Você está na página 1de 4




Group & Supply Needs:

• Ages: Late adolescent through adulthood1

• Size: 15 to 40 participants
• Supplies: paper squares, triangles, and circles (on per person) and straight pins
• Time required:
o 30-45 minutes for the activity
o 15-30 minutes processing


• Previous to activity, cut paper squares, triangles, and circles in the following proportions
o 60% of the group = squares
o of remaining 40%:
 60% of group = circles
 40% of group = triangles
o example of 24 participants
 14 squares
 6 circles
 4 triangles
o The critical components are that:
 There are more squares than circle and triangles combined
 There are more circles than triangles

• Distribute shapes and pins to group and have them pin their shape on their clothing
• Have group members gather by shape
o Hint: I usually have the squares gather at the front of the room and the circles and
triangles to gather at either side of the back of the room.
 It is helpful for the groups to be as far apart as possible to assure the “other”
groups do not hear the instructions I give to each group
 This also places the squares in a location of “power”
• Give each group their instructions. I preface each groups’ “rule/goal” with, “I am going to tell you
your secret rule/goal – it is critical that you follow this secret rule/goal.”
• Group rules/goals (remember, only tell each group their rule – do not, for example, tell the
squares the circle’s rule)
o Square rule: “You have it, and you do not want anybody else to have it” (see footnote)
o Circle rule: “You want to be a square.”
o Triangle rule: “ You want what the squares have. You do not want to be a square, but you
want what they have.”
• Tell groups to “Go to it!”
o They usually ask questions about what they should do – and I usually say, “Accomplish
your goal.”
This exercise can be adapted to younger ages by making it more concrete. For example, instead of telling the
squares they have “it”, they can be told they have “all the money in the world” (see Group Rules/Goal).
o If they ask questions about what they can or should do, I usually say, “It is up to you
(obviously within safety bounds).”

Typical Pattern of Results:

• For about five minutes, the circles and triangles will chase the squares and try to thieve things
from them.
• The squares respond by running away from the circles and triangles and/or form some physically
cohesive group (e.g. lock arms) such that the triangles and circles cannot penetrate the
• The triangles and circles give up and go back to their original grouping place to confer about a
plan of action.
• During this time, the squares are usually in fairly good spirits and chat about nothing in particular.
• The triangles and circles usually join together and begin discussing their respective goals. They
may even ask the squares their goal, but the squares do not usually reveal it.
• Often a few individuals within the triangles and circles suggest that they all remove their shapes.
Others in the group usually respond that they do not want to because being a triangle/circle is
important to them.
• As the circles and triangles discuss their positions, the squares usually become quite attentive to
the fact that the circles and triangles no longer seem to be as interested in the squares.
• At this point, the squares frequently become “worried” and try to re-engage the circles and the
• From this point forward, groups usually discuss the logistics of the “rules/goals”. The triangles
and circles try to convince the squares that everyone can get along, while the squares stubbornly
disagree. Many times, some individual squares will break from the group and join the circles and

Processing ideas/questions:

I begin with the triangles, then circles, then squares and ask them what it was like to be a

• The triangles and circles basically say it was frustrating.

• The squares usually have the most negative response. Many individuals are very uncomfortable
playing that role.
• I often ask why they followed through with the “rule”. They respond because I told them to do it.
We then compare societal undercurrents/”rules” to the “rule/goal” I gave them, and how both are
difficult to fight.
Some theory:

I usually frame this activity in terms of working with individuals from different cultures and review the

• Historically, two approaches to examining multicultural issues

o Emic - emphasizes cultural, racial, and ethnic differences among people
 Assumption: need to master all characteristics of the variety of culture, racial,
ethnic groups
 “Multicultural cookbook” - recipes include check-list of groups characteristics and
instructions regarding how to interact.
o Etic - emphasizes the commonalities between people
 By focusing on the cultural, may lose sight of the personal
 Tends to ignore specific cultural influences
• More recent approach: Optimal Theory2 - all relationships are multicultural in that all people are
the same and different
o Three part model
 human universality - those things that everyone has in common (e.g. smile =
 cultural specificity - specific beliefs, behaviors, norms, customs of a particular
culture (e.g. disrespectful to look authority figures in the eye)
 individual uniqunesses - characteristics specific to the individual based on
experiences, abilities, family, etc. (e.g. outgoing vs. shy; good at math vs athletics)



o Neglecting any one of the three results in an incomplete picture

o Implications
 self knowledge allows one to appreciate others views, also exploration of
perceptions and interpretations of others
 unexamined, ones’ own sense of reality/worldview is frequently perceives as
universal and just (I follow this up with the attached written assignment)
Last modified: 10 August 2008

This information is largely taken from:
Speight, S. L., Myers, L. J., Cox, C. I., & Highlen, P. S. (1991). A redefinition of multicultural counseling. Journal of
Counseling and Development, 70, 29-36.
I have developed two “levels” of this assignment. Level 1 is somewhat more concrete and,
therefore, “easier”. Level 2 is more abstract, and therefore more appropriate for individuals who
have more experience with thinking about worldviews as a whole as well as their own worldview.

Level 1:
Optimal Theory suggests that self-knowledge is an important tool in the ability to appreciate others'
views. Unexamined, one's own sense of reality/worldview is frequently perceived as universal and just.
The purpose of this assignment is to encourage you to explore your own worldview.

The task is to identify and discuss 5 of your central values--things, concepts, ideas, etc. which are very
important to you. In your discussion, include how you developed that value, and what about that value is
important to you. Some things you might want to consider in determining how you developed your
particular values are:
1. social political climate (as you were growing up, current climate)
2. family influenced (past and present, possibly extended)
3. personal characteristics (abilities, experiences)
4. gender
5. cultural/ethnic background

Level 2:
As we discussed, identifying our own worldview and values is critical to avoid the assumption that what
we believe is universal and just. Before you can keep from imposing your values on others, you must
know what it is that you do value. Therefore the purpose of this assignment is for you to begin/continue
to explore you own worldview.

Your task is to think about/write a paper which:

a. describes your personal worldview. Use the six dimensions listed below to structure your
b. identifies the types of individuals with whom you could work more easily, as well as those with
whom you would have more difficulty.

1. Social, economic, and political climate - Where were you raised? What is the climate you are
currently experiencing? (e.g. recession, unemployment, family income, discrimination, prosperity,
liberalism, conservatism, educational opportunity, etc.)
2. Family influences - What were/are your family experiences, both as a child and at the present
time? (e.g. nuclear or extended family, roles of members, values transmitted, socialization,
childrearing practices)
3. Personal characteristics and experiences - What are your abilities, experiences, personality
characteristics, capabilities, education, talents, and physical abilities?
4. Spirituality - What are your religious beliefs or philosophy of life? What is the meaning you
ascribe to the human condition? What are your personal ethics? How do you transmit these into
5. Gender - How as your gender and the socialization of males and females influences your
experiences and expectations of yourself and others?
6. Cultural background - What are the norms, values, beliefs, traditions, attitudes, languages of your
ethnic and racial heritage? How have these influenced you?

Exercises developed by Carmen R. Wilson, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse.
Please feel free to contact me with questions, comments, and/or your own modifications.