY

I
LOWER EQUIPMENT BAY
DSKY

Figure 2 . 2-4. Display and K e y b o a r d P a n e l s

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SYSTEMS DATA

of t h e s e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a t w o - c h a r a c t e r o c t a l n u m b e r . The v e r b code
i n d i c a t e s what a c t i o n i s t o b e t a k e n ( o p e r a t i o n ) ; t h e noun code i n d i c a t e s to
what a c t i o n i s a p p l i e d ( o p e r a n d ) . T y p i c a l v e r b s a r e t h o s e f o r displaying and
loading. Nouns u s u a l l y r e f e r t o a g r o u p of e r a s a b l e r e g i s t e r s within the
c o m p u t e r m e m o r y . The PROGRAM, VERB, and NOUN d i s p l a y s provide
two digit n u m b e r s which a r e coded o c t a l n u m b e r s d e s c r i b i n g the a c t i o n
being p e r f o r m e d . The REGISTER 1 , 2 , and 3 d i s p l a y s provide d i s p l a y of
t h e c o n t e n t s of r e g i s t e r s o r m e m o r y l o c a t i o n s . T h e s e d i s p l a y s a r e
n u m b e r s which a r e r e a d a s d e c i m a l n u m b e r s if a s i g n ( t , - ) i s p r e s e n t a n d
o c t a l n u m b e r s i f no s i g n i s u s e d . The REGISTER d i s p l a y s o p e r a t e u n d e r
p r o g r a m c o n t r o l u n l e s s the c o n t e n t s of a s p e c i f i c r e g i s t e r o r m e m o r y
l o c a t i o n i s d e s i r e d . The c r e w m a y r e q u e s t d i s p l a y of the c o n t e n t s of a
s p e c i f i c r e g i s t e r o r m e m o r y l o c a t i o n by commanding the d i s p l a y f r o m the
k e y b o a r d . The only o t h e r d i s p l a y s a r e the ACTIVITY lights \rhich i n d i c a t e
w h e t h e r the c o m p u t e r i s computing o r a c c e p t i n g t e l e m e t r y f r o m M S F N .

T h e k e y b o a r d p r o v i d e s 18 k e y s which, when p r e s s e d , g e n e r a t e a
five bit s i g n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e key p r e s s e d . The +, - , and 0-9 k e \ s
a r e u s e d f o r n u m e r i c a l e n t r i e s , while the C L E A R , E N T E R , VERB, N O L " ,
KEY RELEASE, and ERROR R E S E T k e y s provide i n s t r u c t i o n s The TEST
ALARM key is w i r e d t o t h e a l a r m r e l a y s and p r o v i d e s a check of the
w a r n i n g i n d i c a t o r lights with the e x c e p t i o n of SCALER F-IIL. The m a i n
d i s p l a y console DSKY U P T E L s w i t c h e n a b l e s o r inhibits the a c c e p t a n c e
of t e l e m e t r y f r o m M S F N . T h e function of e a c h of t h e k e y s i s a s follows:

0-9 E n t e r n u m e r i c a l d a t a , a d d r e s s e s , and
action codes.

VERB C o m m a n d s AGC to a c c e p t the next two


n u m b e r s a s v e r b code d a t a . V e r b d i s p l a y
is b l a n k e d u n t i l n u m b e r s a r e e n t e r e d .

NOUN C o m m a n d s AGC t o a c c e p t the next two


n u m b e r s a s noun code d a t a . Noun d i s p l a y
i s blanked until n u m b e r s a r e e n t e r e d .

ENTER I n s t r u c t s -4GC t o a c c e p t k e y e d - i n d a t a a s
c o m p l e t e d and i n i t i a t e o p e r a t i o n s p e c i i i e d
by d a t a w o r d .

C LE .AR E n t e r s a l l z e r o s i n d a t a r e g i s t e r being
loaded. E a c h s u c c e s s i v e p r e s s i n g of t h i s
key c l e a r s the next h i g h e r r e g i s t e r .

KEY RLSE R e l e a s e t h e DSKY c i r c u i t s and d i s p l a y s f o r


u s e by t h e .AGC p r o g r a m being e x e c u t e d .

ERROR R E S E T M o m e n t a r i l y r e s e t s .AGC f a i l u r e l i g h t s

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SYSTEMS DATA

(+I and ( - ) D e n o t e s s i g n o f d a t a t o follow. Denotes


t h a t following d a t a i s d e c i m a l .

T E S T ALARM S e t s r e l a y s to i l l u m i n a t e L E B DSKY c o n -
d i t i o n lights ( e x c e p t SCALER F A I L ) t o
e n s u r e p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n . ( L E B DSKY
only. )

UPTEL S e t s AGC input r e g i s t e r s t o a c c e p t o r


inhibit t e l e m e t e r e d d a t a f r o m MSFN. (MDC
DSKY only. )

BRIGHTNESS P r o v i d e s c o n t r o l of i n t e n s i t y of e l e c t r o -
luminescent displays.

T h e l o w e r e q u i p m e n t bay DSKY p r o v i d e s nine condition lights of which


e i g h t a r e f a i l u r e i n d i c a t o r s and the r e m a i n i n g light a r e q u e s t f o r a c t i o n .
T h e function of e a c h i s a s follows:

PROG ALM T h e AGC p r o g r a m being e x e c u t e d h a s


detected an e r r o r .

COUNTER F A I L D e t e c t e d f a i l u r e i n input t i m i n g p u l s e s .
E i t h e r interrupt o r circuitry failed. I n t e r -
r u p t f a i l u r e i s denoted by R U P T LOCK
failure indicator illumination.

R U P T LOCK I n t e r r u p t f a i l e d t o o c c u r o r w a s not c o m -
p l e t e d within s p e c i f i e d t i m e .

TC TRAP T r a n s f e r c o n t r o l i n s t r u c t i o n h a s not o c c u r r e d ,
o r h a s o c c u r r e d but w a s not c o m p l e t e d within
a specified time.

SCALER FAIL F a i l u r e d e t e c t e d i n AGC t i m i n g s e c t i o n .

PARITY F A I L P a r i t y f a i l u r e d e t e c t e d in d a t a r e a d f r o m
memory.

TM FAIL T e l e m e t r y w o r d r a t e to M S F N e i t h e r too
high o r too low. T e l e m e t r y word r a t e f r o m
MSFN too high o r i n c o r r e c t t r a n s m i s s i o n
of d a t a .

CHECK F A I L A t t e m p t e d i l l e g a l DSKY o p e r a t i o n . N o r m a l l y
operator e r r o r .

KEY R LSE F l a s h e s to i n d i c a t e AGC p r o g r a m i n o p e r a -


t i o n r e q u i r e s DSKY c i r c u i t r y t o continue.

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T h e s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e f o r the e x e c u t i o n of k e y b o a r d o p e r a t i o n s
c o n s i s t s of a s e q u e n c e of s e v e n key d e p r e s s i o n s : m0
VERB V2 Vi NOUN N2 N1 ENTER

P r e s s i n g the VERB key b l a n k s the two v e r b lights on the DSKY and c l e a r s


t h e v e r b code r e g i s t e r i n the AGC. T h e next two n u m e r i c a l inputs a r e
i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e v e r b c o d e , i n o c t a l f o r m . E a c h of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s
i s d i s p l a y e d by the v e r b lights a s i t i s i n s e r t e d . T h e NOUN key o p e r a t e s
s i m i l a r l y with the DSKY noun l i g h t s and AGC noun code r e g i s t e r . P r e s s i n g
t h e ENTER key i n i t i a t e s the p r o g r a m i n d i c a t e d by the v e r b - n o u n c o m -
bination d i s p l a y e d on t h e DSKY. T h u s , i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o follow a
s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e i n keying v e r b - n o u n c o d e s into the DSKY. It c a n be
done in r e v e r s e o r d e r , i f d e s i r e d , o r a p r e v i o u s l y i n s e r t e d v e r b o r noun
c a n be u s e d without r e k e y i n g it. No a c t i o n is t a k e n by the AGC in initiating
t h e verb-noun-defined p r o g r a m until t h e ENTER key i s a c t u a t e d . If a n
e r r o r i s noticed i n e i t h e r the v e r b code o r noun code p r i o r t o a c t u a t i o n of
t h e ENTER k e y , i t c a n be c o r r e c t e d s i m p l y by p r e s s i n g the c o r r e s p o n d i n g
VERB o r NOUN k e y and i n s e r t i n g the p r o p e r c o d e . The ENTER key should
not be a c t u a t e d u n t i l i t h a s b e e n v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e c o r r e c t v e r b and noun
codes a r e displayed.

If the s e l e c t e d v e r b - n o u n c o m b i n a t i o n r e q u i r e s d a t a to be loaded by
the o p e r a t o r , the VERB and NOUN lights s t a r t f l a s h i n g on a n d off (about
once p e r s e c o n d ) a f t e r the ENTER key i s p r e s s e d . D a t a i s loaded i n f i v e -
c h a r a c t e r w o r d s and, a s i t is keyed i n , i t i s d i s p l a y e d c h a r a c t e r - b y -
c h a r a c t e r i n one of the f i v e - p o s i t i o n d a t a d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r s , REGISTER 1 ,
REGISTER 2, o r REGISTER 3. N u m e r i c a l d a t a i s a s s u m e d t o be o c t a l
u n l e s s the f i v e - c h a r a c t e r d a t a word i s p r e c e d e d by a plus o r m i n u s s i g n ,
i n whictr c a s e i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be d e c i m a l . D e c i m a l d a t a m u s t be loaded
i n full f i v e - n u m e r a l c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ( n o z e r o s m a y be left o u t ) ; o c t a l d a t a
m a y be loaded with high o r d e r z e r o s left o u t . If d e c i m a l i s u s e d f o r an);
component of a m u l t i c o m p o n e n t load v e r b , i t m u s t be u s e d f o r a l l c o m -
ponents of t h a t v e r b . I n o t h e r w o r d s , no m i x i n g of o c t a l and d e c i m a l d a t a
i s p e r m i t t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t c o m p o n e n t s of the s a m e load v e r b . T h e ENTER
key m u s t be p r e s s e d a f t e r e a c h d a t a w o r d . T h i s t e l l s the p r o g r a m t h a t the
n u m e r i c a l word being keyed i n i s c o m p l e t e . T h e on-off f l a s h i n g of the
VERB-NOUN lights t e r m i n a t e s a f t e r t h e l a s t ENTER key a c t u a t i o n of a
loading s e q u e n c e .

T h e CLEAR key is u s e d t o r e m o v e e r r o r s i n loading d a t a a s i t i s


d i s p l a y e d i n REGISTER 1, REGISTER 2 , o r REGISTER 3. It d o e s nothing
t o the PROGRAM, NOUN, o r VERB l i g h t s . ( T h e KOUN lights a r e blanked
by t h e NOUN k e y , the VERB l i g h t s by the VERB key. ) F o r s i n g l e -
component load v e r b s o r " m a c h i n e a d d r e s s t o be s p e c i f i e d " nouns, the
CLE.4R key d e p r e s s i o n p e r f o r m s the c l e a r i n g function on t h e p a r t i c u l a r
r e g i s t e r being loaded, provided t h a t the CLEAR key i s d e p r e s s e d b e f o r e
t h e ENTER key. Once the ENTER k e y i s d e p r e s s e d , the CLEAR key d o e s
nothing. The only way t o c o r r e c t a n e r r o r a f t e r the d a t a is e n t e r e d f o r

.-

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GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEXI

B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page


. 2. 2 - 2 7
SM2A-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
_-
SYSTEMS DATA

a s i n g l e - c o m p o n e n t load v e r b is t o begin the load v e r b a g a i n . F o r two-


o r t h r e e - c o m p o n e n t l o a d v e r b s , t h e r e is a CLEAR backing-up f e a t u r e .
T h e f i r s t d e p r e s s i o n of the CLEAR key c l e a r s w h i c h e v e r r e g i s t e r i s being
l o a d e d . ( T h e CLEAR key m a y be p r e s s e d a f t e r any c h a r a c t e r , but b e f o r e
i t s e n t r y . ) C o n s e c u t i v e CLEAR key a c t u a t i o n s c l e a r the d a t a d i s p l a y
r e g i s t e r above the c u r r e n t one until REGISTER 1 i s c l e a r e d . Any a t t e m p t
t o back u p ( c l e a r ) beyond REGISTER 1 is s i m p l y i g n o r e d . T h e CLEAR
b a c k i n g - u p function o p e r a t e s only o n d a t a p e r t i n e n t t o the l o a d v e r b which
i n i t i a t e d t h e loading s e q u e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , if the initiating load v e r b
w e r e a " w r i t e s e c o n d component into'' type only, no backing u p a c t i o n
would be p o s s i b l e .

T h e n u m e r i c a l k e y s , t h e CLEAR k e y , and the s i g n k e y s are r e j e c t e d


if d e p r e s s e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n ( f i n a l e n t r y ) of a d a t a d i s p l a y o r d a t a load
v e r b . At s u c h t i m e , only t h e VERB, NOUN, E N T E R , ERROR R E S E T , o r
KEY RELEASE inputs a r e a c c e p t e d . T h u s , t h e d a t a k e y s a r e a c c e p t e d
only a f t e r the c o n t r o l k e y s have i n s t r u c t e d t h e p r o g r a m t o a c c e p t t h e m .
S i m i l a r l y , the + and - k e y s a r e a c c e p t e d only b e f o r e the f i r s t n u m e r i c a l
c h a r a c t e r of REGISTER 1, REGISTER 2 , o r REGISTER 3 is k e y e d i n and
at no o t h e r t i m e . T h e 8 o r 9 key i s a c c e p t e d only while loading a d a t a
word which i s p r e c e d e d by a + o r - sign.

T h e DSKY c a n a l s o be u s e d by i n t e r n a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s f o r
s u b r o u t i n e s . H o w e v e r , any o p e r a t o r k e y b o a r d a c t i o n ( e x c e p t ERROR
R E S E T ) i n h i b i t s DSKY u s e by i n t e r n a l r o u t i n e s . T h e o p e r a t o r r e t a i n s
c o n t r o l of the DSKY until he w i s h e s t o r e l e a s e i t . T h u s , he is a s s u r e d
t h a t the d a t a he w i s h e s t o o b s e r v e will not be r e p l a c e d by i n t e r n a l l y
i n i t i a t e d d a t a d i s p l a y s . I n g e n e r a l , i t is r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t the o p e r a t o r
r e l e a s e the DSKY f o r i n t e r n a l u s e when he h a s t e m p o r a r i l y finished with
i t . T h i s i s dbne by p r e s s i n g t h e KEY RELEASE k e y .

Verb-Noun F o r m a t s . The v e r b - n o u n c o d e s a r e defined in f i g u r e s 2 . 2 - 5 and


2. 2 - 6 . A noun c o d e m a y r e f e r t o a d e v i c e , a g r o u p of c o m p u t e r r e g i s t e r s ,
o r a g r o u p of c o u n t e r r e g i s t e r s , o r i t m a y s i m p l y s e r v e to convey i n f o r m a -
t i o n without r e f e r r i n g to any p a r t i c u l a r c o m p u t e r r e g i s t e r . The noun i s
m a d e u p of 1, 2 , o r 3 c o m p o n e n t s , e a c h component being e n t e r e d s e p -
a r a t e l y a s r e q u e s t e d by the v e r b code. AS e a c h component i s k e y e d , i t i s
d i s p l a y e d on t h e d i s p l a y p a n e l with component 1 d i s p l a y e d i n REGISTER 1 ,
component 2 i n REGISTER 2 , a n d component 3 i n REGISTER 3. T h e r e a r e
two c l a s s e s of nouns: n o r m a l and m i x e d . N o r m a l nouns ( c o d e s 0 1 through
54) a r e t h o s e whose component m e m b e r s r e f e r t o c o m p u t e r r e g i s t e r s which
, h a v e c o n s e c u t i v e a d d r e s s e s and u s e the s a m e s c a l e f a c t o r when c o n v e r t e d
t o d e c i m a l . Mixed nouns ( c o d e s 5 5 t h r o u g h 77) a r e t h o s e whose component
m e m b e r s r e f e r t o n o n c o n s e c u t i v e a d d r e s s e s o r whose component m e m b e r s
r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t s c a l e f a c t o r s when c o n v e r t e d t o d e c i m a l , o r both.

-4 v e r b code i n d i c a t e s what a c t i o n is t o be t a k e n . It a l s o d e t e r m i n e s
which component m e m b e r of the noun g r o u p is t o be a c t e d upon. F o r

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Mission B a s i c Date l 2 l966 Change Date page 2.2-28
SM2A -03-SCO 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

e x a m p l e , t h e r e a r e five d i f f e r e n t load v e r b s . V e r b 2 1 i s r e q u i r e d f o r
loading the f i r s t component of the s e l e c t e d noun; v e r b 2 2 l o a d s the second
component; v e r b 2 3 l o a d s the t h i r d component; v e r b 2 4 loads the f i r s t and
s e c o n d component; and v e r b 2 5 loads a l l t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s . A s i m i l a r
component f o r m a t i s u s e d i n the d i s p l a y and m o n i t o r v e r b s . T h e r e a r e two
g e n e r a l c l a s s e s of v e r b s : s t a n d a r d and extended. T h e s t a n d a r d v e r b s
( c o d e s 01 through 37) d e a l m a i n l y with loading, d i s p l a y i n g , and m o n i t o r i n g
d a t a . T h e extended v e r b s ( c o d e s 40 through 7 7 ) a r e p r i n c i p a l l y c o n c e r n e d
with calling u p i n t e r n a l p r o g r a m s whose function i s s y s t e m t e s t i n g and
operation.

Whenever d a t a i s t o be loaded by the o p e r a t o r , the VERB and N O U N


lights f l a s h , the a p p r o p r i a t e d a t a d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r i s blanked, and the
i n t e r n a l c o m p u t e r s t o r a g e r e g i s t e r is c l e a r e d in anticipation of d a t a l o a d -
ing. -As e a c h n u m e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s keyed i n , i t i s displayed in the p r o p e r
d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r . E a c h d a t a d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r can handle only five n u m e r i c a l
c h a r a c t e r s a t a t i m e ( n o t including s i g n ) . If a n a t t e m p t i s m a d e to key in
m o r e than f i v e n u m e r i c a l c h a r a c t e r s a t a t i m e , the sixth and s u b s e q u e n t
c h a r a c t e r s a r e s i m p l y r e j e c t e d but they do a p p e a r i n the d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r .

T h e + and - k e y s a r e a c c e p t e d p r i o r to i n s e r t i n g the f i r s t n u m e r i c a l
c h a r a c t e r of REGISTER 1, REGISTER 2 , o r REGISTER 3; if keyed in a t
any o t h e r t i m e , the s i g n s a r e r e j e c t e d . If the 8 o r 9 key i s a c t u a t e d a t
any t i m e o t h e r than while loading a d a t a w o r d p r e c e d e d by a - o r - s i g n ,
i t i s r e j e c t e d and the CHECK F A I L light goes on.

T h e n o r m a l u s e of the f l a s h i s with a load v e r b . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e


two s p e c i a l c a s e s when the f l a s h i s u s e d with v e r b s o t h e r than load v e r b s .

e ' l l a c h i n e - 4 d d r e s s to be S p e c i f i e d - T h e r ei s a c l a s s of nouns
available t o allow any m a c h i n e a d d r e s s to be u s e d ; t h e s e a r e
called " m a c h i n e a d d r e s s to be specified" nouns. When the
"EIYTER", which c a u s e s the v e r b - n o u n combination to be
e x e c u t e d , s e n s e s a noun of t h i s type the f l a s h i s i m m e d i a t e l y
t u r n e d on. T h e v e r b code i s left unchanged. The o p e r a t o r
should load the c o m p l e t e m a c h i n e a d d r e s s of i n t e r e s t (fitFe-
c h a r a c t e r o c t a l ) . T h i s is d i s p l a y e d i n REGISTER 3 a s i t i s
keyed in. If a n e r r o r i s m a d e in loading the a d d r e s s , the
CLEAR key m a y be u s e d t o r e m o v e i t . P r e s s i n g the E N T E R
key c a u s e s e x e c u t i o n of the v e r b to continue.

e Change M a j o r Mode-To change m a j o r m o d e , the sequence i s


VERB 37 E N T E R . T h i s c a u s e s the noun d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r to be
blanked and t h e v e r b code to be f l a s h e d . T h e t w o - c h a r a c t e r
o c t a l m a j o r mode code should then be loaded. F o r v e r i f i c a t i o n
p u r p o s e s , it is d i s p l a y e d a s i t i s loaded i n the noun d i s p l a y
r e g i s t e r . The e n t r y c a u s e s the f l a s h t o be t u r n e d off, a r e q u e s t
f o r the new m a j o r mode t o be e n t e r e d , and a new m a j o r mode
code t o be d i s p l a y e d i n the PROGRAM d i s p l a y r e g i s t e r .

~~

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTElll


2. 2-29
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SMZA-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

---
SYSTEMS DATA
-
Verb
-
Code Description Remarks

won
V e r b c o d e s 01 t h r o u g h 37 d e n o t e
standard verbs.

01 D i s p l a y 1 s t c o m p o n e n t of P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER I .

02 D i s p l a y 2nd c o m p o n e n t of P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER 1

03 D i s p l a y 3 r d c o m p o n e n t of P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER I

04 D i s p l a y 1 s t a n d 2nd P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER I and REGISTER 2.


c o m p o n e n t s of

05 D i s p l a y Ist, 2nd. and 3 r d P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER I . REGISTER 2 . A N D REGISTER 3


component of

06 Display a l l component(s) o P e r f o r m s d e c i m a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i s t e r s The scale f a c t o r s . types


o f s c a l e f a c t o r r o u t i n e s , a n d c o m p o n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a r e s t o r e d within the m a c h i n e
f o r e a c h noun which i t is r e q u i r e d to d i s p l a y i n d e c i m a l

07 D P decimal display P e r f o r m s a double p r e c i s i o n d e c i m a l d i s p l a y of d a t a on REGISTER 1 and REGISTER 2


It d o e s no s c a l e f a c t o r i n g It m e r e l y p e r f o r m s a I O - c h a r a c t e r . f r a c t i o n a l d e c i m a l
c o n v e r s i o n o f two c o n s e c u t i v e , e r a s a b l e r e g i s t e r s , u s i n g REGISTER I and R E C I S -
TER 2 T h e s i g n is p l a c e d i n t h e REGISTER 1 s i g n p o s i t i o n wlth the REGISTER 2
s i g n p o s i t i o n r e m a i n i n g blank It c a n n o t be u s e d with m i x e d nouns I t s intended u s e
i s p r i m a r i l y with " m a c h i n e a d d r e s s t o be s p e c i f i e d nouns

IO E n t e r r e q u e s t to w a i t l i s t E n t e r s r e q u e s t t o " w a i t l i s t r o u t i n e ' f o r any m a c h i n e a d d r e s s with delay involved


( U s e d only d u r i n g g r o u n d T h i s v e r b a s s u m e s t h a t t h e d e s i r e d n u m b e r of I O - m i l l i s e c o n d u n i t s of d e l a y h a s
checkout. ) b e e n l o a d e d i n t o t h e low o r d e r b i t s of the p r i o l d e l a y r e g i s t e r (noun 26) This verb
i s u s e d with t h e ' m a c h i n e a d d r e s s to be s p e c i f i e d noun. T h e c o m p l e t e a d d r e s s of
t h e d e s i r e d l o c a t i o n i s t h e n keyed in. ( R e f e r t o " M a c h i n e a d d r e s s to be s p e c i f i e d
i n p a r a g r a p h on V e r b l N o u n F o r m a t s . )

11 Monitor 1st component P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of u p d a t e d d a t a e v e r y l / 2 s e c o n d on REGISTER I

12 M o n i t o r 2nd c o m p o n e n t of , P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of updated d a t a e v e r y 112 s e c o n d on REGISTER 1

13 M o n i t o r 3 r d c o m p o n e n t of P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of u p d a t e d d a t a e v e r y 112 s e c o n d on REGISTER I

14 h l o n i t o r 1 s t and 2nd P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of updated d a t a e v e r ) l / 2 s e c o n d o n REGISTER 1 and


c o m p o n e n t of REGISTER 2

15 M o n i t o r Ist, 2nd. a n d P e r f o r m s o c t a l d i s p l a y of updated d a t a e v e r y 1 / 2 s e c o n d on REGISTER 1 .


3 r d c o m p o n e n t of REGISTER 2 , and REGISTER 3

I6 Monitor all components(s) P e r f o r m s d e c i m a l d i s p l a y of updated d a t a e v e r y 1 / 2 s e c o n d on a p p r o p r i a t e r e g i s t e r s


of

l i hlonitor D P d e c i m a l P e r f o r m s double p r e c i s i o n d i s p l a y of d e c i m a l d a t a on REGISTER I and REGISTER 2


S o scale factoring 1 5 performed F r o v i d e s I O - c h a r a c t e r f r a c t i o n a l d e c l m d l Lon-
versLon of t w o c o n s e c u t i v e e r a s a b l e r e g i s t e r s T b e 5'gn i s p i a c e d in the s i p - b i t
p o s i t i o n of REGISTER 1 REGISTER 2 s i g n S i t i s blank

20 E n t e r r e q u e s t to executive E n t e r s r e q u e s t to e x e c u t i v e r o u t i n e f o r any m a c h i n e i d d r e s 5 w i t h p r i o r i t i bn\olved


( L s e d onl) during ground T h i s v e r b a b s u m e s t h a t t h e d e s i r e d p r o r i t v h a s been loaded into b i t s 1 0 - 1 4 o f the
checkout. ) p r i o l d e l a ) r e g i s t e r (noun 26) T h i s v e r b i s u s e d with the noun, m a c h i n e a d d r e s s
t o be s p e c i f i e d ' T h e c o m p l e t e a d d r e s s of the d e s i r e d Location L > then k e i e d i n
( R e f e r to \Lacnine a d d r e s s t o be s p e c i f i e d " i n p a r a g r a p h on V e r o f h o u n F o r m a t s I

21 Write 1 s t component into P e r f o r m s data loading O c t a l quantities a r e u n s l g n e d Declndk quantities a r e


p r e c e d e d bi -
or -
sign D a t a i s d l s p l a i e d o n REGISTER l

Figure 2.2-5. V e r b List (Sheet 1 of 3)

GUIDAXCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM


page 2.2-30
Mission Basic D a t e l2 1966 Change Date
SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
-
\'e r b
Code Description Remarks

22 W r i t e 2nd c o m p o n e n t i n t o P e r f o r m s d a t a loading. Octal quantities a r e unsigned. D e c i m a l quantities a r e


p r e c e d e d by t o r - s i g n . D a t a i s displayed o n R E G I S T E R 2 .

23 Write 3rd component into P e r f o r m s d a t a l o a d i n g . O c t a l q u a n t i t i e s are u n s i g n e d . D e c i m a l q u a n t i t i e s a r e


p r e c e d e d by + o r - s i g n . D a t a is d i s p l a y e d o n R E G I S T E R 3.

24 W r i t e 1 s t and 2nd P e r f o r m s d a t a loading. O c t a l quantities a r e unsigned. D e c i m a l quantities a r e


component into p r e c e d e d by t o r -
s i g n . D a t a i s d i s p l a y e d on R E G I S T E R 1 a n d R E G I S T E R 2 .

25 W r i t e I s t , 2nd. a n d 3 r d P e r f o r m s d a t a loading. O c t a l quantities a r e unsigned. D e c i m a l quantities a r e


component into p r e c e d e d by t o r -
s i g n . D a t a is d i s p l a y e d o n R E G I S T E R 1, R E G I S T E R 2 , and
R E G I S T E R 3.

76 (Spare)

27 (Sparel

30 (Spare)

31 Bank D i s p l a l T h i s v e r b 1s i n c l u d e d to p e r m i t d i s p l a v l n g t h e c o n t e n t s of f i x e d m e m o r ) i n an) bank


I t s i n t e n d e d u s e i s f o r c h e c k i n g p r o g r a m r o p e s and t h e B;\NK p o s i t i o n 0 1 p r o g r a m
ropes

3'2 ( S p ar e )

37 P r o c e e d uirhout data I n f o r m s r o u t i n e r e q u e s t i n g d a t a t o be l o a d e d t h a t the o p e r a t o r c h o o s e s not t o load


f r e s h d a t a out w i s h e s t h e r o u t i n e t o c o n t i n e a s b e s t i t c a n with old d a t a Final
d e c - s i o n ror w h a t a c t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n I S l e f t t o r e q u e s t i n g r o u t i n e

34 T e r i n i na te I n f o r m s r o u t i n e r e q u e s t i n g d a t a t o be l o a d e d t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r c h o o s e s not t o l o a d
i r e s h d a t a and w i s h e s the routine t o t e r m i n a t e F i n a l d e c i s i o n f o r what a c t i o n s h o u l d
be t a k e n i s left to r e q u e s t i n g r o u t i n e If m o n i t o r i s o n , I! 1s t u r n e d o t f

35 (Spare)

30 Fresh start i n i t i a l i z e s t h e p r o g r a m c o n t r o l s o f t w a r e and t h e k e y b o a r d a n d d i s p l a y s y s t e m p r o g r a m

37 Change m a j o r mode to C h a n g e to new m a j o r m o d e . ( R e f e r to "Change m a j o r mode" i n p a r a g r a p h on V e r b -


Soun Formats.)

NOTI
V e r b c o d e s 40 t h r o u g h 7 7 d e n o t e
extended verbs.

40 Zero S l u s t be u s e d with noun 2 0 ( I C D U ) o r noun 55 ( O C D U ) o n l y . S e t s t h e CDU r e g i s t e r s t o


zero.

41 C o a r s e a l i g n IllU .\Lust be u s e d with noun 2 0 (ICDU) or noun 55 (OCDL') only

42 Fine align I l I U C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s that p e r f o r m t h e i n d i c a t e d GbiS s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s .

43 Lock IllL' C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s t h a t p e r f o r m t h e i n d i c a t e d GbiN s ) - s t e m p r o c e d u r e s .

44 Set l l l U to iTTITUDE C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s t h a t p e r f o r m t h e i n d i c a t e d G6-N s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s


COSTROL

45 Set I l I C E S T R Y C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s that p e r f o r m t h e indicated G&N s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s

40 Return I l I L l to c o a r s e C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s that p e r f o r m t h e indicated CLN s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s .


align

Figure 2 . 2 - 5 . V e r b List (Sheet 2 of 3)


-
GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEiM

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page 2.2-31


SM2A - 0 3 - S C O 1 2
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
---
SYSTEMS DATA

Verb
Code Description Remarks

47 (Spare)

50 Please perform T h i s v e r b I S u s e d only by i n t e r n a l r o u n t i n e s t h a t w i s h the o p e r a t o r t o p e r f o r m a


c e r t a i n t a s k . I t s h o u l d n e v e r be k e y e d i n by t h e o p e r a t o r I t is u s u a l l y u s e d with
noun 2 5 , c h e c k l i s t T h e c o d e d n u m b e r for the c h e c k l i s t i t e m t o be p e r f o r m e d i s
d i s p l a y e d in REClSTER 1 by t h e r e q u e s t i n g r o u t i n e

51 Please mark T h i s v e r b 1s u s e d only by i n t e r n a l r o u t i n e s t h a t r e q u e s t the o p e r a t o r t o " m a r k " It


s h o u l d n e v e r be k e y e d i n by t h e o p e r a t o r . I t is u s u a l l y u s e d w i t h noun 30, " a t a r
numbers ' T h e n u m b e r s of the s t a r s t o be m a r k e d a r e d i s p l a y e d i n REGISTER I ,
REGISTER 2 , and REGISTER 3 by t h e r e q u e s t i n g r o u t i n e . T h e o p e r a t o r s h o u l d i n d i -
c a t e c o m p l e t i o n o f e a c h valid m a r k by p r e s s i n g t h e MARK button. He s h o u l d n e v e r
p r e s s E N T E R with v e r b 51.

52 Mark reject R e j e c t s " m a r k " and r e t u r n s t o v e r b 51. M u s t be e n t e r e d within 20 s e c o n d s of


p r e s s i n g MARK button.

53 Free C a l l s u p p r o g r a m s t h a t p e r f o r m the i n d i c a t e d G & N s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s . U s e d only


wbth noun 2 0 ( I C D U ) o r noun 5 5 (OCDU).

54 Pulse torque gyros C a l l s up p r o g r a m s that p e r f o r m the indicated G & N s y s t e m p r o c e d u r e s

55 Align t i m e

56 P e r f o r m BANK s u m

57 S y s t e m t e s t ( U s e d only
during ground checkout.)

60 P r e p a r e for s t a n d b y

61 R e c o v e r f r o m s tandb) --
62 (Spar e )

63 (Spare)

64 Calculate orbital
parameters

65 C a l c u l a t e t i m e of a r r i v a l
a t longitude

bb C a l c u l a t e l a t i t u d e and
longitude a t s p e c i f i e d t i m e

67 Calculate maximum
d e c l i n a t i o n and t i m e of
arrival

70 ( 5pa r e )

71 (Spare)

72 (Sparel

73 R e t u r n to E a r t h a i m
point u p d a t e

74 O r b i t c h a n g e a i m point
update

75 h l a n u a l lift-oif for t l i g h t s

70 R . V . T . update ( s t a t e R V T d e n o t e s p o s i t i o n . v e l o c i t v . and t i m e
vector)

77 (Spare)

Figure 2. 2 - 5 . Lrerb L i s t (Sheet 3 of 3)

Mission B a s i c Date
GUID-iNCE AND S-AVIGATION SYSTEM

12 N o v 1966 Change Date Page


.
2.2-32
SM2A - 0 3 -SCO 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
-
NOL No1
-
coc De s c r i ption Scale /Units c
- 01 Description

NOTR NOTE 22 New a n g l e s I:


X-REGISTER I XXX XX d e q r e e s
Noun c o d e s 01 t h r o u g h In S c a l e i U n i t s Y-REGISTER 2 XXX XX d e g r e e s
54 denote n o r m a l nouns, column. Z-REGISTER 3 XXX XX d e g r e e s

X = significant 21 Delta a n g l e s 1.
digit X-REGISTER 1 XXX XX d e g r e e s
0 = zero Y-REGISTER 2 XXX XX d e g r e e s
(always) 2-REGISTER 3 XXX XX d e g r e e s
B = blank.
24 Delta t i m e f o r ACC clock:
01 Specify m a c h i n e a d d r e s s xxxxx REGISTER I OOXXX h o u r s
REGISTER 2 OOOXX. m i n u t e s
02 Specify m a c h i n e a d d r e s s xxxxx. REGISTER 3 OXX XX s e c o n d s

03 Spare) 25 3 h e c k l i s t ( U s e d only with xxxxx


i e r b 50. " P l e a s e p e r f o r m " )
04 Spare)
: h e c k l i s t code n u m b e r s ( A p p e a r
05 4ngular e r r o r KXX. XX d e g r e e s nREGISTER 1 )

06 'itch angle YXX. XX d e g r e e s 00001 SCS m o d e t o G & N


attitude control
.leads u p - d o w n tOOOOl
00002 S C S m o d e to G & N
07 Zhange of p r o g r a m o r m a j o r Delta V
n o d e ( U s e d only with v e r b 50,
' P l e a s e p e r f o r m '. ) 00003 S C S m o d e to C & N e n t r

10 Spare) 00004 SCS m o d e t o m o n i t o r

11 I n g i n e o n e n a b l e ( U s e d only with 00007 Manual attitude


. e r b 50, ' P l e a s e p e r f o r m " . ) maneuver

12 )elta V allowable CXXXX. f t / s e c 0001 I Automatic o p t i c s


Iz positioning
Ielta V tailoff [XXXX. f t l s e c
00012 T a r g e t d a t a e n t r y
13 )elta V m e a s u r e d (Vector CXXXX. f t l s e c
iagnitude. ) 0001 3 S w i t c h OSS to c o m p u t e i
control
I4 )elta V counter setting. CXXXX. f t l s e c
00014 F i n e a l i g n c h e c k
15 n c r e m e n t a d d r e s s ( U s e d only ) c t a l only
uring ground checkout. ) 00015 P e r f o r m s t a r
acqul s ition
16 .GC c l o c k t i m e
REGISTER 1 OXXX. h o u r s 00031 E n g i n e o n
REGISTER 2 OOXX. m i n u t e s
REGISTER 3 XX. XX s e c o n d s 00035 P r e p a r e AGC f o r
thrusting
17 Spare)
00036 T h r u s t t e r m i n a t e
20 JDUs.
X-REGISTER 1 :XX. XX d e g r e e s 00041 C / M - S / M separation
Y-REGISTER 2 :XX. XX d e g r e e s
2-REGISTER 3 :XX. XX d e g r e e s 26 r i o / d e l a y ( U s e d only d u r i n g xxxx.
round c h e c k o u t . )
21 'IP4 counters
X-REGISTER I XXXX. p u l s e s 27 :If t e s t O N - O F F s w l t c h xxxx.
Y-REGISTER 2 XXXX. p u l s e s
Z-REGISTER 3 XXXX. p u l s e s 30 a r number xxxx.

F i g u r e 2 . 2-6. Noun L i s t (Sheet 1 of 3)

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date N o v 1966 Change Date Page 2.2-33


SMZA-03-SCOIZ
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
---
SYSTEMS DATA
- - - ~~

No UI: Noun

-
Code
31
~ _ _
Deac ription
_

F a i l u r e regiater code
_ _ ~
S c a l e 1Unit I
-
Code Description Scale /Units

43 P e r i g e e altitude
REGISTER I XXXX. X nautical
lloTl miles
E r r o r c o d e s a r e defined O c t a l only
Apogee a l t i t u d e
in paragraph 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 . 3 .
REGISTER 2 XXXX. X n a u t i c a l
miles
Self-teat diagnosis
REGISTER 2 O c t a l only
Free-fall time XXBXX. minutes
REGISTER 3 I e conds
Self-test diagnosis
REGISTER 3 O c t a l only Latitude
44
REGISTER 1 X X X .X X d e g r e e s
32 D e c i s i o n t i m e ( U s e d only d u r i n g
ground checkout. ) Longitude
REGISTER 2 X X X .XX d e g r e e s
33 Ephemeris time (Used onlydurin
ground checkout. ) Altitude (Above m e a n e q u a t o r i a l
radius.)
34 Event time REGISTER 3 X X X X .X n a u t i c a l
REGISTER 1 OOXXX. h o u r s miles
REGISTER 2 OOOXX. m i n u t e s
REGISTER 3 OXX. XX s e c o n d s 45 Perigee altitude XXXX. X d e g r e e s
REGISTER 1
35 Delta e v e n t t i m e :
REGISTER I OOXXX. h o u r s Apogee a l t i t u d e
REGISTER 2 OOOXX. m i n u t e s REGISTER 2 XXXX. X d e g r e e s
REGISTER 3 OXX. X X s e c o n d s
Delta v e l o c i t y r e q u i r e d
36 Delta event t i m e (Display only. ) XXBXX. minutes, REGISTER 3 XXXXX. ftisec
seconds -..
46 r i m e to event
37 (Spare) REGISTER 1 XXBXX. minutes.
seconds
40 G a m m a ( I n e r t i a l flight path
angle. ) Velocity t o be gained
REGISTER 1 XXX. X X d e g r e e s REGISTER 2

I n e r t i a l velocity Perigee altitude


REGISTER 2 XXXXX. f t l s e c REGISTER 3 X X X X .X nautical
miles
A l t i t u d e a b o v e l a u n c h pad
REGISTER 3 X X X X .X n a u t i c a l 41 F l i g h t path a n g l e
miles REGISTER 1 X X X .XX d e g r e e s

41 Maximum acceleration Miss distance


REGISTER I X X X X .x g ' s REGISTER 2 X X X X .X n a u t i c a l
miles
P e r i g e e altitude
REGISTER 2 X X X X .X nautical 50 r i m e to event
miles REGISTER 1 XXBXX. mLnutes.
seconds
Free-fall time
REGISTER 3 XXBXX. minutes, Delta t i m e of b u r n
seconds REGISTER 2 XXBXX. m i n u t e s .
seconds
42 Miss distance
REGISTER 1 XXXX. X n a u t i c a l 51 r i m e to e v e n t
miles REGISTER 1 XXBXX. m i n u t e s .
seconds
P e r i g e e altitude
XXXX. X n a u t i c a l Velocity t o be gained
REGISTER 2
REGISTER 2 XXXXX. ft!sec
miles
L l e a s u r e d velocit.: I hange a l o n g
Free-fall time s p a c e c r a l t X -ax1 5
REGISTER 3 XXBXX. minutes. REGISTER 3 XXXXX. ltisec
seconds
Figure 2. 2-6. Noun L i s t (Sheet 2 of 3)

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION S Y S T E X I


2.2-34
Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page
SlM2A - 0 3 - SC 0 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTE,MS D A T A
-
Noun Noui
Code Description Scale /Units Codc Description
-
52 rime to e v e n t 63 Latitude
REGlSTER I XXBXX. m i n u t e s REGISTER I XX. XXX d e g r e e s
seconds
Longitude12
i e l o c i t y t o b e gained
REGISTER 2 XX. XXX d e g r e e s
REGISTER 2 XXXXX. f t l s e c
Altitude
'ree-fall time .
REGISTER 3 XXX. XX n a u t i c a l
REGISTER 3 XXBXX. m i n u t e s
miles
seconds
.laximum acceleration 64 (Spare)
REGISTER 1 xxxx. x g's
65 Sampled time (Fetched in
Tree-fall t i m e interrupt. )
REGISTER 2 XXBXX. m i n u t e s REGISTER 1 OOXXX. h o u r s
seconds REGISTER 2 OOOXX. m i n u t e s
REGISTER 3 OXX. XX s e c o n d s
:ommanded r o l l angle
REGISTER 1 XXX. XX d e g r e e s 66 Svstem t e s t r e s u l t s (Used only
d u r i n g ground checkout. )
're3ent acceleration
REGISTER 2 XXXX. x g ' s 67 Delta g y r o angles: ( U s e d only
Note during ground checkout. )

Noun c o d e s 55 t h r o u g h K -1RIG
7 7 d e n o t e m i x e d nouns REGISTER 1 XX. XXX d e g r e e s
55 )CDEs:
X (Shaft a n g l e s )
Y -1RIG
REGISTER 1 REGISTER 2 XX. XXX d e g r e e s
XXX. XX d e g r e e s
Y (Trunnion angles) 2-IRIG
REGISTER 2 XX. XXX d e g r e e s REGISTER 3 XX. XXX d e g r e e s

5Q 'ncalled m a r k data: 70 Pitch trim


S (Shaft a n g l e s ) REGISTER 1 XXX. XX d e g r e e s
REGISTER 1 XXX. XX d e g r e e s
Yaw t r i m
Y (Trunnion angles) REGISTER 2 XXX. XX d e g r e e s
REGISTER 2 XX. XXX d e g r e e s
57 :em, angles - 0 C D U s : 3elta velocity tailoff
X (Shait a n g l e s ) REGISTER 3 XXXXX. f t i s e c
REGISTER 1 XXX. XX d e g r e e s
71 Spare)
Y (Trunnion angles)
72 l e l t a position ( U s e d only d u r i n g
REGISTER 2 XX. XXX d e g r e e s
ground c h e c k o u t . )
00 \IC m o d e s t a t u s (L'sed o n l y Octal only 73 l e l t a velocity ( U s e d only d u r i n g
uring ground checkout. i
ground c h e c k o u t . )
01 a r g e t : lCsed onlv d u r i n g
74 Spare)
round checkout.

zimuth 75 3elta position magnitude


REGISTER 1 REGISTER 1 XXXX. X n a u t i c a l
XXX. XX d e g r e e s
mile 5
, "t'on
. - -'ER 7 XX. XXX d e g r e e s l e l t a velocity magnitude
REGISTER 2 XXXXX. f t i s e c
e l t a v e l o r tv i n s e r t i o n
REC!Jl'ER 1 XXXXX. f t / s e c d e a s u r e m e n t angle deviation
REGISTER 3 XXX. XX d e g r e e 5
115s ? , s t a - c e
REG- :n z XXXX. X n a u t i c a l 76 <-position ( U s e d only d u r i n g
miles :round checkout. )

r e e -iall time 77 ?-velocity ( U s e d only d u r i n g


REGISTER 3 XXBXX. m i n u t e s . :round checkout.)
seconds

Figure 2 . 2 - 6 . Noun L i s t (Sheet 3 of 3 )

GUIDASCE A X D NAVIGATION S Y S T E M
hlission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change D a t e Page 2.2-35
SMZA-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

T h e f l a s h i s t u r n e d off by any of t h e following e v e n t s :

F i n a l e n t r y of a load s e q u e n c e
0 E n t r y of v e r b “ p r o c e e d without d a t a ” ( 3 3 )
0 E n t r y of v e r b “ t e r m i n a t e ” ( 3 4 ) .

It i s i m p o r t a n t t o conclude e v e r y load v e r b by one of the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d


t h r e e , e s p e c i a l l y i f the load w a s i n i t i a t e d by p r o g r a m a c t i o n within t h e
c o m p u t e r . If a n i n t e r n a l l y i n i t i a t e d l o a d i s not concluded validly, the p r o -
g r a m t h a t i n i t i a t e d it m a y n e v e r b e r e c a l l e d . The “ p r o c e e d without d a t a ”
v e r b is u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the o p e r a t o r i s unable t o , o r d o e s not w i s h t o ,
supply the d a t a r e q u e s t e d , but w a n t s the initiating p r o g r a m t o continue a s
b e s t it c a n with old d a t a . The “ t e r m i n a t e ” v e r b i s u s e d t o indicate t h a t t h e
o p e r a t o r c h o o s e s not to load the r e q u e s t e d d a t a a n d a l s o w a n t s t o t e r m i n a t e
the requesting routine.

2.2. 3 . 3 . 3 E r r o r Codes.

E r r o r c o d e n u m b e r s a p p e a r i n REGISTER 1 with noun 31.

OSS E r r o r s

00101 O p t i c s mode c o n t r o l s w i t c h e d f r o m ZERO OPTICS b e f o r e end of 30 s e c o n d s .


00102 AGC unable t o a c h i e v e d e s i r e d o p t i c s m o d e .
001 03 F u n c t i o n not valid f o r SC 012.
00104 No v a c a n t a r e a a v a i l a b l e f o r m a r k s .
00105 I n t e r n a l m a r k r e q u e s t while m a r k s y s t e m i s b u s y .
001 06 F u n c t i o n not v a l i d f o r SC 012.
00107 M a r k r e j e c t while m a r k s y s t e m is not i n u s e .
00110 M a r k r e j e c t with a l l r e q u e s t e d m a r k s a c c e p t e d o r no m a r k s s i n c e initiating
last m a r k reject.
00120 Too many m a r k s .

LSS E r r o r s

00201 Z e r o encode e n d e d b e f o r e end of 30 s e c o n d wait.


00202 A C C unable t o a c h i e v e d e s i r e d ISS mode.
00203 No ISS m o d e i n d i c a t e d t o AGC.
00204 ISS m o d e changed while TRANSFER s w i t c h i s i n COMPUTER position, but
AGC d i d not c o m m a n d mode change.

P r o c e d u r a l Difficulties

00401 D e s i r e d g i m b a l a n g l e s w i l l p r o d u c e g i m b a l lock. (Middle g i m b a l a n g l e


g r e a t e r than 6 0 ” . )
00402 S t a r out of f i e l d of view.
00403 S a m e a s 00402.
00404 IMU o r i e n t a t i o n unknown.
00405 SCS m o d e m o n i t o r ’ f a i l u r e .

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM


B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 2-36
Mission
SMZA-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

00406 Navigation p r o g r a m busy.


00407 Navigation p r o g r a m needed i n t e r n a l l y
00410 AGC update not a l l o w e d .

AGC H a r d w a r e Malfunctions

01101 Unused i n t e r r u p t ( R U P T 2 ) o c c u r r e d
01102 AGC s e l f - t e s t e r r o r .
01103 Unused count, c o m p a r e , a n d s k i p ( C C S ) b r a n c h e x e c u t e d .
01104 C - r e l a y failed during C-relay test.
01105 Star search failure,
01106 IMU o r i e n t a t i o n no good f o r e n t r y .

L i s t Overflo\vs

01201 E x e c u t i v e overflow-no v a c a n t a r e a s . :
01202 E x e c u t i v e overfloLv-no c o r e s e t s . ::
01203 Waitlist o v e r f l o w - t o o m a n y t a s k s . :k
01204 S a m e a s 01203. ::
01205 M a s t e r c o n t r o l overflow-too many j o b s waiting. ::
01206 DSKY waiting line overflo\v. +
01207 N o v a c a n t a r e a f o r marks.:::
01210 Something a l r e a d y waiting i n IMU s t a l l . :::

Interpreter E r r o r s

01301 A r c c o s - a r c s i n input a n g l e too l a r g e . ::


01302 S q u a r e r o o t c a l l e d f o r with a negative a r g u m e n t . ::

Display A l a r m s

01401 VG i n c r e a s i n g - l o s s of c o n t r o l .
01402 Delta V too low-engine not on.

DSKY P r o g r a m E r r o r s

01501 Check f a i l a l a r m d u r i n g i n t e r n a l u s e . :::

:::These a l a r m s a r e " a b o r t s " and define a l a r m s Lvhich i n i t i a t e a r e s t a r t of the -1GC


p r o g r a m xvhich \ v a s i n p r o g r e s s when the a l a r m a p p e a r e d .

--

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM


2. 2-37
Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
SM2A -0 3 -SCO 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

2.2.3. 3.4 AGC P r o g r a m s .

T h e following l i s t of AGC p r o g r a m s d e f i n e s the p r o g r a m s and r o u t i n e s


a p p l i c a b l e to SC-012. The AGC p r o g r a m s p r o v i d e the m a j o r m o d e s of G & N
s y s t e m o p e r a t i o n . T h e r o u t i n e s c o n s i s t of a s p e c i f i c s e q u e n c e of o p e r a t i o n s
which a r e p e r f o r m e d by m o r e t h a n o n e p r o g r a m a n d / o r o t h e r routine.

Program Contains
Number Title Routines

00 AGC Idling

01 P r e l a u n c h In it iali za t i o n

02 Gyro Compassing

03 Optical Azimuth Verification

04 Inertial Reference

05 G&N Startup

06 G & N P o w e r Down

07 S y s t e m s T e s t ( L i m i t e d in-flight u s e . )

11 P re - L E T Jettison

12 . P o s t - L E T Jettison R 24, R 34

17 L E T Abort

22 Landmark Tracking R 27, R 2 8

23 S t a r / L a n d m a r k Navigation M e a s u r e m e n t

21 Ground T r a c k Determination

27 AGC Update

31 O r b i t Change ( P r e t h r u s t ) R 1, R 21, R 35

32 R e t u r n to E a r t h ( P r e t h r u s t ) R 1 , R 21, R 36

33 SPS Minimum Impulse ( P r e t h r u s t ) I3 1, R 2 1 , R 31,


R 33

41 O r b i t Change R 2 , R 22, R 24,


R 31, R 34, R 37

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l2 I9b6 Change Date page 2-2-38


S.M2/\ - 0 3- sc 0 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Program Con ta ins


Number Title Routines
~____ ~ ~

42 R e t u r n t o Earth R 2, R 22, R 24,


R 31, R 34, R 37

13 SPS M i n i m u m I m p u l s e R 2 , R 31, R 34,


R 37

51 IMU O r i e n t a t i o n D e t e r m i n a t i o n R 27, R 29

52 S-IVB/IMU Align R 4, R 25, R 27,


R 28, R 29, R 30

53 CSM/IMU Align R 1 , R 4, R 21,


R 25, R 27, R 28,
R 29, R 30

54 I M U R ea1ignment R 27, R 2 9 , R 30

61 Maneuver To CM/SM S e p a r a t i o n Attltude R 1, R 2 1

62 CM/SiM S e p a r a t i o n And P r e - E n t r y R 3, R 21
iManeuver

63 Initialization

64 P o s t 0.05G

67 Final Phase

71 F i r s t Abort Burn R 2-1


___

Routine Contains
Number Title Routines

1 Attitude C o n t r o l Mode Check R 22

2 T h r u s t C o n t r o l Mode Check R 1 , R 2 1 , R 22

3 E n t r y C o n t r o l Mode Check R 22

+ I F i n e Alignment R 2 5 , R 27, R 28,


R 2 9 , R 30

Attitude M a n e u v e r

22 SCS D i s c r e t e Monitor

~~ ~

GUIDANCE AiUD NAVIGATIOS SYSTEM


. 2.2-39
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SYSTEMS DATA

Routine Contains
Number Title Routines

25 C o a r s e Alignment

27 Sighting M a r k

28. Auto O p t i c s P o s i t i o n i n g

29 S t a r Data T e s t

30 Gyro Torquing

31 Backup Delta V C o u n t e r

33 P r e t h r u s t SPS Minimum I m p u l s e Data


Load

34 O r b i t P a r a m e t e r Display

35 P r e t h r u s t O r b i t Change Data Load

36 P r e t h r u s t R e t u r n to E a r t h Data Load

37 S P S Engine Ignition R 38

38 SPS Engine T h r u s t F a i l

2.2.1 PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA.

2.2.5 OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS.

2 . 2 . 5.1 S /C Attitude.

T h e S / C should not be m a n e u v e r e d t o a n a t t i t u d e which will a l i g n the


i n n e r c i r c l e of e i t h e r r e d a r e a o n the FDA1 b a l l u n d e r t h e navigation a x i s
m a r k e r . F a i l u r e t o a v o i d t h i s condition c a n r e s u l t i n IMU g i m b a l l o c k .
S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e following m a n e u v e r s should b e avoided:

Yaw m a n e u v e r g r e a t e r t h a n k75 d e g r e e s when r o l l angle i s


0 d e g r e e o r 180 d e g r e e s .

P i t c h m a n e u v e r g r e a t e r t h a n t42 d e g r e e s o r -108 d e g r e e s when


roll angle i s * 9 0 degrees.

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SYSTEMS DATA
2 . 2 . 5. 2 IMU O p e r a t i o n .

' The AGC m u s t be O N b e f o r e t h e IMU i s placed i n o p e r a t i o n b l r


engaging t h e IMU c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s .

The AGC m u s t be ON o r i n STANDBY b e f o r e the IMU i s placed


i n standby m o d e .

Allow 15 s e c o n d s f o r the s t a b i l i z a t i o n loops to c o m p l e t e l y


s t a b i l i z e t h e p l a t f o r m a f t e r applying o p e r a t i n g p o w e r , i. e . , a f t e r
engaging the IMU c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s .

The IMU m u s t be i n full o p e r a t i o n f o r a t l e a s t 1 h o u r b e f o r e valid


o p e r a t i o n of the i n e r t i a l c o m p o n e n t s c a n be a s s u m e d .

The i n e r t i a l c o m p o n e n t s will s u f f e r a l o s s of c a l i b r a t i o n if the


t e m p e r a t u r e f a l l s below 1 2 0 ° F o r e x c e e d s 1 4 0 ° F . Damage will
o c c u r if the t e m p e r a t u r e f a l l s below 4 0 ° F o r e x c e e d s 1 6 0 ° F .

Do not o p e r a t e the IMU s u c h t h a t the m i d d l e g i m b a l a n g l e r e a c h e s


o r e x c e e d s 70 d e g r e e s .

2.2. 5 . 3 Optics Operation.

Do not s l e w the SXT o r S C T into t h e m e c h a n i c a l s t o p s ,

Do not d r i v e t h e 2X TRUNNION CDU i n e x c e s s of 180 d e g r e e s a s


r e a d on t h e CDU d i s p l a y d i a l s . I n s u r e t h a t t h i s display d i a l
i n d i c a t e s l e s s t h a n 180 d e g r e e s b e f o r e engaging the ZERO
OPTICS mode of o p e r a t i o n .

2.2.6 T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS.

T h e following i s a c o m p l e t e l i s t of all G&N s y s t e m t e l e m e t r y d a t a t h a t


i s m o n i t o r e d by flight c o n t r o l l e r s a n d ground s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l . The l a s t
column c o n t a i n s t h e n a m e and type of S I C c r e w d i s p l a y . The d i s p l a y u t i l i z e s
t h e s a m e pickoff o r s i g n a l s o u r c e a s t e l e m e t r y , u n l e s s a s e p a r a t e m e a s u r e -
m e n t n u m b e r i s included in the d i s p l a y c o l u m n .

An a s t e r i s k (:::) by t h e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r d e n o t e s i n f o r m a t i o n n h i c h
i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o r d i n g o r t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n d u r i n g PCiLI lo\\
bit r a t e operation.

No m i na 1
hleasurement Sensor Operating
Number Descrlption Range Range C r e w Display

CG 0 0 0 1 i7 C o m p u t e r d i g i t a l d a t a t4/t132 vdc Sone


40 bits

C G 1101 V - 2 8 VDC supply - 3 0 1 0 vdc -28 vdc No ne


SiM2A -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
---

SYSTEMS DATA
Nominal
Measurement Sensor Operating
Number Description Range Range C r e w Display

CG 1110 v 2. 5 VDC TM b i a s TBD - 2 8 vdc None

C G 1503 X IMU +28 v d c o p e r a t e Event None

CG 1513 X IMU +28 v d c s t a n d b y Event No ne

CG 1523 X AGC +28 v d c Event None

CG 1533 X Optics +28 vdc Event None

CG 2110 v IGA t o r q u e m o t o r TBD None


input

cCG 2112 v IGA 1X r e s output TBD None


s i n e in p h a s e

W G 2113 V IGA 1X r e s output c o s TBD None


i n phase

W G 2117 V IGA s e r v o e r r o r i n 010.5 v r ms None


phase
_-
CG 2140 V MGA t o r q u e m o t o r TBD None
input

*CG 2142 v MGA 1X r e s output TBD None


sine in phase

C G 2143 V MGA 1X r e s output TBD None


c o s in p h a s e

;:CG 2147 V MGA s e r v o e r r o r in 010.5 v r m s None


phase

CG 2170 V OGA t o r q u e m o t o r TBD None


input

+CG 2172 v OCA 1X r e s output TBD None


s i n e in p h a s e

‘XCG 2173 V OGA 1X r e s output TBD None


COS in phase

X G 2177 V OCA s e r v o e r r o r i n O/O. 5 vrms None


phase

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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
Nominal
Measurement Sensor Ope r a t i n g
Number Description Range Range

X G 2206 V IGA CDU 1X r e s 010.2 v r m s None


e r r o r i n phase

C G 2236 V MGA CDU 1X r e s O j O . 2 vrms None


e r r o r i n phase

X G 2266 V OCA CDU 1X r e s OjO.2 v r m s None


e r r o r i n phase

CG 2300 T PIPA temp TBD t126.0°F/ None


t134. 0 ° F

CG 2301 T IRIG t e m p TBD t129.5"F/ None


t 1 3 7 . 5 "F

CG 2302 C IMU h e a t e r c u r r e n t Olt5 amps Ojt2 amps None

C G 2303 C IMU blower c u r r e n t O/t5 a m p s O/t1 amp None

:::CG 3102 V SXT t r u n m o t o r TBD None


d r i v e i n phase

+CG 3112 V SXT s h a f t m o t o r T BD None


drive in phase

:::CG 3133 V SCT tryn motor TBD None


drive

W G 3141 V T r u n CDU 16X r e s TBD None


e r r o r in p h a s e

:::CG3200 V T r u n CDU m o t o r T BD None


drive i n phase

X G 3220 V CDU m o t o r d r i v e TBD None


RMS

K G 4300 T AGC t e m p m o n i t o r TBD None

CG 5000 X PIPA fail Event A C C E L F A I L , GSrN


ACCEL FAIL C & W
lights ( 2 ) .

CG 5001 X IMU f a i l Event IMU FAIL C6-W lights


2).

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SYSTEMS DATA
~ ~~

Nomina 1
Measurement Sensor Ope r a t i n g
Number Description Range Range C r e w Display

CG 5002 X CDU f a i l Event CDU F A I L C&W l i g h t s


(2)

CG 5003 X G i m b a l . lock w a r n i n g Event GIMBAL LOCK, GMBL


LOCK C & W l i g h t s (2).

CG 5005 X E r r o r detect Event PGNS, G & N ERROR


C&W lights (2).

CG 5006 X IMU t e m p light Event IMU T E M P C & W l i g h t s


(2).

CG 5007 X Z e r o e n c o d e light Event Z E R O ENCODER,


Z E R O E N C . C&W
lights (2).

C G 5008 X IMU d e l a y light Event IMU DELAY. C&W


light.

CG 5020 X AGC a l a r m 1 Event PROG ALM, C O M P


(Program) F A I L (DSKY lights). .-

C B 5021 X AGC alarm 2 Event C O M P DSKY l i g h t s ( 2 ) .


(AGC a c t i v i t y )

CG 5022 X AGC a l a r m . 3 ( T M ) Event TM FAIL, COMP


F A I L . (DSKY lights).

CG 5023 X AGC a l a r m 4 ( p r o g Event CHECK F A I L , C O M P


ck fail) FAIL. (DSKY lights).

CG 5024 X AGC a l a r m 5 Event SCALER F A I L , C O M P


( s c a l e r fail) FAIL. (DSKY l i g h t s ) .

CG 5 0 2 5 X AGC a l a r m 6 Event PARITY F A I L , C O M P


(parity fail) FAIL. (DSKY lights).

CG 5026 X AGC a l a r m 7 Event COUNTER F A I L ,


[counter fail) S O M P F A I L . (DSKY
ights).

C G 5027 X AGC a l a r m 8 (key Event K E Y R L S E (DSKY


release) i g h t s ) (2).

CG 5028 X 4GC a l a r m 9 ( r u p t Event 3 U P T LOCK, C O M P


.ock) FAIL. (DSKY l i g h t s ) .

Mission
GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM
B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page
.
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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
Nominal
Measurement Sensor Operating
Number Description Range Range C r e w Display

CG 5029 X AGC a l a r m 10 ( T C Event TC TRAP, COMP


trap) FAIL. (DSKY l i g h t s ) .

CG 5030 X Computer power fail Event AGC PWR F A I L


light (DSKY l i g h t s ) (2).

::CG 6000 P IMU p r e s s u r e TBD None

+CG 6020 T PSA t e m p 1 t r a y 3 TBD None

2::CG 6021 T PSA t e m p 2 t r a y 2 TBD None

:::CG 6022 T PSA t e m p 3 t r a y 4 TBD None

2.2.7 G & N POWER CONSUMPTION.

The o p t i c s a r e only p o w e r e d u p when a s t a r o r l a n d m a r k sighting i s


r e q u i r e d . The s u b s y s t e m s p o w e r l e v e l s a r e a s follows:

Description Control Power Reqmt's

IMU- o p e r a t e C B 59 and58 325. 0 w a t t s ( d c )


standby CB 61 and 60 61-7 watts (dc)
B

AGC-operate C B 57 a n d 56 115. 0 w a t t s ( d c )
standby
s AGC Mode Switch 15. 0 w a t t s ( d c )

Optics -operate CB 55 and 54 124. 4 w a t t s ( d c )


14.4 watts (dc)

Controls and displays CB 9 3 a n d 62


and Switch No. 7
AGC only 10. 0 w a t t s ( d c )
AGC and IMU 1 0 - 7 watts (dc)
F u l l G & N operation 18-7 watts (dc)
7 - 0 watts (dc)

M i n i m u m p o w e r consumption i s 7 6 . 7 w a t t s ( d c ) when AGC and IMU a r e in


t h e standby m o d e .

GUIDANCE AND NAVIGATION SYSTEM


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A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

._--
SYSTEMS DATA

2.2.8 INTER F A C E SIGNALS.

Signal Name Source Description

Engine on-off AGC P r o v i d e s p u l s e t r a i n t h a t l a s t s a s long a s t h e engine


(Apollo i s r e q u i r e d t o f i r e . T h e t i m e a t which t h e s i g n a l
guidance t e r m i n a t e s t a k e s into a c c o u n t e l e c t r o n i c d e l a y s
c o m p u t e r ] within t h e SCS a n d tail-off c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the
engines.

Discrete signal AGC P r o v i d e s continuous p u l s e t r a i n to the SCS to be


carrier s w i t c h e d back to the AGC.

G & N s y s t e m attitude SCS’ P r o v i d e s power t o a n a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s w i t c h on the


c o n t r o l ( o r SCS G & N system.
attitude control)

Minimum impulse G&N Disables a l l t h r e e attitude channels simultaneously


enable system a n d s u p p l i e s v o l t a g e s to a n a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s w i t c h
on t h e G & N s y s t e m .

Minimum impulse t scs P r o v i d e s s i x s i g n a l s to the G & N s y s t e m f o r hand


a n d - p i t c h , yaw, and controller operation.
roll

Minimum impulse G&N P r o v i d e s t h e c a p a b i l i t y to i n i t i a t e s p a c e c r a f t attitude


pitch, yaw, and roll system c h a n g e s i n the G & N s y s t e m a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l mode o r
t h e SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l mode. T h e s e c h a n g e s will
be i n i t i a t e d by d i s c r e t e m i n i m u m i m p u l s e s .

P i t c h e r r o r body o f f s e t G&N P r o v i d e s pitch a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to t h e SCS.


a n d body a x i s system

Yaw e r r o r body o f f s e t G&N P r o v i d e s yaw a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to the SCS d u r i n g


axis system G & N s y s t e m e n t r y mode.

Yaw e r r o r body a x i s G&N P r o v i d e s yaw a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to the SCS d u r i n g


system n,ormal G&N s y s t e m operating modes.

Roll e r r o r body o f f s e t G&N P r o v i d e s r o l l a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to the SCS d u r i n g


axis system G&N s y s t e m entry mode.

Roll e r r o r body axis G&N P r o v i d e s r o l l a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l to the SCS d u r l n g


system normal G&N s y s t e m operating modes.

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APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

Signal Name Source De s c r i p t i o n

IMU 28V 8 0 0 c p s P r o v i d e s a n 800 c p s , s y n c h r o n o u s , i n - p h a s e voltage


(demodulator r e f e r e n c e ) f r o m the G & N s y s t e m .

IMU
IMU
s i n AIG l X ,
c o s AIG l X ,
G&N I P r o v i d e s total attitude s i g n a l s to the SCS.

IMU s i n AMG l X ,
IMU C O S AMG l X ,
IMU s i n AOG l X , and
IMU c o s AOG 1X

Ele c t r i c 1 P o w e r S y s t e m ( E P S ) and G & N S y s t e m Interface

t 2 8 vdc AGC bus A and E PS P r o v i d e s power to the AGC.


bus B

t 2 8 vdc optics bus A


and bus B I EPS
P r o v i d e s power to the o p t i c s s u b s y s t e m .

t 2 8 vdc IMU bus A E PS P r o v i d e s power t o the IMU.


and bus B

t 2 8 vdc standby bus A E PS P r o v i d e s IMU t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l power.


a n d bus B

1 1 5v 400 c p s I EPS
II P r o v i d e s power f o r a l l G&N s y s t e m 6-volt l a m p s

Communication and I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n S y s t e m and G&N System I n t e r f a c e

DLNK sync AGC Synchronizes data t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m the AGC t o the


communications and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m .

DLNK end AGC P e r m i t s two AGC w o r d s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m the


AGC to the communications and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n
s y s t e m . Stops the A G C and the t r a n s m i s s i o n of
data f r o m the AGC to the communications and
instrumentation system.

DLNK s t a r t AGC P r o v i d e s pulse signal that o c c u r s a t the beginning


of e v e r y data t r a n s m i s s i o n to the communications
and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m . S e t s flip-flop i n XGC
that e n a b l e s 5 - s t a g e downlink c o u n t e r .

D L N K data AGC I n i t i a t e s by DLNK s t a r t , stopped by DLNK end, and


c o n s i s t s of a 40 bit t e l e m e t r y word (two AGC w o r d s
and a n 8 bit t e l e m e t r y w o r d o r d e r code).

ULNK 1 -4GC T r a n s m i t t e d to the uplink counter in the A G C .


Adds one to uplink counter and shifts the counter
one i n c r e m e n t .

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SYSTEMS DATA
~~

Signal N a m e Source Description

ULNK 0 AGC T r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e uplink c o u n t e r i n t h e AGC.


Shifts uplink c o u n t e r o n e i n c r e m e n t .

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SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2

SUBSECTION 2 . 3

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS)

2.3.1 INTRODUCTION.

The s t a b i l i z a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l s y s t e m (SCS) p r o v i d e s a capability f o r


controlling rotation, t r a n s l a t i o n , a n d t h r u s t v e c t o r f o r c e s with additional
capability of r a t e stabilization.

The SCS is divided into t h r e e b a s i c s u b s y s t e m s : attitude r e f e r e n c e ,


attitude c o n t r o l , a n d t h r u s t v e c t o r control. T h e s e s u b s y s t e m s contain the
e l e m e n t s which provide f o r manu'al attitude control, a u t o m a t i c attitude
c o n t r o l , and t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l , plus m a n u a l backup p r o v i s i o n s f o r a l l
a u t o m a t i c functions.

The s u b s y s t e m / c o n t r o l capability allows the f r e e selection of s e v e r a l


m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n which f a l l within the boundaries of t h r e e e n t i r e l y
different flight c o n t r o l p r o f i l e s . T h e s e include coasting flight ( e a r t h o r b i t a l
e n v i r o n m e n t ) , p o w e r e d flight ( a t m o s p h e r i c - a s c e n t , a n d e a r t h o r b i t a l
e n v i r o n m e n t ) , a n d a t m o s p h e r i c flight ( e n t r y - unpowered).

S p a c e c r a f t d i s p l a y s p r o v i d e a capability f o r monitoring S I C attitude,


S I C r a t e s , attitude e r r o r s , cautions, a n d w a r n i n g s . C o n t r o l s provide
s w i t c h a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r commanding m o d e s , commanding inputs to change
o p e r a t i n g s t a t u s a n d to p e r m i t m a n u a l o v e r r i d e t o all a u t o m a t i c functions.

The SCS i n t e r f a c e s with t h e following S / C s y s t e m s (See figure 2. 3 - 1 ) .

Telecommunications System ( T / C )

P r o v i d e s c l o c k r e f e r e n c e f r e q u e n c y f o r m e a s u r e m e n t of changes in
S / C velocity

R e c e i v e s all down-link t e l e m e t r y f r o m SCS

P r o v i d e s up-data position i n f o r m a t i o n via AGC o r voice

0 E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r S y s t e m (EPS)

P r o v i d e s p r i m a r y power f o r SCS o p e r a t i o n

E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l S y s t e m (ECS)

T r a n s f e r s h e a t f r o m SCS e l e c t r o n i c s

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

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SYSTEMS DATA

TELEMETRY MEASUREMENTS
T/C 4
I

t
ATTITUDE ERRORS
. GUIDANCE
S P S ON-OFF
AND
NAVIGATION
SYSTEM SPS THRUST O N - ~ F F

SPS GlMML COMMANDS


II sps

TOTAL
ATTITUDE

n
DISPLAY
CONSOLE ‘SWITCH
DISPLAY AND
COMMANDS

O
STABILIZATION
AND
CONTROL
SYSTEM
n RCS AUTO ON-OFF

PRIMARY

CONTROL
COMMANDS

I DIRECT RCS ROTATION COMMANDS

SM-2A-676D

F i g u r e 2 . 3-1. SCS F u n c t i o n a l Interface

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

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APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

0 Sequential Events C o n t r o l S y s t e m (SECS)

P r o v i d e s a b o r t switching function

By switch c o n t r o l in SCS, i n i t i a t e s a b o r t a n d e n a b l e s c o n t r o l functions


in SCS

0 Guidance a n d Navigation S y s t e m (G&N)

P r o v i d e s roll, pitch, a n d yaw t o t a l attitude inputs t o SCS

P r o v i d e s attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s

P r o v i d e s t h r u s t on/off c o m m a n d f o r SPS engine

P r o v i d e s s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s t o TVC during G & N AV

0 P r o p u l s i o n S y s t e m s (SPS, RCS).

The s e r v i c e propulsion s y s t e m g e n e r a t e s i n t e r n a l f o r c e s f o r l a r g e
velocity changes

The r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m g e n e r a t e s the i n t e r n a l f o r c e s r e q u i r e d
f o r rotation, a n d t r a n s l a t i o n .

A detailed d e s c r i p t i o n a n d function of the SCS c o n t r o l s a n d d i s p l a y s


r e f e r r e d t o is provided in s e c t i o n 3 .

2.3.2 F U NC TJONAL DESCRIPTION.

T h e functional d e s c r i p t i o n of the SCS c o v e r s the m a j o r a r e a s of


c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t i e s , Apollo r e f e r e n c e a x e s , a n d s u b s y s t e m d e s c r i p t i o n .

2.3.2. 1 C o n t r o l Capabilities.

C o n t r o l capability e x i s t s f o r the m a n u a l attitude c o n t r o l , a u t o m a t i c


attitude c o n t r o l , and t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l functions. The following
p a r a g r a p h s provide a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of e a c h c o n t r o l function.

2. 3. 2. 1. 1 Manual Attitude Control.

Manually commanded inputs c o n v e r t e d t o e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l s , d i r e c t l y


o r i n d i r e c t l y , c a u s e the propulsion s y s t e m s to m a n e u v e r the s p a c e c r a f t t o
a d e s i r e d attitude a n d / o r change the flight path ( t r a j e c t o r y ) of the s p a c e -
c r a f t . Manual c o n t r o l s include two independent rotation c o n t r o l l e r s
( f i g u r e 2.3-8), two t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r s ( f i g u r e 2. 3 - 8 ) , a n d a n a r r a n g e -
m e n t of panel-mounted c o n t r o l s a n d d i s p l a y s .

Mission
STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM
B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page
. 7. 3-3
SMZA-03-SC012
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

2. 3. 2. 3 Subsystems.

The a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e , a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , and t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l
s u b s y s t e m s a r e d e s c r i b e d in t h e following p a r a g r a p h s . The d e s c r i p t i o n
c o v e r s t h e p u r p o s e and functions of e a c h s u b s y s t e m , and the i n t e g r a t e d
a s s o c i a t i o n with o t h e r s y s t e m s . F i g u r e s 2 . 3 - 3 and 2 . 3 - 4 , provide s i m p l i -
f i e d block, a n d flow d i a g r a m s of the t h r e e s u b s y s t e m s and f i g u r e 2. 3-5
s h o w s the switching logic a n d functions which a f f e c t the t h r e e s u b s y s t e m s .

2.3. 2 . 3. 1 Attitude R e f e r e n c e S u b s y s t e m .

The p u r p o s e of t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m ( f i g u r e s 2. 3 - 4 and
2. 3-5) is to r e l a t e t h e S I C a t t i t u d e in t e r m s of i t s g e o m e t r i c X, Y, and Z
c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m to a n a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m with a fixed
r e f e r e n c e f r a m e . The r e l a t i o n between t h e two c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m s r e p r e -
s e n t s i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e and is p r e s e n t e d t o the a s t r o n a u t s by v i s u a l d i s p l a y .

V i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n of i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e is n e c e s s a r y to p e r f o r m m a n u a l
m a n e u v e r s o r f o r m o n i t o r i n g a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n s . The flight d i r e c t o r
a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r (FDAI), l o c a t e d on the S I C m a i n d i s p l a y c o n s o l e , d i s p l a y s
t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e m a n u a l a n d a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n s . The
i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y e d i n c l u d e s S / C t o t a l attitude, attitude e r r o r in t h r e e
a x e s , a n d r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s in t h r e e a x e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y e d by the
FDAI is obtained f r o m e i t h e r the G&N s y s t e m o r the SCS.

T h e r e a r e two a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d with the a t t i t u d e


r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m : p r i m a r y a n d backup. The p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e is
obtained t h r o u g h the m e c h a n i z a t i o n of s u b s y s t e m s within t h e G&N s y s t e m .
The backup r e f e r e n c e is m e c h a n i z e d within t h e SCS. E a c h of t h e a t t i t u d e
reference loops contain t h r e e basic elements: a computer, a n inertial
r e f e r e n c e d e v i c e , and a v i s u a l d i s p l a y .

Attitude R e f e r e n c e /G&N. To obtain a n i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e u s i n g the


G & N s y s t e m , t h e a s t r o n a u t s , t h e G & N o p t i c s s u b s y s t e m , the i n e r t i a l and
c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m s , a n d the MSFN a r e i n t e g r a t e d to f o r m a c l o s e d loop
system.

The G&N s y s t e m i s u s e d to d e t e r m i n e i n e r t i a l attitude and position


a n d i n i t i a t e s a l i g n m e n t of t h e s t a b l e e l e m e n t of the IMU to t h e d e s i r e d
i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e initially e s t a b l i s h e d by o p t i c a l s i g h t i n g s .

After IMU a l i g n m e n t , the IMU i n conjunction with the AGC c a n


provide i n e r t i a l - r e f e r e n c e d a t t i t u d e hold a n d , i f r e q u i r e d , i n e r t i a l -
r e f e r e n c e d velocity c h a n g e s . T r a n s l a t i o n a l v e l o c i t i e s a r e s e n s e d by
a c c e l e r o m e t e r s mounted on t h e IMU s t a b l e e l e m e n t . The AGC p r o c e s s e s
t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r s i g n a l s to update v e l o c i t y a n d change i n f o r m a t i o n f o r
TVC functions.

In addition t o the o p t i c a l a l i g n m e n t of the IMU, the a s t r o n a u t s can u s e


t h e c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m to e s t a b l i s h IMU a l i g n m e n t .

~~ ~ ~~ ~

Mission
STABILIZATION AND C.0NT.RQL SYSTEM

B a s i c Date l 2
I t

1966 - C h a n g e Date Page


.
2.3-8
EXC kqg#fj-bER
AGCU
r---- I

RESOLVER XMITTER
I
RESOLVER
CONTROL
ERROR

I
I I
I
I I
II I
I I
I
I
I
I
qs#z~=
I
I

ERROR

I
RESOLVER XMITTER I RESOLVER
CONTROL

I
I
I
I

I CONTROL
LOGIC
cP.
+
4
A

ATTITUDE REFERENCE FUNCTIONAL CONTROL LOOP


I
AGCU
TOTAL ANGLE r----
+ T-
AS SECTION OF
AS/GPI PANEL

u
1
IMU/CDU R&
EULER ATTITUDE SET, AGCU
ERROR EUiER RESOLVER COMPARISON
RESOLVER XMliTER RESOLVER ERROR
I ~.
CONTROL 1 :.ED

I I J
MODES, l N

I MODES
AECA
I ____1
I
I
I
I NAV
AXES
ATTI'TUDE
SET
NAV
AXES
I I TORQUING NAv
AXES
ATTITUDE
ERROR
TOTAL

- 1 ERROR
ATTITUDE

,+
EULER 7 S/C C O M M A N D ATTITUDE ERROR J
ERROR

I CDU ATTITUDE ERROR

BODY AXES BODY AXES


ATTITUDE GYRO TORQUING
ERRORS/OR

I MCKUP PATE

~ S ~

RESOLVER XMITTER
Z

I
~ E R
ERROR 1 CONTRC4
MODES

BREAKOUT
1
I
L
,,
FDAl I 1I SCS CONTROL

I AGAA

COMMANDS

ATTITUDE REFERENCE SUBSYSTEM


iUOE REFERENCE FUNCTIONAL CONTROL L O O P
I
7 ATTITUDE

IMU
+
INERTIAL
CDU
ERROR A N D
' C O M M N DRATE '
IMU/CDU RESCXVER

1
COMPARISON
I
CLOSED I
P]I
L G6N CONTROL
MODES
I
INERTIAL ROLL, ROTATION d

I
I
I
I A G M 1- ERRORS

f
D/AGMEU #-I CONDITIONED
ATTITUDE ERRORS
PITCH,

AND

YAW

ECA'S
C O M M N D S TO
A U l O COILS

TRANS I RCS

TOTb
I
ATTITUDE

I SWITCHING
-,I[ S/C ROTATIONAL

I LOGIC
SIGNALS

I SWITCHING LOGIC

I SCS CONTROL
PANEL

I
I
I ROTATION
PROPORTIONAL
ROTATION INPUTS
f
CDU ATTITUDE ERROR
I
I
I
I
1 I
I
CONTROL OUTPUT F O R SEP a L A G E
+ MESC ULvIG'

rG
SCS CONTROL
PANEL
I I A V
INDICATOR 1 DIRECT ULLAGE TO DIRECT COILS

' NDS
I ATTITUDE CONTROL SUBSSYSTEM

. I. .
Miss:
SMZA -03-sc012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

I L O G I C INPUT
--c
i
-GLN INPUTS
I A UX
ECA
4
I I

I
I
I
ROTATION &
TRANS
C O W N D S TO
Am0 COILS
RCS
I
I
I
I
-1
I
I . 2
SWITCHING
LOGIC
II
I KSCONTROL
PANEL
-
SIGNALS I

I
I -
SPS G I M M L
POSITION
I

I t

GP I SPS G I M M L
I
+TO ROLL SOLENOIDS

I
I POSITION TRIM RCS

I -
I ROLL
I

=--t
S/C ROTATIONAL PiTcn

I YAW

I ECA'S

I IRANUATION
COWNDS
RATE FEEDBACK
-
I TRANSLATION CONTROL
AND MTE
#)SITION
REDIUCK I

I
I I I

I
I MG ciwcn
CONTROL

I
I THRaT MCTOR CONTROL SUBSYSTEM
SM-2A-9358

Figuro 2.3-3. SCS Functional Block Diagram

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mie sion- . m r i c D.tr' I t 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-9/2. 3-10

~ ~ r p o G
u( x ~
~ , ---...-
---
* -
-
-
a- -.
..)
- .
I + - 1
I
1
i
I
I

I
E V L E R TO

I -b
N A V AXES
CONV I
I I I
I

I I
I C d STEPPfR

- -
-1
MOTOR
CONTROL MOTOR
I KI
LOGIC
0. STEPPER I -
I ORBIT
UTE
MOTOR
A I
I 7 - tI tI * !’
e AMPLIFIER
- 8 I
I
1 NAY70 * I
TORQUER
. EUER

:
AND t
I -GATE
ASSY
I
I+ LEML
DETECTOR
I I
L
CON-
I
I ORMTAL I I I
I SOURCE I
I
I I
I

I I *- NAV TC

I M)DY
AXES
CONV

I
Ill
I I

I TOTAL ANGLE
GENEUTION

--
I

Q
I
ESOLM SIN
OUT PITCH
CH4IOIH
EESOLVER COS REESOLMR SIN RESOLMI cos
I
-I +I2
OUT PITCH A l l om YAW A n OUT YAW A l l OUT ROLL A l l OUT ROLL A l l
-IU+12
I
I
I
I
1
I

I ' AGCU

I I
I
ALIGN

I K6
NAV TO 1
I * BODY I
AXES
I CWV 1
AGCU f
P / v ERR
I I R G6N ERWAGCU INH
Y ERR GLN 90DY
P Ght4 ERR
K7 ::
GIN
?, Y ERR
S.F.
: K8 Kd !iKO KB
J !I I I

t
r
1 I I I I
I 1
-
:%;
+* c K4

* N A V TO
BODY AXES
CONV
GYRO
TOROUER
AMPLIFIERS
0 5
I
a b AGCU
CAGED
C I A
::KIO

I
R

- A0
P, Y
snl RT
K10 c *
4
DODY TO 4
NAVAXES 4bt PRE-
AMPLIFIEOS +

KIIA
1
IKlIA
KII
RTOUT
MTVC
K l ID

AMRIACATION AMRIFICATION

U - 1
a d T 1 - -/TI
.-
R E S O l W3
ROU, mcn

ATTlTUDf
AND YAW
K X L , PITCH A N D
YAW UTES OR
MlES I
I
.... .;. _ ~ . .- ..,. *
' .,

..... -
1
. . . I - I . _ _ . *
, _ . I
--
1

I
I

*;;Ut
K4
I I
I .
1

QQ
UGEO

i
CHX)MT CHIOISV
COMBINE0 COMBINED
ATTITUDE GYRO ATTITIBE GYRO

i
R G A RATES
TO ACS ROLL
1 I AND PITCH
CWNNELS
I
I *
G I N ATTITUDE ERRORS
TO ACS ROLL AND
PITCH CMNNELS
I
W G A T T I T a ERROR3 OR
s/\l W T E S TO ACS
ROLL A N D PITCH C W N N E U
I
11111

M T K PITCH RATES
i o mcn TVC CHANNEL

R G A RATES TO A c f f f A M

G I N ATTITUDE ERRORS TO ACE WAW)


01
*@\flGulll
W G ATTITUDE ERRORS OR 1h-I RATES TOACS (YAW)

MTVC RATES TO TvC WAW


+ OJ
e 0 FIG^ 2.
G I N THRUST O N D F F SIGNAL ( W E TWIN) TO SPS THRUST ON/OFF LOGIC
W @-flGW 2.

Mission-
' I ~ .....( ... ..
...
, . . ..
SMZA-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

1
ATTITUDE GYRO
1 COMBINED
ATTITWE GYRO

I INTEGRATED MODE FU.tCTIONS I

NOTE: b r S l i t d h g Lopis btoilt,


k.Rgun 2 . 3 4 . Shnt 2
@-FIGW 2.34 SHEEl3
@-FlGW 2 . 3 4 SHEET 4 SM-U- l a 8

Figure 2. 3-4. SCS Functional Flow Diagram (Sheet 1 of 4)

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission Basic Date 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 3 - 1 1 / 2 . 3 -12
..,
.. , :-.
tOIAlION C O N T t U
rcMt SWllCM r----- 1 I I
A 115 VAC
m
M Y A

A
WSU

A W A
AND
h W S

Lt ,
OPfN
AI
SM-CM
I
\ SEMUTION 1

4 I

I
YAW IQ
A n 11- )

IO IQ MoOt
WlICHlNG LOCK
flt 2.3-5
. ..

_._,, 5.'. :
. . _...... .
..... t . '
-YAW/+X
XXfNOlD D t I M I

IO. IMJ
v
ONKJFF

. I I

1 I
1 1
I
t
1
1
1
Y
I
I
1.1 PC
urcn

urcn

... .
SMZA - 0 3 - SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

S Y S T E M S DATA

I I
I I NO. b l
-YAW

Figure 2 . 3 - 4 . SCS Functional Flow Diagram (Sheet 2 of 4)

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission B a s i c Date l 2 l966 Change Date P a g e - 7 3 - 1 3 f 2 . 3 -14
~~ --
TVC INTEGRATOR

I I
0

I K30

I
WAG YAW INPUT
I1
I

I K2
SY

FROM
FIG 2.3-4
SHT 2

NOTE:
I r
1 . For Switching logic +io VDC
Detoils, k c Figure
2.3-5. Shh 3 6 4

2. F o r A b d e s , See
Figure 2 3 - 9
-a VM
ROTATION CONTROL YAW COMMAND (MTVC)

FROM
FIG 2.3-4 @ MTK PATES
c u r II
an, -$
YAW GlMM
i
TVC INTEGRATOR
1
I
I
I
1

i:: I
I
I
BM4G YAW INPUT
I
I
I
+( +- K28
- x)V
A
S Y S GRD CK
I
I
I
THRUST VECTOR CONTROL SUBSYSTEM

I K29
SCS A V

I MODE

I
.L
,
GLN OR YAW BM4G INPUT (8’ LIMITER) Y INTEGRATOR
A l l ERROR
‘A
SUWING
?.3-4
2

K D LIMITER
ENG
IGN T
I h I

%+
2.3-4
I

V
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

V V DlFF
CLUTCH VOLTS

---7GIMML
ACTUATOR

I (YAW)
I
jYSTEM
EXTEND NO. I
SERVO N O . 1

YAW G l M M L
* b- ANGLE INDICATOR
AS/GPI

K32 K32
-1 1% T K (7
ELK ELEC N0.1)
TRANS
-
T
TUNS
-
T I
.
K3 1
-
I Hk-

MTK
LNG 1

Figure 2 . 3-4. SCS Functional F l o w Diagram (Sheet 3 of 4)

STABILIZATION A N D CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-1512. 3-16
+X TRANSLATION

DIRECT U L A G E

r -- - -- ---- ------
_. 7
*
I
I
J

FROM
f l G . 2.3-4
+X TRANSLATION - AV INHIBIT CIRCUIT P

SHT 2 DIRECT ULLAGE CR

-----------J

G I N THRUST
G I N THRUST ON/OFF -(
ON/OFF (Ac)
7
PULSE TRAIN (DC)
(PULSE TRAIN) CONVERTER
DSKY ENTRY KEY) -
COMPUTER
DIGITAL DATA m I
---
HI-
K37A K37C
FIG. 2.3-
SHT 1 HI
-

HI
-
L---
El
AV COUNTER

d V DISPLAY PANEL

POT-OUT
-&+'3I

LATCH

+-
+X TRANSUTION

DIRECT W A G E G I N THRUST SIG

LATCH
I
THRUST

SWITCH

COINCIDENCE SWITCH
(OPEN)

1 GANdV
I I
GLN
J
I GAN AV

?RIDE/ .
.I
.
K37A K37B
I ,
It

K37A K37C

-- K37B K37C
1,
I
I*
I 4)
A

-1

Mission
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

_ - - - - - - _ _ - - - - - - - -----
NORM*L/OFF/
DIRECT O N
1 1
SWITCH
r I I IGNITION
COILS
I
I -iL-----+7 I
I *
I I
I
- I
I
- 3 -3
- NO. I
A Y PANEL
AND
NO. 2I I
I
I
NO. 3
AND
I
' NO.
' I

NOTES:

sps THRUST O N P F F LOGIC AND


ACCELEROMETER ELECTRONIQ

Figure 2.3-4. SCS Functional Flow Diagram (Sheet 4 of 4)

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission Basic Date l 2 1966 Change Date P a g e 2.3-1712.3-18
SMZA-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-- SYSTEMS DATA

ROTATION CONTROL BREAKOUT SWITCHES css -V


FROM FIG.
SWITCH AV MTVC ENGAGE -
F

GbN b V -M
G B N ATTITUDE CONTROL --L

I i AV SCS A V -c

-
-P
R

-
J
ATTITUDE/MONITOR/
ENTRY SWITCH

-NK

-n

-
T

+28 VDC
A -
ST
SWITCHES OFF
r _ Y , i
. . ..
u
-

NO RMAL ROLL B’U RATE -


I

NORMAL PITCH B/U RATE -


H
NOTE For delta wderA.
see Fig 2.3-9

NORMAL YAW B/U RATE -


0 h
BMAG

SCS MODE
SWITCHES
SM-?A- lO49B

F i g u r e 2. 3-5. SCS Switching Logic (Sheet 1 of 4 )

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEiM


.
page 2.3-1912. 3 - 2 0
Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date
I__-
APOL

G h N A l T CON1 ~

-
K9-A L

mit c-
ERR
AGAA

KP-8
MTVC ENGAGt
f PITCH c
ERR
AGM t-

K9-C
YAW
E RR
. ROLL B / u RATE AGAA
PITCM .
I/U RATF
11

-
YAW 8 i U MTt
j -

L
1

FDA1
+a ALIGN

LOCAL VERTICAL
I
FROM FIG.
2.3-5 SM7 I

MONITOR
GhN ATTITUM CONTIOl
GhN A V
GhN ENTRY
.05G M4NUAL

I .MG W N U A L
G I N ENTRY
GhN ATTITUDE CON1
L MDNlTOP
FROM FIG 2.3-5 SM7 3 MIN IMP A l l CON1
0
":" css
MIN I M P A T l CON1
css
CWNNEL Emnu
6WITCH. PITCH CIUNNEL)
S a ATTITUOE CONTROL
PITCH AXIS ENGAGED u
FROM FIG 2.34 SHT I YAW AXIS ENGAGED

CKANNEL ENABLE
A A h C r O L L AXIS ENGAGED
SWITCMES, ROLL
CWNNEL ~ 060 WLL AXIS ENGAGED

Figure 2.3-5. !j

STA BLLIZA TIC

Mission Basic Date12 NOV


SMZA -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
!

ATTITUDE REFERENCE SUBSYSTEM


SWITCHING LOGIC

NOTE: fur dclto A a u k


ws f i g . 2.3-9

F i g u r e 2. 3 - 5 . SCS Switching L o g i c (Sheet 2 of 4 )

STABILIZATW
AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date12 NOV 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-21/2.3-22

k : - w 2-.
SCS ENTRY
7
N
G6N ENTRY 1 -
YAW B/U RT
h ' K15
RT G - N DV G-N ATl
IN
MINIMUM DEADMND

G6N A V
M
G 6 N ATTITUDE CONTROL
L 1
FROM I 1
scs
MODE
SWITCHES
. n
0.05G MANUAL
css
F I G . 2.3-5 V
SHT 1

SCS A l l SCS ENTRY

CONTROL CONTROL

=7ON/OFF

P
R
SCS LOCAL VERTICAL
SCS ATTITUDE CONTROL
-t
1 scs LCL VE

1
S
SCSA V 1 SCS A V

SCS AT1 CON1

IMP E N A l
SWITCH 0
YAW DIRECT SW (+)
FROM FIG. 2.3-4
SHT 2
I YAW DIRECT SW (-)
DIRECT ULLAGE

I
+

FROM FIG. 2 - 3 4 ENGINE IGNITION


- DELAY
SHT 4
SEE FIG. 2.3-9 A VDC -
~
I SEC
DELAY
ON/OFF .

Mission B
!
SMZA -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

D MODE
I
11 I-} iISZRETES
I.

I
G6N d V
G L N AT1 C O N 1

A G I N ENTRY

+
K18
AGM
ATr
IN

FROM FIG.

- w Fig. 2.3-9

A rl I . ATTITUDE CONTROL SUBSYSTEM


m 11
K29 SWITCHING LOGIC
scs - YAW CHANNEL ('TYPICAL)
AV
MODE

STABILIZATION AND C O N T R O L SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 . Change Date Page 2-3.23/2. 3-24


SMZA -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

- SYSTEMS DATA

FROM
FIG. 2-14 F
MTVC ENGAGE
-
1 I
SHT 1

rL
DF) S
DISENGAGE
ERVO NO. I S
ENGAGE
K34
ERVO NO. 2

TVC MONITOR
(OVER-UNDER CURRENT)
OR TVC
N0.I OFF
I 1

-
+2BV C APPL D AT TP-CH1035V
1

2 2 -1 1 4
SHT )-DY( SCS ENTRY
K35
ENTRY

-
NOTE: See Fig. 2-13 Sht 5 for relays K36, K37, 8 K 3 8

SM-2A- 1052

Figure 2. 3-5. SCS Switching Logic (Sheet 4 of 4)

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission Basic Date 12 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-25


SM2A -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

I n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e d a t a m a y a l s o be r e c e i v e d by t h e a s t r o n a u t s via the
MSFN voice link f o r AGC updating a n d / o r f o r IMU a l i g n m e n t . With t h e c o m -
p u t e r s u b s y s t e m in t h e G&N loop, a u t o m a t i c m a n e u v e r s a n d / o r G & N -
c o n t r o l l e d velocity c h a n g e s a r e p o s s i b l e .

The FDAI r e c e i v e s total a t t i t u d e and a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m


t h e G&N s y s t e m . The FDAI i n d i c a t e s S I C t o t a l a t t i t u d e ( S / C r e f e r e n c e
a t t i t u d e ) a n d a t t i t u d e e r r o r . T o t a l a t t i t u d e r e p r e s e n t s the g i m b a l a n g l e s of
t h e IMU; a n d a t t i t u d e e r r o r is the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e IMU g i m b a l a n g l e s
a n d t h e d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e . The d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e is obtained by m a n e u v e r i n g
the S / C e i t h e r m a n u a l l y o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y in t h e d i r e c t i o n s t h a t null out t h e
i n d i c a t e d e r r o r s , T h i s e s t a b l i s h e s S I C a t t i t u d e to the d e s i r e d i n e r t i a l
r e f e r e n c e . The F D A I a l s o d i s p l a y s r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s obtained f r o m the SCS
r a t e g y r o s . The SCS r a t e g y r o s supply r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r all G & N and
SCS c o n t r o l a n d d i s p l a y functions.

In G&N m o d e s , the FDAI b a l l is continuously c o n t r o l l e d by s i g n a l s


f r o m the IMU g i m b a l a n g l e r e s o l v e r s . In SCS m o d e s , t h e b a l l is c o n t r o l l e d
by t h e AGCU t o t a l a n g l e r e s o l v e r s . AGCU s i g n a l s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e b a l l
only d u r i n g m a n u a l l y i n i t i a t e d a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s ( a s s u m i n g none of the BMAGs
a r e r a t e c a g e d ) and i n the SCS e n t r y mode a f t e r 0.05 G switching. At a l l o t h e r
t i m e s , t h e b a l l r e m a i n s s t a t i o n a r y . The b a l l is a l w a y s d r i v e n with r e f e r e n c e
to t h e IMU a x e s with t h e AGCU providing t h e c o n v e r s i o n f o r t h e BMAGS f r o m
body a x e s t o IMU a x e s .

Attitude R e f e r e n c e / S C S . If t h e IMU cannot be u s e d f o r a t t i t u d e r e f e r -


e n c e , a b a c k u p o r s t r a p d o w n a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e c o m p r i s e d of a s s e m b l i e s
c o n t a i n e d within the SCS will p r o v i d e i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e . The
s t r a p d o w n r e f e r e n c e i s m e c h a n i z e d within t h e following:

0 Attitude G y r o A c c e l e r o m e t e r A s s e m b l y (AGAA)

C o n t a i n s t h e body-mounted a t t i t u d e g y r o s (BMAGS), X - a x i s a c c e l e r -
o m e t e r , and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d e l e c t r o n i c s . P r o v i d e s attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s
f o r t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m , AGCU, and FDAI. The BMAGS a r e a l s o
a s o u r c e f o r backup r a t e s i g n a l s , i f r e q u i r e d .

0 R a t e G y r o A s s e m b l y (RGA)

P r o v i d e s a n g u l a r r a t e s i g n a l s to the a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l (ACS) s u b s y s t e m s
and to t h e FDAI.

0 Attitude Set / G i m b a l P o s i t i o n I n d i c a t o r (AS / G P I )

The AS s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a c a p a b i l i t y to s e t in d e s i r e d r e f e r e n c e
a t t i t u d e s a n d a l i g n the ARS to t h o s e a t t i t u d e s . The G P I s e c t i o n allows the
a s t r o n a u t s to m a n u a l l y p o s i t i o n t h e SPS engine g i m b a l s to a t r i m position
p r i o r to a d e l t a V m a n e u v e r .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 19661 Change Date Page 2 . 3-7.6


SM2A -0 3-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

---
SYSTEMS DATA

0 Display/Attitude Gyro Accelerometer Assembly Electronic Control


A s s e m b l y (D/AGAAECA)

AGAA section: C o n t a i n s e l e c t r o n i c s r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e t h e BMAGS


a n d to i n t e r f a c e with the AGCU

DECA section: P r o v i d e s t h e i n t e r f a c e e l e c t r o n i c s between all s e n s o r s


and corresponding displays

0 A u x i l i a r y E l e c t r o n i c C o n t r o l A s s e m b l y (AECA)

AGCU section: P e r f Q r m s the m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n s a n d c o n t a i n s


the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n m a t r i c e s r e q u i r e d t o d i s p l a y
a t t i t u d e a n d a t t i t u d e e r r o r s of the S / C . The AGCU is
t h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l d e v i c e f o r t h e SCS ARS.

The r e m a i n d e r of the AECA c o n t a i n s c i r c u i t r y f o r the


SPS engine t h r u s t O N / O F F c o n t r o l function.

0 F l i g h t D i r e c t o r Attitude I n d i c a t o r (FDAI)

The FDAI ( f i g u r e 2 . 3-12) p r o v i d e s t h e v i s u a l d i s p l a y s f o r S / C attitude;


included i s total a t t i t u d e r e a d o u t (FDAI b a l l ) g i m b a l e d in t h r e e a x e s :
r o l l , p i t c h , a n d yaw.

P i t c h a n d yaw t o t a l a t t i t u d e is r e a d f r o m e i t h e r t h e body a x e s index


( v ) o r the navigation a x e s index (e).The i n d i c e s a r e fixed to t h e
i n s t r u m e n t f a c e p l a t e . Roll is i n d i c a t e d by a r o l l bug ( i n d i c a t o r needle
d r i v e n by t h e r o l l g i m b a l t h r o u g h a g e a r m e c h a n i s m ) . Roll a t t i t u d e is
r e a d by c o m p a r i n g t h e r o l l bug p o s i t i o n with r e f e r e n c e to a s c a l e d
b e z e l r i n g about t h e i n s t r u m e n t p e r i p h e r y .

Attitude e r r o r s a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h r e e f l y - t o n e e d l e s .

Angular r a t e s a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h r e e fly-to n e e d l e s .

A t r o l l r a t e o r t r o l l e r r o r will c a u s e t h o s e n e e d l e s to d e f l e c t l e f t .
-
A r o l l r a t e o r - r o l l e r r o r will c a u s e t h e n e e d l e s to d e f l e c t right.

A t pitch r a t e o r t p i t c h e r r o r will c a u s e t h o s e n e e d l e s to d e f l e c t
down. A - pitch r a t e o r - pitch e r r o r will c a u s e the n e e d l e s to
d e f l e c t up.

The yaw r a t e and e r r o r n e e d l e s deflect i n the s a m e d i r e c t i o n s a s the


roll needles.

To c o r r e c t the e r r o r , t h e S / C is a u t o m a t i c a l l y o r m a n u a l l y r o t a t e d
i n the d i r e c t i o n of needle deflection.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 NOV 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-27


SMZA -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA
~~ ~ ~~

The SCS attitude r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m i s m e c h a n i z e d such that it i s


u s e d p r i m a r i l y f o r m o n i t o r i n g S/C attitude. Consequently, automatic
m a n e u v e r i n g is not p o s s i b l e when SCS m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n a r e s e l e c t e d .
H o w e v e r , by using t h e FDAI a s a m o n i t o r and by p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n of con-
t r o l s , p r e c i s i o n m a n u a l m a n e u v e r s c a n be p e r f o r m e d .

The s u b s y s t e m , acting as a s t r a p d o w n r e f e r e n c e , will supply a l l of


the a t t i t u d e d a t a n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m the IMU. T h e s e d a t a a r e s u b s e -
quently applied to t h e FDAI f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n of S I C attitude. The IMU i s a
t h r e e - g i m b a l p l a t f o r m and t h e r e f o r e w i l l a c h i e v e a g i m b a l l o c k condition.
The m i d d l e and o u t e r g i m b a l s b e c o m e p a r a l l e l and the output i s not p r e -
d i c t a b l e . T h e AGCU h a s a s i m i l a r function which c r e a t e s a n effective g i m -
b a l lock. T h i s o c c u r s in both s y s t e m s f o r a 9 0 - d e g r e e yaw d i s p l a c e m e n t
with r e s p e c t to the navigation b a s e . The FDAI and yaw attitude s e t c o n t r o l
p r o v i d e s m a r k i n g s t h a t will s e r v e as a w a r n i n g p r i o r to achieving a g i m b a l -
l o c k condition.
B a s i c a l l y , the body-mounted a t t i t u d e g y r o s (BMAGS), attitude g y r o
coupling unit (+4GCU), and the FDAI a r e t h e p r i m a r y i n e r t i a l s e n s i n g , c o m -
puting, and d i s p l a y e l e m e n t s of the s t r a p d o w n s y s t e m . Attitude e r r o r s in
r o l l , pitch, and yaw body a x e s a r e s e n s e d b y the body-mounted attitude
g y r o s . The e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e conditioned and subsequently d i r e c t e d to the
FDAI f o r d i s p l a y of t o t a l attitude and a t t i t u d e e r r o r . The m a j o r p a r t of the
conditioning t a k e s p l a c e in t h e AGCU which p r o v i d e s s i g n a l inputs to the
FDAI c o m p a r a b l e to t h a t of t h e IMU.
The AGCU s e c t i o n of t h e a u x i l i a r y e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y i s t h e
p r i m a r y c o n t r o l o r computing d e v i c e f o r t h e SCS a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s -
t e m . It p e r f o r m s m o s t of the i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e computations and p e r f o r m s
the m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n v e r s i o n s and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o d i s p l a y t o t a l
a t t i t u d e and attitude e r r o r . T h e a t t i t u d e g y r o torquing loop, that t h e AGCU
e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l e l e m e n t s a r e a p a r t of, p e r f o r m t h e following:

0 G e n e r a t e a p u l s e t r a i n t h a t i s equivalent t o the t o t a l change in S / C


attitude

P r o v i d e t w o - d i r e c t i o n a l c o n t r o l of r e s o l v e r s h a f t a n g l e s

P r o v i d e torquing c u r r e n t for t h e a t t i t u d e g y r o s
P r o v i d e f o r w a r d and r e v e r s e c o n v e r s i o n of g y r o and attitude s e t
e r r o r s i g n a l s t o a p p r o p r i a t e a x e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r FDAI d i s p l a y ,
and fo r g y r o to rquing ,

The SCS r a t e g y r o s s e n s e v e h i c l e a n g u l a r velocity, and supply angular


r a t e s i g n a l s to t h e s y s t e m f o r r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n and to the FDAI r a t e indica-
t o r s . The p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n of s w i t c h e s will p l a c e t h e BMAGS in a backup-
r a t e condition, and p r o v i d e r a t e s i g n a l s to t h e FDAI r a t e i n d i c a t o r s . When-
e v e r m a n u a l t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l i s s e l e c t e d , t h e BMACS will a u t o m a t i c a l l y
be placed in the b a c k u p - r a t e condition.

Attitude R e f e r e n c e Control. After a m a n e u v e r o r a s e r i e s of m a n e u -


v e r s , the S / C attitude (body a x e s ) i s , e a c h t i m e , d i f f e r e n t with r e s p e c t to
t h e i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e f r a m e . T h e r e f o r e , the r e q u i r e m e n t e x i s t s f o r a
method of r e s o l v i n g t h e r o t a t i o n s about the d i f f e r e n t body a x e s , and

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-28
SMZA-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

L-
SYSTEMS DATA

e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e body a x e s a n d t h e a x e s of the fixed


r e f e r e n c e f r a m e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p is e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h a n E u l e r a n g l e
t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s obtained f r o m e i t h e r the IMU ( s t a b l e e l e m e n t ) or
the s t r a p d o w n a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m . The E u l e r a n g l e , then, is t h e
r e s o l v e d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e S / C body a x e s c o o r d i n a t e s a n d the c o o r d i -
n a t e s of t h e fixed i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e . The E u l e r angle a t t i t u d e of the S / C ,
as d i s p l a y e d on t h e FDAI, is with r e s p e c t to t h e c o o r d i n a t e s of t h e f i x e d
reference frame.

The c o n v e r s i o n f r o m body a x e s t o E u l e r a n g l e r e a d o u t on the FDAI,


b a s i c a l l y , c o n s i s t s of a f o r w a r d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and a r e v e r s e t r a n s f o r m a -
tion. (See f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 3 . ) The f o r w a r d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n is e s s e n t i a l l y body-
to-navigation a x e s c o n v e r s i o n , then navigation a x e s - t o - E u l e r angle t r a n s -
f o r m a t i o n by r e s o l v e r s in t h e AGCU. The r e s o l v e r s and g i m b a l s e r v o s in
t h e FDAI p o s i t i o n t h e total a t t i t u d e d i s p l a y s , r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e E u l e r
e r r o r s . The r e v e r s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n is e s s e n t i a l l y E u l e r a n g l e - t o - n a v i g a -
tion a x e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n by r e s o l v e r s in the AGCU, then navigation-to-body
a x e s c o n v e r s i o n f o r s i g n a l a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e attitude gyro torquing a m p l i -
f i e r s . A f t e r a m p l i f i c a t i o n , t h e s i g n a l s a r e demodulated and a p p l i e d to the
g y r o torquing c o i l s which t o r q u e t h e g y r o s to null the o r i g i n a l e r r o r .

A f t e r initial a l i g n m e n t to t h e IMU r e f e r e n c e , the BMAG/AGCU loop


is opened by r e l a y a c t i o n and f u r t h e r positioning of the FDAI ball is p r e -
vented. However, i f t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , f o r e x a m p l e , is d i s p l a c e d , t h e
loop will be c l o s e d and the FDAI b a l l will follow S / C motion until t h e c o n -
t r o l is n e u t r a l i z e d . The BMAG/AGCU loop will open and the ball will again
be s t a t i o n a r y . If i n G & N mode, the FDAI b a l l is a l w a y s coupled to r e p r e -
s e n t and follow IMU g i m b a l a n g l e s .

Attitude E r r o r s . The FDAI attitude e r r o r i n d i c a t o r s r e p r e s e n t the


d i f f e r e n c e between a c t u a l S / C a t t i t u d e and the i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e . The
e r r o r is r e f e r e n c e d to t h e S I C body a x e s in a l l m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n , except
for G&N entry mode.

Signals t h a t p o s i t i o n the attitude e r r o r i n d i c a t o r of the FDAI c o m e


f r o m t h r e e p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s . (See f i g u r e s 2 . 3 - 3 and 2 . 3 - 4 . ) In SCS m o d e s ,
e i t h e r t h e BMAGS or the AGCU p r o v i d e body a x e s e r r o r s i g n a l s to the e r r o r
i n d i c a t o r m e t e r m o v e m e n t s . AGCU s i g n a l s a r e applied when ATT S E T is
s e l e c t e d on the a t t i t u d e s e t s e c t i o n of the AS/GPI. T h i s a p p l i e s the body
a x e s equivalent of the d i f f e r e n c e between the attitude s e t r e s o l v e r s h a f t and
the AGCU r e s o l v e r shaft.

When A T T S E T is not s e l e c t e d , t h e outputs of the t h r e e BMAGS a r e


applied to the a t t i t u d e e r r o r m e t e r m o v e m e n t s of t h e FDAI. Whether
f r o m the BMAGS or t h e AGCU, t h e e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e d i r e c t e d to the m e t e r

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2-3-29


SM2A - 03 -SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

Mode Roll Pitch Yaw

Monitor i25" *15" i15"


SCS and G & N E n t r y *25" i5' i 5 O

All o t h e r m o d e s *5* i 5 O i 5"

When G&N m o d e s a r e s e l e c t e d , t h e e r r o r s i g n a l s a r e d i r e c t e d to the


FDAI via t h e i n e r t i a l coupling d i s p l a y units (CDUs) and t h e attitude r e f e r -
e n c e c o n v e r s i o n c i r c u i t r y . The r o l l and yaw channel s i g n a l s a r e r e f e r e n c e d
to e i t h e r the navigation b a s e a x e s o r the S / C body a x e s . C o n v e r s i o n in the
p i t c h c h a n n e l is not r e q u i r e d . The c a p a b i l i t y to r e f e r e n c e t h e r o l l and y a w
c h a n n e l s i g n a l s to e i t h e r t h e navigation b a s e of S / C body a x e s . i s r e q u i r e d
to f a c i l i t a t e r o l l and yaw channel c r o s s - c o u p l i n g c o n t r o l . T h i s is r e q u i r e d
when G & N e n t r y m a n e u v e r s a r e p e r f o r m e d ; in which c a s e , r e f e r e n c e is
t o the navigation b a s e a x e s .

R a t e s . The following c h a r t p r o v i d e s mode v e r s u s f u l l - s c a l e r a t e


i n d i c a t i o n s as r e a d on t h e FDAI.

Mode s Ro 11 Pitch Yaw

Monitor
SCS E n t r y *25" / s e c *5n I s e c i5' /sec
G&N F n t r y

SCS LCL V e r t o r
SCS A T T Cont o r * l oIsec *1 I s e c i 1 Isec
O

C & N ATT Cont

SCS a n d G & N V i 5 " Isec i5" / s e c i 5 a/sec

SCS Attitude R e f e r e n c e Alignment. Alignment of the attitude r e f e r -


e n c e s u b s y s t e m is p e r f o r m e d by c o m p a r i n g the outputs of t h e total attitude
s e t r e s o l v e r s in t h e AGCU with t h e a t t i t u d e s e t r e s o l v e r s of the A S / G P I .
The a t t i t u d e s e t r e s o l v e r s h a f t c a n be positioned by u s i n g the attitude s e t
d i a l s ( t h u m b w h e e l s ) on the f r o n t of the A S / G P I . The d i a l s i n d i c a t e E u l e r
angle of the a t t i t u d e s e t r e s o l v e r shaft, and the output of t h e r e s o l v e r is
t h e E u l e r a n g l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e a t t i t u d e set r e s o l v e r s and t h e total
a t t i t u d e r e s o l v e r s i n the AGCU.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 N ov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-30


SMZA-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

When t h e FDAI ALIGN switch on t h e A S / G P I panel is p r e s s e d , t h e


ACCU r e s o l v e r s w i l l a l i g n t o t h e a t t i t u d e s e t r e s o l v e r s . E u l e r - t o -
navigation a x e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and navigation a x e s - t o - b o d y a x e s
c o n v e r s i o n t a k e s p l a c e f o r t h e FDAI a t t i t u d e e r r o r d i s p l a y functions. In
SCS c o n t r o l m o d e s , t h e a t t i t u d e s indicated on t h e a t t i t u d e s e t d i a l s w i l l be
indicated on t h e FDAI with r e s p e c t t o t h e navigation a x e s symbol and t h e
r o l l index,

2. 3 . 2. 3. 2 Attitude Control S u b s y s t e m .

T h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m (ACS) ( f i g u r e s 2. 3 - 4 and 2. 3-5),


e s s e n t i a l l y , p r o v i d e s t h e m e a n s f o r controlling s p a c e c r a f t motion. Control
i s e i t h e r manual o r a u t o m a t i c when using c o n t r o l l e d inputs f r o m t h e C & N
s y s t e m . S p a c e c r a f t motion, o t h e r t h a n d r i f t , is i n i t i a t e d through t h e u s e of
t h e S / M RCS j e t s p r i o r t o C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n . After s e p a r a t i o n ( e n t r y ) ,
t h e C / M RCS j e t s a r e used. An a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l logic c h a r t is p r e s e n t e d i n
figure 2. 3 - 6 .

T h e r e a r e f o u r t y p e s of c o n t r o l s t h a t t h e ACS contends with which to


s a t i s f y m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . ( S e e f i g u r e s 2. 3-4 and 2. 3 - 7 . ) T h e s e a r e
r o t a t i o n , t r a n s l a t i o n , a t t i t u d e hold, and r a t e damping only. Rotational
motion is r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h navigational sightings with t h e G&N o p t i c s
s u b s y s t e m t e l e s c o p e and s e x t a n t for S / C alignment p r i o r t o a velocity
c h a n g e f o r TVC functions, for antenna o r i e n t a t i o n , f o r T I C t r a n s m i s s i o n
and r e c e p t i o n , and f o r l i f t v e c t o r c o n t r o l ( r o l l c o n t r o l plus pitch and yaw
r a t e stabilization) during entry.
4
T r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l f o r t h e AS204A m i s s i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e
ullage function p r i o r to SPS engine ignition.

Holding a t t i t u d e ( a t t i t u d e hold) to a fixed r e f e r e n c e ( e s t a b l i s h e d by


t h e A R S ) is n e c e s s a r y f o r navigational sightings, p r e p a r i n g f o r a velocity
change and ullage m a n e u v e r s . After e s t a b l i s h i n g a t t i t u d e hold, t h e S / C
motion involved is t h e amount of d r i f t that t h e S / C is allowed t o r o t a t e
about i t s a x e s . T h e d r i f t is l i m i t e d t o a s e l e c t a b l e m i n i m u m o r m a x i m u m
deadband about all t h r e e a x e s .

R a t e damping only p r o v i d e s r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n d u r i n g e n t r y o r i n t h e
event of a n e b o r t p r i o r t o l a u n c h e s c a p e s y s t e m ( L E S ) j e t t i s o n . The
motions involved h e r e a r e t h e f i n i t e f i r i n g s of t h e RCS j e t s when r o t a t i o n a l
r a t e s exceed c e r t a i n l i m i t s . T h e RCS j e t f i r i n g s w i l l d e c r e a s e t h e r a t e s
t o within p r e d e t e r m i n e d limits. T h e r a t e s a r e l i m i t e d t o 0. 2 d e g r e e l s e c
f o r a l l m o d e s , except SCS and G&N e n t r y m o d e s when t h e r a t e s a r e
i n c r e a s e d t o 2 d e g r e e s / s ec ond.

The ACS i n c l u d e s t h e r o l l , pitch, and yaw e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m -


b l i e s ( E C A s ) , the d e l t a V i n d i c a t o r , a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e s e c t i o n of t h e G&N
o p t i c s c o n t r o l panel and, i n addition, u t i l i z e s a l l of t h e p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t s
and functions of t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m .

...
~~~~~

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 3 - 3 1
SMZA-03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

* CIRCUIT BREAKER TABULATION I S APPLICABLE TO RCS ENGINES


AUTOMATIC COIL OPERATION ONLY. FOR MANUAL DIRECT
* COIL OPERATION, POWER IS APPLIED FROM SCS DIRECT C O N 1
CIRCUIT BREAKERS MN A OR MN B BY ACTUATION OF THE
PILOTS OR CO-PILOTS H A N D CONTROLLER, RESPECTIVELY.

NOTES: 1 . Cambimtions of tmmlation a d rotation manowen r q u i r i n g the


simultaneous firing of identical S/M RCS e n g i m is prohibited by
let selection logic circuit design.

2. Minimum impulse opmution is accomplished i n fhe roll oxis by two


enginsr only. Remaining e n g i m are disabled by wtting the A6C
ROLL CHANNELrwitch to OFF and pulling one BlLD ROLL circuit
breaker; or setting the BbD ROLL CHANNEL switch to OFF and
p r l l i n g on* A6C ROLL circuit breaker.

3 . Fuel consewation ond/ar canrunption balance between quads moy


be accomplished by using applicable SCS CHANNEL switches and
circuit breokers to select singleengine operation in each direction.
\

SM-2A-782D

F i g u r e 2. 3 - 6 . SCS Attitude Control Logic C h a r t


I

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date
.
page 2.3-32
M i s s ion
Y . m

-_ I I
CONTPCK
I -SWITCHING

---I
PITCh
L -.- TRANSDUCER - 1 -
I
- Z A F
PITCH W A G
-1
I I
I SIG GEN

I
L
ATTITUDE SIGNAL
FROM G L N
------
r---
I
I TRANSLATION
L--,CONTROL

-----.
YAW ECA

I
ATTITUDE SIGNAL
FROM G6N
------
PITCH ECA

-e-

--------

-- ----- ---
---e-

--- -
ATE G Y R O 1
I r ,--

YAW ECA

_.

---_-------
,
. s!* .

_ . ...". .
h

------
ROLL ECA
PITCH CHANNEL I PATE SIGNAL PICKOFF

1 TRANSDUCER J

ATTITUDE SIGNAL

_c--

@- W

D
D

---_----- - AND GATE

I -I

D- OR GATE

YAW CHANNEL
SWITCH - SIGNAL INVERTER
I
+5-28 VDC 4)- NORMALLY OPEN
I
I
I
MAIN
BUS B
* NORMALLY CLOSED

I
I
I
I NOTES: K17 Rclov contoch o w n ahrr a c b t i o n of
mtoiion conlmller breokout witches.
Relay contoch close durine G L N m o d e
and open during SCS mcdn.

I K18 Relay mntocts close during SCS modes


28 VDC and open during G6N m d n .
MAIN
BUS A @ Functional Repmentotion of the
mcchonicolly linked motor-driven wltch.
Actuated by RCS tmnsfrr witch or by the MESC.

__---
6--
un
MOT .Motor-driven witch-Sptem 8

Mist
, fa
SMZA -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O O P E R A T I O N S HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

p
SWITCHING

-1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
SM-2A-718 D

F i g u r e 2. 3 - 7 . J e t S e l e c t i o n Logic F u n c t i o n a l Flow D i a g r a m f. '

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL S Y S T E M

Mi s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2 . 3 - 3 3 1 2 . 3 - 3 4


SM2A -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

T h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m e l e c t r o n i c s is contained within t h e
r o l l , p i t c h , and yaw E C A s . The E C A s a c c e p t t h e manual and a u t o m a t i c
i n p u t s , conditions t h e m , and d i r e c t s on-off e l e c t r i c a l c o m m a n d s i g n a l s
through j e t s e l e c t i o n logic t o a p p r o p r i a t e a u t o m a t i c ( n o r m a l ) c o i l s of t h e
RCS j e t s . T h e output of t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic will b e e i t h e r a t i m e -
modulated s i g n a l o r a s t e a d y - s t a t e t 2 0 - v d c signal.

T h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y two t y p e s of inputs to t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b -
s y s t e m : m a n u a l and i n e r t i a l s e n s o r (AGAA, RGA, IMU). Manual inputs a r e
p r o v i d e d by t h e r o t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s , s w i t c h e s on the SCS
c o n t r o l p a n e l , a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e s w i t c h on t h e a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e s e c t i o n of
t h e G&N o p t i c s c o n t r o l p a n e l , and t h e d i r e c t ullage s w i t c h on t h e d e l t a V
d i s p l a y panel. T h e s e c o n t r o l s c a n b e used f o r manual u l l a g e m a n e u v e r s o r
as a backup d u r i n g a u t o m a t i c d e l t a V f u n c t i o n s . T h e a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e s w i t c h
c o m m a n d s inputs to t h e ACS and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o t h e RCS j e t s f o r s m a l l
angular accelerations.

T h e i n e r t i a l s e n s o r inputs a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e AGAA, RGA, and t h e


IMU v i a t h e G&N s y s t e m . T h e AGAA (BMAG) and r a t e g y r o s (RGA) inputs
a r e used f o r a t t i t u d e hold, r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n , and manual r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l .
T h e IMU inputs p r o v i d e G&N a t t i t u d e hold and c o m m a n d r a t e s i g n a l s f o r
manual o r automatic rotational maneuvers.

R o t a t i o n M a n e u v e r s . Rotation m a n e u v e r s c a n b e p e r f o r m e d by using
f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of m a n u a l c o n t r o l s o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y by u s i n g t h e G&N
c o m p u t e r s u b s y s t e m . Manual r o t a t i o n m a n e u v e r s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by
using t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , c o m m o n l y c a l l e d c o n t r o l s t i c k s t e e r i n g (CSS),
d i r e c t o r e m e r g e n c y c o n t r o l which i s a function of t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l ,
a t t i t u d e . i m p u l s e c o n t r o l , and positioning of t h e i n e r t i a l CDUs. Automatic
m a n e u v e r s r e s u l t f r o m a s t r o n a u t inputs t o t h e AGC via t h e DSKY. The
AGC, a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m , a u t o m a t i c a l l y p o s i t i o n s t h e CDUs
and will c o m m a n d S / C motion t o t h e p r o g r a m m e d attitude.

N o r m a l CSS is a p r o p o r t i o n a l m a n u a l function and is a v a i l b l e a t any


B
t i m e i n all o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s . T h e m a x i m u m CSS p r o p o r t i o n a l r a t e s t h a t
c a n b e c o m m a n d e d a r e as follows:

0 19 d e g r e e s p e r second ( r o l l a x l s ) e n t r y m o d e
5 d e g r e e s p e r second ( p i t c h and yaw a x e s ) e n t r y mode
0 0 . 7 9 d e g r e e p e r second (all a x e s ) a l l o t h e r m o d e s .

Eyen though CSS c o m m a n d s g r e a t e r r a t e s , the SCS e l e c t r o n i c s will


l i m i t t h e r a t e s to t h o s e values given. P r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l is obtained by
using t h e r a t e g y r o output to c a n c e l t h e output of a t r a n s d u c e r within the
r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l . CSS p r o p o r t i o n a l c o m m a n d s a r e a l w a y s d i r e c t e d to the
a u t o m a t i c solenoid c o i l s of t h e RCS e n g i n e s .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


*
SMZA-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

When t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l ( s t i c k ) is d i s p l a c e d , a t r a n s d u c e r within
t h e s t i c k will c o m m a n d a r o t a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e amount of s t i c k
d i s p l a c e m e n t . The r o t a t i o n a l rates a r e l i m i t e d t o p r e d e t e r m i n e d v a l u e s ,
depending on t h e o p e r a t i o n a l mode.

When i n SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e and as t h e s t i c k i s d i s p l a c e d


a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2. 5 d e g r e e s f r o m n e u t r a l , b r e a k o u t s w i t c h e s within t h e
s t i c k c l o s e c a u s i n g t h e BMAG and t h e AGCU t o b e c o m e c l o s e d loop. It
a l s o inhibits BMAG e r r o r s i g n a l s t o t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . As t h e S / C
r o t a t e s , t h e AGCU a p p l i e s torquing c u r r e n t t o t h e BMAG t o r q u e r c o i l s .
T h e g y r o s , t h e n , a r e t o r q u e d at a rate p r o p o r t i o n a l to t h e magnitude of
BMAG e r r o r , keeping a t t i t u d e e r r o r a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y z e r o . Thus, t h e
AGCU w i l l follow S / C motion and e s t a b l i s h a new a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e when
t h e s t i c k is r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l .

When i n G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l mode, a G&N SYNC switch m u s t be


e n e r g i z e d t o e n a b l e t h e a t t i t u d e hold function when t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k i s
r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l . T h e G&N s y n c function p r o v i d e s IMU/CDU c l o s e d
loop o p e r a t i o n which k e e p s a t t i t u d e e r r o r s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y z e r o d u r i n g
t h e m a n e u v e r . Consequently, t h e S I C will hold t h e new a t t i t u d e when t h e
s t i c k is r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l . If G&N sync is not enabled, t h e S / C will
r e t u r n to t h e attitude established before stick displacement.

NOTE F o r the AS204A m i s s i o n the G & N SYNC switch w i l l r e m a i n


O F F f o r the e n t i r e m i s s i o n .

T h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m will c o n t r o l t h e a c t u a l m a n e u v e r r a t e , but
t h e SCS will l i m i t t h e m a x i m u m . The m a x i m u m n o n - e n t r y m a n e u v e r r a t e
is 1 0 ° / s e c o n d , a n d e n t r y m a n e u v e r r a t e i s 17'/second i n a l l a x e s .

D i r e c t r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l is a nonproportional function whereby i n i t i a t e d


c o m m a n d s a r e applied d i r e c t l y t o t h e RCS d i r e c t c o i l s . To a c c o m p l i s h
d i r e c t r o t a t i o n , t h e DIRECT R C S / O F F s w i t c h (MDC-8) is s e t to DIRECT
RCS; t h e SCS-CHANNEL s w i t c h e s (MDC-8) a r e s e t t o O F F ; if high r a t e s
a r e t o be m a i n t a i n e d , and t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k is r o t a t e d about the d e s i r e d a x i s
o r a x e s to h a r d s t o p s . J u s t p r i o r to engaging t h e h a r d s t o p s , a switch c l o s e s
a n d a p p l i e s a d i r e c t c o m m a n d t o t h e RCS d i r e c t c o i l s . R a t e feedback is not
u s e d to c a n c e l s t i c k movement. T h e breakout s w i t c h e s , however, c l o s e
t h e BMAG/AGCU loop, and a t t i t u d e e r r o r output t o t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s i s
inhibited. With p r o p e r c o n t r o l and s w i t c h configuration, d i r e c t c o n t r o l is
a v a i l a b l e a t any t i m e .

T h e a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e c o n t r o l (G&N o p t i c s c o n t r o l p a n e l ) p r o v i d e s t h e
c a p a b i l i t y f o r c o m m a n d i n g l o w - r o t a t i o n a l rates about a l l t h r e e a x e s .
Attitude i m p u l s e c o n t r o l i s a v a i l a b l e only i n SCS o r G & N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l
m o d e s and is used p r i m a r i l y f o r p r e c i s e a t t i t u d e m a n e u v e r s d u r i n g naviga-
tional o r s t a r sighting p e r i o d s . After t h e c o n t r o l is enabled and d i s p l a c e d ,
a switch c l o s u r e in t h e c o n t r o l and a n RC network combination g e n e r a t e one

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2.3-36


SMZA - 0 3 - S C O 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

p u l s e , which i s applied t o t h e RCS j e t s e l e c t i o n logic. One p u l s e is


g e n e r a t e d f o r e a c h a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e switch c l o s u r e ( c o n t r o l d i s p l a c e m e n t ) .
It is not a p r o p o r t i o n a l c o n t r o l and a t t i t u d e hold is not a v a i l a b l e when t h e
c o n t r o l is r e t u r n e d t o n e u t r a l . When t h e c o n t r o l is enabled, r e l a y a c t i o n
r e m o v e s a l l r a t e , a t t i t u d e e r r o r , and r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l inputs to t h e SCS
electronics.

Automatic positioning of t h e CDUs is a c c o m p l i s h e d by using t h e


DSKY. T h i s method of c o n t r o l is p r i m a r i l y used d u r i n g G&N e n t r y .

T r a n s l a t i o n M a n e u v e r s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e m e t h o d s of initiating t r a n s -
l a t i o n m a n e u v e r s : n o r m a l . t r a n s l a t i o n s , using t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l ;
d i r e c t ullage, using t h e d i r e c t u l l a g e button o n t h e d e l t a V c o n t r o l p a n e l ;
and s e p a r a t i o n u l l a g e , using t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l .

T r a n s l a t i o n c o m m a n d s a r e not p r o p o r t i o n a l ; o p e r a t i o n i s through
s w i t c h c l o s u r e only and is a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g all m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n p r i o r to
C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n . D u r i n g n o r m a l t r a n s l a t i o n , s w i t c h c l o s u r e s within
t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l p r o v i d e c o m m a n d s to t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c which
f i r e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e j e t s f o r t h e d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n of t r a n s l a t i o n . The
c o m m a n d s a r e d i r e c t e d to t h e a u t o m a t i c RCS engine c o i l s . A p r i m a r y
function of n o r m a l t r a n s l a t i o n i s t h e ullage m a n e u v e r , which is n e c e s s a r y
i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a velocity change. Ullage m a n e u v e r s r e q u i r e t r a n s l a t i o n
along the +X-axis.

D i r e c t u l l a g e i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by using t h e DIRECT ULLAGE p u s h -


button on t h e d e l t a V c o n t r o l p a n e l . When p r e s s e d , s w i t c h c l o s u r e s
c o m m a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i r e c t RCS c o i l s to initiate t r a n s l a t i o n along t h e
t X - a x i s . D i r e c t ullage is a v a i l a b l e at a n y t i m e p r i o r t o C / M - S / M
s e p a r a t i o n . Upon C / M - S / M s e p a r a t i o n , t h e d i r e c t u l l a g e function to t h e
C / M pitch and yaw d i r e c t c o i l s i s inhibited by deadfacing. It is p r i m a r i l y
a backup o p e r a t i o n i n t h e event of n o r m a l t r a n s l a t i o n f a i l u r e . Ullage will
continue as long as t h e DIRECT ULLAGE pushbutton is p r e s s e d .

T h e s e p a r a t i o n u l l a g e function r e q u i r e s a CCW r o t a t i o n of t h e t r a n s -
l a t i o n c o n t r o l into a d e t e n t position. Ullage c o m m a n d s a r e d i r e c t e d to t h e
d i r e c t RCS c o i l s . T h e s e p a r a t i o n u l l a g e m a n e u v e r is p e r f o r m e d when
SPS a b o r t s a r e n e c e s s a r y o r when S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n is r e q u i r e d . If t h e
LES h a s b e e n j e t t i s o n e d , t h e s i g n a l f r o m t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l i n CCW
d e t e n t w i l l c o m m a n d t h e s e q u e n t i a l e v e n t s c o n t r o l s y s t e m (SECS) to
s e q u e n c e t h e s e p a r a t i o n ullage and consequent s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e S - I V B .
Lf t h e LES is a t t a c h e d t o t h e S / C , t h e s a m e c o m m a n d w i l l initiate a LES
abort.

In G&N and SCS m o d e s , a c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l


into a d e t e n t g e n e r a t e s a CSS l o g i c s i g n a l t h a t i n h i b i t s a t t i t u d e g y r o s i g n a l s
f r o m t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s , and p r o v i d e s BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop o p e r a t i o n .
I t a l s o initiates manual t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l (MTVC).

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Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page 2-3-37
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SYSTEMS DATA

T h e CW r o t a t i o n e n a b l e s c a p a b i l i t y f o r manual r o l l c o n t r o l by t h e
r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r d u r i n g G & N e n t r y . T h i s is n o r m a l l y a n a u t o m a t i c
function of t h e G&N s y s t e m and e n t r y p r o g r a m .

Attitude Hold. Attitude hold is a c a p a b i l i t y of t h e ACS t o hold S I C


a t t i t u d e within s e l e c t e d deadband limits of a fixed r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e . The
deadband (amount S I C i s allowed t o d r i f t e i t h e r s i d e of r e f e r e n c e a t t i t u d e )
is s e l e c t e d by s e t t i n g t h e ATT DEADBAND switch on MDC8 t o e i t h e r MAX
o r MIN. In t h e G&N o r SCS e n t r y m o d e s , however, t h e deadband w i l l be
m a x i m u m r e g a r d l e s s of deadband s w i t c h position.

T h e ACS a c c o m p l i s h e s a t t i t u d e hold by inputting s u m m e d a t t i t u d e


e r r o r and r a t e g y r o s i g n a l s t o t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c , which w i l l t u r n on
a p p r o p r i a t e j e t s to keep t h e S / C within t h e s e l e c t e d deadband. T h e a t t i t u d e
e r r o r s i g n a l is conditioned by a deadband c i r c u i t and r a t e l i m i t e r b e f o r e it
is s u m m e d a t t h e input of a s u m m i n g a m p l i f i e r with t h e r a t e g y r o s i g n a l .
When t h e s u m m e d input t o t h e a m p l i f i e r is g r e a t e r t h a n its t h r e s h o l d , t h e
a m p l i f i e r will c a u s e a switching a m p l i f i e r to p u l s e t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic.
T h e l o w e r t h e a n g u l a r r a t e s , t h e c l o s e r t h e S / C i s allowed to d r i f t to t h e
deadband l i m i t s . As a n g u l a r r a t e s i n c r e a s e , t h e s u m m e d e r r o r l r a t e
s i g n a l i n c r e a s e s in magnitude p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t i m e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s o o n e r
t h e t h r e s h o l d of t h e s u m m i n g a m p l i f i e r i s r e a c h e d , t h e s o o n e r t h e j e t s will
f i r e , damping t h e o s c i l l a t i o n .

A l i m i t c y c l e s w i t c h on MDC8 c a n be used t o - p r o v i d e t i m e modulated


p u l s e s t o t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c . L i m i t c y c l e is p r i m a r i l y u s e d f o r fuel
c o n s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s . T h e l i m i t c y c l e switch e n a b l e s a psuedo r a t e f e e d -
b a c k c i r c u i t at t h e output of t h e switching a m p l i f i e r p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d .
T h e psuedo r a t e , and consequently t h e t i m e - m o d u l a t e d p u l s e s , i s a function
of s i g n a l magnitude a t the switching a m p l i f i e r input. F o r l a r g e s i g n a l
i n p u t s , t h e output p u l s e s will c a u s e t h e RCS j e t s t o p u l s e a t a higher
f r e q u e n c y and f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s . As t h e e r r o r d e c r e a s e s , t h e p u l s e
widths and f r e q u e n c y d e c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y until t h e e r r o r is nulled.

T h e psuedo r a t e loop is n o r m a l l y used a t a l l t i m e s ( l i m i t c y c l e on)


when a n i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e is being maintained.

Attitude hold i s a v a i l a b l e at a l l t i m e s i n t h r e e a x e s , except d u r i n g


m o n i t o r m o d e and SCS e n t r y m o d e a f t e r t h e 0. 05 G switching. During
G&N e n t r y a f t e r 0. 05 G switching, r o l l a t t i t u d e hold i s s t i l l enabled.
Yaw and pitch a t t i t u d e hold is inhibited.

R a t e Damping Only. In a d d i t i o n to. a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l and maneuvering


c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h e ACS p r o v i d e s a r a t e damping only capability. Although
r a t e damping is a n o r m a l function d u r i n g a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e s , r a t e
damping c a n b e u s e d t o l i m i t S / C r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s ( r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n ) when
a t t i t u d e hold i s not being u s e d . N o r m a l l y , when S I C r o t a t i o n a l r a t e s
exceed 0 . 2 d e g r e e p e r second i n a n y a x i s , t h e r a t e g y r o s o r t h e B U G i n

... -

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Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-38
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- SYSTEMS DATA

backup r a t e s e n s e t h e a n g u l a r a c c e l e r a t i o n s . T h e s i g n a l s , conditioned
via the r o l l , pitch, and yaw ECAs and through j e t s e l e c t i o n logic, a r e
applied t o a p p l i c a b l e RCS engines to keep t h e S I C r a t e s within the
0 . 2 - d e g r e e - p e r - s e c o n d r a t e deadband. If i n SCS o r G&N e n t r y m o d e ,
t h e r a t e deadband i s i n c r e a s e d t o 2 d e g r e e s p e r second. R a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n ,
i n addition to t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l functions, i s a v a i l a b l e when a n y of t h e
following conditions e x i s t :

0 S e l e c t i o n of m o n i t o r mode a f t e r S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n
0 S e l e c t i o n of m o n i t o r m o d e f o r LES a b o r t s
Clockwise rotation of t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l a f t e r S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n
0 SCS e n t r y mode a f t e r 0 . 0 5 G switching
G & N e n t r y mode a f t e r 0 . 0 5 G switching ( p i t c h and yaw a x e s o n l y ) .

2. 3. 2. 3 . 3 T h r u s t Vector Control S u b s y s t e m .

T h e p u r p o s e of t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l ( T V C ) s u b s y s t e m ( f i g u r e s
2. 3 - 4 and 2 . 3 - 5 ) is to a l i g n o r position t h e gimbaled SPS engine to a t r i m
position p r i o r t o SPS t h r u s t i n g and m a i n t a i n t h i s t r i m d u r i n g t h e a c c e l e r a -
tion p e r i o d . The S / C e x p e r i e n c e s a changing c e n t e r of g r a v i t y ( c . g. )
c a u s e d by t h e consumption of fuel and o x i d i z e r d u r i n g a c c e l e r a t i o n . T h e
TVC s u b s y s t e m m a i n t a i n s t h e S P S engine t h r u s t v e c t o r through t h e c. g .
and holds S I C a t t i t u d e s o that t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r w i l l r e m a i n i n t h e
d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . This c o m p e n s a t e s f o r u n d e s i r a b l e f o r c e s t h a t affect
S I C s t a b i l i t y b e c a u s e of t h e shifting c . g . T h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l , i n a d d i -
t i o n t o the TVC s u b s y s t e m , u t i l i z e s t h e functions of t h e G&N s y s t e m , t h e
p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m s , and t h e SCS a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e and a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l
subsystems.

T h e TVC s u b s y s t e m e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t r o l s the SPS engine g i m b a l s , and


consequently t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r , by e n e r g i z i n g t h e gimbal a c t u a t o r s ; one f o r
p i t c h and one f o r yaw.

T h e n o r m a l method f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h r u s t is through t h e G&N d e l t a V


mode. T h i s p r o v i d e s t h e m o s t a c c u r a t e c o n t r o l . The a c c e l e r o m e t e r s on t h e
IMU s t a b l e e l e m e n t and the ACC p r o v i d e s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s to t h e SPS
engine g i m b a l s and continuous t r a j e c t o r y c o r r e c t i o n s to c o m p e n s a t e f o r
u n d e s i r e d a c c e l e r a t i o n s . The AGC a l s o c o m p e n s a t e s f o r t h e n e a r -body
o r b i t a l and g r a v i t y a f f e c t s on t h e S I C . So, the a c t u a l v e r s u s r e q u i r e d
velocity change w i l l r e s u l t i n a c u r v e d t r a j e c t o r y .

N o r m a l l y , both G & N d e l t a V and SCS d e l t a V m o d e s o p e r a t e by driving


No. 1 and No. 2 s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s . If a f a i l u r e o c c u r s in No. 1 , a n a u t o -
m a t i c switchover to d r i v e No. 2 s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s and No. 2 gimbal m o t o r
will o c c u r . O r , No. 2 will d r i v e if N o . 1 i s switched off o r if m a n u a l t h r u s t
v e c t o r control is initiated.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2 . 3 - 3 9
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SYSTEMS DATA

A m a n u a l method of t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l is provided t o c o n t r o l t h e
p o s i t i o n of t h e SPS engine gimbal. When o p e r a t i n g manually, inputs f r o m
t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l , and t h e B M A G s a r e d i r e c t e d t o
r e d u n d a n t s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s No. 2 and t h e No. 2 gimbal a c t u a t o r m o t o r .
T h e nominal a u t h o r i t y f r o m e i t h e r r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r i s *6 d e g r e e s of SPS
gimbal engine d e f l e c t i o n .

T h e gimbal p o s i t i o n d i s p l a y s e c t i o n of t h e A S I C P I p a n e l , t h e d e l t a V
d i s p l a y , SCS c o n t r o l panel, r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l , and t h e
SPS s w i t c h e s on M D C - 3 a r e t h e p r i n c i p l e c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s a s s o c i a t e d
with TVC. They p r o v i d e t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r c o n t r o l and monitoring of
s y s t e m per for manc e .

T h r u s t Vector Control. When G & N d e l t a V m o d e is s e l e c t e d , auto-


m a t i c t h r u s t on-off, a t t i t u d e , and s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s i n i t i a t e i n t h e G & N
s y s t e m . However, b e f o r e t h e ullage maneuver and t h r u s t - o n , t h e gimbal
p o s i t i o n t r i m c o n t r o l thumbwheels on t h e AS/GPI a r e u s e d t o position t h e
engine g i m b a l s . T h e engine p o s i t i o n is v e r i f i e d on t h e A S I G P I visual d i s -
play. T h e g i m b a l s a r e aligned s u c h t h a t , at t h e m o m e n t of t h r u s t - o n , t h e
t h r u s t v e c t o r will b e through t h e S I C c . g . T h i s is n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e any
d e l t a V to p r e v e n t u n d e s i r a b l e r o t a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t s about t h e c. g. when
t h r u s t i n g begins.

In addition t o initial positioning of t h e g i m b a l s , t h e amount of a c c e l -


e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e velocity change less tailoff i s s e t into t h e d e l t a V
r e m a i n i n g c o u n t e r on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y . T h i s a l l o w s t h e c r e w a method of
m o n i t o r i n g d e l t a V r e m a i n i n g and, when i n SCS AV mode, p r o v i d e s a u t o -
m a t i c t h r u s t - o f f c a p a b i l i t y . A coincidence s w i t c h i n t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y
w i l l , by inhibiting t h e t h r u s t on l o g i c , a u t o m a t i c a l l y t e r m i n a t e t h r u s t when
t h e AV r e m a i n i n g c o u n t e r i n d i c a t e s z e r o . The a c c e l e r o m e t e r i n t h e AGAA
s e n s e s t X a c c e l e r a t i o n , and s u p p l i e s a c c e l e r a t i o n s i g n a l s t o t i m i n g and out-
put logic which s u b s e q u e n t l y d r i v e s t h e d e l t a V r e m a i n i n g p o t e n t i o m e t e r
to z e r o . T h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r t h r u s h o l d i s 1 X 10-4 g, but the AV c o u n t e r w i l l
only s t e p o n c e f o r e a c h 0 . 2 5 t t l s e c velocity change.

NOTE It is p o s s i b l e , but not r e c o m m e n d e d , to have SPS engine


ignition without ullaging when i n SCSAV mode.

P r i o r t o S P S ignition, t h e G&N s y s t e m inputs a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n f o r m a -


tion t o t h e ACS t o hold t h e S I C a t a c o n s t a n t a t t i t u d e i n all t h r e e a x e s .
Attitude e r r o r s f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m and r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the SCS
r a t e g y r o s a r e a l s o applied to t h e SPS gimbal s e r v o loops. Upon engine
ignition, t h e combined a t t i t u d e e r r o r and r a t e g y r o i n p u t s , conditioned by
the s e r v o electronics, reposition the gimbals a s n e c e s s a r y to rotate the
S I C t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r c. g. shift. T h e g i m b a l position is a l s o modified by
s t e e r i n g c o m m a n d s f r o m t h e AGC so t h a t t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r w i l l point in
the right direction for the curved trajectory.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


B a s i c Date 12 NOV 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-40
M i s s ion
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-.
SYSTEMS DATA

T h e BMAG/AGCU loop r e m a i n s open and follows IMU c h a n g e s so t h a t


t h e SCS w i l l h a v e t h e s a m e i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e in t h e e v e n t a s w i t c h o v e r t o
SCS d e l t a V mode is n e c e s s a r y .

N o r m a l l y , G & N d e l t a V m o d e u t i l i z e s t h e p r i m a r y g i m b a l s e r v o and
a c t u a t o r m o t o r No. 1. If the g i m b a l m o t o r s w i t c h e s on MDC-3 a r e a c t i -
vated, a TVC m o n i t o r s i g n a l g e n e r a t o r ( o v e r - u n d e r c u r r e n t s e n s o r ) i n t h e
a c t u a t o r w i l l s e n s e a f a i l u r e of m o t o r No. 1. If m o t o r No. 1 fails, t h e
s e n s o r will a u t o m a t i c a l l y c a u s e a s w i t c h o v e r t o m o t o r No. 2 i n t h e
a c t u a t o r . S i n c e t h e No. 2 s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s a r e d r i v e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y
with No. 1, a n i n t e r r u p t i o n d u r i n g t h e velocity change will not o c c u r . Motor
No. 2 a l s o c o n t a i n s a TVC m o n i t o r s i g n a l g e n e r a t o r , but is not u s e d . In
t h e event of m o t o r No. 2 f a i l u r e , c a u s i n g a n e x c e s s i v e c u r r e n t d r a i n on
the d-c bus, a 70-ampere circuit b r e a k e r in the line w i l l disconnect the
m o t o r f r o m t h e d - c supply bus. Motor No. 2 h a s no s w i t c h o v e r o r warning
light c a p a b i l i t y .

In SCS d e l t a V mode, t h e g i m b a l s e r v o l o o p s function t h e s a m e as i n


G&N d e l t a V mode. Attitude e r r o r i n f o r m a t i o n , h o w e v e r , is d e r i v e d f r o m
t h e B U G S . The r a t e loop is i d e n t i c a l , u n l e s s in backup r a t e condition.
SCS d e l t a V w i l l not function if t h e B U G S a r e r e q u i r e d f o r backup r a t e
b e c a u s e of t h e l o s s of a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n f o r m a t i o n .

SCS d e l t a V k e e p s t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r t h r o u g h t h e c . g. by f i r s t c o m -
p a r i n g t h e t r i m p o s i t i o n c o m m a n d s s e t by t h e g i m b a l p o s i t i o n t h u m b -
w h e e l s and t h e p o s i t i o n t r a n s d u c e r f e e d b a c k s i g n a l s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e ,
combined,with a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the BMAGs, conditions t h e
s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s to e n e r g i z e t h e a c t u a t o r c l u t c h e s .

E x c e p t f o r mode s e l e c t i o n and t h r u s t - o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e s a m e
p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h r u s t - o n , and t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y functions a r e t h e
s a m e as f o r G&N d e l t a V. The S C S s y s t e m d o e s not p r o v i d e a u t o m a t i c
thrust-on. A thrust-on switch on the delta V display provides the thrust-on
c o m m a n d f o r SCS d e l t a V m o d e . T h r u s t - o f f , however, i s a u t o m a t i c by
c l o s i n g of t h e coincidence switch. A NORMAL-OFF-DIRECT-ON s w i t c h
on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y is a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r manual t h r u s t - o n and s e r v e s a s
a m a n u a l backup f o r a l l a u t o m a t i c t h r u s t - o f f c o m m a n d s .

If t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l e r cannot be used for t h e ullage m a n e u v e r


p r i o r t o t h r u s t - o n , a DIRECT ULLAGE s w i t c h on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y p r o -
vides a m a n u a l backup to i n i t i a t e u-lage.

A manual d e l t a V c a n b e p e r f o r m e d , providing a d e l t a V m o d e h a s
been s e l e c t e d and the t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is r o t a t e d CW into d e t e n t . T h i s
r e m o v e s all n o r m a l i n p u t s i n t o t h e TVC s e r v o l o o p s , a l l o w s c o m m a n d e d
inputs f r o m t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l , and r a t e d a t a f r o m t h e BMAGs in backup-
r a t e condition, into t h e r e d u n d a n t No. 2 s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s and m o t o r No. 2
of t h e g i m b a l a c t p a t o r s . T h i s p r o v i d e s r a t e - s t a b i l i z e d m a n u a l c o n t r o l of t h e
t h r u s t v e c t o r . T h r u s t - o n is i n i t i a t e d by t h e m o m e n t a r y t h r u s t - o n s w i t c h
l o c a t e d on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y .
~ ~

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SYSTEMS DATA

T h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l m u s t b e h e l d t o a given d i s p l a c e m e n t t o c o n t r o l
the g i m b a l s a b o u t t h e initial trim p o s i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e s e t t i n g s of t h e
AS/GPI. T h e C P I p r o v i d e s the only indication of t h e position of the g i m b a l
a n g l e s with r e s p e c t to the S I C body axes.

2. 3 . 3 FLIGHT CONTROL P R O F I L E S .

T h e r e a r e t h r e e b a s i c flight c o n t r o l p r o f i l e s a s s o c i a t e d with m i s s i o n
AS204A. T h e s e include powered flight, c o a s t i n g flight, a n d e n t r y . Within
t h e s e p r o f i l e s , v a r i o u s m o d e s of o p e r a t i o n a r e e s t a b l i s h e d e i t h e r within the
a t m o s p h e r e o r in e a r t h o r b i t a l e n v i r o n m e n t . B e c a u s e of t h e d i v i s i o n of
p o w e r e d flight, i . e . , a s c e n t a n d e a r t h o r b i t a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n
i s divided as follows:

0 A s c e n t (including a b o r t s )
0 Coasting f l i g h t ( e a r t h o r b i t a l )
0 P o w e r e d flight ( e a r t h o r b i t a l )
E n t r y ( n o n p o w e r e d a t m o s p h e r i c flight).

A s t h e v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s a r e d i s c u s s e d , r e f e r e n c e will b e
m a d e t o f i g u r e s 2. 3-4, 2. 3-5, and 2. 3-6. A t y p i c a l c o n t r o l channel yaw
i s shown in f i g u r e 2 . 3-4, s h e e t 2 ; t h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n c e s not t y p i c a l to t h e
yaw c h a n n e l will be c l a r i f i e d .

It s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t r e l a y s in f i g u r e s 2. 3-4, 2. 3-5, and 2. 3-7 a r e


n o t r e l a y s of t h e a c t u a l s y s t e m b y n u m b e r . However, t h e r e l a y n o m e n c l a -
ture is s y s t e m o r i e n t e d a n d m a y be c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d b y u s i n g t h e following
chart.

F i g . 2. 3-4, 2. 3-5, S CS S y s t e m
2.3-7 Relays Function Relay

K1 ORBIT R A T E 24A14K3
K2 FDAI ALIGN 24A14K1
24A14K2
K3 ' G & N ROLL, P I T C H , YAW 22A 16A3K4
A T T SIN AND COS 22A16A3K6
22A17A3K4
22A17A3K6
2 2A18A 3K4
22A18A 3K6
K4 AGCU CAGED 22A8K1
22A8K2
22A8K4
22A8K5
K5 AGCU ALIGN 22A8K6
22A8K7

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B a s i c Date 12 NOV 1966 Change D a t e Page
.
2.3-42
Mission
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- SYSTEMS DATA

F i g . 2. 3-4, 2.3-5, SCS S y s t e m


2. 3-7 R e l a y s Function Relay

K6 AG CU P / Y ERROR
K7 R G & N ERR/AGCU INH
G & N P ERR 20A3K3
Y ERR G & N BODY 21A3K3
K8 G & N P , Y, E R R S . F . 2 2A20A 3K 1
22A21A3K1
K9 ROLL, P I T C H , YAW ERR 2 2A2 OA 3K4
AGAA 22122 1A3K4
MONITOR t G & N AV t G & N 22A2 3A3K2
A T T CONTR t G & N ENTRY
t. 05G MANUAL t t
YAW B / U R A T E
K10 R O L L , P I T C H , YAW, B / U 2 2A9K 1
RATE 22A9K2
22A13K1
22A13K2
22A11K1
22A11K2
K11 M T V C R T OUT 22A9K 3
22A11K3
22A12K3
K12 R O L L , P I T C H , YAW 22A23A3
RATE 22A20A3
22A21A3K
K13 Y/P RT SF 22A22A3
K14 R - Y R T CPLG 23A11K2
K15 R T IN TRANS 2 3A 19K 1
23A19K1
19A26K 1
K16 ENT GAIN 23A15K 1
23A15K2
23A17K2
K17 G & N A T T IN 23A19K2
K18 AGAA A T T IN 23A19K3
K19 D-B CHG 23A15K3
K20 R J C ATT SW 23A11K1
K21 G & N MIN IMP ENABLE 23A13K
K22 P S U E D O R T CO 23A13K
K23 R CS LATCHING RELAY MESC Z19
ARMED
( J E T DVRS ENABLED)
SAFE
( J E T D V R S DISABLED)
K24 1 . 8 S E C LATCH MESC 2 8

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

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APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
--
SYSTEMS DATA

Fig. 2. 3-4, 2. 3-5, SCS S y s t e m


2. 3-7 R e l a y s Function Relay
~

K25 MAIN DEPLOY MESC 2 1 2


K26 AUTO CONT INTER 23A11K3
K27 ENG IGN 23A2 1K2
K28 S Y S GRD CK 2 3A2 1K 3
K29 SCS AV MODE 23A21K1
K30 ENG IGN 23A27K 1
K31 MTVC ENGAGE 23A18K2
K32 T V C E L E C TRANS 23A25K1
K33 SERVO NO. 1 DISENGAGE 2 3A 14K 1
K34 S E R V O NO. 2 ENGAGE 23A18K 1
K35 ENTRY 22A8K8
K36 AV INH 22A21A3K6
K38 THRUST O N LAMP 22A2QA3K6

2. 3. 3 . 1 Ascent.

D u r i n g t h e a s c e n t p h a s e , capability e x i s t s f o r monitoring boost


vehicle stability. T h e SCS is i n a m o n i t o r m o d e with all s u b s y s t e m s a c t i v e ,
but s u p p l i e s no a c t i v e c o m m a n d s f o r c o n t r o l p u r p o s e s f o r t h e f i r s t 61 s e c -
onds of flight. A f t e r 61 s e c o n d s , if a b o r t s a r e r e q u i r e d , t h e SCS w i l l b e
used to supply s i g n a l s f o r S / C s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l .

2 . 3. 3 . 1. 1 Monitor Mode.

T h e m o n i t o r m o d e p r o v i d e s the capability of monitoring deviations


f r o m p r o g r a m m e d launch vehicle a t t i t u d e p r i o r t o S-IB s e p a r a t i o n and
CSM a t t i t u d e a f t e r S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n . T h e S-IVB u t i l i z e s a d i f f e r e n t guid-
a n c e technique and monitoring C / M i n s t r u m e n t s r e l a t i v e t o S-IVB o p e r a t i o n
p r o v i d e s no useful p u r p o s e . Monitor mode a l s o , p r o v i d e s rate stabilization,
when r e q u i r e d , a n y t i m e d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n .

N o r m a l Ascent. At time of launch, RCS latching r e l a y s i n t h e SECS s y s t e m


w i l l b e open t o inhibit c o m m a n d s to t h e RCS j e t s . R e l a y s K4 and K 5 w i l l b e
c l o s e d , providing BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop, The FDAI will b e following
IMU g i m b a l a n g l e c h a n g e s . T h e m o t o r - d r i v e n switch 5 ( f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 7 ) i s
set t o t h e S / M position when t h e REACTON CONTROL SYS-TRANS
-
C / M - S / M s w i t c h on M D G 16 is set to S / M .

Total a t t i t u d e and a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e IMU and i n e r t i a l


CDU ( f i g u r e 2 . 3-4, s h e e t 1) a r e applied t o t h e FDAI through r e l a y s K3,
K7, and K8, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s r e p r e s e n t deviations
f r o m t h e t r a j e c t o r y f o r t h e f i r s t s t a g e b o o s t e r only. T h e SCS r a t e g y r o s
apply a t t i t u d e r a t e s t o t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s d i r e c t l y and t o t h e FDAI via
r e l a y K12.

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.-
SYSTEMS DATA

T h e X - a x i s a c c e l e r o m e t e r will be a c t i v e . but i t s output w i l l b e u s e d


only if a n a b o r t d e l t a V is r e q u i r e d . T h e TVC s u b s y s t e m is a c t i v a t e d t o
hold t h e SPS engine t h r u s t v e c t o r t h r o u g h t h e c . g. i n t h e event of a n SPS
a b o r t , and to k e e p t h e n o z z l e c e n t e r e d and s t a t i o n a r y within t h e a d a p t e r .
T h e SPS engine g i m b a l s a r e aligned t o null o f f s e t ( p i t c h to. 4 d e g r e e s and
yaw t3. 6 d e g r e e s ) p r i o r t o launch. Q u i e c s e n t c u r r e n t on t h e g i m b a l
motor clutches maintains these angles during ascent.

LES A b o r t . If a n LES a b o r t is i n i t i a t e d ( 6 1 s e c o n d s o r m o r e a f t e r lift-off)


r e q u i r i n g SCS o p e r a t i o n , t h e SCS is enabled one second a f t e r LES ignition.
T h e SCS is enabled by t h e a r m i n g of t h e RCS l a t c h i n g r e l a y s i n t h e SECS,
and t h e S / M - C / M t r a n s f e r s w i t c h w i l l b e d r i v e n t o t h e C / M p o s i t i o n . T h e
RCS l a t c h i n g r e l a y w i l l open by t h e o p e r a t i o n of a b a r o m e t r i c s w i t c h a t
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 4 , 0 0 0 f e e t d u r i n g d e s c e n t and w i l l d i s a b l e a c t i v e c o m m a n d s
to t h e C / M RCS. B e s i d e s r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n , s p e c i f i c c o m m a n d inputs t o
t h e SCS above 24, 000 f e e t w i l l depend on a l t i t u d e and o t h e r f a c t o r s .

SPS A b o r t . An SPS a b o r t would be i n i t i a t e d a f t e r t h e LES j e t t i s o n . T h e


t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is r o t a t e d CCW i n t o d e t e n t and t h e switch c l o s u r e will
c a u s e t h e MESC t o c o m m a n d a tX t r a n s l a t i o n ( s e p a r a t i o n u l l a g e ) via t h e
d i r e c t c o i l s of t h e S / M RCS. T h e d i r e c t c o i l s a r e a c t i v a t e d t h r o u g h t h e
RCS t r a n s f e r switch.

B e f o r e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e S-IVB, a d e l t a V m o d e m u s t b e s e l e c t e d .
F o r a n S P S a b o r t , a l i g n m e n t of t h e S P S engine g i m b a l s is not r e q u i r e d
s i n c e t h e y w e r e p r e s e t p r i o r t o l a u n c h and no p r o p e l l a n t h a s b e e n c o n s u m e d .
At s e p a r a t i o n , a n a b o r t c a n b e m a d e i n t o e a r t h o r b i t o r to a d o w n r a n g e
landing s i t e .

2 . 3. 3 . 2 Coasting F l i g h t ( E a r t h O r b i t a l ) .

T h e c o a s t i n g flight p r o f i l e r a n g e s f r o m a f r e e - d r i f t c o n f i g u r a t i o n
(no c o n t r o l ) t o m o n i t o r mode ( p a s s i v e ) to a t t i t u d e hold ( a c t i v e c o n t r o l ) .
T h e following p a r a g r a p h s d e s c r i b e t h e v a r i o u s m o d e s r e l a t i v e to t h e e a r t h
orbital environment.

2. 3. 3 . 2. 1 G&N Attitude C o n t r o l .

G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l w i l l p r o v i d e i n e r t i a l l y s t a b i l i z e d a t t i t u d e by
utilizing t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e and a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m s . Attitude
d a t a is obtained f r o m the i n e r t i a l l y r e f e r e n c e d IMU. R e l a y s K4 and K5
p r o v i d e BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop so t h a t if SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is s e l e c t e d ,
t h e AGCU will h a v e t h e s a m e r e f e r e n c e as t h e IMU f o r c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y
purposes.

Attitude e r r o r s f r o m t h e i n e r t i a l CDU t h r o u g h r e l a y s K7 and K8 a r e


applied to t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s f o r a t t i t u d e e r r o r d i s p l a y , and to
p r o v i d e a t t i t u d e c o r r e c t i o n s . T h e e r r o r s f r o m t h e CDU a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e
b e t w e e n t h e IMU g i m b a l a n g l e s and t h e c o m m a n d e d output of t h e AGC.
Total a t t i t u d e f r o m t h e IMU is applied t o t h e FDAI via r e l a y K 3 . T h e

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


page 2 . 3 - 4 5
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SYSTEMS DATA

a t t i t u d e r a t e s f r o m t h e SCS r a t e g y r o and r e l a y K12 will d r i v e t h e FDA1 r a t e


i n d i c a t o r a t a s c a l e r a n g e of *1 d e g r e e / s e c o n d .

T h e m a x i m u m deadband l i m i t is n o r m a l l y s e t f o r G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l .
If navigation s i g h t i n g s a r e r e q u i r e d , t h e m i n i m u m deadband m a y b e
s e l e c t e d . T h e G&N s y s t e m and S C S a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s u b s y s t e m will m a i n -
t a i n a t t i t u d e within t h e s e l e c t e d deadband l i m i t s .

Maneuvering. A u t o m a t i c m a n e u v e r s m a y b e executed by i n s e r t i n g
c o m m a n d s into t h e AGC via t h e DSKY. T h e S / C w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y maneuvei
t o t h e c o m p u t e r - c o m m a n d e d attitude. T h e SCS will follow t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r
s i g n a l i n p u t s f r o m t h e CDU i n r e s p o n s e t o AGC inputs f o r m a n e u v e r i n g t o
t h e c o m m a n d e d attitude. Manual m a n e u v e r s c a n be commanded with o r
without a t t i t u d e hold.

I n G&N m o d e , r e l a y K l 8 ( f i g u r e 2 . 3-7) is open. R e l a y K17 is c l o s e d .


R e l a y K18 i n h i b i t s Bh4AG inputs and allows G&N a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s into
t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic f o r t h e a t t i t u d e hold function. When t h e r o t a t i o n c o n -
t r o l is d i s p l a c e d , t h e b r e a k o u t s w i t c h e s open K17, inhibiting G&N s i g n a l s
and allowing p r o p o r t i o n a l c o m m a n d ( r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l p l u s r a t e g y r o )
s i g n a l s i n t o t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic. When t h e c o n t r o l is r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l ,
r e l a y K17 c l o s e s and t h e G&N a t t i t u d e hold function i s r e s t o r e d , p r o v i d e d
G&N s y n c is a c t i v e .

T r a n s l a t i o n i n all a x e s c a n b e c o m m a n d e d .by t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l .
A s shown i n f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 5 , s w i t c h c l o s u r e s within t h e c o n t r o l apply c o m -
m a n d s i g n a l s d i r e c t l y t o t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n logic a n d , s u b s e q u e n t l y , t o t h e
a u t o RCS c o i l s . Attitude hold is a n o r m a l function when t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e
initiated, u s i n g t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l .

T h e d i r e c t ullage s w i t c h on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y is a backup f o r tX
t r a n s l a t i o n s . When t h i s s w i t c h is a c t i v a t e d , t h e signal is applied d i r e c t l y
t o t h e RCS d i r e c t c o i l s . Attitude hold i s not a function of d i r e c t ullage.

Attitude i m p u l s e c o n t r o l ( p a n e l 105, L E B ) is a m a n u a l c o n t r o l
c a p a b i l i t y f o r G&N and SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e s only. E a c h d i s p l a c e m e n t
of t h e a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e c o n t r o l ( f i g u r e 2 . 13-4, s h e e t 3 ) p r o v i d e s a n output
a t t i t u d e i m p u l s e c o m m a n d t o two RCS engines f o r a d u r a t i o n of 18*4 m s .
T h e p u l s e s c o m m a n d body a n g u l a r r a t e s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 a r c m i n / s e c .

2 . 3 . 3. 2 . 2 G&N L o c a l V e r t i c a l .

T h e G&N l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e is a n e x t e n s i o n of G & N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l .
T h e p u r p o s e of t h i s m o d e of o p e r a t i o n i s t o a c c u r a t e l y m a i n t a i n t h e S / C
X-axis a t a fixed a n g l e with r e s p e c t t o t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l ( r e l a t i v e to t h e
e a r t h s u r f a c e ) while m a i n t a i n i n g t h e S / C Y-axis n o r m a l t o t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e .
T h e G&N l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e is a n AGC-commanded function. A c o m p u t e r
p r o g r a m (not a v a i l a b l e f o r AS204A m i s s i o n ) is c a l l e d by t h e a s t r o n a u t by
DSKY e n t r y . A f t e r IMU a l i g n m e n t , w i t h t h e S / C X - a x i s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of
the d e s i r e d orbital path, the computer p r o g r a m provides a n orbit r a t e

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s o u r c e t o c o m m a n d t o r q u i n g of t h e IMU at a r a t e t h a t w i l l m a i n t a i n t h e l o c a l
v e r t i c a l attitude. T h i s m o d e m a y b e used t o m a k e navigational s i g h t i n g s of
e a r t h l a n d m a r k s by keeping t h e G&N o p t i c s within t h e a r e a of t h e e a r t h -
surface.

2. 3 . 3 . 2 . 3 SCS Attitude Control.

SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e w i l l hold t h e S / C a t a n i n e r t i a l - r e f e r e n c e d
a t t i t u d e and w i l l limit S / C d r i f t to t h e s e l e c t e d deadband limits, n o r m a l l y ,
*5 d e g r e e s i n e a r t h o r b i t . If SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is s e l e c t e d a f t e r a G&N
a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l function, t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s u b s y s t e m is aligned t o t h e
IMU (BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop). If not, a n FDAI/AGCU a l i g n function i s
required.

When SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l is s e l e c t e d , G&N inputs a r e r e m o v e d f r o m


t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . T h e following r e l a y c o n t a c t s ( f i g u r e 2 . 3-4,
s h e e t 2 ) a r e a c t i v a t e d t o supply S C S - g e n e r a t e d c o m m a n d s f o r d i s p l a y and
control purposes.

0 Relay K4 open-FDA1 b a l l s t a t i o n a r y
0 Relay K12-Applies body r a t e s to FDAI
0 Relay K 3 c l o s e d to AGCU-Applies attitude e r r o r s to FDAI
0 Relay K11B-Applies a t t i t u d e e r r o r s to SCS e l e c t r o n i c s

FDAI/AGCU Align. If t h e ACCU h a s not been aligned t o t h e IMU o r if a


new a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e is d e s i r e d while i n SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e , t h e
astronaut w i l l determine S / C attitude f r o m s t a r sightings o r f r o m the
M S F N . I n e r t i a l a n g l e s a r e d i a l e d i n t o t h e A S / G P I with t h e ATTITUDE SET
d i a l s aad t h e FDAI ALIGN pushbutton is p r e s s e d . R e l a y K2 c l o s e s and t h e
AGCU and FDAI b a l l w i l l d r i v e t o t h e s e l e c t e d attitude.

Manual M a n e u v e r s . A f t e r AGCU r e f e r e n c e h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e S I C
c a n b e m a n e u v e r e d t o t h e d e s i r e d a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e by flying out t h e
e r r o r s , using CSS. T h e A T T S E T / O F F switch is a c t i v a t e d , r e l a y K23 is
a c t i v a t e d , t h e RCS l a t c h i n g r e l a y s a r e c l o s e d t o t h e S / M RCS, r e l a y s K6
and K9 c l o s e , and K20 w i l l open. Attitude e r r o r , equal to t h e d i f f e r e n c e
between ATTITUDE S E T d i a l p o s i t i o n and AGCU r e s o l v e r s h a f t p o s i t i o n ,
is then applied to t h e FDAI f r o m t h e AGCU t h r o u g h K6. Attitude e r r o r
f r o m t h e BMAG i s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e FDAI when K9 a c t i v a t e s . When t h e
r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l i s moved out of d e t e n t , CSS c o m m a n d s a r e applied through
t h e ACS to t h e j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c and a u t o c o i l s of t h e RCS e n g i n e s . At
t h e s a m e t i m e , r e l a y s K4 and K5 c l o s e providing BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop,
T h e BMAGs follow S / C r o t a t i o n and r e p o s i t i o n s t h e FDAI ball. When t h e
r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l is r e t u r n e d t o n e u t r a l , t h e BMAG/AGCU loop i s opened,
r e l a y s K4 and K 5 open, and t h e new a t t i t u d e w i l l hold within t h e s e l e c t e d
d e ad band.

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When t h e ATT S E T / O F F s w i t c h i s O F F , r e l a y s K6 and K9 d e - e n e r g i z e


and a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e BMAGs a r e now applied t o t h e FDAI and
ACS. If f u r t h e r a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s a r e d e s i r e d , they c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d by
u s i n g CSS. T h e BMAGIAGCU loop w i l l b e c l o s e d , and opened when t h e r o t a -
t i o n c o n t r o l i s r e t u r n e d to n e u t r a l . T h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r n e e d l e s will i n d i c a t e
t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e AGCU and t h e S I C attitude. T h e e r r o r n e e d l e s
a r e f l y - t o n e e d l e s and w i l l be a t full s c a l e if t h e e r r o r is g r e a t e r than
5 d e g r e e s . To f l y out t h e e r r o r , t h e a s t r o n a u t m u s t f l y - t o t h e n e e d l e s o r
u s e t h e FDAI b a l l m a r k i n g s until t h e n e e d l e s c o m e off full s c a l e , and t h e n
f l y - t o t h e n e e d l e t o null t h e r e m a i n i n g e r r o r .

F r e e D r i f t . F r e e d r i f t is n o r m a l l y used d u r i n g extended p e r i o d s of t i m e
when p o w e r and RCS p r o p e l l a n t c o n s e r v a t i o n i s d e s i r e d . F r e e d r i f t c a n be
e s t a b l i s h e d i n e i t h e r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e by placing t h e SCS CHANNEL
s w i t c h e s t o O F F , inhibiting all c o m m a n d s i g n a l s t o t h e RCS a u t o c o i l s .
With a n SCS a t t i t u d e m o d e s e l e c t e d and a n SCS CHANNEL s w i t c h to O F F
( P I T C H o r YAW o r A&C R O L L and B&D R O L L ) , r e l a y a c t i o n c l o s e s t h e
BMAG/AGCU loop and u p d a t e s t h e ARS while d r i f t i n g . However, if one
Bh4AG is p l a c e d i n backup r a t e and a channel s w i t c h is off, r e l a y a c t i o n
r a t e c a g e s t h e r e m a i n i n g BMAGs and opens t h e BMAG/AGCU loop, t h u s ,
p r e v e n t i n g t h e ARS f r o m being updated.

2.3. 3.2.4 SCS L o c a l V e r t i c a l .

SCS l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e is a n e x t e n s i o n of SCS a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . Its


p u r p o s e is t o m a i n t a i n S I C a t t i t u d e with r e s p e c t t o t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l . When
t h e L C L V E R T P o F F s w i t c h on MDC-8 is s e t t o L C L VERT, r e l a y K1 e n e r -
g i z e s and a n o r b i t r a t e s o u r c e with a p r e s e t l e v e l is applied t o t h e BMAGI
AGCU s e r v o loop. At p r e s e n t , t h e p r e s e t l e v e l e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e o r b i t
r a t e s o u r c e i s m o s t a c c u r a t e f o r a 100-n m i c i r c u l a r o r b i t and w i l l m a i n t a i n
t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m at t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l with t o r q u e r a t e s of
246 d e g r e e s / h o u r , o r 4 . 1 d e g r e e s l m i n u t e . It w i l l m a i n t a i n a n a p p r o x i m a t e
a t t i t u d e when t h e AGCU i s aligned t o r e p r e s e n t S / C a t t i t u d e when t h e S I C
X Z p l a n e is p a r a l l e l t o t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e a t t h e t i m e L C L VERT is s e l e c t e d .
All t h r e e RCS c h a n n e l s m u s t b e enabled fof t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e .
Modifications of t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l a t t i t u d e c a n b e m a d e using CSS. T h e
t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is a l s o a c t i v e and a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g this m o d e of o p e r a t i o n

2. 3 . 3 . 3 Powered Flight (Earth Orbital).

P o w e r e d flight i n c l u d e s t h o s e m o d e s that p r o v i d e t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r
velocity c h a n g e s using t h e SPS engine. Included i n t h e following d i s c u s s i o n
a r e t h e G&N d e l t a V, SCS d e l t a V, and t h e m a n u a l d e l t a V m o d e s .

2. 3. 3. 3. 1 C&N D e l t a V.

G & N d e l t a V mode is t h e n o r m a l m e t h o d . f o r velocity c h a n g e s . P r i o r


t o engine ignition, h o w e v e r , G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m o d e m u s t b e e s t a b l i s h e d .

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SYSTEMS DATA

S y s t e m r e l a y s apply t h e following (G&N/SCS switch on MDC-8 s e t t o G&N


and ATTITUDE/MONITOR/ENTRY s w i t c h set t o ATTITUDE ( f i g u r e 2. 3-5,
s h e e t 1) ):

0 R e l a y K 7 a n d K8-Attitude e r r o r f r o m CDUs t o FDAI


R e l a y K9-Attitude e r r o r f r o m CDUs t o SCS e l e c t r o n i c s
0 R e l a y K3-Total attitude f r o m IMU to FDAI ball
0 Body r a t e s t o FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s
0 RCS latching r e l a y in MESC c l o s e d t o RCS s y s t e m

T h e FCSM-SCS - R E S E T / OVERRIDE a n d G&N-RESET / OVERRIDE


s w i t c h e s on MDC-2 m a y b e set t o SCS and G&N positions. T h e s e s w i t c h e s
p r o v i d e a n a u t o m a t i c m o n i t o r i n g of SPS engine c o m b u s t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e .
If rough combustion o c c u r s , t h e S P S ROUGH E C O warning light on MDC- 10
w i l l light and engine t h r u s t will t e r m i n a t e . A r e s t a r t c a n b e m a d e by
r e s e t t i n g t h e FCSM s w i t c h e s and then setting t h e m b a c k to SCS and G&N.
O r , t h e m o n i t o r c a n b e b y p a s s e d by s e t t i n g the FCSM s w i t c h e s t o
RESET/OVERRIDE.

Attitude i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e IMU is displayed on t h e FDAI ball.


Attitude e r r o r s f r o m t h e CDUs a r e a l s o applied t o t h e FDAI ( f 5 - d e g r e e
s c a l e ) a n d a r e u s e d by t h e SCS t o c o n t r o l a t t i t u d e i n r e s p o n s e t o AGC c o m -
m a n d s . Rotational rates a r e displayed by t h e FDAI rate i n d i c a t o r s with a
s c a l e r a n g e of 55 d e g r e e s / s e c o n d . T h e c o m p u t e r - c o n t r o l l e d velocity
change w i l l b e m o n i t o r e d on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y . T h e r e q u i r e d velocity
l e s s tailoff will b e set i n t o t h e delta V d i s p l a y by t h e AV S E T switch, using
velocity i n f o r m a t i o n obtained f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m o r MSFN. M i n i m u m
deadband is s e t on MDC-8, t h e g i m b a l m o t o r s w i t c h e s , and t h e i n j e c t
p r e - v a l v e s w i t c h e s on MDC-3 a r e a c t i v a t e d . T h e S P S g i m b a l trim a n g l e s
a r e d e t e r m i n e d , set into t h e A S / G P I by t h e g i m b a l position thumbwheels,
and gimbal position verified on t h e GPI. T h e NORMAL/OFF/DIRECT
switch on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y is set t o n o r m a l .

A p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 s e c o n d s p r i o r t o ignition, a f t e r the digital event


t i m e r (MDC-5 and 8 ) h a s b e e n set f o r countdown, t h e a s t r o n a u t will c o m -
m a n d a tX u l l a g e using t h e t r a n s l a t i o n control. At T = 0, t h e AGC will
c o m m a n d a signal through t h e t h r u s t on-off logic and enable t h e solenoid
d r i v e r s of the TVC s u b s y s t e m . T h e solenoid d r i v e r s will t h e n a c t i v a t e t h e
S P S engine ignition c o i l s and SPS t h r u s t i n g w i l l o c c u r . T h e l a m p portion of
t h e THRUST ON switch on t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y will light, verifying t h e
automatic computer command.

S y s t e m delay.(AUTO CONT INTER) logic will t e r m i n a t e the RCS


ullage a p p r o x i m a t e l y one second after SPS ignition. T h e c o m p u t e r will
c o m m a n d pitch and yaw attitude of the SPS g i m b a l s via the TVC to c o n t r o l
the t h r u s t v e c t o r . R o l l c o m m a n d s will be applied t o the r o l l RCS during
the maneuver.

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When t h e d e l t a V r e m a i n i n g c o u n t e r i n d i c a t e s z e r o , t h r u s t i n g will
t e r m i n a t e and the THRUST ON light will g o out. T h e N O R M A L / O F F /
DIRECT ON switch will be s e t t o O F F a n d the SPS m o t o r s w i t c h e s , i n j e c t
p r e - v a l v e s , and t h e T V C e l e c t r o n i c s will b e de-activated. Approximately
one s e c o n d a f t e r t h r u s t t e r m i n a t e s , pitch and yaw c o n t r o l i s t r a n s f e r r e d
b a c k t o the SCS f o r the attitude c o n t r o l function.

If a malfunction o c c u r s during t h e m a n e u v e r , a s w i t c h o v e r t o SCS


d e l t a V will allow continuation of t h e velocity change. If t h e r e is no r e s p o n s e
f r o m t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l a t ullage initiation, the DIRECT ULLAGE
pushbutton on the d e l t a V d i s p l a y m a y b e u s e d f o r the ullage m a n e u v e r p r i o r
to ignition of the S P S engine. A l s o , i f a u t o m a t i c t h r u s t - o n d o e s n o t o c c u r at
T = 0 , t h e THRUST ON pushbutton on the d e l t a V d i s p l a y will provide engine
ignition.

2. 3 . 3 . 3. 2 SCS Delta V.

SCS d e l t a V m o d e i s a p r i m a r y backup f o r the G&N d e l t a V. P r e -


l i m i n a r y t o engine ignition, SCS attitude c o n t r o l i s e s t a b l i s h e d b y setting
t h e G & N / S C S switch on MDC-8 to SCS. A f t e r SPS engine ignition, the S C S
u s e s S / M RCS r o l l jets to m a i n t a i n r o l l attitude and applies c o m m a n d s to
t h e SPS engine g i m b a l s to c o n t r o l the t h r u s t v e c t o r . R e l a y s in f i g u r e 2. 3 - 4
apply t h e following (RCS latching r e l a y in t h e SECS i s closed t o the S / M RCS
throughout the m a n e u v e r ) :

, R e l a y s K9 and K10-Attitude e r r o r s f r o m BMAGs t o FDAI


R e l a y K11B- Attitude e r r o r s f r o m BMAGs t o SCS e l e c t r o n i c s
R e l a y s K 4 and K 5 open-FDA1 b a l l s t a t i o n a r y
Body r a t e s t o FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s (RGA).

The c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y activation p r o c e s s t h a t w a s p e r f o r m e d f o r the


G & N d e l t a V will be p e r f o r m e d f o r SCS d e l t a V . T h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e
a s follows:

Control of attitude and the t h r u s t v e c t o r is through t h e SCS.

0 A t T = 0 , ignition is initiated m a n u a l l y b y p r e s s i n g the THRUST O N


pushbutton on the d e l t a V display.

T h r u s t i s t e r m i n a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y when the AV r e m a i n i n g counter


( d e l t a V pot. ) indicates z e r o .

As in the G & N d e l t a V mode, if t h e r e q u i r e d c o m m a n d r e s p o n s e s to


not o c c u r , the s a m e backup c o n t r o l s c a n be u s e d to p e r f o r m the d e l t a V .

. ..

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In SCS d e l t a V mode, if engine ignition d o e s not o c c u r when t h e THRUST O N


switch i s p r e s s e d , t h e N O R M A L / O F F / D I R E C T ON s w i t c h c a n be s e t t o
DIRECT ON. T h i s a p p l i e s a c o m m a n d s i g n a l d i r e c t l y t o t h e SPS engine
ignition c o i l s and w i l l i n i t i a t e t h r u s t i n g . The N O R M A L / O F F / D I R E C T ON
switch m u s t be s e t t o O F F t o t e r m i n a t e engine t h r u s t .

2. 3 . 3 . 3 . 3 Manual D e l t a V (MTVC).

A m a n u a l d e l t a V will b e p e r f o r m e d only a s a backup t o a G&N o r SCS


d e l t a V. Manual t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l is initiated by a CW r o t a t i o n of t h e
t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l into d e t e n t . At t h i s t i m e , r e l a y s K4 and K5 will c l o s e ,
providing r a t e caging of a l l t h r e e BMAGs; and r e l a y s K10 and K l l B w i l l
open r e m o v i n g r a t e g y r o outputs f r o m t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . T h e
r a t e - c a g e d BMAGs through r e l a y and K12 w i l l switch BMAG b a c k u p - r a t e
s i g n a l s into t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s .

In t h e G&N and SCS d e l t a V m o d e s , T V C s e r v o e l e c t r o n i c s No. 1 and


SPS gimbal d r i v e m o t o r No. 1 was u s e d . When MTVC i s i n i t i a t e d , r e l a y s
K32, K33, and K34 a c t i v a t e . T h i s c l o s e s t h e s e r v o loop f o r c o m m a n d i n g
SPS gimbal d r i v e m o t o r No. 2 .

Gimbal t r i m c o m m a n d s a r e applied through r e l a y K31. When t h e


r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l is moved out of d e t e n t , pitch and yaw c o m m a n d s a r e
applied t o m o t o r No. 2 through r e l a y K31 and gimbal position feedback is
t h r o u g h r e l a y K32.

T h e s u m m a t i o n of backup r a t e and p r o p o r t i a n a l CSS c o m m a n d s into


t h e TVC p r o v i d e s a r a t e - d a m p e d m a n u a l c o n t r o l of t h e engine g i m b a l s .
T h e a s t r o n a u t m u s t keep t h e r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l a t a given d i s p l a c e m e n t t o
k e e p t h e t h r u s t v e c t o r t h r o u g h t h e c . g. and t o fly t h e c o r r e c t t r a j e c t o r y .

If CW s w i t c h e s of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l a r e engaged while i n G & N


d e l t a V, G&N a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , o r G & N e n t r y m o d e , a t t i t u d e e r r o r s a r e not
r e m o v e d f r o m t h e FDAI. T h i s allows t h e a s t r o n a u t t o monitor and, if
n e c e s s a r y , fly a G & N p r o g r a m m e d m a n e u v e r using CSS.

2. 3.3.4 Entry.

T h e e n t r y p r o f i l e c o n s i s t s of t h e v a r i o u s methods of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e
S / C f o r t h e e n t r y p h a s e of t h e m i s s i o n . T h e e n t r y mode i s n o r m a l l y
s e l e c t e d a f t e r S / M - C / M s e p a r a t i o n . At s e p a r a t i o n , t h e m o t o r - d r i v e n RCS
t r a n s f e r s w i t c h e s a r e c l o s e d to t h e C / M RCS.

2. 3. 3.4. 1 G&N E n t r y ,

G&N manual m o d e is t h e p r i m a r y method of c o n t r o l f o r e n t r y into the


a t m o s p h e r e f o r the AS204A m i s s i o n . Automatic e n t r y m a y be u s e d in l i e u
of G & N manual mode.

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C & N Manual. This is n o r m a l l y a backup f o r the G & N e n t r y a u t o m a t i c


mode. T h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l is r o t a t e d C W i n t o d e t e n t . T h i s r e m o v e s
i n e r t i a l CDU a t t i t u d e e r r o r s f r o m t h e SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . N o r m a l l y , t h e
a s t r o n a u t s w i l l c a l l up t h e e n t r y p r o g r a m via t h e DSKY s h o r t l y a f t e r
S/M- C/ M separation.

T h e e n t r y a n g l e , r e q u i r e d pullout a n g l e , and o t h e r r e q u i r e d e n t r y
d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d on t h e c o m p u t e r d i s p l a y s . T h e a s t r o n a u t c a n m a n u a l l y
p e r f o r m a c o n t r o l l e d g - l e v e l e n t r y by u s i n g CSS t o fly out t h e commanded
a t t i t u d e e r r o r s d i s p l a y e d on t h e FDAI. T h e BMAG/AGCU h a s b e e n c l o s e d
l o o p f o r backup r e f e r e n c e i n c a s e s w i t c h o v e r is n e c e s s a r y .

A f t e r . 05 g, a e r o d y n a m i c f o r c e s build up sufficiently t o s t a b i l i z e the


S / C i n t h e p i t c h and yaw axes. At t h i s t i m e , CSS will b e effective i n t h e
r o l l c h a n n e l only. The SCS w i l l r a t e - d a m p t h e pitch and yaw c h a n n e l s , and
t h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l h a v e s t e e r i n g c a p a b i l i t y by using r o l l CSS t o c o n t r o l t h e
lift vector.

A u t o m a t i c E n t r y . The FDAI r a t e d i s p l a y s c a l e r a n g e c h a n g e s to *25 d e g r e e s /


s e c o n d i n r o l l , and *5 d e g r e e s / s e c o n d in p i t c h and yaw. Deadband i s
m a x i m u m . T h e r a t e deadband is * 2 d e g r e e s / s e c .

P r i o r t o . 05 C switching, a t t i t u d e e r r o r f r o m t h e i n e r t i a l CDUs is
applied t o t h e FDAI e r r o r i n d i c a t o r through r e l a y s K7 and K8, and t o t h e
SCS e l e c t r o n i c s through r e l a y K9. T h e RGA a p p l i e s r a t e g y r o body r a t e s
t o t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . R e l a y K3 a p p l i e s total a t t i t u d e t o t h e
FDAI ball.

At . 0 5 g, t h e . 0 5 G E N T R Y / O F F s w i t c h on MDC-8 is s e t t o ,051 C
ENTRY. T h e SCS pitch and yaw c h a n n e l s p e r f o r m r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n only.
T h e r o l l c h a n n e l is still s u b j e c t t o c o m p u t e r - c o n t r o l l e d r o l l c o m m a n d s .
T h e AGC w i l l fly t h e S / C a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d e n t r y p r o g r a m .

2. 3. 3 . 4 . 2 SCS E n t r y .

T h e SCS e n t r y mode is a p r i m a r y backup to G & N e n t r y mode. When


s e l e c t e d , total a t t i t u d e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e FDAI i s supplied throughout t h e
e n t r y . P r i o r to . 0 5 g, t h e BMACs apply a t t i t u d e e r r o r s to t h e FDAI and
SCS e l e c t r o n i c s through r e l a y s K3 and K9. After . 0 5 g, r e l a y s K3 and K9
r e m o v e a t t i t u d e e r r o r s f r o m t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . R e l a y s K 4 and
K5 c l o s e , providing BMAG/AGCU c l o s e d loop. F o r t h e r e m a i n d e r of e n t r y ,
a t t i t u d e e r r o r s a r e not d i s p l a y e d . T h e r e i s no a t t i t u d e hold c a p a b i l i t y .
The r a t e gyros, however, provide r a t e signals for r a t e stabilization. The
SCS e l e c t r o n i c s i n c r e a s e r a t e s t o a 2 - d e g r e e / s e c o n d r a t e deadband. T h e
FDAI d i s p l a y s t o t a l attitude. T h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l i n i t i a t e t h e n e c e s s a r y
c o m m a n d s u s i n g CSS t o fly a c o n t r o l l e d g - l e v e l e n t r y . After a e r o d y n a m i c s
s t a b i l i t y i n p i t c h and yaw, s t e e r i n g c a p a b i l i t y will b e in t h e r o l l channel
only.

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SYSTEMS DATA

If, a f t e r . 05 g, i t is n e c e s s a r y t o p l a c e a B U G i n backup r a t e , only


t h e BMAG s e l e c t e d by t h e r a t e g y r o s e l e c t switch w i l l have i t s inputs in t h e
SCS f o r r a t e s t a b i l i z a t i o n . When backup r a t e is s e l e c t e d , r e l a y s K9, K10,
K12, and K15 a c t i v a t e , providing backup r a t e t o t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c -
t r o n i c s . L o s s of FDAI b a l l r e f e r e n c e w i l l o c c u r . R e l a y K12 r e m o v e s r a t e
g y r o output f r o m t h e FDAI and SCS e l e c t r o n i c s . T h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l c o n t r o l
t h e l i f t v e c t o r with t h e CSS r o l l c h a n n e l . If they w i s h t o d e c r e a s e t h e g
l e v e l , they w i l l r o l l t h e S / C to keep t h e lift v e c t o r up. If they w i s h to
i n c r e a s e t h e g level, they w i l l r o l l t h e S / C so t h a t t h e l i f t v e c t o r is down.

2.3.4 M A J O R COMPONENT/ SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION

T h e SCS c o n s i s t s of t h e following m a j o r components:

0 R a t e g y r o a s s e m b l y (RGA)

0 Attitude g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y (AGAA)

0 P i t c h e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y (pitch ECA)

Roll e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y ( r o l l ECA)

0 Yaw e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y (yaw ECA)

0 A u x i l i a r y e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y ( a u x ECA)

0 D i s p l a y and a t t i t u d e g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y e l e c t r o n i c
c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y (DISPLAY-AGAA ECA)

0 Rotation c o n t r o l

0 Translation control

0 F l i g h t d i r e c t o r a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r (FDAI)

0 Attitude s e t / g i m b a l p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r (AS/ GPI)

0 Velocity c h a n g e i n d i c a t o r ( A V d i s p l a y ) .

2. 3.4. 1 Rate Gyro Assembly.

T h e r a t e g y r o a s s e m b l y c o n t a i n s t h r e e i d e n t i c a l r a t e g y r o s , mounted
orthogonally along t h e s p a c e c r a f t body a x e s , and a s s o c i a t e d g y r o e l e c -
t r o n i c s . No p r o v i s i o n is m a d e f o r h e a t e r s o r t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l of t h e
g y r o s . E a c h g y r o is a s i n g l e - a x i s unit, with t h e input axis d e t e r m i n e d by
t h e g y r o mounting f i x t u r e . S e l f - t e s t c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d by torquing
c o i l s which e n a b l e t h e g y r o t o b e d i s p l a c e d a t a known r a t e and by s p i n
m o t o r r o t a t i o n d e t e c t i o n c i r c u i t s which allow m o n i t o r i n g of t h e g y r o s p i n
m o t o r s p e e d . All s e l f - t e s t c i r c u i t s a r e c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d f r o m o p e r a -
tional c i r c u i t s to p r e v e n t a f a i l u r e in t h e f o r m e r f r o m affecting g y r o
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o p e r a t i o n . T h e g y r o outputs a r e u s e d by t h e SCS a s p r i m a r y d a m p i n g o r
s t a b i l i z a t i o n s i g n a l s a n d , i n addition, as n e g a t i v e f e e d b a c k t o null r o t a t i o n a l
c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s and p r o v i d e a p r o p o r t i o n a l m a n e u v e r r a t e capability.
T h e r a t e g y r o s a l s o p r o v i d e a n i n d i c a t i o n on t h e FDA1 of t h e r a t e - o f -
a t t i t u d e change i n p i t c h , r o l l , and yaw a x e s . An a t t i t u d e c h a n g e about a n y
of t h e a x e s r e s u l t s i n a n output s i g n a l which is r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e r a t e
of d i s p l a c ' e m e n t .

E a c h m i n i a t u r e r a t e g y r o a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a s p i n m o t o r , damping
s y s t e m , g i m b a l a s s e m b l y , q u a d r i l e v e r s p r i n g , and s e l f - c h e c k c i r c u i t r y .
T h e g y r o s p i n m o t o r is a 4 0 0 - c p s 3 - p h a s e s y n c h r o n o u s h y s t e r e s i s m o t o r
p o w e r e d by 26 v o l t s a c . T h e m a x i m u m t i m e allowed f o r t h e g y r o to c o m e
up t o o p e r a t i n g s p e e d is 17 s e c o n d s . Damping is a c c o m p l i s h e d by p o s i t i v e
d i s p l a c e m e n t of t h e d a m p i n g fluid t h r o u g h t e m p e r a t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d o r i f i c e s .
T h e q u a d r i l e v e r s p r i n g p r o v i d e s t h e t o r s i o n a l r e s t r a i n t r e q u i r e d by t h e
g y r o , t o g e t h e r with r a d i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e g i m b a l a s s e m b l y . Some
i m p o r t a n t r a t e g y r o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e as follows:

Full-scale range 30 "/ s ec


Input r a n g e (to limit s t o p ) 30 " I s e c
M a x i m u m r a t e without d a m a g e 600"/ s e c

2. 3.4. 2 Attitude G y r o A c c e l e r o m e t e r A s s e m b l y .

T h e a t t i t u d e g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y c o p t a i n s t h r e e body-
mounted a t t i t u d e g y r o s ( B U G S ) and a n a c c e l e r o m e t e r . E l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l
c i r c u i t s f o r t h e g y r o s and a c c e l e r o m e t e r a r e contained i n t h e d i s p l a y and
attitude gyro a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y electronic control assembly.

2 . 3.4.2. 1 Body-Mounted Attitude G y r o s .

T h e t h r e e BMAGs a r e i d e n t i c a l u n i t s , mounted orthogonally along t h e


s p a c e c r a f t body a x e s , to s e n s e a t t i t u d e d i s p l a c e m e n t along t h e p i t c h , r o l l ,
and yaw a x e s . E a c h g y r o i s a s i n g l e - a x i s unit, with t h e input axis d e t e r -
m i n e d by t h e p h y s i c a l mounting i n t h e S I C . A s p i n m o t o r d e t e c t i o n c i r c u i t
i s included i n e a c h g y r o t o allow m o n i t o r i n g of g y r o s p i n m o t o r s p e e d .
T h i s will b e t e l e m e t e r e d d a t a only.

T h e BMAGs p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n denoting t h e a n g u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t
of t h e s p a c e c r a f t f r o m a p r e s e t attitude. They a r e initially s e t to a s p e c i f i c
s p a c e - s t a b i l i z e d o r i e n t a t i o n ; t h e r e a f t e r , a n y d i s p l a c e m e n t f r o m t h i s initial
s e t t i n g r e s u l t s i n output s i g n a l s which a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e amount of
a n g u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t . T h e output s i g n a l s a r e used to p r o d u c e a t t i t u d e
e r r o r s i g n a l s f o r a n a t t i t u d e - h o l d m o d e o r f o r d i s p l a y on t h e flight d i r e c t o r
a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r . T h e outputs m a y a l s o b e applied t o t h e a t t i t u d e g y r o
c o u p l e r unit (AGCU) f o r a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s t o r a g e and f o r c o n v e r s i o n t o
i n e r t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t unit (IMU) a x e s . IMU a x e s d i f f e r f r o m t h e s p a c e c r a f t
body a x e s . T h e AGCU and BMAGs a r e used as a s u b s t i t u t e o r backup
i n e r t i a l r e f e r e n c e unit f o r t h e IMU d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s when t h e IMU is

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t u r n e d off o r h a s malfunctioned. T h e BMACs c a n a l s o b e u s e d to p r o d u c e


a t t i t u d e r a t e - o f - c h a n g e i n f o r m a t i o n , a s backup f o r t h e r a t e g y r o s .

T h e BMAGs a r e s i n g l e - d e g r e e - o f - f r e e d o m , m i n i a t u r e i n t e g r a t i n g
g y r o s contained i n e l e c t r i c a l l y heated individual p a c k a g e s . The h e a t e r w i l l
m a i n t a i n individual BMAG t e m p e r a t u r e a t 170rt2OF. Degraded g y r o o p e r a -
tion w i l l r e s u l t if t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e is not m a i n t a i n e d . The g y r o s p i n m o t o r s
a r e 3 - p h a s e 2 4 , 0 0 0 - r p m s y n c h r o n o u s d e v i c e s , powered by 1 3 . 6 v o l t s 400 c p s
f r o m a supply i n t h e a t t i t u d e g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r package e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l
a s s e m b l y . With C / M t e m p e r a t u r e a t 80°F and t h e mounting p l a t e t e m p e r a -
t u r e a t 5 5 O F , t h e m a x i m u m t i m e allowed f o r t h e BMAG t o r e a c h o p e r a t i n g
l i m i t s is 40 m i n u t e s . A few g y r o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e l i s t e d a s follows.

Ac c e l e r a t i o n s e n s i t i v e d r i f t 4 deg/hr
Maximum self-torquing r a t e 25 d e g l s e c
Maximum attitude range 520 deg
AGCU coupled torquing l i m i t s 20' s e c r o l l , 5' s e c pitch and yaw

2. 3 . 4 . 2 . 2 Accelerometer.

T h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r is mounted along t h e s p a c e c r a f t X - a x i s t o s e n s e
velocity c h a n g e s along t h i s a x i s . It i s a pendulous-type a c c e l e r o m e t e r with
e l e c t r o n i c null and balance. T h e t e m p e r a t u r e is maintained a t 1 7 0 5 2 O F
under n o r m a l o p e r a t i n g conditions. A s i g n a l output is g e n e r a t e d by a
velocity change along t h e X - a x i s . T h i s velocity change c a u s e s t h e pendulous
m a s s to move, r e s u l t i n g i n a change of coupling between t h e p r i m a r y and
s e c o n d a r y windings of a s i g n a l g e n e r a t o r . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a n output signal
which is demodulated and amplified t o p r o v i d e a c c e l e r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i n
t h e f o r m of d i g i t a l s i g n a l s to a c o u n t e r i n t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y ( p a r a g r a p h
2. 3 . 4 . 1 0 ) . T h e pendulous m a s s is r e t u r n e d t o null by t h e balancing a c t i o n
of t h e e l e c t r o n i c caging s i g n a l when t h e velocity change c e a s e s .

2. 3 . 4 . 3 P i t c h , Roll, and Yaw E l e c t r o n i c Control A s s e m b l i e s .

T h e pitch, yaw, and r o l l e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l a s s e m b l i e s ( E C A s ) a r e


n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l , with s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s d u e t o d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
e a c h a x i s . T h e E C A s p r o v i d e t h e c i r c u i t r y f o r input c o n t r o l s i g n a l p r o c e s s -
ing and SCS m o d e c o n t r o l and configuration. Input c o n t r o l s i g n a l s c o n s i s t
of a t t i t u d e e r r o r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e SCS BMAGs and f r o m t h e G & N s y s t e m ,
m i n i m u m i m p u l s e c o m m a n d s , r a t e g y r o a n g u l a r s i g n a l s , t r a n s l a t i o n and
r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s , s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n engine gimbal position
c o m m a n d s , and SPS engine g i m b a l r a t e and position feedback s i g n a l s . Mode
c o n t r o l inputs a r e r e c e i v e d from s w i t c h e s on panel 8 of t h e m a i n d i s p l a y
c o n s o l e (MDC). T h e s e input s i g n a l s a r e applied to l o g i c - c o n t r o l l e d r e l a y s
which enable c i r c u i t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e d e s i r e d mode.
ECA output s i g n a l s c o n s i s t of r e a c t i o n j e t f i r i n g c o m m a n d s and SPS gimbal
p o s i t i o n c o m m a n d s . T h e r e a c t i o n j e t c o m m a n d s a r e g e n e r a t e d in t h e j e t
s e l e c t i o n logic p o r t i o n s of t h e ECAs. P r e i g n i t i o n SPS engine gimbal
p o s i t i o n c o m m a n d s a r e g e n e r a t e d m a n u a l l y a t t h e A S / G P I by thumbwheels
which p r o v i d e input s i g n a l s t o t h e gimbal c o n t r o l c i r c u i t s . P o s t - i g n i t i o n

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-55


SM2A-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

g i m b a l c o n t r o l is provided by a u t o m a t i c t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l ( T V C ) c i r c u i t r y
i n t h e pitch and yaw ECAs.

2. 3.4.4 A u x i l i a r y E l e c t r o n i c Control A s s e m b l y .

The auxiliary electronic control a s s e m b l y contains the attitude gyro


coupling unit and s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m t h r u s t on-off c o m m a n d c i r c u i t r y .
T h e AGCU p o r t i o n of t h e a u x i l i a r y ECA r e c e i v e s BMAG s i g n a l s f r o m t h e
DISPLAY-AGAA ECA and p r o c e s s e s t h e d a t a f o r d i s p l a y on t h e FDAI. It
a l s o t r a n s f o r m s a t t i t u d e s e t d i a l s i g n a l s t o body a x e s . The SPS engine
on-off c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y i n t h e AUX ECA r e c e i v e s engine on-off c o m m a n d s
f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m o r t h e SCS.' T h e s e c o m m a n d s a r e conditioned and
applied t o t h e SPS engine solenoid v a l v e s .

2. 3 . 4 . 5 DisDlav and Attitude Gvro A c c e l e r o m e t e r A s s e m b l y E l e c t r o n i c Control

T h e d i s p l a y and a t t i t u d e g y r o a c c e l e r o m e t e r a s s e m b l y e l e c t r o n i c
c o n t r o l a s s e m b l y p r o v i d e s t h e e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r o l and
power t h e d i s p l a y s , BMAGs, and a c c e l e r o m e t e r . The DISPLAY ECA
p o r t i o n c o n s i s t s of t h e c i r c u i t r y n e c e s s a r y to r e c e i v e and condition t h e
following:

Attitude e r r o r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e G&N s y s t e m o r t h e B U G S t o the


FDAI a t t i t u d e e r r o r i n d i c a t o r s

Attitude r a t e - o f - c h a n g e s i g n a l s f r o m t h e r a t e g y r o s o r BMAGs t o
t h e FDAI a t t i t u d e r a t e i n d i c a t o r s

0 F e e d b a c k s i g n a l s f r o m t h e SPS engine g i m b a l s t o t h e gimbal position


indicators

A c c e l e r o m e t e r s i g n a l s f r o m t h e AGAA t o t h e d e l t a V d i s p l a y
integrator.

T h e AGAA ECA p o r t i o n c o n s i s t s of c i r c u i t r y n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o m p l i s h
t h e following:

e A c c e p t and condition B U G i n p u t s f o r t h e AGCU

e A c c e p t and condition AGCU torquing c o m m a n d s to t h e BMAGs

Control BMAG and a c c e l e r o m e t e r t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l s

0 Control and condition t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r r e b a l a n c e loop and inputs


to the integrator

Supply r e f e r e n c e voltages t o t h e B U G S and a c c e l e r o m e t e r

...
Condition t h e BMAG and a c c e l e r o m e t e r outputs t o t e l e m e t r y .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date page 2.3-56
SMZA -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

- SYSTEMS DATA

2. 3 . 4 . 6 Rotation C o n t r o l s .

Two identical r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l s a r e provided to enable m a n u a l


c o m m a n d o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e ( f i g u r e 2. 3-8). E a c h c o n t r o l i s a c o n t r o l
s t i c k containing b r e a k o u t s w i t c h e s and t r a n s d u c e r s ( f i g u r e 2. 3 - 9 ) which
apply c o n t r o l s i g n a l s to t h e r e a c t i o n j e t s e l e c t i o n logic c i r c u i t r y i n t h e
p i t c h , yaw, and r o l l ECAs. When t h e s t i c k i s moved, t h e b r e a k o u t
s w i t c h e s c l o s e t h e loop between t h e BMACs and AGCU, and c o n t r o l
s i g n a l s f r o m t h e pitch, yaw, and r o l l t r a n s d u c e r s a r e applied t o t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l ECAs. P r o p o r t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e c o n t r o l s t i c k
m o v e m e n t is provided by r a t e g y r o f e e d b a c k to t h e ECA e l e c t r o n i c s
( f i g u r e 2. 3-10). T h e r e a c t i o n j e t s o l e n o i d s c a n a l s o be c o n t r o l l e d via t h e
d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n of c o n t r o l v o l t a g e s f r o m s w i t c h e s i n t h e c o n t r o l l e r .
The l a t t e r method, r e q u i r i n g u s e of t h e DIRECT MODE switch on MDC-8,
d o e s not p r o v i d e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e s p o n s e . With t h e d i r e c t mode enabled and
t h e s t i c k commanding a r o t a t i o n . a b o u t one a x i s , t h e r a t e damping c i r c u i t s
in t h e o t h e r a x e s a r e a c t i v e .

P r o v i s i o n is m a d e to mount t h e c o n t r o l s a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s in
t h e CIM: t h e r i g h t a r m r e s t of t h e l e f t c r e w couch, both a r m r e s t s of t h e
r i g h t c r e w couch, and at t h e navigation s t a t i o n i n t h e l o w e r equipment b a y .
N o r m a l l y , one c o n t r o l is a t t a c h e d to t h e l e f t c r e w couch mount and the
o t h e r is used a t any of t h e o t h e r t h r e e l o c a t i o n s . Simultaneous o p e r a t i o n
of both c o n t r o l s is p o s s i b l e but not a d v i s e d ; however, e a c h c o n t r o l h a s a
locking d e v i c e to p r e v e n t i n a d v e r t e n t o p e r a t i o n .

2. 3 . 4 . 7 Translation Controls.

Two i d e n t i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s a r e provided to enable m a n u a l c o m -


mand o f ' s p a c e c r a f t t r a n s l a t i o n a l m a n e u v e r s . (See f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 8 . ) E a c h
c o n t r o l i s a T - h a n d l e type c o n t r o l s t i c k containing s w i t c h e s , which apply
c o n t r o l s i g n a l s to t h e r e a c t i o n j e t s e l e c t i o n l o g i c c i r c u i t r y i n t h e pitch, yaw,
and r o l l ECSs ( f i g u r e 2 . 3 - 1 1 ) . T h e r e a c t i o n j e t s a r e a c t i v a t e d in g r o u p s
of two o r f o u r , depending upon t h e d i r e c t i o n of d e s i r e d t r a n s l a t i o n . L e f t -
r i g h t and up-down t r a n s l a t i o n s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by f i r i n g two r e a c t i o n
c o n t r o l j e t s with t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n of t h r u s t . F o r w a r d and r e v e r s e t r a n s -
l a t i o n s a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by f i r i n g t h e four f o r w a r d t h r u s t i n g o r f o u r r e a r -
w a r d t h r u s t i n g r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l j e t s . T h e t r a n s l a t i o n m a n e u v e r commanded
i s in d i r e c t r e s p o n s e to the d i r e c t i o n i n which t h e T - h a n d l e i s moved.

T h e p r i m a r y c o n t r o l h a s s w i t c h e s which initiate a s p a c e c r a f t a b o r t if
t h e T - h a n d l e is r o t a t e d c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e . Both c o n t r o l s have s w i t c h e s
which enable manual t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l and d i s a b l e a u t o m a t i c a t t i t u d e
c o n t r o l i f t h e T - h a n d l e i s r o t a t e d c l o c k w i s e . Each c o n t r o l h a s a locking
d e v i c e to p r e v e n t i n a d v e r t e n t o p e r a t i o n of t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l .

Both c o n t r o l s a r e mounted i n t h e C / M on t h e l e f t a r m r e s t of t h e c r e w
couch. The p r i ; n a r y c o n t r o l is identified with yellow s t r i p e s and is the
only one provided with a b o r t switching c a p a b i l i t y .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-57


SMZA-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA --
PUSH T O TALK

ABORT
INITIATE
+Z
MNC EN~BLE AND/OR
AUTO A T 1 C O N T R O L DISABLE
(18')

PITCH
CONTROL

R OTAT ION CONTROL SM-24-674A


F i g u r e 2. 3-8. Rotation and Translation Controls

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission Basic Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-58


SM2A-03-SCO 1 2
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

--
SYSTEMS DATA

ROTATI ON CONTROLLER II
< 26 VAC 400 CPS FROM PITCH ECA OR YAW ECA
I
I H--lI;}
I

TRANSDUCER
I

- PITCH PROPORTIONAL RATE COMh4ANDS TO PITCH ECA

I
I
I
N-qI} TRANSDUCER

I
- ROLL PROPORTIONAL RATE COMMANDS TO ROLL ECA

PROPORTIONAL RATE COMMANDS TO YAW ECA


- YAW
I TRANSDUCER

I I DIRECT RCS
18 VDC FROM
I 1 I
I
D
,C MA1 N BUS A
OR DC M A I N BUS B

I
OFF (SEE NOTES)
DIRECT SWITCHES I
I
I PITCH

I
I DIRECT COMMANDS TO
RCS ENGINES DIRECT COILS

I I
I
I
I
I
I
:} YAW

I BREAKOUT SWITCHES I 28 VDC FROM


< DC M A I N BUS A OR
I I 1
I
I
DC MAIN BUS B

I II
BREAKOUT SIGNAL TO
PITCH, ROLL A N D YAW ECA

I 1-1
I
CASE GROUND

NOTES: 1 . DC main bus A supplies power to direct


switches in rotation control No. 1 .
2. DC main bus B supplies power to direct
switches in rotation control N o . 2.
SM-2A-71 I B

F i g u r e 2. 3-9. Rotation Control Schematic

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM .


Mission B a s i c Date 12 No!' 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-59
SMZA-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

32

ROLL MOTIONS
DIRECT SWITCH
ACTUATION -4

FORCE-
INCH-POUNDS

BREAKOUT SWITCH

1
0
I
1
I
2 3
I
4
I 1
5 7
1
6 8 9
1 1
IO
I I I
I1
I
12
I
13
-
DISPLACEMENT DEGREES
-
ROTATION CONTROL STICK DISPLACEMENTS VS FORCES

YAW MOTIONS MECHANICAL


LIMIT
(16 IN.-LBS, 13 DEGREES)

14

12
FORCE-
INCH-POUNDS

-
DISPLACEMENT DEGREES
-
ROTATION CONTROL STICK DISPLACEMENTS VS FORCES

PITCH MOTIONS

FORCE -
INCH-POUNDS

DISPLACEMENT DEGREES -
-
ROTATION CONTROL STICK DISPLACEMENTS VS FORCES SM-?A-675
Figure 2. 3-10, Rotation Control Charts

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion Basic Date 1 2 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-60 -


SMZA -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

- SYSTEMS DATA

T R A N S L A T ION CONTROLLER 1 28 VDC FROM

.
I D C M A I N BUS A OR

I t ABORT INITIATE I < D C M A I N BUS B


SWITCHES (CCW)
I ABORT I N I T I A T I O N S I G N A L

I
TO MISSION SEQUENCER A

I
I ABORT I N I T I A T I O N S I G N A L
TO MISSION SEQUENCER B

MOTOR DRIVEN SWITCH


(LOCATED IN S/M, CLOSED
AFTER S/M SEPARATION FROM SlVB)

1
II Ah 28 VDC FROM
DC MAIN BUS A OR
I
c--" I
I
+x

-X
' DC MAIN B U S B

I
TRANSLATION C O M M A N D S
I - Y T O S/M RCS ENGINES

A N U_ A L_ N C EN
M.

I
-b
SWITCH jCW,

.
I

I
I
I
I
.
<
<
DC M A I N BUS A OR
DC M A I N BUS 8
T O PITCH, YAW 6 ROLL
ECA
28 V D C
PUSH TO TALK
I C O M M U N I U T I ONS
I SM-2A-7106

F i g u r e 2 . 3 - 11. T r a n s l a t i o n C o n t r o l S c h e m a t i c

2.3.4. a F l i g h t D i r e c t o r Attitude I n d i c a t o r .

T h e flight d i r e c t o r a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t o r , l o c a t e d on MDC-4, p r o v i d e s
attitude, a t t i t u d e e r r o r , and a t t i t u d e r a t e - o f - c h a n g e d i s p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n .
( S e e f i g u r e 2. 3-12. ) T h e FDAI i n d i c a t e s a t t i t u d e r a t e of change and a t t i t u d e
e r r o r on i n d i c a t o r s and s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e on a 3 d e g r e e - o f - f r e e d o m ,
i n e r t i a l l y r e f e r e n c e d ball and r o l l i n d i c a t o r . T h e r o l l r a t e d i s p l a y i s
l o c a t e d a c r o s s t h e top of t h e FDAI. T h e p i t c h r a t e d i s p l a y is l o c a t e d along
t h e r i g h t s i d e of t h e FDAI. T h e yaw r a t e d i s p l a y is l o c a t e d a c r o s s t h e
bottom of t h e FDAI. T h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r d i s p l a y s a r e p o i n t e r s which m o v e
a c r o s s t h e f a c e of t h e ball. T h e r a t e and e r r o r d i s p l a y s a r e f l y - t o d i s p l a y s .
T h e r o l l a t t i t u d e p o i n t e r is l o c a t e d a t t h e top and points down t o w a r d s t h e
c e n t e r of t h e ball. T h e p i t c h a t t i t u d e p o i n t e r i s l o c a t e d a t the r i g h t and
points l e f t t o w a r d t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball. .The yaw p o i n t e r is l o c a t e d a t t h e

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 "J 1966 Change Date page 2 . 3 - 6 1


SMZA -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
--
SYSTEMS DATA

ROLL RATE

\
ROL
IN D NAVIGATION
/AXIS MARKER

--PITCH RATE
DISPUY

'PITCH ATTITUDE
ERROR DISPLAY

ATTITUDE BALL
\BODY AXIS
MARKER

YAW ATTITUDE
ERROR DISPLAY
/ ' YAW RATE
DISPLAY

Attitudo Enor lndicaton I 0. I 0. 1 -2.5.


Anaular UI O lndicaton I -.l./bc I -.2./Lc I + .3*/s.c
NOTE: O n this illurtmtion, tho attitude ball
d i q l a y i s read with n f e n n c o to the
navigation axis maker. SM-2A-726 C

F i g u r e 2. 3 - 12. F l i g h t D i r e c t o r Attitude I n d i c a t o r

b o t t o m and p o i n t s up t o w a r d t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball. T h e FDAI is l o c a t e d in


t h e c e n t e r of t h e d i s p l a y . T h e b a l l f a c e is m a r k e d i n d e g r e e s of p i t c h and
yaw and is r e f e r e n c e d to t h e IMU a x e s . Two r e f e r e n c e m a r k e r s a r e l o c a t e d
on t h e f a c e of t h e d i s p l a y t o i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e i n r e f e r e n c e t o e i t h e r s p a c e -
c r a f t body a x e s o r IMU (navigation) a x e s T h e body a x e s m a r k e r is on t h e
l o w e r f a c e of t h e d i s p l a y . The IMU o r navigation a x e s m a r k e r is l o c a t e d on
t h e u p p e r f a c e of t h e d i s p l a y . Roll a t t i t u d e is t h e IMU r e f e r e n c e and i s
i n d i c a t e d by t h e r o l l i n d i c a t o r (bug) which t r a v e l s a r o u n d t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e
of t h e ball. Roll a t t i t u d e z e r o r e f e r e n c e is l o c a t e d a t t h e t o p of t h e ball.

FDAI d i s p l a y o p e r a t i o n w i l l v a r y , depending upon mode. T h e r a t e


d i s p l a y is o p e r a t i v e a t all t i m e s . E a c h r a t e i n d i c a t o r h a s a c a l i b r a t e d d i s -
p l a y s c a l e , with t h e r a n g e of t h e s c a l e dependent upon t h e mode s e l e c t e d .
M a x i m u m f u l l - s c a l e d e f l e c t i o n w i l l b e as indicated i n t h e following t a b u l a t i o n .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page 7. 3 - 6 2 .


SM2A -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-
SYSTEMS DATA

F u l 1- S c a 1<: De f 1e c t i o n
Mode Pitch I Roll I Yaw
~~~

Delta V modes *5"/sec *5"/sec *5"/sec


E n t r y m o d e s and m o n i t o r m o d e *5" / s e c *25" / s e c *5"/ s e c
A l l other modes *lo/sec *lo/sec *1 " I s e c

F u l l - s c a l e Deflection

Mode Pitch Roll Yaw


Entry modes *5" *25" *5"
Monitor m o d e *15" *25" k15"
All other modes *5O *5" *5"

T h e gimbaled a t t i t u d e ball is c o l o r e d half g r a y and half black, with


t h e l i n e of s e p a r a t i o n a t t h e 0 - d e g r e e to 1 8 0 - d e g r e e pitch a n g l e . T h i s
t w o - c o l o r s c h e m e p e r m i t s r a p i d r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e s p e c i f i c pitch
h e m i s p h e r e being d i s p l a y e d . T h e r e a r e two c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s l o c a t e d a t
9 0 - d e g r e e y a w l o - d e g r e e pitch and 2 7 0 - d e g r e e y a w l o - d e g r e e pitch. T h e
i n n e r c i r c l e s a r e solid r e d 3 0 - d e g r e e c i r c l e s which r e p r e s e n t t h e b a s e of
a c o n e with t h e a p e x at t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball. T h i s area d e n o t e s p o s s i b l e
IMU g i m b a l lock. The o u t e r c i r c l e s e n c l o s e a r e d 4 0 - d e g r e e c i r c l e which
a l s o r e p r e s e n t s t h e b a s e of a c o n e with t h e a p e x a t t h e c e n t e r of t h e ball.
T h i s a r e a d e n o t e s a t t i t u d e s which r e s u l t i n AGCU i n a c c u r a c y . The ball i s
r e a d a g a i n s t one of two r e f e r e n c e m a r k s , depending upon t h e mode of
o p e r a t i o n . The IMU a x e s r e f e r e n c e m a r k i s t h e upper m a r k e r (e) which
i n d i c a t e s s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e i n pitch and yaw a x e s with r e f e r e n c e t o t h e
IMU g i m b a l s o r stability a x e s . T h e body a x e s m a r k e r is t h e lower m a r k e r
(v) which i n d i c a t e s s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e with r e f e r e n c e to t h e body a x e s .
T h e included a n g l e between t h e m a r k e r s is 32 d e g r e e s . T h e r o l l i n d i c a t o r
is r e f e r e n c e d to t h e z e r o m a r k on t h e p e r i p h e r y of t h e b a l l d i s p l a y f a c e i n
a l l o p e r a t i o n a l m o d e s . I n SCS m o d e s , t h e b a l l is d r i v e n only d u r i n g
m a n u a l m a n e u v e r s , d u r i n g FDAI a l i g n m e n t , and a f t e r 0. 05 g is s e n s e d
d u r i n g e n t r y . D u r i n g t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , t h e b a l l is d r i v e n by s i g n a l s
r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e AGCU. In G&N m o d e s , t h e ball d i s p l a y s IMU gimbal
a n g l e s . F i g u r e 2. 3-13 p r o v i d e s a t a b u l a r l i s t i n g of t h e v a r i o u s FDAI
display configurations.

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date page 2 . 3-63
SM2A -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c D a t e l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-64


SM2A -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

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SYSTEMS DATA

2. 3 . 4 . 9 Attitude Set / Gimbal P o s i t i o n Indi cat0 r .

The attitude s e t / g i m b a l position i n d i c a t o r (AS-GPI) p r o v i d e s two


s e p a r a t e functions. The attitude s e t portion e n a b l e s FDAI-AGCU align-
m e n t and p r o v i d e s a r e f e r e n c e f o r a c q u i r i n g new a t t i t u d e s . The g i m b a l
position display portion p r o v i d e s positioning c o n t r o l of the SPS engine
g i m b a l a n g l e s and d i s p l a y s g i m b a l position. The attitude s e t portion p r o -
vides a c o m p a r i s o n of the angle between the attitude d i s p l a y e d on the
ATTITUDE S E T i n d i c a t o r s and the position of the AGCU r e s o l v e r shaft. It
a l s o p r o v i d e s c o n t r o l of the inputs to t h e FDAI attitude e r r o r p o i n t e r s and
aligns the FDAI to the attitude indicated o n the ATTITUDE S E T i n d i c a t o r s .
The attitude s e t function is c o n t r o l l e d by m a n u a l o p e r a t i o n of the t h u m b -
wheels. The d e s i r e d position is dialed by a thumbwheel, with the display
providing v i s u a l indication of the position s e l e c t e d by the thumbwheel. The
attitude display m a y be used to align the FDAI-AGCU o r to indicate a new
attitude f o r the s p a c e c r a f t . To a c c o m p l i s h FDAI-AGCU a l i g n m e n t , the
d e s i r e d position is s e t o n the attitude s e t display. The FDAI ALIGN push-
button i s then p r e s s e d . T h i s p r o v i d e s a s i g n a l which d r i v e s the AGCU
s t e p p e r m o t o r and c o n t r o l logic t o position the AGCU r e s o l v e r shaft. The
s t e p p e r m o t o r d r i v e s the s h a f t to the c o m m a n d e d position, r e s u l t i n g i n a n
output f r o m a n angle g e n e r a t o r to the FDAI ball, d r i v i n g the b a l l to the
commanded position. To m a n u a l l y m a n e u v e r the s p a c e c r a f t to a p r e -
d e t e r m i n e d attitude, the d i s p l a y i s s e t to the d e s i r e d attitude and the A T T
S E T s w i t c h i s placed to A T T SET. The output s i g n a l is applied'to the
attitude e r r o r display p o i n t e r s on the FDAI, providing a m a n u a l m a n e u v e r
indicatiQn to the s p a c e c r e w . The d i s p l a y configuration i s a fly-to type,
with the c r e w manually maneuvering the s p a c e c r a f t t o w a r d the p o i n t e r s .
( T h e p o i n t e r s will peg if the new attitude i s i n e x c e s s of 5 d e g r e e s f r o m
the o r i g i n a l attitude. )

The SPS engine g i m b a l position d i s p l a y allows positioning of the


g i m b a l s and p r o v i d e s indication of g i m b a l position. Two thumbwheels
enable the pitch and yaw engine g i m b a l s to be positioned p r i o r to SPS
engine firing. The g i m b a l s position the engine to a n attitude which e n s u r e s
that the SPS engine t h r u s t v e c t o r is through the s p a c e c r a f t c e n t e r of gravity.
Movement of the thumbwheels r e s u l t s i n the g e n e r a t i o n of c o n t r o l s i g n a l s
which engage the SPS g i m b a l ring t o r q u e m o t o r m a g n e t i c c l u t c h e s . Clutch
engagement connects the g i m b a l t o r q u e m o t o r and g e a r t r a i n to move the
g i m b a l ring. P o s i t i o n t r a n s d u c e r s send a s i g n a l to the g i m b a l position
d i s p l a y s to i n d i c a t e t h e angle of the gimbal. The yaw g i m b a l position s c a l e
is graduated i n i n c r e m e n t s of one-half d e g r e e f r o m - 5 d e g r e e s to t 1 3
d e g r e e s . C e n t e r is l o c a t e d at t h e t 4 - d e g r e e position due to a n i n h e r e n t
o f f s e t i n the yaw c e n t e r of g r a v i t y . The pitch g i m b a l position s c a l e i s
g r a d u a t e d i n i n c r e m e n t s of one-half d e g r e e f r o m -9 d e g r e e s to t9 d e g r e e s ,
with the c e n t e r position at 0 d e g r e e s .

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-65


SMZA -03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

L. 3.4. 10 Velocity Change I n d i c a t o r .

The d e l t a V d i s p l a y p r o v i d e s c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y of s p a c e c r a f t
velocity c h a n g e s . T h e d i s p l a y p o r t i o n of the panel c o n s i s t s of the AV
REMAIMNG i n d i c a t o r , which is a f i v e - d i g i t d i s p l a y . The digital d i s p l a y
is s e t by the v a r i a b l e s p e e d A V S E T switch. T h r e e p a n e l s w i t c h e s c o n t r o l
the SPS and RCS engine f i r i n g c o m m a n d s . The DIRECT ULLAGE s w i t c h
is a pushbutton, m o m e n t a r y - c o n t a c t s w i t c h which, when d e p r e s s e d
e n e r g i z e s t h e d i r e c t c o i l s of t h e tX r e a c t i o n j e t s o l e n o i d s . It s e r v e s as a
backup f o r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l , which is u s e d u n d e r n o r m a l conditions
f o r tX t r a n s l a t i o n s f o r SPS f u e l s e t t l i n g ( u l l a g e ) . The THRUST ON s w i t c h
i s a n i l l u m i n a t e d pushbutton, m o m e n t a r y - c o n t a c t switch which is u s e d to
f i r e the SPS engine i n the SCS d e l t a V mode. The s w i t c h is enabled when
the SPS THRUST s w i t c h is i n the NORMAL position. The pitch and yaw
RCS c o n t r o l and f i r i n g c i r c u i t s a r e inhibited d u r i n g S P S engine f i r i n g .
A f t e r i g n i t i o n , the SPS engine continues to f i r e until t h e AV REMAINING
d i s p l a y c o u n t s down to z e r o . The THRUST ON switch i s a l s o u s e d to back
up t h e Apollo guidance c o m p u t e r f i r i n g c o m m a n d s in t h e G&N d e l t a V mode
i n the e v e n t of a n AGC f a i l u r e . The S P S THRUST s w i t c h p r o v i d e s o v e r a l l
c o n t r o l of SPS engine f i r i n g . The NORMAL p o s i t i o n e n a b l e s n o r m a l engine
f i r i n g s e q u e n c e s . The O F F position p r o v i d e s a p o s i t i v e off c o m m a n d as
backup i n c a s e of a malfunction. The DIRECT ON position p r o v i d e s a
p o s i t i v e f i r i n g c o m m a n d to the S P S engine.

The AV S E T s w i t c h s e t s up t h e AV REMAINING d i s p l a y and logic


c i r c u i t s p r i o r to d e l t a V m a n e u v e r s . P r e s s i n g the u p p e r s e c t i o n of the
AV s w i t c h sets up l o g i c c i r c u i t r y which c a u s e s a s l e w m o t o r to d r i v e the
AV REMAINIVG d i s p l a y i n the p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n ( i n c r e a s i n g velocity).
P r e s s i n g the l o w e r s e c t i o n of the s w i t c h d r i v e s the d i s p l a y i n the negative
d i r e c t i o n ( d e c r e a s i n g v e l o c i t y ) . The s w i t c h h a s two s e t s of c o n t a c t s i n
both t h e u p p e r and l o w e r p o s i t i o n s . P r e s s i n g t h e s w i t c h lightly engages
t h e f i r s t s e t of c o n t a c t s , which r e s u l t s i n a s i g n a l t h a t will d r i v e the
d i s p l a y a t a r a t e of two f e e t p e r s e c o n d . P r e s s i n g t h e s w i t c h h a r d e r
( p a s t a n e a s i l y f e l t h a r d / s o f t p o i n t ) e n g a g e s t h e second s e t of c o n t a c t s ,
which r e s u l t s i n t h e d i s p l a y b e i n g d r i v e n at a r a t e of 64 f e e t p e r s e c o n d .
As t h e d i s p l a y is d r i v e n to the d e s i r e d velocity, t h e i n t e g r a t o r and logic
c i r c u i t is s e t to a l o g i c a l value e q u a l to t h e d e s i r e d change. The t r a n s -
l a t i o n c o m m a n d s i g n a l e n e r g i z e s a r e l a y which a p p l i e s the output of the
A G M a c c e l e r o m e t e r to the i n t e g r a t o r and logic c i r c u i t , which c o m p a r e s
the d e s i r e d velocity i n c r e m e n t with the a c t u a l velocity change r e c e i v e d
f r o m the a c c e l e r o m e t e r . When t h e a c t u a l velocity change e q u a l s the value
s e t , the A V REMAINING c o u n t e r s e n d s a s i g n a l to a coincidence d e t e c t o r
logic c i r c u i t which, i n t u r n , t r a n s m i t s a s t o p f i r i n g c o m m a n d to t h e t h r u s t
c o n t r o l l o g i c . Although t h i s c a u s e s t h e SPS engine to s t o p firing, s o m e
t h r u s t i n g continues a s a r e s u l t of t h e tail-off i n h e r e n t t o t h e engine. T h e
A V REMAINING d i s p l a y continues to count p a s t z e r o ( i . e . , 99999,99998,
99997, e t c . ) until no f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t i o n is f e l t . Tail-off e f f e c t s will be
c a l c u l a t e d p r i o r to f l i g h t ' a n d c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by t h e c r e w when the d i s p l a y
is being s e t up f o r d e l t a V m a n e u v e r s . ---

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM .


Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-66
SMZA -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-
SYSTEMS DATA

2 . 3 . 4 . 11 E l e c t r i c a l P o w e r Distribution.

-
See f i g u r e s 2. 3-14 and 2 . 3-15

2. 3. 5 PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN DATA.

. F i g u r e 2. 3-16 contains t h e latest a v a i l a b l e power consumption d a t a f o r


t h e Block I SCS. T h e t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l s w e r e not included in ;he SCS
component breakdown b e c a u s e they d o not d i s s i p a t e a significant a m o u n t of
power within t h e m s e l v e s .

T h e X - a x i s a c c e l e r o m e t e r is a s e r v o - r e b a l a n c e d pendulous
a c c e l e r o m e t e r . Some of t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e as
follow 5 .

Operating r a n g e 0.001 g to 2 g
Threshold I x 10-4 g ( m a x )
Null torque 1 x 10-4 g (max)
Signal g e n e r a t o r s e n s i t i v i t y 50 m i l l i v o l t s / m i l l i r a d
Signal g e n e r a t o r null 1 mr ( m a x )

T h e body-mounted attitude g y r o s a r e s i n g l e - d e g r e e - o f - f r e e d o m g y r o s .
Some of t h e g y r o d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a s follows.

A c c e l e r a t i o n s e n s i t i v e drift 4 deglhslg
Random d r i f t 0.05 deg/hr
M a x i m u m torquing rate 25 d e g l s e c
Maxi m u m input a t t i t u d e *20 deg
Gyro threshold 0 . 02 d e g / h r
G y r o t r a n s f e r function 1 . 15 m i l l i v o l t s / m i l l i r a d
Signal g e n e r a t o r null 3. 5 m i l l i v o l t s
Excitation f r e q u e n c y 400f0.01% CPS

The r a t e gyros a r e single-axis miniature gyros. Some of the g y r o


d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e as follows.

Full-scale range 30'1 sec


Input r a n g e ( t o limit stop) 30 " I s e c
Maximum r a t e without d a m a g e 6 O O o / sec
Excitation f r e q u e n c y 400fO.01% c p s
Threshold 0 . 0 2 ' t sec

2. 3. 6 OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS.

2. 3. 6. 1 S/ C Attitude Change.

It is r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t vehicle a t t i t u d e change b e held t o m a x i m u m


r a t e s of l e s s t h a n 20 d e g r e e s p e r second r o l l and 5 d e g r e e s p e r second in
pitch and yaw t o p r e v e n t p o s s i b l e loss of a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e . B e c a u s e of
t h e AGCU digital logic, t h e stepping m o t o r c a n be stepped at a m a x i m u m

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-67


SMZA-03-SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

A
PARTIAL SCS
POWER SW
- (AC91
ACl , ___,
A
PARTIAL CCZ

AC B U S N O . 1 (AC BUS NO. :


115 VAC 115 VAC)
PHASE
\-, GROUP I
A ACI (ACZI

NOTES: 1. D-C w e r i s applied to thew OFF PILOT'S ROTATIONAL


u n i h through partial SCS pore, CONTROLLER
switch, as ahown in uppr right
part of diagram. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROLLER

2. Contacts clom after S-IVB scpomtion


or high-altitude abart.

F i g u r e 2 . 3-14. SCS P o w e r D i s t r i b u t i o n

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-68


SM2A -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

-
REQUIRED SCS POWER SWITCHES
PARTIAL RATE ROTATION Tvc
SYSTEM C A P A B I L l T l E S Tvc 2
scs
POWER
GYRO
POWER POWER
POWER POWER
BACKUP RATE 0 0

CHANNEL ENABLE

DIRECT ROTATION CONTROL

PRO PORT10 N4 L ROTATION CONTROL 0 0

ATTITUDE IMPULSE 0
~~ -
G A N SYNC

TRANSLATION 0

A V SET 0

S f 5 ENGINE IGNITION om

I RATE INDICATORS VALID I I I *OI I I I


BALL 6 ROLL BUG DRIVEN’ 0

ATTITUDE ERROR INDICATORS VALID


00
NOTES: I . I f backup rate has been selected i n any axis. I f backup rate has been
selected i n a l l 3 axes, RATE GYRO POWER need not be on.

2. PARTIAL SCS POWER murt be on i f AV switch i s at NORMAL. However,


SPS engine can ba t u m d on when a l l power switch- are off, by placing
AV switch to DIRECT ON.

3. TVC 2 POWER switch must be on i f manual N C i s engaged.

4. SCS AV mode only. However, i n GBN AV mode, BMAG POWER must


be o n i f backup rate has beon selected i n any axis. I f backup rate has
been selected i n a11 three oxes, RATE GYRO POWER switch i s set to OFF.

5. SCS modes only; also G A N modes i f backup rate has been selected i n any axis

6. SCS mod- only, i f backup rate has not been selected.

7. RATE GYRO POWER w i t c h may b set to OFF for extended periods of


attitude hold,

8. FDA1 A L I G N and G B N modes only.

SM- 2A-90W

F i g u r e 2. 3-15. SCS P o w e r vs S y s t e m Capability

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-69


S M 2 A -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
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SYSTEMS DATA

SYSTEM STEAD\ $TAT€ POWER CONSUMPTION-WAITS 6 Q - l ) I


MONITOR GLNAlTlTUDE I SCSATTITUDE I GbNENTRY ~ 1
115 VAC400 CPS
SWITCH

PARTIAL SCS PWR ( I )


POWER FACTOR
125.2
0.94
1 24.1 117.6
0.89 0.91
I 16.7

FDA1
POWER FACTOR I ;::I I I
RGA POWER
POWER FACTOR 0.98 0.85 0.99
ROT. C O N 1 POWER
POWER FACTOR 0.92
TVCSW N0.I
POWER FACTOR
I16:4
0 96
1 1 I
8:7
0 86
8.7
0.86
16.3

I I I
TVC SW NO. 2
POWER FACTOR
BMAG POWER
POWER FACTOR
CONT PANEL INPUT ( I )
II 1
Ill:5
0 75
6.1
0.99
4:3
0 57
3.4
0.78
4.2
0.63
7.0 162.3
0.80
11 .a:

SYSTEM STEADY-STATE POWER CONSUMPTIOWWATTS


( 5 0 - 1 ) (CONTINUED)

- SWITCH\

POWER FACTOR
FDA1
MoDE

PARTIAL SCS P W R ( I ) 27.5


0.94 II
SCS ENTRY

I I
245 18.3 22.9
0.89
' 0.88
25.7
0.941
G L N AV

240
o h 1 o:wl
186 594
'
I

I
SCS AV LOCAL VERTICAL

28.3 23.3 19.0 61.3 26.1 2 2 6 17.6 12.4


0.931 0.881 0.911 1'0.941 0 : 8 8 ) 0.901 I
POWER FACTOR
RGA POWER
POWER FACTOR I I I 1 I I
5:2
0 98 0 8 5 11:s
3:4 099
5.2
0.98
3:4 I \ l : 8
0 85 0 99
I I 1 I 5:298
0 3.4
0.85 lA:;/
I I 5:2 3.4 111:8
0 98 0.85 0 99
1 I
ROT.CONT POWER
POWER FACTOR
TVC SW NO. I
POWER FACTOR
TVC sw No. 2
POWER FACTOR
BMAG POWER
POWER FACTOR
C O N 1 PANEL INPlJl ( I )
I I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1

NOTES:
1 . Power marrummenh made in w c h nwde. 4. Line losses and inverter efficiencies nat con-
'2. Power consunption assumed came in each mode. ridered.
Asterisk indicates mode in which mwsurament 5. A l l values indimted are in w o t h .
was made. 6. Figure &a nat include enegiring RCS enginn
3. h a r u r m e n t ~made with SPS engine o f f . (Two b r manwven.
solenaids and 2 relays.)

SM-24-754D

Figure 2 . 3-16. SCS Steady-State P o w e r Consumption Data

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-70


SM2A-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

rate of 100 s t e p s p e r second i n r o l l and 25 s t e p s p e r second i n pitch and


yaw. T h i s is equivalent t o g y r o t o r q u i n g rates of 20 d e g r e e s p e r second in
r o l l and 5 d e g r e e s p e r second i n pitch a n d yaw. T h e r e f o r e , i f vehicle r a t e s
exceed t h e g y r o torquing r a t e s , t h e stepping m o t o r will l a g behind t h e
vehicle r a t e s . Under t h i s condition, t h e B U G - A G C U loop m a y not b e a b l e
t o m a i n t a i n t h e SCS attitude r e f e r e n c e .

2. 3 . 7 T E L E M E T R Y MEASUREMENTS.

T h e following i s a c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g of all SCS t e l e m e t r y d a t a that is


m o n i t o r e d by flight c o n t r o l l e r s and ground s u p p o r t p e r s o n n e l . The last
c o l u m n contains the n a m e and type of S I C c r e w d i s p l a y . T h e d i s p l a y
u t i l i z e s t h e s a m e pickup o r signal s o u r c e as t e l e m e t r y , u n l e s s a s e p a r a t e
m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r i s included i n t h e d i s p l a y column.

An a s t e r i s k (*) by t h e m e a s u r e m e n t n u m b e r d e n o t e s i n f o r m a t i o n
which i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o r d i n g o r t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n d u r i n g P C M
low-bit rate o p e r a t i o n .

F i g u r e 2 . 3-4, s h e e t 2, identifies t e l e m e t r y m e a s u r e m e n t s f o r t h e SCS


yaw channel. Identical m e a s u r e m e n t s i n t h e following l i s t , r e l a t i v e t o t h e
r o l l and pitch c h a n n e l s , a r e t a k e n f r o m the same c i r c u i t junctions a s f o r
t h e yaw channel.

Measurement
Number Description S e n s o r Range C r e w Display

* CH 0024 V P i t c h rate FDAI


CH 0025 V P i t c h rate manual r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l Z e r o / t 5 VRMS FDAI
* CH 0034 V P i t c h pos f e e d b a c k i n - 6 l t 6 vdc None
* CH 0047 V P T V diff c l u t c h volts c o m b TBD None
CH 0050 V P i t c h r a t e e r r o r a m p out -6. 2 t o t 6 2 vdc FDAI
CH0067 V Pitch integratorlatt e r r o r summing TBD None
* CH 0074 V MTVC pitch r a t e TBD None
CH 0075 V P i t c h SCS att e r r o r Z e r o / t l O VRMS FDAI
;' CH 0087 X t P i t c h / t X solenoid d r i v e r out Offlon event None
:g CH 0088 X - P i t c h I t X solenoid d r i v e r out Offlon event None
CH 0089 X + P i t c h / - X solenoid d r i v e r out Off/on event None
* CH 0090 X - P i t c h / - X solenoid d r i v e r out Offlon event None
CH 0100 X G-N DV mode control Event None
CH 0101 X G-N DV a t t mode c o n t r o l Offlon event None
CH 0102 X G-N e n t r y mode c o n t r o l Offlon event None
CH 0103 X Monitor mode control Offlon event None
* CH 1024 V Yaw r a t e -30 t o t 3 0 Q / s e c FDAI
* CH 1025 V Yaw m a n u a l r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l Z e r o I t S VRMS FDAI
* CH 1034 H Y a w pos feedback i n -8.51i-a. 5 vdc None
* CH 1047 V YTV diff c l u t c h volts c o m b -85 t o 4-85 MADC None
CH 1050 V Yaw r a t e e r r o r a m p out - 6 . 2 t o t 6 . 2 vdc FDAI
CH 1067 V Y integratorlatt e r r o r summing - 2 . 5 to t2. 5 Vdc None
-
* CH 1074 V MTVC yaw r a t e TBD None

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM


.
Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.3-71
-
SM2A 03 -SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
-.-

SYSTEMS DATA

~ ~~ ~~

Measurement
Number Description S e n s o r Range C r e w Display
~ ~ ~~

CH 1075 V V yaw SCS a t t e r r o r Z e r o / + 10 VRMS FDAI


* CH 1087 X t Y a w / + X solenoid d r i v e r out Off/on event None
* CH 1088 X - Y a w / t X solenoid d r i v e r out Off/on event None
* CH 1089 X t Y a w / - X solenoid d r i v e r out Offlon event None
* CH 1090 X - Y a w / - X solenoid d r i v e r out Off/on event None
CH 1100 X SCS DV m o d e c o n t r o l Event None
CH 1101 X SCS a t t m o d e c o n t r o l Event None
CH 1102 X SCS e n t r y m o d e c o n t r o l Event None
CH 1103 X SCS l o c a l v e r t i c a l m o d e c o n t r o l Event None
CH 1104 X MTVC m o d e c o n t r o l Event None
* CH 2015 V Combined AG SMRD 0 t o 5 vdc None
* CH 2024 V Roll rate TBD FDAI
* CH 2025 V Roll m a n r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l out Z e r o / t 5 VRMS FDAI
* CH 2026 V Combined RG SMRD - 0 t o t 5 vdc None
* CH 2030 T Combined a t t i t u d e g y r o t e m p 0 to t 5 vdc AGAP
TEMP
LIGHT
CH 2050 V Roll r a t e e r r o r a m p out -6. 2 to t6. 2 vdc FDAI
* CH 2070 V Roll a t t i t u d e e r r o r a m p out -25f-I-25 vdc None
CH 2075 V Roll SCS a t t e r r o r Z e r o / l O VRMS FDAI
* CH 2087 X + R o l l / t Z solenoid d r i v e r out Event None
* Ch 2088 X - R o l l / - Z solenoid d r i v e r out Event None
* Ch 2089 X t R o l l / - Z solenoid d r i v e r out Event None
* CH 2090 X - R o l l / - 2 s s l e n o i d d r i v e r out Event None
* CH 2091 X + R o l l / t Y solenoid d r i v e r out Event None
* CX 2092 X - R o l l / t Y , s o l e n o i d d r i v e r out Event None
* CH 2093 X t R o l l / - Y solenoid d r i v e r out Event None
* C H 2094 X - R o l l / - Y solenoid d r i v e r out Event None
CH 3185 X . 0 5 g Manual switch Event None
* CH 3186 V DV r e m a i n i n g pot out - 3 t o t 1 3 KFPS AV
Counter
CH 4100 H R e s o l v e r s i n out pitch a t t -12 to tl2 VRMS None
CH4101 H R e s o l v e r cos out pitch a t t - 12 to t 12 VRMS None
CH 4102 H R e s o l v e r s i n out yaw att -12 t o t12 VRMS None
CH 4103 H R e s o l v e r c o s out yaw att -12 t o +12 VRMS None
CH 4104 H R e s o l v e r s i n out r o l l a t t -12 t o t12 VRMS None
CH 4105 H R e s o l v e r c o s out r o l l att - 12 to t 12 VRMS None
* CH 4320 X SPS solenoid d r i v e r out 1 Event None
* CH4321 X SPS solenoid d r i v e r out 2 Event None
CG 0 0 0 1 V C o m p u t e r d i g i t a l d a t a 40 b i t s Event Delta V
Display

STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2-3-77


SM2A-03-SCO 1 2
APOL1.0 OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

SECTION 2

SUBSECTION 2 . 4

SERVICE PKOPULSION SYSTEM (SPS)

2.4. 1 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION

T h e s e r v i c e propulsion s u b s y s t e m p r o v i d e s the m a j o r i m p u l s e f o r a l l
m a j o r velocity changes ( A V ' s ) throughout a m i s s i o n , plus the S I M a b o r t
a f t e r the launch e s c a p e tower is jettisoned. T o p e r f o r m this function, the
s u s b y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e s a helium p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s y s t e m , a p r o p e l l a n t f e e d
s y s t e m , a propellant gauging and utilization s y s t e m , and a r o c k e t engine.
T h e o x i d i z e r is nitrogen t e t r o x i d e , a n d the fuel is a blended h y d r a z i n e
( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% u n s y m m e t r i c a l dimethyl h y d r a z i n e a n d 50% anhydrous
hydrazine). T h e p r e s s u r i z i n g g a s i s helium. T h e s u b s y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e s
d i s p l a y s and s e n s i n g d e v i c e s t o p e r m i t ground-based s t a t i o n s and the c r e w
to m o n i t o r i t s operation.

A functional flow d i a g r a m is contained in f i g u r e 2.4-1.

T h e h e l i u m p r e s s u r e is d i r e c t e d to the helium p r e s s u r i z i n g v a l v e s
which i s o l a t e the helium during nonthrusting p e r i o d s , o r allows the helium
to p r e s s u r i z e the fuel a n d o x i d i z e r tanks d u r i n g t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s . T h e
helium p r e s s u r e i s r e d u c e d a t the p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s to a d e s i r e d working
p r e s s u r e . T h e r e g u l a t e d helium p r e s s u r e is d i r e c t e d through c h e c k v a l v e s
that p e r m i t helium flow in the d o w n s t r e a m d i r e c t i o n when the p r e s s u r i z i n g
valves a r e open, a n d p r e v e n t a r e v e r s e flow of p r o p e l l a n t s d u r i n g non-
t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s . T h e h e a t e x c h a n g e r s t r a n s f e r h e a t f r o m the p r o p e l l a n t s
to the helium g a s to r e d u c e any p r e s s u r e e x c u r s i o n s that m a y r e s u l t f r o m a
t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l between the h e l i u m g a s a n d p r o p e l l a n t s i n the tanks.
T h e relief v a l v e s m a i n t a i n the s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y of the propellant tank
s y s t e m s if a n excessive p r e s s u r e r i s e occurs.

T h e total propellant supply is contained within f o u r similar tanks:


a n o x i d i z e r s t o r a g e tank, o x i d i z e r s u m p tank, fuel s t o r a g e tank, and fuel
s u m p tanks. T h e s t o r a g e and s u m p tanks f o r e a c h p r o p e l l a n t s y s t e m a r e
connected i n s e r i e s by a single t r a n s f e r line. T h e r e g u l a t e d helium e n t e r s
into the fuel a n d o x i d i z e r s t o r a g e tank, p r e s s u r i z i n g the s t o r a g e tank
p r o p e l l a n t s , and f o r c e s the propellant to a n outlet i n the s t o r a g e tank which
is d i r e c t e d through a t r a n s f e r line into the r e s p e c t i v e s u m p tank standpipe,
p r e s s u r i z i n g the p r o p e l l a n t s i n the s u m p tank. T h e p r o p e l l a n t in the s u m p
tank is d i r e c t e d to the exit end into a p r o p e l l a n t retention r e s e r v o i r ,
retaining sufficient p r o p e l l a n t s a t the tank o u t l e t s to p e r m i t engine r e s t a r t
capability i n a z e r o g condition. T h e p r o p e l l a n t s exit f r o m the r e s p e c t i v e
s u m p tanks into a s i n g l e line to the h e a t exchanger.

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date Page 2.4-1


SMZA-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

A p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n v a l v e is i n s t a l l e d i n the o x i d i z e r l i n e , and
i s p o w e r e d only d u r i n g SPS t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s . T h e p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n
valve a i d s i n m a i n t a i n i n g the c e n t e r of mass i n a r e l a t i v e l y confined a r e a i n
the Y - Z plane, i n addition to s i m u l t a n e o u s p r o p e l l a n t depletion. T h e
o x i d i z e r supply and f u e l supply a r e connected f r o m the s u m p tank to t h e
engine i n t e r f a c e flange.

T h e p r o p e l l a n t s flow f r o m the p r o p e l l a n t s u m p tank feed through t h e i r


r e s p e c t i v e plumbing to the m a i n p r o p e l l a n t o r i f i c e s and f i l t e r s to the
b i p r o p e l l a n t valve. T h e b i p r o p e l l a n t valve a s s e m b l y c o n t a i n s the m a i n
p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e s t h a t a r e p n e u m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and a l l o w s the p r o p e l l a n t
v a l v e s to d i s t r i b u t e the p r o p e l l a n t s to the engine i n j e c t o r d u r i n g t h r u s t i n g
periods, o r isolates the propellants f r o m the injector during nonthrusting
periods.

T h e engine i n j e c t o r d i s t r i b u t e s t h e p r o p e l l a n t s through o r i f i c e s in the


f a c e of the i n j e c t o r w h e r e the f u e l a n d o x i d i z e r i m p i n g e upon e a c h o t h e r ,
a t o m i z e , and i g n i t e due to h y p e r g o l i c ignition.

T h e a b l a t i v e c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r a b s o r b s the h e a t g e n e r a t e d within
the c h a m b e r . T h e n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n is a t t a c h e d to the a b l a t i v e c h a m b e r and
r a d i a t e s to s p a c e .

T h e engine a s s e m b l y is mounted to the s t r u c t u r e of t h e s e r v i c e module


and is g i m b a l e d to p e r m i t t h r u s t v e c t o r a l i g n m e n t through t h e c e n t e r of m a s s ,
p r i o r .to t h r u s t i n i t i a t i o n and t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l d u r i n g a t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d .
A flight c o m b u s t i o n stability m o n i t o r s y s t e m is employed to m o n i t o r the
engine f o r i n s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s .

P r o p e l l a n t quantity i s m e a s u r e d by two s e p a r a t e s e n s i n g s y s t e m s :
p r i m a r y and a u x i l i a r y . T h e s e n s i n g s y s t e m s a r e p o w e r e d only d u r i n g
t h r u s t - o n p e r i o d s due to the c a p a c i t a n c e and point s e n s o r m e a s u r i n g
techniques. T h e l i n e a r i t y would not p r o v i d e a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e
z e r o g SPS nonthrusting periods.

T h e c o n t r o l of the s u b s y s t e m i s a u t o m a t i c with p r o v i s i o n s f o r m a n u a l
override.

2.4.2 MAJOR COMPONENT /SUBSYSTEM DESCRIPTION.

2.4.2.1 P r e s s u r i z a t i o n Subsystem.

T h e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of two h e l i u m t a n k s , two
h e l i u m p r e s s u r i z i n g v a l v e s , two d u a l p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r a s s e m b l i e s , two
d u a l c h e c k valve a s s e m b l i e s , two p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s , and two h e a t
e x c h a n g e r s . T h e c r i t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s a r e redundant to i n c r e a s e reliability.

SERVICE PROPU&ICJN S Y S T ~ M
page 2.4-2 .
Mission B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change D a t e
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SMZA-03-SC012
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

1' I
I 4

I
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Ji

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F i g u r e 2.4-1. SPS F u n c t i o n a l F l o w D i a g r a m

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


l2 1966 Change Date P a g e 2.4-312.4-4
Mission Basic Date
SM2A-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

-.
SYSTEMS DATA

2.4.2. 1. l,*-
J
Helium T a n k s .
4
?
T h e two helium supply s p h e r i c a l p r e s s u r e v e s s e l s a r e i l o c a t e d i n the
c e n t e r s e c t i o n of the s e r v i c e module. f

2.4.2. 1.2 Helium P r e s s u r i z i n g V a l v e s .

T h e s e two continuous duty s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d v a l v e s ’ a r e n o r m a l l y


c l o s e d to the h e l i u m supply p r e s s u r e . T h e valves a r e e n e r g i z e d open and
s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d . When the helium s w i t c h e s on p a n e l 20 a r e in the
AUTO p o s i t i o n , the v a l v e s a r e e n e r g i z e d and d e - e n e r g i z e d by the t h r u s t
O N - O F F signal. T h e v a l v e s m a y be m a n u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by the c r e w ,
u t i l i z i n g the ON and O F F p o s i t i o n of the h e l i u m s w i t c h e s . E a c h valve i s
c o n t r o l l e d individually by a s e p a r a t e switch on p a n e l 20.

E a c h valve c o n t a i n s a position switch which c o n t r o l s a position


i n d i c a t o r above e a c h switch on p a n e l 20. When a valve i s c l o s e d , the p o s i -
tion switch i s open and the i n d i c a t o r is g r a y ( s a m e c o l o r a s the p a n e l ) .
When a valve is open, the p o s i t i o n switch i s c l o s e d and the i n d i c a t o r h a s
diagonal l i n e s , i n d i c a t i n g the valve i s open.

I n the event of a f a i l u r e i n the a u t o m a t i c m o d e of o p e r a t i o n , the c r e w


m a n u a l l y e n a b l e s the p r e s s u r i z i n g valve o r v a l v e s on p a n e l 20. In the e v e n t
of a p r o b l e m with one of the r e g u l a t i n g u n i t s , the c r e w m a n u a l l y i s o l a t e s the
r e q u i r e d p r e s s u r i z i n g valve.

2.4.2.1. 3 P r e s s u r e Pegulator Assemblies.

P r F s s u r e r e g u l a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by two p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t i n g u n i t s
i n p a r a l l e l , d o w n s t r e a m of e a c h h e l i u m p r e s s u r i z i n g valve. E a c h r e g u l a t o r
unit c o n t a i n s a p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y r e g u l a t o r in s e r i e s , and a p r e s s u r e
s u r g e d a m p e r i n s t a l l e d on the i n l e t to e a c h r e g u l a t i n g unit.

T h e p r i m a r y r e g u l a t o r is n o r m a l l y the c o n t r o l l i n g r e g u l a t o r , while the


s e c o n d a r y is n o r m a l l y open d u r i n g a d y n a m i c flow condition. T h e s e c o n d -
a r y r e g u l a t o r w i l l not b e c o m e a c o n t r o l l i n g r e g u l a t o r until the p r i m a r y ,
due to a p r o b l e m , allows a h i g h e r p r e s s u r e than n o r m a l , and allows the
s e c o n d a r y r e g u l a t o r to function and b e c o m e the c o n t r o l l i n g r e g u l a t o r . A l l
r e g u l a t o r p r e s s u r e s a r e in r e f e r e n c e to a bellows a s s e m b l y t h a t i s vented
to a m b i e n t .

One of the r e g u l a t i n g units i n c o r p o r a t e d i n one of t h e p a r a l l e l p a t h s


i s c o n s i d e r e d the working r e g u l a t o r . T h e r e g u l a t i n g unit i n the r e m a i n i n g
p a r a l l e l path i s n o r m a l l y l o c k e d up when the s y s t e m i s dynamic. T h e
r e g u l a t o r that is n o r m a l l y locked up would not function until the n o r m a l
r e g u l a t o r allowed the r e g u l a t e d h e l i u m p r e s s u r e to d e c r e a s e , due to a
p r o b l e m , and allow t h e n o r m a l l y locked-up r e g u l a t o r to b e c o m e the
functioning r e g u l a t o r .

_.

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


2.4-5
M i s s ion B a s i c Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
SM2A -03-SCO 1 2
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

2.4.2. 1.4 Check Valve A s s e m b l i e s .

E a c h a s s e m b l y c o n t a i n s f o u r independent c h e c k v a l v e s c o n n e c t e d i n a
s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l c o n f i g u r a t i o n which p r o v i d e s added redundancy. T h e c h e c k
v a l v e s will not open until t h e r e i s a 4 - p s i p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l between the
c h e c k valve a s s e m b l y i n l e t and o u t l e t l i n e s .

2.4.2.1.5 H e l i u m P r e s s u r e Relief Valves.

T h e p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s c o n s i s t of a r e l i e f v a l v e , a b u r s t d i a p h r a g m ,
and a f i l t e r .

I n this e v e n t , e x c e s s i v e h e l i u m a n d / o r p r o p e l l a n t v a p o r r u p t u r e s the
b u r s t d i a p h r a g m and the f i l t e r ( f i l t e r is to be a n o n f r a g m e n t a t i o n type) f i l t e r s
any f r a g m e n t a t i o n . T h e r e l i e f valve o p e n s and v e n t s the a p p l i c a b l e s y s t e m
to s p a c e , a n d w i l l c l o s d and r e s e a l a f t e r the e x c e s s i v e p r e s s u r e h a s r e t u r n e d
to t h e o p e r a t i n g l e v e l . T h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m p r o v i d e s a m o r e p o s i t i v e s e a l
of h e l i u m than a r e l i e f valve. T h e f i l t e r p r e v e n t s any f r a g m e n t s f r o m the
d i a p h r a g m f r o m e n t e r i n g the r e l i e f valve s e a t .

A p r e s s u r e b l e e d d e v i c e is i n c o r p o r a t e d between t h e b u r s t d i a p h r a g m
a n d r e l i e f valve. T h e b l e e d valve v e n t s the cavity between t h e b u r s t d i a -
p h r a g m and r e l i e f valve i n the event of any l e a k a g e f r o m the d i a p h r a g m .
T h e b l e e d d e v i c e is n o r m a l l y open and will c l o s e when t h e p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s
up to a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p r e s s u r e .

2.4.2.1.6 Heat Exchangers,

E a c h unit is a l i n e - m o u n t e d , c o u n t e r f l o w h e a t e x c h a n g e r c o n s i s t i n g
of a p o r t i o n of t h e h e l i u m p r e s s u r i z a t i o n line, c o i l e d h e l i c a l l y within an
e n l a r g e d s e c t i o n of the p r o p e l l a n t supply line. T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t c a u s e s
t h e h e l i u m g a s , flowing through t h e c o i l e d line, to a p p r o a c h the t e m p e r a t u r e
of t h e p r o p e l l a n t .

2.4.2.2 ProDellant Subsvstem.

T h i s s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of two f u e l t a n k s ( s t o r a g e and s u m p ) , two


o x i d i z e r t a n k s ( s t o r a g e and s u m p ) , p r o p e l l a n t feed l i n e s , and b i p r o p e l l a n t
v a l v e as s e m bly .
2.4.2.2.1 Propellant Tanks.

T h e total p r o p e l l a n t supply is contained within f o u r h e m i s p h e r i c a l -


domed c y l i n d r i c a l tanks within t h e s e r v i c e module. T h e s t o r a g e tanks a r e
p r e s s u r i z e d f r o m the h e l i u m supply, a n d a n outlet t r a n s f e r s the p r o p e l l a n t
a n d / o r h e l i u m g a s f r o m the s t o r a g e tanks through t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t r a n s f e r
l i n e s to the s u m p tanks. A s t a n d p i p e , i n the s u m p t a n k s , a l l o w s the p r o -
p e l l a n t a n d / o r helium g a s f r o m t h e s t o r a g e tanks to p r e s s u r i z e the s u m p
t a n k s . T h u s , the p r o p e l l a n t s i n the s u m p tanks a r e d i r e c t e d i n the r e t e n t i o n
r e s e r v o i r s , to the outlet, and then to the engine.

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T h e r e t e n t i o n r e s e r v o i r s a r e i n s t a l l e d i n the e x i t end of the s u m p


tanks only. T h e u m b r e l l a p r o p e l l a n t r e t e n t i o n s c r e e n s r e t a i n a quantity
of p r o p e l l a n t i n the exit end of t h e s u m p t a n k s , in addition to r e t a i n i n g
p r o p e l l a n t within the r e t e n t i o n r e s e r v o i r can and i n the plumbing f r o m the
s u m p tank o u t l e t to the b i p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e of t h e S P S engine d u r i n g z e r o g
conditions. An ullage m a n e u v e r m u s t be p e r f o r m e d p r i o r to a t h r u s t - o n
s i g n a l to the SPS engine by the S / M RCS. T h e u l l a g e m a n e u v e r is p e r -
f o r m e d to e n s u r e t h a t no g a s e s a r e r e t a i n e d below o r aft of the r e t e n t i o n
s c r e e n s , i n addition to s e t t l i n g the p r o p e l l a n t s and e n s u r i n g that the
r e t e n t i o n s c r e e n s a r e not damaged.

2.4.2.2.2 Tank Propellant F e e d Lines.

T h e p r o p e l l a n t f e e d l i n e s have flexible bellows a s s e m b l i e s i n s t a l l e d


to p e r m i t a l i g n m e n t of the tank f e e d plumbing to the engine i n t e r f a c e
plumbing.

2.4.2.3 B i p r o p e l l a n t Valve A s s e m b l y .

T h e b i p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of two g a s e o u s n i t r o g e n
(GN2) p r e s s u r e v e s s e l s , two i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s , two GN2 r e g u l a t o r s , t w o
GN2 r e l i e f v a l v e s , f o u r solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s , f o u r a c t u a t o r s , and
eight p r o p e l l a n t b a l l v a l v e s .

2.4.2.3.1 G a s e o u s N i t r o g e n (GN2) P r e s s u r e V e s s e l s .

Two GN2 tanks a r e mounted on the b i p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e a s s e m b l y that


supply p r e s s u r e to t h e i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s . One GN2 tank i s in the p r i m a r y
p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m A and the r e m a i n i n g GN2 tank i s i n the s e c o n d a r y
pneum'atic c o n t r o l s y s t e m B.

2.4.2.3.2 Inj e c t o r Pr e v a l v e s .
T h e i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s a r e two-position s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d v a l v e s ,
one f o r e a c h p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m and i d e n t i f i e d as A and B. T h e
valve i s e n e r g i z e d open and s p r i n g - l o a d e d c l o s e d . T h e i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e
i s opened upon c o m m a n d f r o m the c r e w , p a n e l 3, p r i o r to a n engine
t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d . T h e i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s e n e r g i z e d open allows GN2
supply tank p r e s s u r e to flow to a n o r i f i c e and on i n t o the r e g u l a t o r .

2. 4.2.3.3 GN2 P r e s s u r e R e g u l a t o r s .

A s i n g l e - s t a g e r e g u l a t o r is i n s t a l l e d i n e a c h p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l
s y s t e m between the i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e s and the s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s . T h e
r e g u l a t o r r e d u c e s the supply GN2 p r e s s u r e to a d e s i r e d working p r e s s u r e .

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SYSTEMS DATA

2.4.2.3.4 GN2 Relief Valves.

A p r e s s u r e r e l i e f valve is i n s t a l l e d i n e a c h p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m ,
d o w n s t r e a m of the GN2 p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s , to l i m i t the p r e s s u r e applied
to t h e solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s i n t h e event a GN2 p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r m a l -
functioned open. T h e o r i f i c e , between the i n j e c t o r p r e v a l v e a n d r e g u l a t o r ,
is i n s t a l l e d to r e s t r i c t the flow a n d a l l o w the r e l i e f valve to r e l i e v e the
p r e s s u r e i n event the r e g u l a t o r fails to open, p r e v e n t i n g any d a m a g e to the
solenoid control valves a n d / o r actuators.

2.4.2.3.5 GN2 Solenoid C o n t r o l Valves.

F o u r s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d , t h r e e - w a y , two-position c o n t r o l v a l v e s a r e
u t i l i z e d f o r a c t u a t o r c o n t r o l . Two solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s a r e l o c a t e d
d o w n s t r e a m of the GN2 r e g u l a t o r s i n e a c h p n e u m a t i c c o n t r o l s y s t e m . T h e
two s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s i n the p r i m a r y s y s t e m a r e identified i n 1 and 2 ,
and t h e two i n the s e c o n d a r y s y s t e m a r e identified as 3 a n d 4. T h e two
s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s i n the p r i m a r y s y s t e m c o n t r o l the a c t u a t o r and b a l l
v a l v e s 1 and 2 . T h e two s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s in the s e c o n d a r y s y s t e m
c o n t r o l the a c t u a t o r and b a l l v a l v e s 3 a n d 4. T h e SPS t h r u s t ON-OFF c o m -
m a n d c o n t r o l s the e n e r g i z i n g o r d e - e n e r g i z i n g of a l l f o u r solenoid c o n t r o l
valves.

2.4.2.3.6 GN2 B a l l Valve A c t u a t o r s .

F o u r p i s t o n - t y p e , p n e u m a t i c a l l y o p e r a t e d a c t u a t o r s a r e u t i l i z e d to
c o n t r o l t h e e i g h t p r o p e l l a n t b a l l v a l v e s . E a c h a c t u a t o r p i s t o n is m e c h a n -
i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d t o a p a i r of p r o p e l l a n t b a l l v a l v e s ; one f u e l and one
o x i d i z e r . Wben the solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s a r e opened, p n e u m a t i c p r e s -
s u r e is a p p l i e d to the opening s i d e of the a c t u a t o r s . T h e s p r i n g p r e s s u r e ,
on the c l o s i n g s i d e , i s o v e r c o m e a n d the a c t u a t o r piston m o v e s . Utilizing
a r a c k and pinion g e a r , l i n e a r m o t i o n of the a c t u a t o r connecting a r m i s
c o n v e r t e d i n t o r o t a r y motion, which opens t h e p r o p e l l a n t b a l l valves.
When the engine f i r i n g s i g n a l i s r e m o v e d f r o m the solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s ,
the s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s c l o s e r e m o v i n g p n e u m a t i c p r e s s u r e s o u r c e
f r o m t h e opening s i d e of the a c t u a t o r s . T h e a c t u a t o r c l o s i n g s i d e s p r i n g
p r e s s u r e now f o r c e s the a c t u a t o r p i s t o n to m o v e i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n ,
c a u s i n g the p r o p e l l a n t b a l l valves to c l o s e . T h e p i s t o n m o v e m e n t f o r c e s
the r e m a i n i n g GN2, on the opening s i d e of the a c t u a t o r , b a c k through t h e
solenoid c o n t r o l v a l v e s w h e r e they a r e vented o v e r b o a r d .

2.4.2.3.7 Bipropellant Valves.

T h e e i g h t p r o p e l l a n t b a l l v a l v e s a r e u s e d to d i s t r i b u t e f u e l and
o x i d i z e r to the engine i n j e c t o r a s s e m b l y . F o u r linked p a i r s , e a c h p a i r
c o n s i s t i n g of one f u e l and one o x i d i z e r b a l l valve c o n t r o l l e d by a s i n g l e
a c t u a t o r , a r e a r r a n g e d in a s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l configuration. T h e p a r a l l e l
a r r a n g e m e n t p r o v i d e s redundancy to e n s u r e engine ignition, and the
s e r i e s a r r a n g e m e n t to' e n s u r e t h r u s t t e r m i n a t i o n . When the a c t u a t o r s

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a r e opened, e a c h p r o p e l l a n t b a l l valve is r o t a t e d , t h e r e b y aligning the b a l l


to a p o s i t i o n that allows p r o p e l l a n t s to flow to the engine i n j e c t o r a s s e m b l y .
T h e m e c h a n i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t is s u c h that the o x i d i z e r b a l l v a l v e s m a i n t a i n
a n 8 - d e g r e e l e a d o v e r the f u e l b a l l valves upon opening, which r e s u l t s i n
s m o o t h e r engine s t a r t i n g t r a n s i e n t s . E a c h p a i r of p r o p e l l a n t v a l v e s
i n c o r p o r a t e s a p o t e n t i o m e t e r d r i v e g e a r and housing. E a c h housing c o n t a i n s
two p o t e n t i o m e t e r s that a r e m e c h a n i c a l l y driven: one p r o v i d e s a n e l e c t r i c a l
s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o a v i s u a l indication of valve p o s i t i o n of p a n e l 2 0 , and
the r e m a i n i n g p r o v i d e s a s i g n a l to t e l e m e t r y .

2 . 4 . 2 . 3.8 Engine P r o p e l l a n t L i n e s .

I n t e g r a l p r o p e l l a n t l i n e s a r e utilized, on t h e engine, to r o u t e e a c h
p r o p e l l a n t f r o m the i n t e r f a c e points i n the g i m b a l p l a n e a r e a to the p r o -
p e l l a n t engine gimbaling, o r i f i c e s f o r a d j u s t m e n t of o x i d i z e r / f u e l r a t i o ,
and s c r e e n s f o r keeping p a r t i c l e c o n t a m i n a n t s f r o m e n t e r i n g the engine.

2.4.2.4 Engine I n j e c t o r .

T h e i n j e c t o r is bolted to the a b l a t i v e t h r u s t c h a m b e r a t t a c h pad.


P r o p e l l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n to the i n j e c t o r o r i f i c e s , on the c o m b u s t i o n f a c e of
the i n j e c t o r , is a c c o m p l i s h e d through c o n c e n t r i c annuli m a c h i n e d in the
f a c e of the i n j e c t o r a s s e m b l y and c o v e r e d by c o n c e n t r i c c l o s e o u t r i n g s .
P r o p e l l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n to t h e annuli is a c c o m p l i s h e d through a l t e r n a t e
r a d i a l m a n i f o l d s welded to the b a c k s i d e of the i n j e c t o r body. T h e i n j e c -
t o r is r e g e n e r a t i v e l y cooled a n d baffled to p r o v i d e c o m b u s t i o n stability.
T h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r o r i f i c e s i m p i n g e upon e a c h o t h e r , a t o m i z e , and
i g n i t e due to h y p e r g o l i c r e a c t i o n .

2.4.2.5 Ablative Combustion C h a m b e r .

T h e a b l a t i v e c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r m a t e r i a l extends f r o m the i n j e c t o r
a t t a c h pad to the n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n a t t a c h pad. T h e a b l a t i v e m a t e r i a l
c o n s i s t s of a l i n e r , a l a y e r of insulation, i n t e g r a l m e t a l a t t a c h f l a n g e s f o r
mounting the i n j e c t o r and nozzle e x t e n s i o n , and s t r u c t u r a l o u t e r r e i n f o r c e -
ment. T h e only r e s t r i c t i o n on a r e s t a r t is dependent upon the SPS WALL
T E M P HI caution and w a r n i n g light, on p a n e l 11, m o n i t o r i n g the o u t s i d e
w a l l t e m p e r a t u r e a t the t h r o a t .

2.4.2.6 Nozzle Extension.

T h e b e l l - c o n t o u r e d , n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n is bolted to the a b l a t i v e t h r u s t
c h a m b e r exit a r e a . T h e n o z z l e e x t e n s i o n is r a d i a n t - c o o l e d and c o n t a i n s an
e x t e r n a l s t i f f e n e r to p r o v i d e additional s t r e n g t h .

2.4.2.7 F l i g h t Combustion Stability Monitor (FCSM).

The FCSM i a a n a c c e l e r o m e t e r p a c k a g e , mounted to the SPS engine


i n j e c t o r , to m o n i t o r the engine f o r v i b r a t i o n buildup c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of
c o m b u s t i o n instability.
._

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SYSTEMS DATA

T h e t h r e e a c c e l e r o m e t e r s p r o v i d e s i g n a l s i n t o a n FCSM box a s s e m b l y
which a m p l i f i e s i t and, when the v i b r a t i o n g - l e v e l e x c e e d s 180 g ' s peak to
p e a k f o r 70*20 m i l l i s e c o n d s , a l e v e l d e t e c t o r t r i g g e r s a power switch gating
p o w e r to t h e s u m m i n g logic. T h e stability m o n i t o r w i l l m o n i t o r only i n a
f r e q u e n c y r a n g e w h e r e i n s t a b i l i t y would o c c u r ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 to 5000
cycles p e r second).

T h e s u m m i n g l o g i c , i f t h e r e a r e two o r m o r e rough c o m b u s t i o n
s i g n a l s r e c e i v e d f r o m the n o r m a l l y c l o s e d c o n t a c t s , w i l l open r e m o v i n g
p o w e r f r o m the G&N and SCS d r i v e r logic; and w i l l c l o s e t h e n o r m a l l y open
c o n t a c t s p r o v i d i n g a ground to the S P S ROUGH ECO caution and w a r n i n g
light, on p a n e l 10, i n f o r m i n g the c r e w the S P S engine w a s s h u t down due to
combustion instability.

T h e FCSM t r i g g e r c i r c u i t s will p r o v i d e power to t h e voting logic


r e l a y s continuously o n c e u n s t a b l e c o m b u s t i o n is s e n s e d ; and p o w e r r e m a i n s
a p p l i e d to t h e voting logic r e l a y s even though the engine is shut down,
u n s t a b l e c o m b u s t i o n i s no l o n g e r s e n s e d , and the SPS ROUGH ECO r e m a i n s
illuminated.

When the engine i s s h u t down to u n s t a b l e c o m b u s t i o n and to r e m o v e


power f r o m t h e voting logic r e l a y s , t h e c r e w would p l a c e a n y one of the
following s w i t c h e s to the p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e d to r e s e t t h e FCSM voting logic:
a. AUTO-OVERRIDE s w i t c h e s to OVERRIDE. --<-

b. A V s w i t c h to O F F .
c. ATTITUDE-MONITOR-ENTRY s w i t c h to e i t h e r MONITOR o r
ENTRY.
d. FCSM SCS and G & N s w i t c h e s to RESET/OVERRIDE.

When the FCSM i s r e s e t , t h e S P S ROUGH ECO light on p a n e l 10 will


not be i l l u m i n a t e d .

T h e RESET/OVERRIDE s w i t c h e s , on p a n e l 2 , p r o v i d e a b y p a s s
c a p a b i l i t y of t h e FCSM s y s t e m . With the FCSM RESET/OVERRIDE
s w i t c h e s , on p a n e l 2 , i n the RESET/OVERRIDE position, p o w e r i s not
p r o v i d e d to the FCSM box and s u m m i n g logic a s s e m b l i e s r e n d e r i n g the
FCSM i n o p e r a t i v e as w e l l a s t h e S P S ROUGH E C O c a u t i o n a n d w a r n i n g
light o n p a n e l 10. If u n s t a b l e c o m b u s t i o n o c c u r s , the engine c o n t i n u e s to
thrust.

T h e FCSM box a s s e m b l y and s u m m i n g logic a s s e m b l y r e c e i v e s power


f r o m the SCS through the following s w i t c h e s :
a. Mode s e l e c t s w i t c h to G & N o r SCS m o d e , p a n e l 8.
b. ATTITUDE-MONITOR-ENTRY s w i t c h to ATTITUDE, p a n e l 8.
c. AV s w i t c h to AV p o s i t i o n , p a n e l 8.
d. FCSM G & N , RESET/OVERRIDE s w i t c h to G&N p o s i t i o n , p a n e l 2 .
e. FCSM SCS, R E S E T / O V E R N D E switch to SCS position, p a n e l 2 .

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2.4.2.8 SPS E l e c t r i c a l Heaters.


T w e n t y - s i x e l e c t r i c a l s t r i p h e a t e r s a r e employed on the p r o p e l l a n t
line b r a c k e t s , f u e l and o x i d i z e r h e a t e x c h a n g e r s , p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n
valve, b i p r o p e l l a n t valve a s s e m b l y , and the i n j e c t o r tubes. T h e s e e l e c -
t i r c a l s t r i p h e a t e r s a r e employed to c o n t r o l the t e m p e r a t u r e of the e n t i r e
a f t bulkhead and engine a r e a s , thus the p r o p e l l a n t s .
T h e s t r i p h e a t e r s a r e c o n t r o l l e d as a n o r m a l m a n u a l function of t h e
c r e w , on p a n e l 19 ( f i g u r e 2.4-2), utilizing t h e S P S HEATER switch. T h e
c r e w w i l l p l a c e the switch to position A o r B when the p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r -
a t u r e i n d i c a t o r , on p a n e l 20, r e a d s - 4 0 ° F ( l o w e r r e d line indication) which
is equivalent to a p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e of t40"F. The propellant t e m p e r -
a t u r e r e a d o u t i s d e r i v e d f r o m the engine f u e l - f e e d line m e a s u r e m e n t
( f i g u r e 2.4-1). T h e c r e w w i l l p l a c e the S P S HEATER switch to O F F when
the p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d i c a t o r , on p a n e l 20, r e a d s t 8 0 ' F ( u p p e r r e d
line indication) which is equivalent to a p r o p e l l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e of t 1 2 0 " 1 .

Propellant Temperature Comparison

P r o p e l l a n t T e m p e r a t u r e I n d i c a t o r R e a d i n g 'F

-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 t20 t40 t6O t80 tl00 t120 t140 t160 t180 t2OO

to t13.33 t26.67 t40 t53.34 t66.67 t80 t93.34 t106.67 tl2O t133.34 t146.67 t160 t173.34 t186.67 t2OO

When the SPS HEATER s w i t c h is p l a c e d to p o s i t i o n A, all 26 h e a t i n g


e l e m e n t s (A) w i l l r e c e i v e 28 vdc. When the SPS HEATER s w i t c h i s placed to
p o s i t i o n B, a l l 26 heating e l e m e n t s (B) w i l l r e c e i v e 2 8 vdc. T h e O F F p o s i -
tion of the SPS HEATER switch r e m o v e s a l l e l e c t r i c a l p o w e r f r o m the SPS
heating elements.
2.4.2.9 T h r u s t Mount A s s e m b l i e s .
T h e t h r u s t m o u n t a s s e m b l y c o n s i s t s of a g i m b a l r i n g , engine-to-
v e h i c l e mounting p a d s , and g i m b a l r i n g - t o - c o m b u s t i o n c h a m b e r a s s e m b l y
s u p p o r t s . T h e t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e is c a p a b l e of providing 1 8 . 5 d e g r e e s
i n c l i n a t i o n about the Z-axis and *7.5 d e g r e e s about t h e Y - a x i s .
2.4.2.9.1 G i m b a l Actuator.
T h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l of the s e r v i c e p r o p u l s i o n engine i s a c h i e v e d by
dual- , s e r v o - , electro-mechanical actuators. The gimbal actuators a r e
c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g c o n t r o l a r o u n d the Z - Z a x i s (yaw) of 7 ( t 1 / 2 , - 0 )
d e g r e e s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n f r o m a t 4 - d e g r e e null offset, and a r o u n d the
Y - Y a x i s (pitch) of 6 ( + 1 / 2 , - 0 ) d e g r e e s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n f r o m a z e r o -
d e g r e e null offset. T h e r e a s o n f o r the 4 - d e g r e e o f f s e t to t h e t Y a x i s is
due to the offset c e n t e r of m a s s i n the s p a c e c r a f t .

E a c h a c t u a t o r a s s e m b l y ( f i g u r e 2.4-3) c o n s i s t s of f o u r e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c
p a r t i c l e c l u t c h e s , two d - c m o t o r s , a b u l l g e a r , j a c k s c r e w and r a m , b a l l
nut, f o u r l i n e a r p o s i t i o n t r a n s d u c e r s , and two velocity g e n e r a t o r s . T h e
a c t u a t o r a s s e m b l y i s a s e a l e d unit and e n c l o s e t h o s e p o r t i o n s p r o t r u d i n g
f r o m the m a i n housing.

Mission B a s i c Date
SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

l2 1966 Change Date


.
page 2.4-11
SMZA -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

----T

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SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


M i s s ion Basic Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date page 2 . 4 - 1 2
SM2A -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

- SYSTEMS DATA

F i g u r e 2.4-3. SPS E l e c t r o - M e c h a n i c a l G i m b a l A c t u a t o r
One m o t o r a n d a p a i r of c l u t c h e s ( e x t e n d a n d r e t r a c t ) a r e i d e n t i f i e d
a s s y s t e m No. 1, and t h e r e m a i n i n g m o t o r a n d p a i r of c l u t c h e s ( e x t e n d and
r e t r a c t ) a r e identified a s s y s t e m No. 2 within t h e s p e c i f i c a c t u a t o r .
An o v e r and u n d e r c u r r e n t r e l a y is e m p l o y e d f o r e a c h p r i m a r y g i m b a l
m o t o r ( f i g u r e 2.4-4), and is c o n t r o l l e d individually by a switch on p a n e l 3 .
When t h e p r i m a r y GIMBAL MOTORS s w i t c h e s a r e p l a c e d to t h e START
p o s i t i o n , p o w e r is a p p l i e d to t h e m o t o r - d r i v e n switch within t h e over and
u n d e r c u r r e n t r e l a y of the p r i m a r i e s . T h e m o t o r s w i t c h then s u p p l i e s p o w e r
f r o m t h e m a i n b u s A to the g i m b a l m o t o r . When t h e s w i t c h is r e l e a s e d , i t
s p r i n g - l o a d s to t h e ON p o s i t i o n which a c t i v a t e s the o v e r and u n d e r c u r r e n t
s e n s i n g c i r c u i t r y of the p r i m a r y r e l a y which m o n i t o r s t h e c u r r e n t to the
gimbal motor.

T h e o v e r and u n d e r c u r r e n t r e l a y of the p r i m a r i e s a r e u t i l i z e d to
m o n i t o r the c u r r e n t to t h e g i m b a l m o t o r due to t h e v a r i a b l e c u r r e n t flow
to t h e g i m b a l m o t o r t h a t is dependent upon t h e g i m b a l a n g l e change r e q u i r e d .

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date Page 2.4-13


SM2A -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

Using No. 1 yaw s y s t e m as a n e x a m p l e , and identifying the u p p e r


m o t o r and c l u t c h e s in f i g u r e 2.4-3 a s s y s t e m No. 1 , the o p e r a t i o n of the
c u r r e n t m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m is as follows:
a. If t h e r e l a y s e n s e s a n o v e r o r u n d e r c u r r e n t to g i m b a l m o t o r No. 1,
the m o n i t o r c i r c u i t r y within t h e r e l a y will d r i v e the m o t o r - d r i v e n switch,
r e m o v i n g p o w e r f r o m g i m b a l m o t o r No. 1.
b. S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a f a i l s e n s e s i g n a l is s e n t f r o m t h e r e l a y , the SCS,
which opens r e l a y K13 r e m o v i n g inputs f r o m the No. 1 c l u t c h e s a n d c l o s e s
r e l a y K14 applying inputs to the No. 2 c l u t c h e s within the s a m e a c t u a t o r ;
and the top c o n t a c t of K12 opens and t h e bottom c o n t a c t of K12 c l o s e s f o r
TVC m o n i t o r .
c. S i m u l t a n e o u s l y a s i g n a l is s e n t to i l l u m i n a t e a caution and w a r n i n g
light on p a n e l 11, to i n d i c a t e the p r i m a r y g i m b a l m o t o r h a s failed.

T h e p r i m a r y s w i t c h e s on p a n e l 3 a r e then p l a c e d i n t h e O F F position.
N o r m a l l y the OFF p o s i t i o n is u s e d to s h u t down the g i m b a l m o t o r s upon
the c o m p l e t i o n of a t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d .

T h e No. 2 s y s t e m s employ a 7 0 - a m p c i r c u i t b r e a k e r t h a t is located


in the s e r v i c e m o d u l e n e a r the SPS power d i s t r i b u t i o n box.

Using No. 2 yaw s y s t e m as an e x a m p l e ( f i g u r e 2.4-4), the o p e r a t i o n


of t h e c u r r e n t m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m is a s follows:
a. When the s e c o n d a r y GIMBAL MOTORS s w i t c h e s a r e p l a c e d to the
START p o s i t i o n , p o w e r is applied to the m o t o r - d r i y e n s w i t c h within the
o v e r and u n d e r c u r r e n t r e l a y of the s e c o n d a r i e s . The m o t o r switch then
s u p p l i e s p o w e r f r o m the m a i n b u s B through t h e 7 0 - a m p c i r c u i t b r e a k e r ,
and t h r o u g h the m o t o r - d r i v e n s w i t c h to the s e c o n d a r y g i m b a l m o t o r .
b. When the s e c o n d a r y s w i t c h is r e l e a s e d , i t s p r i n g - l o a d s to the ON
p o s i t i o n w h i c h ' p e r f o r m s no functions on the s e c o n d a r i e s .
c. T h e 7 0 - a m p c i r c u i t b r e a k e r will m o n i t o r the c u r r e n t to the s e c o n d a r y
g i m b a l m o t o r ; and i f a c u r r e n t of 70 a m p s i s s e n s e d , the c i r c u i t b r e a k e r in
the s e r v i c e m o d u l e w i l l r e m o v e p o w e r f r o m the s e c o n d a r y g i m b a l m o t o r .
d. T h e r e is no f a i l s e n s e s i g n a l s e n t to the s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l
s y s t e m , a n d no i l l u m i n a t i o n of the c a u t i o n and w a r n i n g light on p a n e l 11 f r o m
the s e c o n d a r y s y s t e m .
e. If the No. 2 s y s t e m h a s f a i l e d due to a n o v e r c u r r e n t , the c i r c u i t
b r e a k e r r e m o v e s power f r o m g i m b a l m o t o r No. 2 only, a n d t h a t s p e c i f i c
a c t u a t o r i s i n o p e r a t i v e i f the No. 1 s y s t e m h a s p r e v i o u s l y failed.

T h e s e c o n d a r y s w i t c h e s on p a n e l 3 a r e then p l a c e d to O F F position.
N o r m a l l y , t h e O F F p o s i t i o n is u s e d to s h u t down the g i m b a l m o t o r s upon the
c o m p l e t i o n of a t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d .

T h e c l u t c h e s a r e of a m a g n e t i c p a r t i c l e type. T h e g i m b a l m o t o r d r i v e
g e a r m e s h e s with the g e a r on the c l u t c h housing. T h e g e a r s on e a c h
c l u t c h housing m e s h and as a r e s u l t , the clutch housings c o u n t e r r o t a t e .
T h e c u r r e n t input is applied to the e l e c t r o - m a g n e t mounted to the r o t a t i n g
c l u t c h housing f r o m the s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m o r i n the guidance and
navigation s y s t e m through the s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m . A q u i e s c e n t

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


I

INPUTS ENGINE
IGNITION

Tvc No. 1
POWER I I L1'v'l'Ln I

Tvc .
MONlTOR
TO SCS
INTEGRATOR
PANEL 6

lV GIMBAL
TRIM
THUMBWHEEL
1 ROTATION CONTROL
1 ANDRATECAGE

Tvc No. 2 CURRENT GENERATOR


POWER LIMITER
SWITCH
PANEL 24

K9 CONTROLLED BY SPS THRUSI ON4FF LOGIC


K10. K11. K12. K13 AND K14 YIOVvN PRIOR TO GIMBAL MOTOR STAR1

I F THE OVER AND UNDER CURRENT RELAY FOR YAW GIMBAL


MOTOR NO. 1 SENYS AN OVER OR UNDER CURRENT, THE
REMY SIGNAL OPENS K13 TO CLUTCHES, K13 TOP CONTACT
+!+El CLUTCH

OPENS LOWER CLOSES FOR TLM, K13 CLOSES TO CLUTCHES,


K1Z TOP CONTACT OPENS, LOWER CLOSES.

K10. K11. K13 and K14 ARE ALW CONTROLLED BY CLOCKWISE


ROTATION OF TRANSLATION CONTROL WITH DaTA V MODE SELECTED
CM IW
REFERRED TO AS MANUM THRUST VfCTOR CONTROL
I

Missi
. : ;-. . . .
.-. .
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

OVER UNDER
sM I CAUTION AND
WARNING
PANEL 11

I,,----

------

--

I I SM-2A-1079

Figure 2.4-4. SPS Yaw Gimbal Actuator Motor and Clutch Control

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


Ba s ic_,Date l 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2 . 4 - 1 5 / 2 . 4 - 1 6
M i s s ion
SMZA -03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

c u r r e n t i s applied to the e l e c t r o - m a g n e t of the extend and r e t r a c t clutches


when the t h r u s t v e c t o r POWER s w i t c h e s , on panel 24, a r e on, which
p r e v e n t s the engine f r o m moving during the boost p h a s e of the m i s s i o n with
the g i m b a l m o t o r s O F F . A 246 foot-pound f o r c e would be r e q u i r e d on the
engine to o v e r c o m e the q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t (equivalent to 1.53 g) in the
clutches. T h e g i m b a l m o t o r s will be t u r n e d on, p r i o r to jettisoning the
launch e s c a p e t o w e r , to s u p p o r t the S P S a b o r t c r i t e r i a a f t e r the launch
e s c a p e t o w e r h a s been j e t t i s o n e d , a n d will be t u r n e d O F F a s soon a s p o s s i b l e
to r e d u c e the h e a t p r o b l e m that o c c u r s due to the g i m b a l m o t o r s d r i v i n g the
clutch housings. With q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t applied, i t c r e a t e s a f r i c t i o n f o r c e
in the clutch housing that c r e a t e s h e a t , which i f allowed t o rise t o a high
t e m p e r a t u r e the e l e c t r o - magnet would l o o s e i t s m a g n e t i s m capability; thus
r e n d e r i n g that s e t of clutches inoperative. T h i s p r o b l e m o c c u r s only d u r i n g
boost, not d u r i n g the n o r m a l S P S b u r n s .

P r i o r to any t h r u s t i n g p e r i o d s the thumbwheels on panel 6 c a n be u s e d


to position the engine. T h e t h r u s t - o n s i g n a l m a y b e provided by the G & N
through the SCS, o r by SCS only. In e i t h e r m o d e the c u r r e n t input r e q u i r e d
( t o m a i n t a i n the engine t h r u s t v e c t o r through the c e n t e r of m a s s ) to the
c l u t c h e s will i n c r e a s e above the q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t which i n c r e a s e s the
c u r r e n t i n the e l e c t r o - m a g n e t s that a r e rotating with the clutch housings.
T h e d r y powder m a g n e t i c p a r t i c l e s have the ability to b e c o m e m a g n e t i z e d
v e r y r e a d i l y a s w e l l as becoming demagnetized as readily. T h e m a g n e t i c
p a r t i c l e s i n c r e a s e the f r i c t i o n f o r c e between the rotating housing a n d the
flywheel, c a u s i n g the flywheel to r o t a t e . T h e flywheel a r r a n g e m e n t i s
a t t a c h e d t o the clutch output s h a f t allowing the clutch s h a f t to d r i v e the bull
g e a r . T h e bull g e a r d r i v e s a b a l l nut which d r i v e s the a c t u a t o r j a c k - s h a f t
to a n extend or r e t r a c t position, depending upon which clutch housing
e l e c t r o y m a g n e t the c u r r e n t input is supplied to. T h e l a r g e r the excitation
c u r r e n t , the h i g h e r the clutch shaft r o t a t i o n r a t e .

M e s h e d with the b a l l nut pinion g e a r a r e two r a t e t r a n s d u c e r s of the


t a c h o m e t e r type. When the ball nut is rotated, the r a t e t r a n s d u c e r s u p p l i e s
a feedback into the s u m m i n g network of the t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l Logic to
c o n t r o l the d r i v i n g r a t e s of the j a c k s c r e w ( a c t i n g as a dynamic b r a k e to
p r e v e n t o v e r o r u n d e r c o r r e c t i n g ) , one t r a n s d u c e r f o r e a c h s y s t e m .

T h e j a c k s c r e w contains f o u r position t r a n s d u c e r s , all a r r a n g e d f o r


l i n e a r m o t i o n a n d a l l connected t o a s i n g l e yoke. One of the position t r a n s -
d u c e r s is u s e d to provide a feedback t o the s u m m i n g network of t r a n s d u c e r
feedback. The two feedbacks to the s u m m i n g network r e d u c e the output
c u r r e n t to the clutch, r e s u l t i n g i n a p r o p o r t i o n a l r a t e change to the d e s i r e d
g i m b a l a n g l e position and r e t u r n s to a q u i e s c e n t c u r r e n t .

One position t r a n s d u c e r p r o v i d e s a s i g n a l to the v i s u a l display on


panel 6. One of the position t r a n s d u c e r s p r o v i d e s a f e e d b a c k to the redundant
s u m m i n g network of the t h r u s t v e c t o r logic f o r the redundant clutches. T h e
r e m a i n i n g position t r a n s d u c e r is not p r e s e n t l y utilized.

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


2.4-17
Mission B a s i c Date 1 2 Nov 1966 Changc Date Page
SMZA-03-SC012
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK
_-
SYSTEMS DATA

T h e s p a c e c r a f t d e s i r e d motion, thumbwheel positioning, engine n o z z l e


p o s i t i o n , t h r u s t v e c t o r p o s i t i o n , g i m b a l p o s i t i o n d i s p l a y i n d i c a t o r and a c t u -
a t o r r a m m o v e m e n t is identified i n f i g u r e 2. 4-5.

A snubbing d e v i c e p r o v i d e s a h a r d s t o p f o r a n additional I - d e g r e e
t r a v e l beyond the n o r m a l g i m b a l l i m i t s .

Manual t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l m a y be obtained by the c r e w p l a c i n g the


t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l c l o c k w i s e . T h i s w i l l open c o n t a c t s K10 and K13 and
c l o s e c o n t a c t s K11 and K14, allowing the r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l to p r o v i d e the
c r e w with m a n u a l t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l .

2.4.2.10 P r o p e l l a n t Utilization and Gauging S u b s y s t e m (PUGS).

T h e s u b s y s t e m c o n s i s t s of eight p r o p e l l a n t quantity s e n s o r s , a p r o -
p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n v a l v e , a c o n t r o l unit, and a d i s p l a y unit ( f i g u r e s 2.4-6
and 2.4-7).

2.4.2. 10. 1 Quantity Sensing, Computing, and Indicating S y s t e m .

P r o p e l l a n t quantity i s m e a s u r e d by two s e p a r a t e s e n s i n g s y s t e m s :
p r i m a r y and a u x i l i a r y . T h e p r i m a r y quantity s e n s o r s a r e c y l i n d r i c a l
c a p a c i t a n c e p r o b e s , mounted a x i a l l y i n e a c h tank. I n t h e o x i d i z e r t a n k s ,
t h e p r o b e s c o n s i s t of a p a i r of c o n c e n t r i c e l e c t r o d e s with o x i d i z e r u s e d as
t h e d i e l e c t r i c . I n the f u e l t a n k s , a p y r e x g l a s s p r o b e , c o a t e d with s i l v e r
on t h e i n s i d e , is u s e d as one conductor of the c a p a c i t o r . F u e l on the out-
s i d e of t h e p r o b e i s the o t h e r c o n d u c t o r . T h e p y r e x g l a s s itself f o r m s t h e
d i e l e c t r i c . T h e a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m u t i l i z e s point s e n s o r s mounted a t i n t e r v a l s
a l o n g t h e p r i m a r y p r o b e s to p r o v i d e a s t e p function i m p e d a n c e change
when t h e liquid l e v e l p a s s e s t h e i r l o c a t i o n c e n t e r l i n e .

P r i m a r y p r o p e l l a n t m e a s u r e m e n t i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by the p r o b e s
c a p a c i t a n c e being a l i n e a r function of p r o p e l l a n t height.

A u x i l i a r y p r o p e l l a n t m e a s u r e m e n t is a c c o m p l i s h e d by l o c a t i n g the
p r o p e l l a n t l e v e l with point s e n s o r s . E a c h point s e n s o r c o n s i s t s of c o n -
c e n t r i c m e t a l r i n g s , s e v e n in the s t o r a g e tanks and eight i n the s u m p t a n k s .
T h e r i n g s p r e s e n t a v a r i a b l e i m p e d a n c e , depending on w h e t h e r they a r e
c o v e r e d o r u n c o v e r e d by the p r o p e l l a n t s . When the p r o p e l l a n t s a r e between
point s e n s o r s , the p r o p e l l a n t s r e m a i n i n g a r e i n t e g r a t e d by a r a t e flow
g e n e r a t o r which i n t e g r a t e s the s e r v o s a t a r a t e p r o p o r t i o n a l to the n o r m a l
flow r a t e of the f u e l and o x i d i z e r . A m o d e s e l e c t o r s e n s e s when the p r o -
p e l l a n t c r o s s e s a s e n s o r and c h a n g e s t h e a u x i l i a r y s e r v o s f r o m the flow
r a t e g e n e r a t o r m o d e to the position m o d e , t h e s y s t e m m o v e s to the location
s p e c i f i e d by t h e d i g i t a l - t o - a n a l o g c o n v e r t e r f o r 3 / 4 second to c o r r e c t f o r
any d i f f e r e n c e . T h e s y s t e m then r e t u r n s t o the flow r a t e g e n e r a t o r m o d e
until t h e next point s e n s o r is r e a c h e d . F i g u r e s 2. 4 - 8 and 2 . 4 - 9 i l l u s t r a t e
p o i n t s e n s o r l o c a t i o n s t h a t a r e c o v e r e d by p r o p e l l a n t s . T h e nonsequential
p a t t e r n d e t e c t o r functions to d e t e c t f a l s e o r faulty s e n s o r s i g n a l s . If a
s e n s o r h a s failed, the i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h a t s e n s o r i s blocked f r o m t h e
s y s t e m , p r e v e n t i n g d i s r u p t i o n of s y s t e m computation.

B a s i c Date
SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM
12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page
.
2.4-18
Mission
SMZA -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

--
SYSTEMS DATA

-
VI
W

E:

- -
V
VI
V
m
0
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m
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W W
EE

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

M i s s ion B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.4-19


SM2A-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

When a THRUST-ON s i g n a l is p r o v i d e d with the SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h


i n the PRIMARY o r NORMAL position, the c r e w d i s p l a y digital r e a d o u t s ,
and u n b a l a n c e d i s p l a y w i l l not change f o r 4 . 5 i 1 . 0 s e c o n d s to allow f o r
p r o p e l l a n t settling. However, T L M w i l l r e c e i v e t h e s a m e s i g n a l a s upon
c o m p l e t i o n of t h e l a s t f i r i n g a f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y one s e c o n d of SPS THRUST-
ON.

When the THRUST-ON s i g n a l is p r o v i d e d wi'th the SENSOR s e l e c t


s w i t c h i n AUXILIARY position, t h e c r e w d i s p l a y digital r e a d o u t s and TLM
will r e c e i v e a change in i n f o r m a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y which i s g e n e r a t e d f r o m
a flow r a t e i n t e g r a t o r t h a t s i m u l a t e s t h e n o m i n a l flow r a t e and t r a n s m i t s
this a s quantity i n f o r m a t i o n to the c r e w d i s p l a y s and TLM. T h e c r e w
d i g i t a l r e a d o u t s , unbalance d i s p l a y , and T L M will not be updated to the
p r o p e l l a n t f r o m a point s e n s o r f o r 4 . 5 i l . O s e c o n d s a f t e r THRUST-ON.
When the THRUST-ON s i g n a l is p r o v i d e d p l u s 4. 5 i l . O s e c o n d s , i f a point
s e n s o r is u n c o v e r e d the c r e w digital r e a d o u t s , unbalance d i s p l a y , a n d T L M
w i l l b e updated to the p r o p e l l a n t r e m a i n i n g a t t h a t point s e n s o r . The t i m e
d e l a y of 4 . 5 i 1 . 0 s e c o n d s is to t h e point s e n s o r s y s t e m and not to the
a u x i l i a r y f u e l and o x i d i z e r s e r v o s , and is to allow f o r p r o p e l l a n t settling.

Any d e v i a t i o n f r o m the n o m i n a l o x i d i z e r to f u e l r a t i o (2: 1 by m a s s ) is


d i s p l a y e d i n pounds by the UNBALANCE i n d i c a t o r . The u p p e r half of the
i n d i c a t o r i s m a r k e d INC, and t h e l o w e r half is m a r k e d DEC to identify the
r e q u i r e d c h a n g e i n o x i d i z e r flow r a t e to c o r r e c t any unbalance condition.

When the SENSOR s e l e c t switch is i n t h e NORMAL position, t h e


outputs of both s e n s o r s y s t e m s a r e continually c o m p a r e d i n the c o m p a r a t o r
network. If a d i s c r e p a n c y o c c u r s between total p r i m a r y and total a u x i l i a r y
f u e l of 300 poynds, o r a d i s c r e p a n c y between total p r i m a r y o x i d i z e r and
a u x i l i a r y o x i d i z e r of 300 pounds, the caution and warning i n d i c a t o r on
p a n e l 11 is i l l u m i n a t e d . T h e output of the o x i d i z e r s u m p tank s e r v o
a m p l i f i e r and t h e p r i m a r y p o t e n t i o m e t e r of the unbalance i n d i c a t o r a r e
c o m p a r e d i n the c o m p a r a t o r n e t w o r k , and i f 300 pounds o r 90 p e r c e n t of
the c r i t i c a l u n b a l a n c e i n d i c a t e d v e r s u s t i m e r e m a i n i n g i s r e a c h e d
( f i g u r e 2 . 4 - l o ) , t h e c a u t i o n and w a r n i n g light on p a n e l 11 is illuminated.

With t h e SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h i n the PRIMARY position, the output


of t h e o x i d i z e r s u m p tank s e r v o a m p l i f i e r and the output of the p r i m a r y
p o t e n t i o m e t e r i n the unbalance m e t e r a r e c o m p a r e d i n the c o m p a r a t o r
n e t w o r k and if 300 pounds o r 90 p e r c e n t of t h e c r i t i c a l unbalance i n d i c a t e d
v e r s u s t i m e r e m a i n i n g is r e a c h e d , the caution and warning light on p a n e l 1 1
is illuminated.

With the SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h i n the AUXILIARY position, the output


of the a u x i l i a r y o x i d i z e r s e r v o a m p l i f i e r and the output of the a x u i l i a r y
p o t e n t i o m e t e r a r e c o m p a r e d in the c o m p a r a t o r network, and i f 300 pounds
o r 90 p e r c e n t of the c r i t i c a l unbalance i n d i c a t e d v e r s u s t i m e r e m a i n i n g i s
r e a c h e d ( f i g u r e 2.4- l o ) , the caution and w a r n i n g light on p a n e l 11 is
illuminated.

SERVICE'IPROPU-L$ION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c D a t e y 1 2 Nov 1966 Change Date Page 2.4-20


S P S Q U A N T I T Y SENSING, COMPUTING
P R I W A Q Y WC PJMP
PRM Nc 2 TANK

.io nu
1416% 0
CAPACIlANCt
PROllt F U U No. I

I
SYSTEMS DATA

1~ AND INDICATING SYSTEM

I
I I

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I i 1 I I I

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Figure 2 . 4 - 6 . SPS Quantity Sensing, Computing and Indicating S y s t e m

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


B a s i c Date 12 Nov 1966 Change Date
SMZA - 0 3 -SCO 12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

M
rd
L4
a
I F:

I
1 - N' 4
rd

0
k
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d
0
u

d
0
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4
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Y
c
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Q
a
0
k
P4.

N
a,
k
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M
..+
6(
SMZA-03-SC012
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS D A T A

AUXILIARY FUEL POINT SENSORS

USEABLE
NE1
POUNDS

INDICATED FUEL POUNDS

SM-?A-1110

F i g u r e 2.4-8. Auxiliary Fuel Point S e n s o r s

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l 2 1966 Change Date page 2.4-24


SMZA -03-SCO12
A P O L L O OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

AUXILIARY OXIDIZER POINT SENSORS

&ABLE
OXIDIZER
POUNDS

. . ~ . .--. .

.... - ..

200 600 IO00 1400 le00 2200 2600 3OOO 3400 3800 4x)O 4600 5ooo 5400 5800 6200

INDICATED OXIDIZER POUNDS

bM-2A-IIOP

F i g u r e 2.4-9. Auxiliary Oxidizer P o i n t S e n s o r s

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date page 2.4-25


SM2A-03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

COMPARATOR U N I T PROVIDES OUTPUT


T O SPS PU SNSR FAIL STATUS I N D I C A T O R
(MDC-11) FOR UNBALANCE C O N D I T I O N S
IN THIS R E G I O N .

100% 80% 60% I


I
40% 20% i 0%
I
I 17%
STORAGE TANK 1 SUMP TANK
I
I
a
'

OXIDIZER R E M A I N I N G -
PERCENTAGE O F TOTAL
CAPACITY

SM-244-899
F i g u r e 2 . 4 - 10. P r o p e l l a n t Unbalance Warning S y s t e m Output C h a r t

Once t h e w a r n i n g light is i l l u m i n a t e d , the c r e w c a n d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r


t h e r e is a m a l f u n c t i o n within t h e quantity and indicating s y s t e m s o r i f t h e r e
is a t r u e u n b a l a n c e condition e x i s t i n g by u s e of the s e l f - t e s t p o r t i o n of the
s y s t e m . By o b s e r v i n g the r e s p o n s e of e a c h s y s t e m i n conjunction with the
T E S T s w i t c h on p a n e l 20, the c r e w c a n r e c o g n i z e the malfunction o r
d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e is a t r u e unbalance existing.

2 . 4 . 2 . 10.2 Quantity Computing and Indicating S y s t e m T e s t .

A t e s t of the s e n s i n g s y s t e m s excluding the point s e n s o r s and p r o b e s


c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d d u r i n g THRUST-ON o r -OFF p e r i o d s .

With t h e SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h i n P R I M A R Y and the T E S T switch i n


the TEST U P p o s i t i o n , the t e s t s t i m u l i is a p p l i e d to the p r i m a r y s y s t e m
tank s e r v o a m p l i f i e r s a f t e r a 4 . 5 k l . O s e c o n d delay. A t this t i m e , the t e s t
s t i m u l i w i l l d r i v e the f u e l and o x i d i z e r d i s p l a y s to an i n c r e a s e r e a d i n g a t

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


Mission B a s i c Date l2 1966 Change Date page 2.4-26
SM2A-03-SCO 12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

d i f f e r e n t r a t e s ( o x i d i z e r a t a r a t e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 digits p e r s e c o n d and
f u e l a t a r a t e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 . 5 digits p e r s e c o n d ) , r e s u l t i n g i n a n
unbalance and i n d i c a t e d on t h e unbalance d i s p l a y as a n INC ( c l o c k w i s e
rotation). T L M would r e c e i v e a n i n c r e a s e i n p r o p e l l a n t quantity f r o m the
p r i m a r y system simultaneously.

P l a c i n g t h e TEST switch i n t h e TEST DOWN position, and a f t e r a


4. 5*1.0-second d e l a y , will p r o v i d e t e s t s t i m u l i to the tank s e r v o a m p l i f i e r s
which w i l l d r i v e t h e f u e l and o x i d i z e r d i s p l a y s t o a d e c r e a s e r e a d i n g ,
r e t u r n i n g the c r e w d i s p l a y s c l o s e to t h e r e a d i n g d i s p l a y e d p r i o r to
T E S T U P , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y T L M would r e c e i v e a d e c r e a s e in p r o p e l l a n t
quantity. If the TEST s w i t c h w a s a g a i n p l a c e d to T E S T DOWN, a f t e r a
4.5rtl. 0 - s e c o n d d e l a y , the f u e l and o x i d i z e r c r e w d i s p l a y r e a d o u t s would
d r i v e to a d e c r e a s e r e a d i n g a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s r e s u l t i n g i n a n unbalance
and i n d i c a t e d on the unbalance d i s p l a y a s a DEC ( c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n ) .
T L M would r e c e i v e a d e c r e a s e i n p r o p e l l a n t quantity s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . To
r e t u r n to the r e a d i n g d i s p l a y e d p r i o r to t h e second T E S T DOWN, p l a c e the
T E S T switch to TEST U P and a f t e r a 4. -1.0-second delay, the c r e w dis-
p l a y s would r e t u r n c l o s e to the o r i g i n a l d i s p l a y e d r e a d i n g s , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y
T L M r e c e i v e s an i n c r e a s e i n p r o p e l l a n t quantity.

T o t e s t the a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m , p l a c e the SENSOR s e l e c t s w i t c h to


AUXILIARY and u t i l i z e the T E S T switch up and down p o s i t i o n s . T h e r e is no
t i m e delay involved with the a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m .

T h e AUTO p o s i t i o n r e m o v e s the e l e c t r i c a l t e s t s t i m u l i inputs.

2.4.2.10.3 P r o p e l l g n t Utilization Valve.

If an unbalance condition e x i s t s , the c r e w will u s e the p r o p e l l a n t


u t i l i z a t i o n valve to r e t u r n the p r o p e l l a n t s to a b a l a n c e d condition. T h e
p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n v a l v e housing c o n t a i n s two sliding g a t e v a l v e s within
the housing. One of the sliding g a t e v a l v e s i s t h e p r i m a r y and the r e m a i n -
ing is the s e c o n d a r y ( f i g u r e 2.4-7).

Stops a r e p r o v i d e d within t h e v a l v e housing f o r the full i n c r e a s e o r


d e c r e a s e p o s i t i o n s of the p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y sliding g a t e valves.

T h e s e c o n d a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve h a s twice the t r a v e l of the


p r i m a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n valve to c o m p e n s a t e f o r p r i m a r y p r o p e l l a n t
u t i l i z a t i o n valve f a i l u r e in any position. T h e s e c o n d a r y valve i s s e l e c t e d
by the VALVE switch and i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e OXIDIZER F L O W s w i t c h i n
the s a m e m a n n e r a s the p r i m a r y .

T h e p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n v a l v e c o n t r o l s a r e on p a n e l 20. T h e VALVE
switch s e l e c t s the p r i m a r y or s e c o n d a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i a a t i o n valve.
N o r m a l position of the VALVE s w i t c h is PRIMARY. T h e OXIDIZER FLOW
s w i t c h is u t i l i z e d to p o s i t i o n the p r i m a r y o r s e c o n d a r y p r o p e l l a n t u t i l i z a t i o n

SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM


SMZA -03-SCO12
APOLLO OPERATIONS HANDBOOK

SYSTEMS DATA

s l i d i n g g a t e valve. When the OXIDIZER FLOW s w i t c h is i n NORMAL, the


s l i d i n g g a t e v a l v e i s i n the n o m i n a l flow p o s i t i o n and t h e u p p e r and l o w e r
OXID flow p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r is g r a y . When t h e OXIDIZER FLOW s w i t c h is
p l a c e d t o t h e INCREASE position, the s l i d i n g g a t e valve is i n the i n c r e a s e
flow p o s i t i o n and t h e u p p e r OXID flow p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r is s t r i p e d . When
t h e OXIDIZER FLOW s w i t c h is p l a c e d to DECREASE position, t h e sliding
g a t e valve is i n t h e d e c r e a s e flow p o s i t i o n , but d o e s not block t h e o x i d i z e r
flow c o m p l e t e l y and t h e l o w e r OXID flow i n d i c a t o r is s t r i p e d .

2.4.2. 10.4 Engine THRUST O N - O F F Control.

F i g u r e 2 . 4 - 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e THRUST O N - O F F logic i n the .guidance


and navigation d e l t a V mode, t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m d e l t a V mode
and t h e m a n u a l d i r e c t mode.

The guidance and navigation is the p r i m a r y d e l t a V m o d e which p r o -


v i d e s t h e m o s t a c c u r a t e t r a j e c t o r y c o r r e c t i o n s . The G&N AV mode of
o p e r a t i o n will r e q u i r e G & N g a t e 2 to be c o m p l e t e l y enabled. Its r e q u i r e d
i n p u t s will be a n u l l a g e m a n e u v e r input which could be supplied by the SPS
a b o r t l o g i c or t h e d i r e c t u l l a g e pushbutton o r by t r a n s l a t i o n c o n t r o l 1 or 2
p l a c e d to t h e tX, which would s a t i s f y the OR g a t e 3 function and t h e holding
input a f t e r t h e G&N AND g a t e 2 is enabled which i s p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h NAND
g a t e s 1 and 2, with the G & N AV m o d e s e l e c t e d f r o m the SCS c o n t r o l p a n e l
and t h e p u l s e t r a i n c o n v e r t e r output of l o g i c one c o m m a n d e d f r o m t h e G&N --
c o m p u t e r by t h e c r e w . T h e s e i n p u t s will e n a b l e AND g a t e 2 and provide the
l o g i c o n e input to i n v e r t e r 3 which d i s a b l e s AND g a t e 6. I n v e r t e r 4 will
p r o v i d e a l o g i c one s i g n a l to the solenoid d r i v e r s t h a t p r o v i d e t h e ground
f o r t h e two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s . The two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s provide p o w e r
to the following:
a. T h e fo& s o l e n o i d c o n t r o l v a l v e s , which allow g a s e o u s n i t r o g e n
p r e s s u r e to b e d i r e c t e d to f o u r a c t u a t o r s t h a t p o s i t i o n e i g h t of t h e ball
v a l v e s i n t h e i n j e c t o r valve a s s e m b l y of t h e engine. This i s due to INJEC-
TOR P R E VALVE A and B being enabled.
b. The quantity s e n s i n g and i n d i c a t i n g s y s t e m and the p r o p e l l a n t
.
u t i l i z a t i o n valve
c. T h e s y s t e m s A and B h e l i u m p r e s s u r i z i n g v a l v e s .
d. When the output of the p u l s e c o n v e r t e r i s a logic z e r o , G & N AND
g a t e 2 i s d i s a b l e d , which t e r m i n a t e s a G&N AV m a n e u v e r and r e m o v e s
g r o u n d f r o m t h e two s e t s of SPS r e l a y s , (Manual backup of t h e THRUST
CONTROL s w i t c h to O F F . )

The backup d e l t a V m o d e , is t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m d e l t a V
mode which h a s l i m i t a t i o n s and r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e individual con-
s i d e r a t i o n . The SCS AV m o d e of o p e r a t i o n will r e q u i r e enabling SCS AND
g a t e 1 to i n i t i a t e t h r u s t i n g of t h e engine. SCS AND g a t e 1 h a s t h r e e enabling