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MSC-PTPR-68-45
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N A T I O N A L A E R O N A U T I C S A N D SPACE A D M I N I S T R A T I O N

APOLLO 8 MISSION

........... 3-DAY REPORT ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ I ........... ............ ........... ............ $ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ c' ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ......... ......... ........ ........ (NASA-TM-X-70002) ....... 874-72474 ....... ........ D A Y BEPOBT (NASA) APOLLO 8 BISSXON: 3 ....... ........ 17 p ....... ........ ....... ........ ....... ........ ....... ........ ....... ........ Unclas ....... ........ ....... ........ ........ 00/99 16744 ........ ......... ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... DISTRIBUTION AND REFERENCING ............ ........... ............ ........... ............ ........... T h i s paper i s not suitoble for general distribution or referencing. I t may be referenced ............ ........... ............ ........... only in other working correspondence and documents by porticipoting orgonizotions. ............ ...........

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MANNED SPACECRAFT C E N T ER
HOUSTON.TEXAS

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DECEMBER 1968

MSC-PT-R-68-4 5
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APOLLO 8 MISSION

3-DAY REPORT

PREPARED BY

Apollo 8 Mission E v a l u a t i o n Team

APPROVED BY

George M. Low Apollo S p a c e c r a f t Program

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER
HOUSTON , TEXAS December 1968

SUMMARY The Apollo 8 space vehicle w a s launched from Kennedy Space Center, F l o r i d a , at 7:51:00 a.m. e . s . t . on December 21, 1968, a f t e r a s a t i s f a c t o r y no-hold countdown. Following a nominal boost phase, t h e s p a c e c r a f t and S-IVB combination w a s i n s e r t e d i n t o a parking o r b i t of 98 by 103 naut i c a l z i l e s . Af%er a post-insertion checkoiit of s p a c e c r a f t systems, t h e t r a n s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n maneuver was i n i t i a t e d a t 02:50 :36 by r e i g n i t i n g t h e S-IVB engine, and t h e nominal maneuver l a s t e d f o r 5 minutes and 6 seconds. The s p a c e c r a f t separated from t h e S-IVB a t 03:20:55, followed by two s e p a r a t i o n maneuvers using t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system. The f i r s t midcourse correction of 24.5 f't/sec w a s conducted a t 10:59:58. The t r a n s l u n a r coast phase was devoted t o navigation s i g h t i n g s , two telev i s i o n transmissions, and various systems checks. The second midcourse c o r r e c t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of 1.9 f't/sec , was conducted a t 60 :59 :54. The 246.5-second duration l u n a r o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver w a s performed a t 69:08:20, and t h e i n i t i a l l u n a r o r b i t w a s 168.5 by 59.9 n. mi. A maneuver t o c i r c u l a r i z e t h e o r b i t w a s conducted a t 73:35:06 and r e s u l t e d i n a l u n a r o r b i t of 59.7 by 60.7 n. m i . The coast phase between maneuvers w a s devoted t o o r b i t navigation and ground t r a c k determination. A t o t a l 1 of t e n revolutions were completed during t h e 20 hours 1 minutes spent i n lunar orbit. .The l u n a r o r b i t coast phase involved numerous landing-sitehandmark s i g h t i n g s , l u n a r photography, and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n . The t r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n maneuver, 203 seconds i n duration, was conducted a t 89 :l9 :16 using t h e s e r v i c e propulsion system. During both t h e t r a n s l u n a r and t r a n s e a r t h coast phases, passive thermal c o n t r o l maneuvers o f about one r e v o l u t i o n per hour were e f f e c t e d when p o s s i b l e t o maintain temperatures w i t h i n nominal l i m i t s . The t r a n s e a r t h coast period involved a number of s t a r / h o r i z o n navigation s i g h t i n g s using both t h e e a r t h and moon horizons. The only t r a n s e a r t h midcourse c o r r e c t i o n w a s a 4.8 f t / s e c maneuver made at 103:59:53. Command module/service module s e p a r a t i o n w a s a t 146 :29 :00 , and t h e s p a c e c r a f t reached t h e e n t r y i n t e r f a c e (400 000 f e e t ) a t 146:46:13. Following normal deployment of a l l parachutes, t h e s p a c e c r a f t landed i n t h e P a c i f i c Ocean a t 08O 08' N l a t i t u d e and 1 5 02' W longitude, as deter6' mined by t h e primary recovery ship. The t o t a l f l i g h t duration was 146 hours 59 minutes 49 seconds, and t h e spacecraf't and crew were recovered by t h e USS Yorktown a f t e r landing.

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Almost without exception, s p a c e c r a f t systems operated as intended. A l l temperatures v a r i e d w i t h i n acceptable limits and e s s e n t i a l l y e x h i b i t e d p r e d i c t e d behavior. Consumables usage w a s always maintained a t a s a f e l e v e l . Communications q u a l i t y w a s exceptionally good, and l i v e t e l e v i s i o n w a s t r a n s m i t t e d on s i x occasions. The crew s a t i s f a c t o r i l y performed a l l f l i g h t - p l a n f’unctions and achieved all photographic o b j e c t i v e s

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INTRODUCTION The e v a l u a t i o n i n t h i s report i s based on preliminary d a t a , and t h e s t a t e d values are subject t o change i n l a t e r r e p o r t s . All times are referenced t o range zero, t h e i n t e g r a l second before l i f t - o f f , which w a s 12:51:00 G . m . t . , December 21, 1968.
A l l s p a c e c r a f t systems performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e f l i g h t , and only t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t information i s presented under a p p r o p r i a t e systems headings. The following systems performed e s s e n t i a l l y as intended and w i l l not be discussed u n t i l l a t e r r e p o r t s : power d i s t r i b u t i o n , s e q u e n t i a l , displays and c o n t r o l s , e a r t h landing, and pyrot e c h n i c s . The i n i t i a l discussion of t h e crew medical evaluation w i l l appear i n t h e next o f f i c i a l r e p o r t .

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TRAJECTORY

L i f t - o f f of t h e Apollo 8 mission occurred a t 12:51:00.9 G.m.t. (07:51:00.9 a.m. e.s . t . ) on December 21, 1968, with subsequent o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n a t 00:11:38. A t o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n , v e l o c i t y w a s 25 567 f t / s e c , f l i g h t - p a t h angle was 0.00 degrees, and a l t i t u d e was 102.6 n . m i . The r e s u l t a n t parking-orbit elements a r e given i n t a b l e I. Translunar i n j e c t i o n with t h e S-IVB w a s i n i t i a t e d at 02:50:36, and spacecraft/S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n occurred a t 03:20:55. Following a p e r i o d of station-keeping, a s m a l l r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system maneuver w a s made t o i n c r e a s e t h e s e p a r a t i o n distance f r o m t h e S-IVB. Because of S-IVB proxn i m i t y , a a d d i t i o n a l t h r u s t i n g using t h e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system w a s performed t o increase t h e s e p a r a t i o n d i s t a n c e . These maneuvers are summarized..& t a b l e 11. Only two midcourse corrections were r e q u i r e d i n t h e t r a n s l u n a r port i o n of f l i g h t , 24.5 f t / s e c a t approximately 1 hours and 1.9 f t / s e c a t 1 about 6 1 hours. The pericynthion a l t i t u d e r e s u l t i n g from t h e second c o r r e c t i o n w a s 63.4 n. m i . Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n was performed i n two s t a g e s ; t h e i n i t i a l o r b i t , made with a maneuver of approximately 3000 ft/ s e c , w a s 60 by 170 n . mi., and t h e f i n a l lunar o r b i t , made with a maneuver of 134.8 f t / s e c , was nearly c i r c u l a r at 60 n. m i . The i n i t i a l o r b i t w a s maintained f o r about 4-1/2 hours, and t h e f i n a l o r b i t f o r an a d d i t i o n a l 15-1/2 hours. The t r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n maneuver w a s performed a t 89 :19 :16, l a s t e d f o r 303 seconds, and r e s u l t e d i n a v e l o c i t y change of approximately 3500 f t / s e c . The accuracy of t h i s maneuver w a s such t h a t only a 5 f t / s e c midcourse c o r r e c t i o n was required at about 104 hours t o achieve t a r g e t e d e n t r y conditions. Command module/service module s e p a r a t i o n w a s e f f e c t e d a t 146:29 : O O . Entry i n t e r f a c e (400 000 f e e t a l t i t u d e ) occurred at 146 :46 :13, with subsequent landing a t 146:59:49. The e n t r y conditions were a v e l o c i t y of 36 221 f t / s e c and a flight-path angle of -6.5 degrees. Landing occurred at 08O 08' N and 1 6 5 O 02' W longitude, based on recovery s h i p coordinates. Event times f o r t h e mission a r e shown i n t a b l e 111.

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S STEW PERFORMANCE Y

STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
A l l s t r u c t u r a l and mechanical systems performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y with t h e exception of s p a c e c r a f t window fogging. The hatch ( c e n t e r ) window w a s completely fogged over by about 6 hours. The two s i d e windows (1and 5 ) were similarly a f f e c t e d , but t o a l e s s e r degree. The rendezvous windows ( 2 and 4 ) remained usable throughout t h e f l i g h t . This fogging w a s c o n s i s t e n t with what w a s expected as a r e s u l t of t h e Apollo 7 a n a l y s i s of window fogging, which was caused by a deposit of s i l i c o n e o i l on t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e of t h e o u t e r heat-shield pane. The fogging r e s u l t s from t h e outgassing of t h e RTV compound which s e a l s i n s u l a t i o n around t h e window area. A cure has been developed and w i l l be used on a l l windows of Apollo 9 and subsequent s p a c e c r a f t . THERMAL CONTROL

Temperature measurements i n d i c a t e t h a t both p a s s i v e and a c t i v e t h e r m a l c o n t r o l elements performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Passive thermal c o n t r o l during t h e t r a n s l u n a r and t r a n s e a r t h coast periods s t a b i l i z e d s p a c e c r a f t p r o p e l l a n t temperatures w i t h i n t h e expected nominal range. Tank temperat u r e s were maintained w i t h i n t h e fracture-mechanics limits by varying s p a c e c r a f t o r i e n t a t i o n . A l l temperatures were w i t h i n p r e d i c t e d l i m i t s during l u n a r o r b i t operations.
FUEL CELLS

Fuel c e l l performance w a s e x c e l l e n t and no anomalies were observed throughout t h e mission. A l l parameters were i n good agreement with pref l i g h t predictions

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The f u e l c e l l s provided 291.7 k i l o w a t t hours of energy, and t h e bus v o l t a g e w a s maintained between 28.2 and 30 .O V dc at t o t a l l o a d c u r r e n t s ranging from 56 t o 92 amperes. Thermal c o n t r o l was e x c e l l e n t , with condenser e x i t temperatures remaining between 157' and 163O F during a l l phases of t h e mission, i n d i c a t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y performance of t h e seconda r y coolant bypass valve. Radiator performance w a s normal and agreed w e l l w i t h p r e d i c t e d lunar-orbit performance.

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BATTERIES

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CRYOGENICS The cryogenic s t o r a g e system performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission, and usage w a s s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n p r e d i c t e d . A l l h e a t e r s were operated automatically and a l l fans were cycled manually t o preclude t h e ac bus-voltage problem caused by t h e a r c i n g motor switch noted on Apollo 7. Q u a n t i t y balancing between t h e r e s p e c t i v e cryogenic tanks w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y .
COMMUNI CATIONS

The o v e r a l l performance of t h e spacecraft-to-network communication system w a s nominal. The received downlink c a r r i e r power, t e l e m e t r y , and voice performance corresponded t o p r e f l i g h t p r e d i c t i o n s . Communications system management, including antenna switching during t h e mission w a s very good. Communications during passive thermal c o n t r o l were maintained by s e q u e n t i a l l y switching between t h e four omni antennas, switching between d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposite omnis , or switching between t h e high-gain antenna and one or more omni antennas. A l l four omni antennas and t h e high-gain antenna were s e l e c t e d p e r i o d i c a l l y , with performance equal t o or g r e a t e r t h a n p r e f l i g h t p r e d i c t i o n s . A l l modes of t h e highgain antenna were used s u c c e s s f u l l y . The d a t a q u a l i t y of both high- and low-bit-rate telemetry w a s good. High-bit-rate telemetry w a s received through t h e 85-foot antennas a t slant ranges of up t o 160 000 n a u t i c a l miles while t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s t r a n s m i t t i n g on omni antennas. The voice q u a l i t y , both normal and backup, received throughout t h e mission w a s e x c e l l e n t . The MSFN s i t e s r e p o r t e d r e c e i p t of good-quality telemetry d a t a during d a t a storage equipment dumps.

146 :46 :38.

Communications were s a t i s f a c t o r y during e n t r y u n t i l blackout a t Air-to-ground voice contact w a s r e e s t a b l i s h e d a t approximately

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146:52 through t h e Apollo Range Instrumentation A i r c r a f t . The USS Yorktown e s t a b l i s h e d voice contact during parachute descent. Although postlanding voice communications were momentarily i n t e r r u p t e d when t h e spacec r a f t w a s i n a s t a b l e I1 f l o t a t i o n a t t i t u d e , t h e recovery operation w a s sat i s f a c t o r i l y supported.
A t o t a l of s i x t e l e v i s i o n transmissions were made during t h e f l i g h t . f o c a l length) vas used t o view t h e e a r t h . Because of camera motion and t h e higher than expected l i g h t i n t e n s i t y of t h e e a r t h , t h e p i c t u r e s were of very poor q u a l i t y . A procedure for use of t h e f i l t e r s from t h e Hasselblad camera w a s developed and subsequent t e l e c a s t s of t h e e a r t h using t h e t e l e p h o t o l e n s with a r e d f i l t e r were s a t i s f a c t o r y . Excellent views of t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e were taken i n l u n a r o r b i t using t h e extra-wide-angle l e n s ( 9 mm f o c a l l e n g t h ) and suitable filters.

For t h e f i r s t t e l e c a s t , t h e telephoto l e n s (100

INSTRUMENTATICN The d a t a s t o r a g e equipment and instrumentation system performance w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y throughout t h e mission, and only t h r e e measurements
failed.

6 t o 1 2 degrees higher t h a n expected.

The f u e l c e l l 2 r a d i a t o r - o u t l e t temperature i n d i c a t e d a temperature Proper system performance of t h e f u e l c e l l and r a d i a t o r w a s v e r i f i e d by o t h e r system measurements, t h u s i n d i c a t i n g a f a i l e d sensor.

The radi a t or-out l e t temperature measurement i n t h e environment a1 c o n t r o l system f a i l e d at approximately 120 hours elapsed t i m e and went t o f u l l - s c a l e reading. Systems a n a l y s i s v e r i f i e d proper r a d i a t o r operation. The measurement of potable water quantity i n t h e ECS apparently f a i l e d at approximately 145 hours e l a p s e d . t i m e Normal tank-pressurizat i o n and water production d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h e measurement t o be questionable.

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GUIDANCE AND CONTROL

Performance of t h e guidance and c o n t r o l system w a s e x c e l l e n t throughout t h e mission. A l l monitoring functions and navigation comparisons r e q u i r e d during ascent, e a r t h o r b i t , and t r a n s l u n a r i n j e c t i o n were norm a l , Platform alignments were performed during a l l coast phases with

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good results. Gyro b i a s d r i f t estimates , made from e v a l u a t i n g successive alignments , i n d i c a t e performance within one-sigma v a r i a t i o n s . Accelerometer b i a s measurements made throughout t h e mission a l s o i n d i c a t e stab i l i t y w e l l within one sigma. Onboard midcourse navigation techniques were thoroughly exercised. Star-horizon measurements were made during t r a n s l u n a r and t r a n s e a r t h coast , and preliminary comparisons i n d i c a t e c l o s e agreement with ground t r a c k i n g . Onboard o r b i t a l navigation w a s performed i n lunar o r b i t with nominal r e s u l t s . Spacecraft a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l was s a t i s f a c t o r y using both t h e d i g i t a l a u t o p i l o t and t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l system. Service propulsion maneuvers were performed using t h e d i g i t a l a u t o p i l o t with nominal results. Entry guidance and navigation w a s e x c e l l e n t .

Two guidance and control system problems occurred during t h e mission. The f i r s t involved abnormal s h i f t s i n t h e computer readout of t h e o p t i c s trunnion angle. Several times during periods of no o p t i c s a c t i v i t y , t h e read-out s h i f t e d from 0 t o 45 degrees. I n each case, t h e c o r r e c t reading w a s r e s t o r e d with a normal o p t i c s zeroing procedure, and no o p t i c s u t i l i z a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y w a s l o s t . The symptoms have been duplicated i n t h e labo r a t o r y by inducing a malf’unction i n t h e read c i r c u i t of t h e o p t i c s coupl i n g data u n i t .
REACTION CONTROL SYSTEMS
A l l c o d a n d and s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system parameters were normal throughout t h e mission.

The thermal c o n t r o l system i n t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system maintained package temperatures w i t h i n nominal l i m i t s All regul a t e d pressures w e r e normal and p r o p e l l a n t usage w a s within acceptable l i m i t s during t h e f l i g h t . A t o t a l of 654 pounds of p r o p e l l a n t were used during t h e mission w i t h 94 pounds used i n l u n a r o r b i t .

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SERVICE PROPULSION SYSTEM Four maneuvers were accomplished using t h e s e r v i c e propulsion system, t h e longest being t h e 246.5-second lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n maneuver, and system operation was s a t i s f a c t o r y . All maneuvers were no-ullage s t a r t s .

A momentary drop i n chamber pressure w a s experienced e a r l y i n t h e f i r s t s e r v i c e propulsion maneuver which w a s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e presence of a s m a l l helium bubble i n t h e o x i d i z e r feed l i n e . This bubble i s

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thought t o have r e s u l t e d from an inadequate engine-oxidizer bleed during p r e f l i g h t s e r v i c i n g . The chamber p r e s s u r e w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y throughout t h e remainder of t h e t h e burn and f o r t h e t h r e e subsequent maneuvers. Feed-line temperatures were more favorable t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d and remained reasonably steady within t h e i r upper and lower r e d l i n e l i m i t s . A s a result, no h e a t e r operation w a s required. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM Performance of t h e environmental c o n t r o l system w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y . The r a d i a t o r s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e j e c t e d t h e s p a c e c r a f t h e a t loads during t h e translunar and t r a n s e a r t h coasts , maintaining water/glycol tempera t u r e s below t h e evaporator turn-on l e v e l . The evaporators were t h e r e f o r e t u r n e d o f f during t h i s t i m e . The primary evaporator w a s used i n t h e automatic mode during l u n a r o r b i t . Evaporator dryout occurred s e v e r a l times ; however, t h e dryout d i d not impose any r e s t r a i n t s on t h e mission. Evapor a t o r dryout occurred on Apollo 7 at low heat loads and w a s a n t i c i p a t e d t o occur on Apollo 8 under similar load conditions. The evaporator w a s r e s e r v i c e d at t h e end of t h e f i r s t o r b i t and operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y u n t i l evaporator dryout recurred during t h e f o u r t h o r b i t . The evaporator w a s again r e s e r v i c e d and operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f o r t h e remainder of l u n a r o r b i t a l f l i g h t . Primary evaporator dryout occurred again during e n t r y ; however, t h e crew a c t i v a t e d t h e secondary coolant loop, which operated p r o p e r l y throughout e n t r y and maintained normal cabin temperatures near 6 1 O F and t h e suit-heat-exchanger outlet-gas temperatures near 4 4 O F. . The f a n s , which were not needed during t h e mission, were noisy when a c t i v a t e d on t h e occasion t o c i r c u l a t e t h e cabin atmosphere f o r a v a l i d cabin temperature reading.

CREW PROVISIONS
A l l crew equipment operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y during t h e mission. Excess i v e n o i s e on t h e Lunar Module P i l o t ' s electrocardiogram w a s c o r r e c t e d when harnesses were swapped. The a s t r o n a u t s ' boots were r e p o r t e d t o be frayed but usable.

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FLIGHT CREM
~

The Apollo 8 mission w a s accomplished e s s e n t i a l l y i n accordance with t h e nominal f l i g h t plan, with t h e following minor exceptions. The S-IVB s e p a r a t i o n rate from t h e s p a c e c r a f t w a s l e s s t h a n p r e d i c t e d , and t h e crew spent a longer time i n keeping t h e S-IVB i n sight and event u a l l y used an a d d i t i o n a l r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system maneuver t o i n c r e a s e s e p a r a t i o n distance. Because of t h e heavy work load i n l u n a r o r b i t , t h e o r b i t a l a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r t h e eighth r e v o l u t i o n were sharply reduced t o allow t h e crew t o g e t some r e s t . Normal a c t i v i t i e s were resumed i n preparation f o r t h e t r a n s e a r t h i n j e c t i o n , after which t h e f l i g h t plan w a s again modified t o allow f o r a d d i t i o n a l crew r e s t . A t about 100 hours t h e mission r e t u r n e d t o t h e nominal f l i g h t plan w i t h only minor rescheduling of r e s t and m e a l p e r i o d s . Despite t h e long duty hours, crew performance w a s good throughout t h e mission, and many valuable observations of t h e l u n a r s u r f a c e and i t s environment were made. Entry and landing were performed i n darkness, with no apparent problems. The spacecraft assumed a s t a b l e I1 (apex down) f l o t a t i o n a t t i t u d e upon landing approximately 5200 yards from USS Yorktown, and t h e crew s u c c e s s f u l l y returned t h e v e h i c l e t o t h e upright f l o t a t i o n p o s i t i o n . A decision had previously been made t o delay t h e deployment o f swimmers u n t i l . daylight; t h e r e f o r e , crew t r a n s f e r t o t h e prime recovery s h i p by h e l i c o p t e r occurred about 80 minutes a f t e r landing.

11
MISSION SUPPORT PERFORMANCE FLIGHT CONTROL F l i g h t c o n t r o l support was e x c e l l e n t during t h e Apollo 8 mission.
NETWORK

Network performance w a s excellent f o r t h i s mission. A l l communicat i o n s , t r a c k i n g , command, telemetry, and t h e real-time computation funct i o n s supported t h e mission s a t i s f a c t o r i l y with no s i g n i f i c a n t loss of d a t a at any t i m e . RC VR EOEY Recovery of t h e Apollo 8 spacecraft and crew w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y comp l e t e d i n t h e P a c i f i c Ocean by t h e prime recovery s h i p , t h e USS Yorktown. The major recovery events on December 27, 1968, a r e l i s t e d i n t h e followi n g table. G . m . t . , hr:min (December 27) Event F i r s t v i s u a l s i g h t i n g of s p a c e c r a f t by H a w a i i Rescue 1 Radar contact by USS Yorktown F i r s t s i g h t i n g of CM f l a s h i n g l i g h t by Yorktown Landing F l o t a t i o n c o l l a r i n s t a l l e d and i n f l a t e d Astronauts onboard recovery s h i p CM onboard recovery s h i p

1 5 :41
15 :43 15 :49 15 :51

16 :48 17 :20 18 :18

Both S-band and VHF contacts were e s t a b l i s h e d with t h e recovery f o r c e s . Visual contact with t h e f l a s h i n g l i g h t and voice contact with t h e f l i g h t crew ceased at landing, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e command module went i n t o a s t a b l e - I 1 p o s i t i o n before uprighting. The uprighting bags were i n f l a t e d , with one bag reported t o be only p a r t i a l l y i n f l a t e d . Although a recovery h e l i c o p t e r w a s d i r e c t l y over t h e spacecraft a e a r l y as 16:08 G . m . t . , s it w a s decided previously t o w a i t u n t i l daylight before deploying swimmers.

L

12

The p e r t i n e n t l o c a t i o n d a t a for t h e recovery operation are l i s t e d below: P r e d i c t e d t a r g e t coordinates Ship p o s i t i o n at landing" Estimated range t o s p a c e c r a f t at landing R e t r i e v a l coordinates
*As determined aboard t h e recovery s h i p .
08' 08", 1 6 5 O 02'w 0 8 O 09.3N, 165' 02.1N

5200 yards
08'

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14
TABLE 111.- APOLLO 8 SEQUENCE OF EVENTS

Event Launch phase Range zero (12:51:OO G . m . t . ) L i f t -off S-IC center engine c u t o f f S-IC outboard engine c u t o f f S-IC/S-II separation S-I1 engine i g n i t i o n I n t e r s t a g e j e t t ison Launch escape tower j e t t i s o n S-I1 engine c u t o f f S-II/S-IVB separation S-IVB engine i g n i t i o n S-IVB engine c u t o f f I n s e r t ion O r b i t a l phase Translunar i n j e c t i o n i g n i t i o n Translunar i n j e c t i o n c u t o f f S-IVB/Command module s e p a r a t i o n Separation maneuver 1 Separation maneuver 2 Midcourse c o r r e c t i o n 1 i g n i t i o n Midcourse c o r r e c t i o n 1 c u t o f f Midcourse c o r r e c t i o n 2 Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n 1 i g n i t i o n Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n 1 c u t o f f Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n 2 i g n i t i o n Lunar o r b i t i n s e r t i o n 2 c u t o f f Transearth i n j e c t i o n i g n i t i o n Transearth i n j e c t i o n c u t o f f Midcourse c o r r e c t i o n 3 i g n i t i o n Midcourse c o r r e c t i o n 3 c u t o f f

I

T i m e , hr:min:sec

0 0 : 00 :oo

00:02:06

00:02:34 00:02:34
00 :02:35
00 :03:05 00 :03:09
00 :08: 44

I

00:08:45
00:08:45 00:11:25

1

00:11:35

02:50:3 6
02:55 :42

03:20:55

03:40:00 04:4 :00 5 1 :59:5 8 0
1 : :01 1 00

60:5 :54 9 69:08:20 69:12 :27 73:35:06 73:35 :16 8 :1 :16 9 9 8 : 2 2 :39 9 1 3 :59:53 0
104:00:0 7

.

TABLE 111.- APOLLO 8 SEQUENCE OF EVENTS Jhent CSM/SM s e p a r a t i o n Entry i n t e r f a c e Begin blackout End Blackout Drogue deployment Main parachute deployment Landing

-

Concluded
T i m e , hr:min:sec

-

I

(400 000

ft.)

146:29 :00 146:46:13 146:46:38 146:51: 44 146:54:26 146:55 :20 146:59 :4 9

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