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“I will praise thee; for I am fearfully [and] wonderfully made: marvellous [are] thy works;
and [that] my soul knoweth right well.” Psalms 139:1

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Table of Contents
Table of Contents ii
Intro to Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Levels of Organization 1
Homeostasis 4
Organization of the Body 4
Membrane 6
Anatomical Terminology 7
Cells 7
Plasma membranes 7
Cytoplasm 7
Nucleus (Control center) 8
Cell Life Cycle 9
Tissue 10
Tissue type 10
Cell types 10
The Integumentary System 12
Functions of the Integumentary 12
Tissue of the Skin 12
Skin Color 12
Skin Cells 13
Hair 13
Sweet Glands 13
Skin Cancer 13
Dermis 14
Bed Sores 14
The Skeletal System 15
Parts of the longs bones 15
Parts of flat, irregular, short Bones 15
Functions of the bones 15
Structure of the Compact bone 16
Trabecula 16
Osteogenesis (Ossification) - The beginning of a bone 16
Stage of life 16
Bone remodeling 16
Hormones 18
Muscular System 19
Smooth 19
Skeletal 19
Cardial 20
Muscular 20
Sliding filament theory 20
Nervous System 22
Organs 22
Information 22
Characteristics of neurons 22
Axon 22
The Synapse 24

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Parts of a Synapse 24
Plexus 25
The Brain 25
Somatic and Special Senses 28
Somatic (soma – body) 28
Special Sense 28
Sensory Receptor 28
Sensory Adaptation 29
Classification of Sensory Receptors 29
Sense of Pain 29
Classification of Pain 30
Headaches 30
Sense of Smell 30
Olfactory Pathway 30
Sense of Taste 30
Primary taste 31
Taste pathway 31
Sense of hearing 31
Hearing Disorders 31
Sense of Equilibrium 32
Path way of Static Equilibrium 32
Dynamic Equilibrium 32
Sense of Sight 32
Eyes disorders 33
The Lacrimal Apparatus 34
Endocrine System 35
Glands 35
Two types of glands 35
Major Endocrine Glands with one function 35
Major Endocrine Glands with Dual functions 35
Minor Endocrines Tissues 35
Functions of the Endocrine System 36
What are hormones? 36
Control of hormonal secretions 37
Hypothalamus Control 37
Thyroid 37
Parathyroid Glands 37
Abnormal Secretion of PTH 38
Adrenal Glands 38
Corticosteroids 38
Cushing’s Syndrome 38
Hormones Secreted by the Adrenal Medulla 38
The Pancreas – A dual glad 39
Abnormalities of Pancreas 39
Thymus Glad 39
Reproductive Glands 39
Other hormone Producing Structure 39
The Blood System 40
Three functions of the blood 40
Formed Elements 40

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Percentage of RBC’s 40
Hematopoiesis before Birth 40
Hematopoiesis 41
Primary Nutrients Needs for Erythropoiesis 42
Types of Anemia 43
Sickle Cell Anemia 43
Thalassemia 43
Iron Deficiency Anemia 43
Vegan Sources of Iron 43
Vegan Sources of B12 43
Best Sources of Folate 44
What happens when RBC dies? 44
Leukocytes or White Blood Cells 45
Diapedesis - Chemotaxis 46
Leukemia 46
Platelets 47
Hemostasis 47
Hemophilia 48
Three Steps to Homeostasis 48
The Cardiovascular System 50
Introduction 50
Anatomy of the Heart 50
Heart chambers and valves 51
Valvular Incompetence 52
The fetal heart 52
Pathway of blood 53
Blood supply to the heart (Coronary Circulation) 54
Coronary Occlusion 54
Congestive Heart Failure 54
Heart Actions 55
Factors that contribute to venous return 56
S-A Node 56
Blood Vessels 57
Arteries 57
Capillaries 58
Venules 58
Veins 59
Blood Pressure 59
Hypertension = persistent high blood pressure. 60
Hypertension can lead to left heart failure. 61
Blood pressure homeostasis 61
Atherosclerosis 61
The Digestive System 62
Definition 62
Digestive Processes 62
Components of the Gastric Juice 63
Structure of the Wall of the GI Tract 63
Six Sphincters of the GI Tract 65
Organs of the Digestive System 65
Salivary glands 66

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Pharynx 67
Esophagus 67
Stomach 68
Gastric emptying 70
Pancreas 71
Liver 72
Gallbladder 73
Regulation of bile secretion: 73
Small Intestine 74
Peristaltic 75
Large intestine 75
Normal Flora 76
The Lymphatic System 78
General Functions 78
What is the Lymphatic system? 78
Lymphoid Organs 78
Lymph Nodes 78
Clusters of lymph nodes 78
Structure of the lymph Node 79
Non-specific defense system 79
Inflammation 80
Fever 80
Specific Defenses 80
Cells of the Immune System 81

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Intro to Human Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy: – Study of the form (structure) of the part and the organization of the part.
Physiology: – Study of the function of the part.

Levels of Organization
 Atom
 Molecule
 Macromolecule
 Organelle
 Cell
 Tissue
 Organ
 Organ system
 Organism

We have 11 systems
 Integumentary
 Skeletal
 Muscular
 Nervous
 Endocrine
 Cardiovascular
 Lymphatic
 Digestive
 Respiratory
 Urinary
 Reproduction

Functions of the living Organism (GR-DREAM-CAR) (Sheet 2)

 Movement (muscular and skeletal system)
 Responsiveness (reactions to changes inside or outside the body) (nervous)
 Growth (increases in number of cells results in growth (endocrine system)
 Reproduction (1) division of cells (2) making a whole new organism (endocrine,
 Respiration (obtaining oxygen, removing waste) (respiratory system)
 Digestion (the breakdown of foods into particles that can be absorbed into the blood)
(digestive system)

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 Absorption (passage of substance through membranes (pressure produced by the
cardiovascular system)
 Circulation (movement of substance from place to place (cardiovascular, lymphatic
 Assimilation (change absorbed substances into chemically different forms)
o Lipids (carries) into lipoproteins, eg. LDL/HDL.
o Amino acids into proteins to make muscular tissue, hormones, enzymes.
 Excretion (the removal of waste from the body
o respiratory
o urinary and integumentary
o digestive

Requirements of Organisms (Sheet 3)

 Water
o Most abundant chemical in the body
o Required for metabolic processes
o Transportation
o Regulate body temperature
 Food
o Provides nutrients
o Nutrients provide energy and raw materials
o Six types of nutrients are:
o Carbohydrates. Fuel for the body cells
o Proteins. For production of structure material
o Lipids (fat)
o Vitamins, minerals and water
 Oxygen (20% of the air)
o Used to release of energy from the nutrients. All the nutrients in the world are
useless if the oxygen is not available to release the energy from them.
o Without oxygen, cells can survive for only a few minutes.
 Heat (from a reaction of cell movement)
o A from of energy. Energy is the power required to make something happen. Most of
our energy is used for homeostasis relatively stable system (p5).
o Most body heat is generated by the activity of the muscular system.
 Pressure
o Application of force against something.

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o Atmospheric pressure is the force outside of the body due to the weight of the air
around it. Breathing depends on appropriate atmospheric pressure.
o Hydrostatic pressure

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The five external environmental factors are able to changes therefore the body must be able to
maintain the internal environmental.

Homeostasis - Maintenance of a retaliative stable internal environment.

The three main elements

 Receptors
o Sense changes (eg. temperature, thermal sensor > brain, hypothalamus)
 Control centre (brain, hypothalamus)
 Effectors (always muscles and glands)

Example: Blood pressure

Good range 100 – 120. The arteries have sensors called baroreceptors for blood pressure. It sends
the message to the control center, the heart. Then in one of the chambers there is a node that will
then either increases or decreases the rate of the cardiac muscle to control the flow rate of the

LEARN Example: Temperature (p6)

Set point for temperature is 37C 98.6F

If temperature is rising then:

If temperature is falling then:

 Sensory input to the hypothalamus
 Hypothalamus will analyse
 1) effectors – blood cells’ (smooth muscles) restrict, sweet glands restrict
 2) effectors – muscles (skeletal) active to create heat (shivers)

There are two types of Homeostasis

 Negative feedback – most common, if getting cold then get hot
 Positive feedback – very few, when the change goes in the same direction; 1) labour pain,
when its felt it does not stop it increases it. 2) Bleeding, the body will continue to form clots
till its healed.

Organization of the Body

 Axial portion
o Dorsal cavity
 Cranial cavity
 Vertebral canal
o Ventral cavity
 Thoracic cavity
 Left/Right Pleural cavity
 Mediastinum
o Superior mediastinum
 Trackea
o Pericardial cavity

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 heart
 Adomino-pelvic cavity
 Abdominal cavity
o Stomach
o Kidneys
 Pelvic cavity
o Large Intestine
o Reproductive organs
o Bladder
 Appendicular portion
 Small portions
o Oral cavity
o Nasal cavity
 Frontal sinus
o Orbital cavity
o Middle ear cavity (ossicles)
o Sphenoidal sinus cavity

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Membrane - a thin layer of tissue

(Sheet 4)
The two type of membranes
1. Serous membrane
a. (secretes serous fluid) a double (2) layer membrane that lines the walls and covers
the viscera of a cavity that does not open to the exterior
2. Mucous membrane
a. (secretes mucus) a thick layer of tissue that lines cavities and canals that open to
the outside of the body
3. Synovial membrane
a. (secrete synovial fluid)

Most membranes are formed from epithelium and the connective tissue on which it rests.

Visceral Serosa – covers the organ

Parietal Serosa – lines the wall of the cavity

1. Body Covering
a. Integumentary System
2. Support and Movement
a. Skeletal System
b. Muscular System
i. Cartilage
3. Integration and Coordination
a. Nervous System
i. Brain
ii. Spinal Cord
iii. Sense Organs
b. Endocrine System
i. Endocrine Glands
4. Transport
a. Cardiovascular System
i. Heart Blood Vessels
b. Lymphatic System
i. Lymphatic vessels
ii. Lymph nodes
iii. Spleen
5. Absorption and Excretion
a. Digestive System
b. Respiratory System
c. Urinary System
6. Reproduction
a. Reproductive System

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Anatomical Terminology
Established to have a common language between doctors

This means that the body is standing erect, face forward, with upper limbs at the sides and the
palms forward. Note that the terms right and left refer to the right and left of a body in anatomical

(Sheet 5)
Superior Top
Inferior Bottom
Anterior (ventral) Front
Posterior (dorsal) Back
Medial Towards
Lateral Away
Proximal Closer to the body part
Distal Farther from body part
Superficial Toward the surface of the body
Deep Away from the body surface

Cutting Planes
 Coronal Plane (frontal plane) Anterior / Posterior
 Transverse Plane (horizontal plane) Superior / Inferior
 Sagittal Plane (median plane)

Four Abdominal Quadrants

Abdominal is divided into 4 sections, from the naval
1. Right upper quadrants
2. Left upper quadrants
3. Right lower quadrants
4. Left lower quadrants

We have about 75 trillion cells in the body. In the 1800’s the first discovered that the human body
was mad of cells. We have about 200 different types of cell’s in the body. The activity of the cell is
determined by the make of the organelle. The cell is divided into three main parts, the plasma
membranes, cytoplasm, and the nucleus.

Plasma membranes
Bi-layer of Phospholipid molecules, very thin and flexible, contains protein, carbohydrates,
cholesterol. Function: (1) To maintenance the integrity of the cell, by inclosing it like an envelope.
(2) Controls the passage of molecules in and out of the cell (Selective permeability). Head
(Phospholipid) is Hydrophilic; Tail (lipid) is Hydrophobic. Contains protein channels and carriers.
Some Plasma membranes contain Microvilli (The little fingers, to increase the surface area.)

Is everything inside the cell and outside of the nucleus. The protein is received and processed here
by the organelle’s.

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Three major components:
1. Cytosol – semi-transparent gel like substance
2. Organelle’s – Small single organs
 Endoplasmic reticulum (rough – granular Cell membranes factory, smooth – agranular
o Rough (Ribosomes) – Packages protein vesicles and transports to the smooth
o Smooth – Packaging of lipids
 Ribosomes
 Golgi apparatus – Traffic controller
o Modify, package protein and then transports it to its destination. Used to
produce lysosomes
 Secretery vesicle
 Membrane vesicle
 Enzyme (PROTEIN) vesicle (lysosome) (WBC)
 Mitochondrian – Power plant
o Produces energy (ATP) (Muscle cells)
o Contains DNA – can replicate itself
 Lysosomes – Garbage disposal of the cell
o Destroy worn cellular parts
o Found in bone cells
 Peroxisomes
o Sacs that contain detoxifying enzymes
o Found in liver
o Destroys free-radicals, brakes them down to Hydrochloric-acid
 Centrosome –
o Very active in the function the division of the cell (mitosis)
 Celia and flanella
 Vesicles
 Microfilaments () and microtubules (made of tubulin)
o Generate movement
o They are the structure (skeleton)
3. Inclusions – chemical substance that may or may not be present
 Eg. Keratin
 Haemoglobin
 Melanin
 Lipid droplets

Nucleus (Control center)

Contains the DNA. Filled with nuclear plasma – same as Cytosol. All cell’s have a nucleus, except
Mature Red Blood Cell, however RBC only lives for 120 days. Most cells’ only have one Nucleus

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(Uni-nucleated) but some have that have more then one Nucleus (Multi-nucleated) (skeletal
muscle fibre), and one that is A-nucleated.

Three main parts

1. Nuclear Envelope – Has nuclear pores
2. Nucleolus – Synthesises, ribosome precursors, and RNA
3. Chromatin – Fibres of DNA loosely coiled around clusters of protein molecules. 1)
Maintains the structure. 2) Change their own structure when it is needed expose the DNA.
Will divide into 46 chromosomes.
Movement through Cell membranes (sheet)
 Passive Processes
o Passive Processes Diffusion – Move down there concentration gradient
 Simple Diffusion – Movement of lipid soluble particles from higher
concentration to lower concentration
 Osmosis – Its only water, through the membrane.
 Facilitated Diffusion – Particles that are water soluble molecules that
cannot pass the lipid bi-layer and molecules that are too big to pass
through the pores. The need carries.
o Passive Process of Filtration – hydrostatic pressure, from higher to lower
pressure gradient.
 Active Processes – These are going from low to high pressure. Need of a pump.
o Active Transport – ATP (cellular energy)
o Vesicular Transport – Transported by Organelle’s
 Exocytosis – Exit from Cell via a vesical organelle
 Endocytosis – Enter into the Cell
 Phagocytosis – Cell eating - particles
 Pinocytosis – Cell drinking - droplets
 Receptor-mediated endocytosis – requires a receptor, an
element to unlock and a the element that is required by the cell.

Cell Life Cycle

1. Interface Phase (longest phase)

 G1 - Growth
 S – Growth and DNA replication
 G2 – Growth and finial preparation for division
2. Mitotic Phase
 Mitosis – division of the nucleus
 Cytokinesis – division of the cell cytoplasm
3. Cell Differentiation Phase – Cells develop different characteristic and functions

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Tissue type
 Simple - has only one layer
 Stratified - has more then one layer

Cell types
 Squamous – big large flat cells making walls
 Cuboidal – cube
 Columnar – column

Apical layer - Top layer

Basal layer – Bottom layer

1. Epithelial - Protective coverings

o Simple squamous – specializes in filtration
o Simple cuboidal – secretion and absorption
o Simple columnar – Contains lot of Goblet cells
o Pseud stratified Columnar – Combination of different cell sizes gives the false
impression that there is more then one layer. (Has lots of goblet cell’s)
o Stratified squamous – specializes in protection
o Stratified cuboidal - secretion
o Stratified columnar – protection and secretion
o Transitional Epithelium – Undergoes transition depending on its function eg.
Empty or Full bladder
o Glandular Epithelium – TODO
2. Connective – Support and binds body parts (Sheet 6)
o Less Cellular then Epithelia
o Has Matrix between the cells (ground substance + fibre)
 Collagen Fibre
 Elastic Fibre
o Skin
 Reticular Fibre
o Spleen
o *Blast = active type of cell, undergoes mitoses
o *Cyte = the cells is resting in the tissue
o Fibroblast: Is the connective Tissues Proper
o Chondroblast: Cartilage
o Osteoblast: Osseous tissue (bone)

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o Hemocytoblast: blood tissue
o Adipose: stores natural lipids (triglycerides)
o Macrophage: phagocytosis (cell eater)
o Mast Cell: releases heparin + histamine
o Three kinds of Fibre:
 Collagen: Collagen joins bones to bones
 Elastic: elastin
 Reticular: network of collagenous fibre branches
o Binding
 Binding
o Tendons: (Dense Regular Connective Tissue) Muscles to bones
o Ligaments (Dense Regular Connective Tissue) Bones to bones
 Support
o Bones (osseous Tissue) Support the body in an upright position
o Dermis (Dense Irregular Connective Tissue) Supports the epidermis
 Protections
o Bones: (Osseous Tissue)
o Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue)
o Adipose tissue (Protects organs)
 Insulation
o Adiposes tissue under the dermis
 Fill spaces
o Areolar tissue files spaces around the organs
 Storage
o Adipose Tissue – Stores fat
o Areolar Tissue – Stores water and salts
o Osseous Tissue – Stores minerals
 Transportation
o Blood – Transports gases, nutrients, hormones
 Production of Blood Cells
o Bone Marrow (Reticular Connective Tissue)
 Immune Protection
o Areolar Tissue – Houses macrophages and mast cells
o Blood – Contains leukocytes
3. Muscle
4. Nervous – Conducts electrical impulses

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The Integumentary System
The integumentary system is made up of 5 organs;
1. Skin
2. Hair
3. Nails
4. Sabasish Glands
5. Sweat Glands

Functions of the Integumentary

1. Protection
o Chemical
o Physical
o Biological
2. Temperature Regulations
o Dermis
 Vasodilation – temp up
 Vasoconstriction – temp down
o Sweating
3. Water retention
o Sweat glands
4. Sensor receptors
o Heat, touch, pressure, pain
5. Metabolic functions
o Synthesis of Precursor vitamin D
6. Excretion
o Nitrogen waste (small function)
7. Blood reservoir
o Stores blood

Keratin = A protein that hardens the cell

Tissue of the Skin

1. Epidermis – epithelial tissue (ker. Stratified squamous epith)
2. Dermis – connective (Connective Tissue Proper Dense Irregular)
3. Hypodermis – connective (Adipose tissue)

Skin Color
1. Melanin
o Yellow to reddish brown to black
o Increases or decreases – based on sunlight
o Protects DNA
2. Haemoglobin
o RBC – Erythrocytes – Transport O2 – Haemoglobin – red in colour
o Cyanosis – when blood is lacking O2 it turns to red colour and skin turns blue

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3. Carotene
o Yellow to orange colour found in food like carrots
o Accumulates in the stratum coronum
4. Bilirubin
o Yellow pigment – RB are destroyed
o Skin can turn yellowish because of the liver not working
o Newborn Jaundice

Amount of melanin and colour melanin > DNA

o Freckles = local acumination of melanin
o Albinism = the melanin is not produced
o Viligo = melanin stops producing

Skin Cells
 Keratino-Cytes – squamous cells in the skin
o Produce keratin protein
o Interferon’s – block viral infection
 Melanocytes – absorbs light energy, protects cell from UV (DNA)
o Produce melano
o Has many branches
 Langerhans cells
o Cell eaters - malignant
 Merkel Cell
o Associate with nerve endings to form Sensory receptor

1. Shaft
2. Root
3. Bulb – Around it is the Root Hair Plexus (nerve endings around the hair bulb)
4. Colour – Trichosiderin
5. Growth is based on the hormone - Androgen

Sweet Glands
Apocrine sweet glands – have fatty compounds, bacteria decomposing which leads to body odour.

Ceruminous gland = ear wax, cerumen – sticky trap

Skin Cancer
1. Cutaneous Carcinoma (Common Type)
o Basal carcinoma
 Stratum Basale/spinosum – Cuboidal / Column
 Rarely metastasize (slow growing)
 Better chance of full cure 80%-90%
 Starts from wounds that wont heal

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oSquamous carcinoma
 Stratum spinosum
2. Cutaneous Melanoma
o Melanocytes
o Fast metastasis
o Begins as a mole (nevus)
o 50% chance of survive
o there are four types

Second layer of the skin, full of collagen fibre, elastic, nerve fibbers, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels,
hair, oil, sweet glands, squmsus glads, major cell if the FibroBlast , WBC, mast cells, two layers –
ritcular, and papularir layer

Bed Sores
There are four types of bed sores
1. Skin still intact
2. Skin is broken the first few layers of skin
3. Skin is broken to all the way
4. The Bone or muscle is exposed

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The Skeletal System

1. Bone - 206
2. Cartilage - Connective tissue, Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage
3. Ligaments - Connects bones to bones, Dense regular connective tissue
4. Joints - the junctions between bones, Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

Parts of the longs bones

1. Epiphysis - coated hyaline cartilage
2. Diaphysis - the shaft
3. Epiphyseal line - a line which marks what use to be the epiphyseal plate, in active
4. Periosteum - tissue around the bone, dense irregular, osteoblast - cell building, osteoclasts -
macrophages (cell eating)
5. Endosteum - lining the inside of the bone,
6. Articular cartilage - hyaline cartilage on the articulating end of the epiphyses

Parts of flat, irregular, short Bones

Two thin plates of compact bones surrounding spongy bone. Diploe - is the spongy part inside of
the two compact bones. Red bone marrow is only found in the epiphysis of some long bones and in
the flat, shot and irregular bones.

Red morrow - Hematopoiesis - blood cell formation

Functions of the bones

1. Support
2. Protection
3. Movement
4. Hematopoiesis - hemocytoblast are the blood cells stem cells
5. Mineral storage - calcium, phosphate
6. Point of attachment to muscles

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Structure of the Compact bone
Osteon = Haversian system > Lamella - made of collagen fibre, between them is the lucan are
connected by Canaliculus > osteochydes, Haversian canal

 Longitudinal growth (length)- in the epiphyseal plate

 Appositional growth (width) - osteoblast found under the periosteum (Bone formation,
bone deposit)
 Osteoclast - bone absorption, bone brake down
 Osteoclast + osteoblast = homeostasis
 Lamellar bone = spongy bone

 Bone marrow - yellow, red
 Yellow marrow is fatty tissue
 The epiphysis - is where the red blood marrow comes from (in a adult)
 The Diaphysis - is red as a unborn but yellow in adult

Osteogenesis (Ossification) - The beginning of a bone

Embryo stage the bone is not bone but cartilage
1. (8 week) Formation of the bone collar around hyaline cartilage model
2. (around 8 week) Primary ossification center
3. Periostea bud appears (blood vessels, 1 lymphatic vessel, never fibres, osteoclasts,
4. Osteoblast > produces osteoid
5. Osteoclast > break it down
6. Medullary cavity is formed, by the osteoclast breaking down the osteoblast
7. When the baby is born the bone is ossified but the epiphysis is still cartilage
8. After the baby is born, you have secondary ossification centers in the epiphysis

Stage of life
1. Embryo - Fatal Stages - Bony skeleton formation
2. Birth - Early adulthood - bone growth (female’s end around 18, male around 21, by 25 bone
growth is ended)
3. Adult - No more bone growth - Bone remodeling / Repair

Bone remodeling
1. Bone deposit - by osteoblast > osteoid (controlled by a hormone call calcitonin - secreted by
thyroid gland) This is determined by good nutrition, protein, vitamin C, A, D, B12, calcium,
2. Takes place in bone injury or required strength
3. Bone resorption - Osteoclast > Lysozyme, Controlled by the Parathyroid hormone
4. Ensures the bone is not to thick/heavy

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5. When a person has fracture site if the do electrical stimulation then it heals faster

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Calcitonin (thyroid gland) Secreted when:
1. Blood calcium level increased
2. Brain sends message to thyroid gland to secrete calcitonin
3. Osteoblast activity increases
4. Blood calcium level drops

Parathormone (PR gland) secreted when:

1. Blood ca level decreases
2. Brain sends message to PT gland
3. PT hormone secreted
4. Stimulates osteoclasts activity
5. Blood calcium level increases

Growth hormone
1. stimulates epiphyseal plate activity
2. Pituitary gland
3. Hypersecretion growth hormone = gigantism - during childhood
4. = acromegaly - after growth has ended
5. Hyposecretion growth hormone = pituitary dwarfism

Examples of those who have stronger bones

 Tennis
 Ballerina
 Weightlifter
 runners

Osteoclast is more active then Osteoblast = Osteoporosis

Factor that increase the risk

1. Age - bone resorption dominates
2. Decrease in blood oestrogen / testosterone hormones (inhibit osteoclast activity)
3. Insufficient exercise (mechanical stress)
4. Speed walking
5. Weight lifting
6. Too much sodium - increases the excretion of calcium in the urine
7. Too much protein - increases the excretion of calcium in the urine
8. Too much phosphorus - increases the excretion of calcium in the urine
9. Deficient intake of protein, calcium, magnesium, Vit C, D, A, B12
10. Smoking - decrease estrogens levels
11. Alcohol
12. Certain drugs (corticosteroids)

READ THIS ONE Joint pg 158 - Synovial Joints

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Muscular System
Three types: smooth, skeletal, and cardial.

 Non-striated
 Controlled by the Autonomic division of the nervous system
 Visceral muscular
 Uni-nucleated
 Found in the walls of hollow organs, iris of the eye
 Involuntary control

 Striated
 Controlled by Somatic division of the nervous system
 Of voluntary control
 Multi-nucleated
 Transportation and movement
 Functions
o Allow for body movement, and expression
o Maintain body posture
o Produce heat
 Tissue
o Skeletal
o Nervous
o Blood
o Connective
 Each muscle fibres are surrounded by Endomysium, all these form a fascicle
which are surrounded by Perimysium. On top of all the fascicles is the
Epimysium and on top of that there is the Fascia (separates one muscle from
 Tendon - fascia in a cordlike fashion
 Aponeurosis - Flat/broad fashion
 Tendon - muscle to bones
 Aponeurosis - muscles to muscles
 Sarcolemma - (Plasma membrane)
 Sarcoplasm - (Cytoplasm)
 Inclusions - Myoglobin - red pigment that carries oxygen
 Inclusions - Glycogen - storage of glucose
 Organelles - Sarcoplasmic reticulum - smooth (regulate the calcium)
 Organelles - Cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum - Play major role in muscle
 Organelles -Myofibrils - Play major role in muscle constriction
 Muscles are connected to neurons
 Motor neuron connect from the CNS to the muscle
 Motor neuron > motor terminals > motor units
 Neuro muscular junction is where the terminal meets the muscle

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 Motor endplate

 Striated
 Uni-nucleated
 Found in the walls of the heart
 Involuntary control
 Controlled by the Autonomic division of the nervous system
 Cardiac


Fibres in a single unit are not clustered in one place but are spread through out the muscle, there
for a single weak contraction will effect the entire muscle.

Myosin = thick, two tail and heads intertwined

Cross bridge = the head of a myosin molecule
The red dot is the myosin binding site

Sliding filament theory

1. Electoral impulse is sent down the axon
2. Reaches the synaptic
3. Reaches the axonal terminal
4. Action potential is generated - ACh
5. It then travels along the sarcnima
6. When it reaches the tube to travels down the tubule
7. It then hit’s the cisternae and the Ca2 in it moves out as the higher conistration is inside the
8. Which then moves the troppnin So it will leave the binding site on the actin filament
9. Now the cross bridge on the myosin attaches to the binding site on the actin

Cramp - p180

Rigor mortis - sets in within 72 hours of death

Two kinds of muscle fibres

Hypertrophy - development of a muscle that is forceful exercised

1. Slow fibre (endurance)

 Walking, swimming
 Mitochondria is increased, ATP
 Blood capillaries increased
 Gives the muscle the ability to resist fatigue
2. Fast fibre
 Weight lifting
 Production of new filaments (actin, alyosin, titin)

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Atrophy - decrees in muscle mass
 Loss blood capillaries
 Loss of mitochondria
 Loss of filaments

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Nervous System
Function - Integrations and coordination (makes the body act as one system)

1. Brain
2. Spinal Cord
3. Nervous

The system works using electrical signals and produce immediate responses.

Two main divisions

 Central Nervous System
 Brain
 Spinal Cord
 Perferial Nervous System
 Cranial + Spinal Nerves

Nerves are bundles of Axons

Spinal Nerves
Cranial Tissue

Characteristics of neurons
 Extreme Longevity over 100 years
 Amitotic - can not me replaced is destroyed
 Cannot survive with our oxygen and glucose.

p220 - structure of nervous

 Around axon you have Endoneurium
 A bundle of Axons is a Fascicle
 Surrounded by Perineurium
 All the fascicle surrounded by Epineurium

Three main functions of the nervous system

Two type of neurons

 Sensory
 Motor

p210 – part of a neuron

Parts of a Neuron
 Cell Body = Soma
 Cell membrane
 Cytoplasm
 Nucleus

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 Nissl Bodies = chromophilic substance
 Neurofibrils
 Dendrites - receiving component (neuron process) (grey matter)
 Axon - sending component (only one per neuron)
 Tenodynia - axonal terminals (can have 1000’s)
 Synaptic knob
 On the axon there are the Myelin sheets (a cell called Schwann cell, covered with white, is
called white matter, wraps around the long axons. Because it wraps so tight the cytoplasm
moves to the outside of the cell. Neurilemmal)
 Oligodendrocytes - make the myelin in the CNS (short axons) No Neurilemmal sheath
 Schwann cells - make the myelin in the PNS (long axons) Neurilemmal sheath
 Any tissue that is made from myelin sheath is called white matter.
 Grey matter is un-myelinated axons.

Functions of the Myelin sheath

1. Protections - physical barrier
2. Electrical insulation - made of fatty substance
3. Increases the speed of transmission of nerve impulse

Speed difference
 25 cm / second - un-myelin
 150 m / second - myelin

The gap is called NODE of RANVIER - allows for conductions

Saltatory conduction - leaping from one node to another

Different types on Neurons - Classification by Structure

 Bipolar - two process
 Unipolar - one process
 Multipolar - (most common) - more then two process

Different types on Neurons - Classification by functions

 Sensory neurons- PNS
 Motor neurons - PNS
 Inter neurons - usually in the spinal cord (CNS)

Classification of neuroglia cells which are the support cells, Six types
4 in the CNS
1. Astrocytes – most abundant
2. Microglial – macrophage of the CNS
3. Ependymal cell – forms membrane called choroid plexuses (secretes the cerebrospinal
fluid) (a membrane that lines the ventricles of the brain
4. Oligodendrocytes – makes myelin
2 in the PNS
1. Schwann cells
2. Satellite cell

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The Synapse
The junction between to communicating neurones
 Axosomatic synapse – axon to soma
 Axodendritic synapse – axon to dendrites
 Axoaxonic synapse – axon to axon
 Dendrodenditric synapse – dendrites to dendrites

Parts of a Synapse
 Synaptic knob - pre
 Synaptic Vesicles - pre
 Synaptic cleft – microscopic gap 1 millionth of an inch
 Presynaptic and Postsynaptic – from and to
 Neuron transmitter receptors on the postsynaptic

What is action potential?

 Depolarization
 Repolarization

Nerve impulse = is a wave of action potential of moving down the axon to the end of it.

Na+ = Sodium
K + = Potassium
Inside has more (-) negative then outside

Resting potential = when the inside is (-) outside (+) – (The membrane is polarised)

There are two factors that maintain the resting potential

1. The membrane of the resting neuron is slightly more permeable to potassium.
2. Sodium / potassium pump. Two molecules of potassium are brought into the cell, and three
of sodium is taken out side. Per pump.

Neurons are highly excitable -

MS – Multiple sclerous of the myelin sheath = demyelination of the white matter causing
neurological disorders

Read p216 – Table 9.1

All-or-none response
This is a law that states that whenever a stimulus of threshold potential is applied to a nerve fibre
(axon) nerve impulses is conducted.

Protection of the CNS

 Bones
 Meninges – membranes of connective tissues deep to the bone.
o Skin
o Bone
o Dura mater
 Periosteal

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 Meningeal
o Arachnoid mater – looks like a spider
 Subarachnoid - CSF
o Pia mater (gentle matter) – connective tissue connects to the bran itself (p223)
 Cerobrospinal fluid
o Found in and around the brain and spinal fluid
o Made in the ventricles
o Occupies the brain ventricles
o Produced by the epidianly cells
o Liquid cushion, floating, reduces the weight of the brain 97%
o CSF – protects from trauma
o CSF – nourishes the brain

What is a plexus? A Plexus is a network or nerves or capillaries

Hydrocephalus occurs when there is blocking of the CSF

Spinal Cord
 Begins at the magman foraman
 Consist of grey and white matter
 Functions:
o Conducts nerve impulses up and down the descending and ascending tracts (nerves
in the CNS)
o Its divide into 31 segments – each segment has two sets nerves.
o Grey matter in the spinal cord is within the white matter

Ten Nerves that come out of the brain

1. Olfactory = sense of smell
2. Optic = vision
3. Oculomotor = movement of eye
4. Troclear = eye movement
5. Trigeminal = sensory / motor, lips, tongue, teeth
6. Abducens = eye movement
7. Facial = facial expression
8. Vestibulocochlear = ear
9. Glossopharyngeal = movement of tongue
10. Vagus = heart, lung, digestive system etc.
11. Accessory = movement of the sternocleidomastoid
12. Hypoglossal = movement of the tongue

Neural stem cells

Approx 100 billion neural cells in the brain, multi-polar type

The Brain
The brain has four major regions
1. Cerebrum
2. Diencephalon
3. Cerebellum

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4. Brain stem

Connected by the corpus callosum – are axons of neurons that are the right and left hemispheres.
Cerebrum cortex – the grey matter

The gyri = convolutions of the cerebrum

Sulci = Shallow grooves
Fissura = deep grooves

Areas of the Cerebrum

 Motor
 sensory
 association = from memory makes decision based on sensory

The follow effect he frontal lobe

 Alcohol
 TV
 Rock and roll music

The Diencephalon
 Consist of mainly grey matter
 It is sub divided
o Thalamus – has the Pineal gland – melatonin=sleep/mood, and serotonin=Neuro
 Deals more with sensory functions
 Called the relay centre
o Hypothalamus – from this hangs the pituitary gland, it makes 9 hormones.
 Control centre for temp
 Water balance
 Sleep cycle
 Appetite
 Pleasure, anger, pain, sexual arousal, fear
 It controls more motor functions
o Epithalamus

Cerebellum – small brain

 Deals with movement
 Provides precise movement
 Equilibrium is controlled
 Two hemispheres

Brain Steam
 Divides into three parts
 Medulla oblongata
o Cardiac centre - controls the heart rate
o Vasomotor – control blood pressure
o Respiratory centre
o Contains tracks – boundless of axons
 Ponds
 Midbrain

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Frontal Lobe – prefrontal lobotomy – 1930-1940 – this made things worse then better.

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Somatic and Special Senses
This is apart of the nervous system. There are two types of sense.

Somatic (soma – body)

1. Touch
2. Pressure
3. Vibration
4. Stretch
5. Temperature

Types of receptors
 Free dendritic nerves ending – receive (Pain and temperature)
 Encapsulated dendritic nerve endings – ()
 Receptors are found in the skin and deep tissues like muscles, joints, and viscera.

 Meissners corpuscle
 Pacinian corpuscle
 The merkel disc – light pressure
 Root hair plexus

Special Sense
1. Taste
2. Smell
3. Sight
4. Hearing
5. Equilibrium

This are involved with complex receptors

 Olfactory organ
 Taste bud
 Organ of corti
 Eyes
 Organs of eubilibrium (crista ampullaris and maculae)
 All of these are all found in the head.

Sensory Receptor
Sensory Receptor - A structure that responds to stimuli
 A cell
 A Collection of cells
 The nerve ending o a sensory neuron

Stimuli - are chang4es in the internal or external environment.

 A feeling that occurs when the cerebral cortex interprets a sensory input – this happens in
with in the gray matter on the outside of the brain.
 The result of the simulation of a sensory receptor

NOTE: Damage to the cerebral cortex (gray matter) can result in lost of sensation.

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Sensory Adaptation
 When a receptors stops sending signals because it adjusts to a continual, unchanging
 An adapted receptor can respond only if the threshold of the stimulus is increased.
 Sensory Adaptation – Receptor of pressure, touch, and smell adapt rapidly. That is why we
adapt of the feel of our clothing against our skin.

Classification of Sensory Receptors

1. Location
o Exteroreceptors (near body’s surface)
o Interoreceptors (on smooth muscles or the viscera)
o Propioceptors (our own movement – skeletal muscles)

(Cartridge is devoid of nerve fibers)

2. Type of stimulus
o Mechanoreceptors (mechanical)
o Thermoreceptors (Heat)
o Photoreceptors (Light)
o Chemoreceptors (Chemical)
o Pain receptors or nociceptors

Noxious stimuli – harmful stimuli

3. Structural complexity
o Simple receptor – one cell or few cells together
o Complex receptors – eye, ear – organs

Sense of Pain
Free Nerve Endings

 Pain Receptors are widely distributed except in the nervous tissue of the brain.
 Pain is a response to noxious stimuli
 Pain protects from tissue damage
 Pain receptors adapt poorly

Pain can be the result of…

 Chemical stimulation - bradykinis
o Released when tissue is damaged
 Lack of blood/oxygen – ischemia

Pain suppressors
 Enkephalins – secreted by neurons in the spinal cord (secretion increased during labor) –
The second win.
 Endorphins – secreted by the pituitary gland. (Secretion increased duing exercise)

Pain Threshold – Pain Tolerance

 Pain threshold – point at which perception begins.
 We all have the same pain threshold

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 Pain tolerance – our reaction to paint
 Pain tolerance vary wildly influenced by cultural and psychological factors.

Example: Heat (77F – 113F) above 113F stimulates pain receptors

Classification of Pain
1. Somatic – Skin, skeletal, muscles, or joints
2. Visceral – organs
3. Referred pain – visceral pain that is perceived as somatic pain
a. Visceral pain impulses travel along the same pathway as the somatic pain impulses.
Example is heart attack

We have headaches because meninges, blood vessels, and muscles are highly innervated.

Sense of Smell
Special sense – olfactory organ, it is located on the Ethmoid
bone. Sniffing is needed to enhance the concentration of
smell by bringing up the molecules to the bulb.

Olfactory Pathway
1. Olfactory cilia
2. Olfactory cell
3. Olfactory nerve fiber bundle
4. Olfactory bulb
5. Olfactory tact
6. Thalamus
7. Olfactory cortex (frontal and temporal lobe)

There are only 7 primary odors. A combination of these make up all other odors.
1. Floral
2. Musky
3. Camphorus
4. Pepperminty
5. Etheral
6. Pungent
7. Putrid

Anosmia – lack of the sense of smell

Sense of Taste
Taste bud is the organ for the sense of taste
 About 10000 taste buds
 Each as 40 to 100 cells (taste cells and supporting cells)
 Fast sensory adaptations
 Chewing and moving food in the
mouth prevents adaptation

In order to have good taste we need to

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chew well and to move the food around in the mouth otherwise there is very little taste

Primary taste
 Sweet - Front
 Sour - Side
 Salt - Tip
 Biter - Back

Taste pathway
1. Taste hairs
2. Taste cell (gystatory cell)
3. Facial nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve
4. Medulla oblongata
5. Thalamus
6. Gustatory cortex (parietal lobe)

Sense of hearing
Organ of Corti is the organ for hearing

1. The external ear

a. (auricle)
b. External auditory meatus
i. Sebaceous glands
ii. Ceruminous glands
iii. Sticky traps for foreign
iv. Repels insects
v. Ceruminous
impactation (impairs
2. The middle ear
a. The tympanic membrane (Ear drum)
i. A barrier to protect the inner and middle ear
b. The tympanic cavity
c. Auditory ossicles
3. The inner ear (labyrinth)
a. Osseous labyrinth
b. Membranous labyrinth

The Labyrinth of made up of two parts – Osseous which is filled with Perilymph which comes from
the CSF. The membranous contains Endolymph which also comes from the CSF which is produced
by the choroids plexus.

Hearing Disorders
1. Conduction Deafness (Person tends to speak softly)
a. Ostosclerosis or damage to ossicles
b. A perforated or hardned eardrum
c. Impacted cerumen (or plugged meatus) (Wax)
2. Sensorineural Deafness (Talk loud)

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a. Damaged to neural structure (hair cells, nervers, cochlea)
3. Meniere’s Syndrome
a. People cant stand still, this deals with pressure
4. Tinnitus
a. Loud noise always ringing in the ears

Sense of Equilibrium
 The Labyrinth – The inner ear – is apart of the sense of equilibrium – this is located in the
temporal bone of the head
 Ampulla – houses the crista ampullaries, which respond to rotation
 Utricle – Two chambers for the maculae use for movement of the head except for rotation

Path way of Static Equilibrium

 Perilymph moves
 Endolymph moves
 Hairs of hair cells
 Hair cells
 Vestibular nerve
 Vestibulocochlear nerve
 Brain Stem or Cerebellum
 Auditory cortex in the temporal lobe

This is when we are not moving but we are moving eg. Being on a boat.

The macula – sense the position of the head and maintain equilibrium and posture when the head
and body are still.

Dynamic Equilibrium
Detects movement of the head and aid in equilibrium when the body is in movement.

Other sensory structures for equilibrium

1. Shift of visual images sends information to equilibrium centers in the cortex
2. Propioceptors in the neck and other parts of the body also communicate with the
equilibrium centers in the cortex. (Detect own movement)

Sense of Sight
The organ for sight is the eye
1. Fibrous tunic
a. Sclera and cornea (Wind to the eye)
b. Choroid – posterior
c. Ciliary body –
2. Vascular tunic
a. Choroids, ciliary body and iris (open
or close)
b. iris – anterior and annular – opens
when light is dim, close when light is
c. has the color
d. there are tow kinds of smooth muscle

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e. inner muscle around the pupil - circular muscle – when they contract it closes the
f. outer are called the radial muscle –
when they contract it opens the
3. Sensory tunic = retina – The innermost
a. Pigmented layer – epithelial cells
1. Epithelial cells act as
b. Neural layer – Rods and Cones
1. has about 250 million
rods and cones
2. There are more rods
then cones
c. This as all the blood cells, also the neurons
d. Rods and Cones are the Receptor cells
e. Stores vitamin A for the Rods – if you are lacking in this you will have night
f. Rods are for night vision – Cannot see color
g. Cones are for day vision – For color, for detail
h. Macula Iutea – a yellow spot with a depression know as the fovea centralis. Contains
only cones which is the area for the sharpest color vision.

Eyes disorders
 Cataracts – lens becomes cloudy {page 270}
o Smoking, diabetes, intense sunlight
 Glaucoma – Increased pressure in the eye
(page 271}
o The large space in the eye filled with
liquid has too much pressure from a
build up
 Night Blindness – vitamin A deficiency {page
 Retina Detachment – Pigmented and
nervous layers separate and vitreous humor
seeps between them
 Myopia – (nearsightedness) distant objects
are blurred, Eye is too long or lens is too
 Hyperopia – (farsightedness) close objects
are blurred. Eyes is too short and lens is
 Macular Degeneration – Tissue of the macula
lutea deteriorates. Loss of central vision, not
peripheral vision.
 Floaters – Clumps of gels in the vitreous humor that cast a shadow in the retina producing
moving specks in the field of vision
 Conjunctivitis – inflammation of the conjunctiva, a membrane that lines the eyelid.

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o Pinkeye, may be caused by allergic reactions or bacteria last about two weeks
o Epidemic or viral conjunctivitis highly contagious. Last 2 to 3 weeks.

The Lacrimal Apparatus

 Teats
 Keeps the conjunctive moist
 Carry away small particles
 Contains lypozones

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Endocrine System
A system made of glands, all the organs are glands that secret hormones. The two regulatory
systems Endocrine and nervous.

 The nervous system provides rapid, brief control by fast traveling nerve impulses through
 The endocrine system provides slower but longer lasting control by hormones secreted into
the blood by glandular epithelium.

Two types of glands

1. Exocrine glands – ducts
a. Salivary glands
2. Endocrines glands – hormones, are ductless
The pancreas has both glands it has dual function

Major Endocrine Glands with one function

 Pineal gland
 Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
 Thyroid gland
o Three hormones
 Parathyroides
o Four little glands {page 291}
o Has one hormone – this is needed for
calcium homeostasis
 Thymus gland
o This is in the stimim (chest)
o This is for the production of WBC
o Works with the lymphatic system
 Adrenals gland
o Two of these glands

Major Endocrine Glands with Dual functions

 Hypothalamus
o Seven hormones
o Controls rest of the glands, this is called
the master gland
 Pancreas
o Exocrine and endocrine functions
o Insulin
o Glucose
 Gonads
o Ovaries or Testes
o Reproduction and endocrine functions

Minor Endocrines Tissues

 Stomach

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o Has tissues that secretes
 Gastrin - increases the HCl acid
 Serotonin – increases the contractions of stomach muscle
 Duodenum
o The first section of the intestine
 Cholecystokinin – increase the production of bile
 Made in the lever
 Stored in the gall blattor
 Secretine – increase the release of pancreatic juice and bile
 Intestinal gastrin – decrease HCl secretion
 Kidneys
o Erythropoietin – production of erythropoiesis (RBC)
 Placenta
o Estrogen and progesterone – influence the course of pregnancy
 Heart
o Atrial natruretic peptide (ANP) – decrease blood volume and BP

Functions of the Endocrine System

1. Controls rates of chemical reactions (T3 & T4 hormones)
a. Controls the metabolic rate
2. Aids in transport of substances across cell membranes (insulin)
3. Helps regulate water and electrolytes (ADH & aldosterone, calcitonin)
4. Controls reproduction, growth and development (sex hormones & growth hormones)

What are hormones?

 Chemical messengers secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids to regulate the metabolic
function of target cells or target organs.

Two types of hormones

 Amio-acid based (non-steroid hormones) {page
282, 283}
o Are made with amio acid derivatives
o Not soluble in the phospholipd bilayer of
the plasma membrane
o Needs to combine with a receptor
 Steroid hormones
o Steroids are made with cholesterol
o Coluble in the lipids of the plasma membrane
o Once in the target cell they combine with a receptor and are allowed to enter the
 Eicosanoids
o Like hormones, they act as chemical
o Synthesized in virtually every cell of the body
o Known as local hormones
o Affect only the cells of the tissue where they are
o Made from arachidonic acid – comes from meat
o Enhance inflammation, pain, allergic reactions,

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and blood clotting
o These are needed but too much of it is bad and can lead to heart problems

Control of hormonal secretions

There are three turn on mechanisms – all employ negative feedback
1. Hypothalamus control (hormonal stimuli)
a. Hormone controls secretion of other hormones
2. Nervous system control (neural stimuli)
a. Impulse Controls secretion of other hormones
3. Humoral stimuli
a. Homeostasis control of secretion of other hormones

Hypothalamus Control
 Anterior pituitary gland
 Hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland releases hormones that
stimulate other endocrine glands.

Hypothyroidism in Adults – Myxedea
 Fatigue
 Lethargy
 Sensitive to cold

Hyperthyroidism – Graves disease

 Goiter
 Exophthalmos

Certinism – in children

Calcitonin – Another hormone of the

Thyroid gland
 is secretion is stimulated by increased
calcium levels in the blood
 Calcitonin stimulates osteoblast
 Inhibits osteoclasts activity

Parathyroid Glands
 Parathormone is stimulated by low levels of calcium
 Thyroid glands
 Parathyroid glands
 It affects three things
o Bones – PTH Calcium
o Kidneys – PTH Vit D – increase
absorption of calcium
o Small intestine – PTH calcium
absorption, vit D is needed for

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All of this to increases the level of calcium level in the blood. When this happens the negative
feedback system will stop the release of this hormone.

Abnormal Secretion of PTH

 Hyperparathyroidism
o Results in increased osteoclast activity (bones resorption) soften, deform and
fracture spontaneously.
o Excess calcium in the blood can be deposit in the kidneys and the endothelium
causing kidney stones or atherosclerosis.
 Hypoprathyroidism
o Reduced osteoclast activity
o Bones remain strong, but blood
calcium concentration
decreases, which affects
transmission of electrical
impulses and muscular

Osteoporosis – when osteoclasts activity

outpaces osteoblasts activity. Normal, Thinning,

Adrenal Glands
Hormones Secreted by the Adrenal Cortex.
Stimulated by hormones.

 Mineralocorticoids
o Aldosterone – it regulates the
metabolism, potassium
 Glucocorticoids
o Regulates glucose
o Cortisol – increased during
 Gonadocorticoids
o Sex hormone control
o Androgens

Cushing’s Syndrome
 Excess glucose production caused by hypersecretion of cortisol, and glucocorticoid.

Gluconeogenesis – the body is making glucose from protein, from the muscles and collagen.

Hormones Secreted by the Adrenal Medulla

 Stimulated by neural transmitters
 Ephinephrine
 Norepinephrine

Addisons Disease – Hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones,

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especially cortisole. The pigmentation of the skin and oral mucosa due to over stimulation of the
melanocytes by ACTH, which has melanostimulating properties.

The Pancreas – A dual glad

Islet of Langerhans
 Is apart of the endocrine gland
 Alpha cells – Secrete glucagons – When it goes down
 Beta cells – secrete insulin – When it goes up

Abnormalities of Pancreas
 Hypersecretion of insulin, results in hypoglycemia
o Need whole fiber
 Hypersecretion of glucagons results in hyperglycemia.
o Diabeties Type 1 or 2 (normally type 2)
 Hyposecretion of insulin results in hyperglycemia
o Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes Type 1 – person does not produce insulin or enough of it.

Diabetes Type 2 starts with reception insufficient (insulin resistance)

What to do: Exercise improves diabetes by increasing the number of insulin receptors
and by increasing receptors and by increasing utilization of glucose by the skeletal

Pineal Gland
Production of the melanoma

Thymus Glad
Secretes thymosins – this is used for the production of anti-bodies

Reproductive Glands
 Ovaries – estrogen and progesterone
 Placenta – estrogen, progesterone and gonadoropin
 Testes - testosterone

Other hormone Producing Structure

{Refer to week one}

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The Blood System
A liquid connective Tissue

1. Systemic Circulation
a. Oxygenated
b. Whole body but the lungs
2. Pulmonary Circulation
a. Deoxygenated
b. This is for the lungs

Three functions of the blood

1. Distribution
a. Oxygen
b. Waste products
c. hormones
2. Regulation
a. Temperature
c. pH
d. fluid volume
3. Protection
a. From infection
b. From blood loss

The average sized adult has 5 liters of blood

Formed Elements
1. Erythroctes (RBC) (45%)
a. 1 kind
2. Leukocytes (WBC) (<1%)
a. 5 kinds
3. Thrombocytes (Clotting cells or platelets)

 Liquid part is plasma (55%)

o The fiber of this connective tissue becomes visible
during blood clotting.

Percentage of RBC’s
1. Normal blood
2. Anemia
a. Less RBC more Plasma
3. Polycythemia
a. Too many RBC

Hematopoiesis before Birth

1. Liver
2. Thymus gland

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3. Spleen
4. Lymph nodes
5. Read bond marrow (all bones)

After Birth: Read bone marrow of bones in the axial skeleton, in the girdles, and in the
epiphyses of the humerus and femur.

All formed elements are derived from a stem cell: the hemocytoblasts. These are in the red bone
marrow of adults.

 Erythrocytes – (RBC)
o Anuclated
o 120 days of life
o Biconcave disk
o Confined blood stream
o RBC count
1. Women 4.3-5.2 million / mm3
2. Men 5.1 – 5.8 /mm3
o Content: 97% hemoglobin – oxygen carrying protein
o Erythropoises – creation of red cell production
o Erythropoietin (kidneys, liver)
o Production of more then 2 million cells per second
o Kidney failure – low RBC count which leads to Anemia = lack of blood
o Hypoxia - lack of oxygen at the cellular level – this is the result of lack of RBC
o Hypoxia triggers secretion of erythropoietin
1. Target cell is bone marrow
2. Starts the production of RBC
3. When there is more the negative feedback will stop the release of
 Erythropoieses
o This process takes from 3-5 days
o They start in the bone marrow until the loss
the nucleus
 Hypoxia – the result of..
o Loss of RBC’s
1. Hemorrhage / destruction)
o Decrease of Oxygen
1. High altitude, low temperature,
vasoconstriction, etc)
o High demand for Oxygen

Polycythemia (too many

RBC’s) can result as the body
tries to compensate for the
lack of Oxygen

 Cyanosis
o Children with Tetralogy turn blue and are

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sometimes called blue baby

Primary Nutrients Needs for Erythropoiesis

 B12 – Bacterial digestion, made in the gut of many animals. We produce it in the upper part
of the GI track.
o Deficiency can result;
 Low HCl acid
 Lack of Intrinsic factor
 Folate deficiency – cant activate B12
 We get this from legumes like lentils, beans, and also from greens.
Raw vegetables.
 Folate Acid
 Iron – is part of the hemoglobin
 B12 deficiency = pernicious anemia. – Macrocyticanemia – RBC’s are too large.
 Folate deficiency = macrocytic anermia
 Iron deficiency = microcytic anemia (iron deficiency anemia) – looks small and pale.
 Hemoglobin
o Red pigment in RBC’s
o Transports oxygen
o Oxyhemoglobin = hemoglobin combined with oxygen.
 Has 4 molecules of protein
 Has 4 molecules of Heme
 In each Heme there is one oxygen
 One atom can carry 4 oxygen atoms
o Deoxyhemoglobin = hemoglobin without oxygen (deoxygenated blood)

The number of RBC does not indicates the content of oxygen in the
blood. Because some cells may contain more hemoglobin then others.

NOTE: Whole grains, greens, legumes this is what to do for Anemia

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Globin > Heme > Iron > Oxygen

Each molecule of hemoglobin transports four molecules of oxygen

NOTE: 1 RBC contains about 250 million hemoglobin molecules

250 x 4 = 1 billion oxygen molecules per RBC

Types of Anemia

Sickle Cell Anemia

In sickle cell anemia, the patients has an abnormally shaped
hemoglobin known as sickle hemoglobin (hgbS). Sickle hemoglobin
creates misshapen RBC’s which from blockages in the vessels.

Thalassemia is an inherited recessive hemoglobinopathy. It results
from a failure to produce sufficient globin molecules. – Cant carry
enough oxygen.

Iron Deficiency Anemia

A normal RBC count but a low hemoglobin level. This situation occurs with iron-deficiency anemia,
in which red blood cells have less hemoglobin than Norman. Iron deficiency anemia is also referred
to hypochromic anemia. Hypochromic is a term that means “less then normal color.”

Vegan Sources of Iron

Nonhem iron comes from plans. Where do we find these?
 Legumes
o Peas, beans
 Whole grains
o Refined lacks iron
 Dried fruits
o During the drying process they are contaminated with iron from the machines
 Blackstrao molasses
 Greens leafy vegetables

Signs of Problems
 Fatigue
 Lack of energy

Vegan Sources of B12

 Fortified nutritional yeast flakes
o When they are grown they have bacteria
 Other fortified foods like soy products, cereals, meat substitutes
 Plant food does not have activated B12 which is not good for us

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Signs of Problems
 Numbness of the fingers – tingling
 Bad coordination
 Bad memory

Best Sources of Folate

 Legumes
 Green leafy vegetables

What happens when RBC dies?

After about 120 days, a macrophage will eat the RBC keep the hemoglobin and then a few days after
it will through it out destroyed into two groups, Heme and Globin.

Globin > broken down into amino acids which are recycled.
Heme > decomposes into Iron and bilirubin (green part)

Iron > sent to the liver and stored

Biliverdin > sent to liver to be broken down into bilirubin
Bilirubin > sent to the intestine – this is what gives the stool the brown color.

New Born Jaundiec

The child looks yellow because their liver is not getting rid of the bilirubin. They need
to be placed in the sun daily. Protect their eyes, feed them with breast milk to help them
to get rid of the bilirubin. Also charcoal water is good for them.

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Leukocytes or White Blood Cells
1. Leukocytes are the only formed elements that are true cells, with nuclei and the usual
2. They account for 1% of total blood volume. The average person has 5,000 to 10,000 WBCs
per cubic millimeter of blood. (RBC are 4-5 millions per cubic millimeter (mm3))
3. They protect us from bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins, and tumor cells. The defend us from
4. The main reason WBCs are in the blood is simply to be transported from the bone marrow
or lymphoid tissue to the areas of the body where they are needed to engage in immune
system responses.
5. The leukocytes squeeze in and out of the blood vessels through the pores by the process of
diapedesis (a small portion of the cell slides through the pore at a time, and the portion
sliding through is constricted to the size of the pore).
6. Once outside the bloodstream, leukocytes move through the tissues by amoeboid motion,
self-propelled by cytoplasmic extensions. Leukocytes follow a chemical trail left by damaged
cells. That is known as chemotaxis.
7. The production of leukocytes - Leukopoiesis
a. Hormonally stimulated (several hormones known as cytokines).
b. Leukopoiesis takes place in the marrow, the thymus, the lymph nodes and other lymph
c. If needed for action, the body can speed up the WBCs production and twice the normal
amount may appear in the blood within a few hours.
d. A WBC count of over 10,000 per cubic millimeter is called leukocytosis - a normal
homeostatic response to bacterial or viral invasion of the body.
(1) Leukemia - A cancerous condition of the WBC that results in too many WBC but
they are nonfunctional (unspecialized and mitotic) and cannot defend the body from
(2) Mononucleosis - A viral disease that results in too many leukocytes. Symptoms:
tired, achy, sore throat, low fever. TX: rest.
e. A WBC count lower than 5,000 is called leukopenia (penia = lack), which can occur
after chemotherapy, in mumps, chicken pox, AIDS, and other diseases of the immune

8. There are 5 leukocytes grouped into two major

categories, granulocytes and agranulocytes. (See

 Granulocytes
o Neutrophils (very phagocitics)
(Most abundant)
o Eosinophils (kills parasites and
o Basophils (release heparin and
histamines – reduces blood clotting)
 Agranulocytes
o Monocytes (very phagocytic)
o Lymphocytes (B cell and T cell,
produce antibodies) (Second

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9. Granulocytes, which are larger than erythrocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils and
basophils. Their nuclei are lobes shaped in many ways (polymorphonuclear). They have a
short life span (hours to a few days). All granulocytes can do phagocytosis. Why? The
granules are strong digestive enzymes. Remember: lysosomes are known as the garbage
disposals of the cells.
a. Neutrophils – more abundant of all the leukocytes (62%), engulf bacteria and fungi
b. Eosinophils – 2.3% of all the leukocytes, destroy parasitic worms by releasing
digestive enzymes on the worm surface.
c. Basophils – rarest leukocytes, 0.5% of all the leukocyte population, release
(1) Histamine - an inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator, increases
blood flow and makes blood vessels leaky
(2) Heparin - inhibits blood clotting

10. Agranulocytes include monocytes and lymphocytes. They lack cytoplasmic granules, and
their nuclei are spherical. Live longer than granulocytes (months to years).
a. Lymphocytes – about 30% of all the leukocytes, but a small amount is found in the
bloodstream, found mostly in the lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils,
etc.), produce antibodies (antibodies destroy foreign particles), may live 100 to 300
days of even years.
(1) T lymphocytes (T cells) attack virus infected cells and tumor cells. Differentiate in
the thymus.
(2) B lymphocytes (B cells) secrete antibodies that destroy foreign substances.
Differentiate in the bone marrow.
b. Monocytes – 5% of all the leukocytes, may live from weeks to months or even years,
very phagocytic. When monocytes enter the site of attack, they begin to grow in size
(5X) and develop into macrophages, which can engulf very large objects.
c. We have macrophages in all routes by which invading organisms frequently enter the
1) The skin (broken skin)
2) The alveolar walls
3) In the liver (for the portal blood circulation). They are
known as the Kupffer cells.
4) The lymph nodes (For the lymph, because it does not
enter the liver.)
 The skin (langerhan’s cells)
 The alveoli (Alveolar macroghpages)
 The liver (Kupffer cells)
 The lymph nodes (lymph nodes macrophages)
11. To remember the leukocytes in order from most abundant to
least abundant: Never let monkeys eat bananas.

Of the blood cells – 98% is RBC and 2% is WBC

Diapedesis - Chemotaxis
 WBC’s follow chemical trails left by damaged cells or by other leukocytes.

A cancerous growth of nonfunctional leukocytes that overcrowds the RBS’s and causes anemia.

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1. Sometimes called thrombocytes (thrombo = clot). Contain chemicals that act in the clotting
process. (Basophils are the antagonist to the platelets. Basophils are anticlotting agents.
They secrete heparin.)
2. Not a real cell, but cytoplasmic fragments of the disintegrating megakaryocytes.
3. Half the size of an erythrocyte.
4. Capable of amoeboid movement.
5. Life span is about 10 days.
6. Thrombocytopenia - A condition in which the number of circulating platelets is deficient,
causes spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels all over the body.
7. Platelets count per cubic millimeter is 130,000 to 360,000.

8. Play a key role in hemostasis (stoppage of bleeding) of a ruptured vessel. (See Overhead.)
Three steps of hemostasis:
a. Vascular spasm (vasoconstriction) – vessel contracts and blood flow is reduced.
Vasocontraction is also caused by serotonin, which is secreted by the platelets to
contract the smooth muscles of the walls. The spasm lasts long enough (20-30
minutes) to allow for the formation of
a platelet plug.
b. Platelet plug (by platelets
aggregation) – Platelets contact the
exposed collagen fibers of the ruptured
blood vessel and begin to release the
platelet factor (makes them sticky and
attract other platelets. They swell,
become sticky and adhere to each other
and to the exposed collagen fiber to
form a platelet plug. Platelet plugs
control the blood loss from small
breaks. Larger ones may need a blood
c. Blood clot formation. (See overhead
and handout with illustration. p320)

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Platelet factors and collagen factors released, combine with calcium in the plasma and
form an enzyme known as prothrombin activator. The prothombin activator plus the
calcium in the blood combine to stimulate the conversion of prothombin (an inactive
coagulating factor present in the blood) into thrombin (an active enzyme). Thrombin
converts fibrinogen (a soluble protein in the blood) into fibrin threads within 10 to 15
seconds. These threads form a mesh that traps RBCs and plasma to form a clot. It must
be in the presence of calcium.
d. Vitamin K is required by the liver for production of clotting factors. Vitamin K is fat
soluble. Vitamin K deficiency can occur if fat absorption is impaired and also if dietary
fat is severely restricted.
 Sources of vitamin K: green leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, etc. Vitamin K is also
the product of bacterial digestion in the colon.
e. Vitamin E is a potent anticoagulant. A vitamin K antagonist.
 Sources of vitamin E: nuts, seeds especially sunflower seeds, whole grains, avocados,
olives, vegetable oils, wheat germ, green leafy vegetables, unrefined vegetable oils, etc.
 Heparin – is secreted by Basophils
f. Fibrinolysis - When vessel is repaired, clot is digested within two days.
g. Undesirable blood clots – Abnormal blood clot formation can occur due to changes in
the lining of vessels (Simple Squamous Epithelium). For example: atherosclerosis,
smoking, high blood pressure, are factors that may damage the lining of vessels. Those
changes initiate undesirable blood clots. Can lead to complete occlusion.
1) Thrombus is a nonmoving clot.
2) Embolus is a clot that broke loose and is circulating in the blood. Emboli can reach
narrow places in the vessels and interfere with blood flow. This is very dangerous.

h. Hemophilia – a bleeding disorder due to a deficiency of coagulating factors.
1) Hemophilia affects mostly men.
2) Symptoms: Severe bleeding episodes throughout lifetime. First episode before the
age of 18 months. IV injections can cause large hematomas (masses of blood
confined to an organ, tissue or space due to tissue hemorrhage). Even a light blow to
the head may cause intracranial bleeding.
3) Dental extractions or surgeries can precipitate severe bleeding episodes that could
be fatal.
4) No cure.
5) Life expectancy of a hemophilic depends on the deficiency level of the coagulating
(a) Severe deficiencies with severe bleeding episodes = early death.
(b) Mild deficiencies with mild bleeding episodes = possible normal life span if
properly managed.
6) Treatment: Replacement therapy (blood or plasma transfusion, which contain the
lacking factor) and oral administration of coagulating factors. These therapies
provide relief for several days only.
7) Recommendations: Avoid trauma and the use of aspirin, which has an anticoagulant
effect. Carry identification as a hemophiliac in case of an accident.

Three Steps to Homeostasis

The arrest of bleeding or circulation of the blood
1. Vascular Spasm – injured smooth muscles

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2. Platelet Plug
3. Blood Clot Formation

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The Cardiovascular System
1. Ancient cultures believed that the heart was the seat of intelligence and the source of
emotions. Although those theories have proven false, we do know that emotions affect
heart rate. Hormones of the endocrine system (norepinephrine and epinephrine) and nerve
fibers from the sympathetic system can increase the heart rate dramatically.

2. The heart does not work alone. It is part of a system, the cardiovascular system, which
consists of:
a. The heart - A powerful pump connected to
b. Hollow blood vessels - An extensive system of pipes that run throughout the body
c. Blood (a connective tissue) as the transport medium to propel oxygen, nutrients,
hormones, wastes, and other substances to and from the cells.

Anatomy of the Heart

1. Size and location.
a. About the size of a fist. Weighs less than a pound. It’s about 5 inches long and 3 ½ inches
b. Has two pumps
c. Hollow, cone shaped organ.
d. Enclosed in the pericardial cavity of the mediastinum, intermediate between the
right and left lungs, posterior to the sternum, and anterior to the vertebral column.
e. The base, the flat posterior surface beneath the second rib, attaches to large blood
vessels, is about 3 ½ inches wide, and it points toward the right shoulder.
f. The apex, a pointed end found between the 5th and the 6th ribs, points inferiorly toward
the left hip.

2. Coverings of the heart (See Overhead.)

a. Pericardium – A double layered sac that protects the heart.
1) The outer layer is called the fibrous pericardium (dense connective tissue that
protects the heart and anchors it to the diaphragm, vessels, sternum, and vertebral
2) The inner layer is called the serous pericardium, and has 2 layers:
(a) The parietal layer of the serous pericardium, lines the fibrous pericardium.
(b) The visceral layer of the serous pericardium, also known as the epicardium.
(c) Between the parietal and visceral layers a space, called the pericardial cavity
contains a serous fluid that reduces the friction between the pericardial serous
membranes as the heart moves.
b. Pericarditis – inflammation of the pericardium that hinders the production of serous
fluid and the heart rubs against the pericardium causing a sound known as pericardial friction.
Pericardia may stick together, which interferes with the activity of the heart. In severe
pericarditis excess inflammation fluid can seep between layers of the pericardium limiting the
heart’s pumping ability. This is known as “cardiac tamponade.”

PEME – Pericardium, Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium

3. Three layers of the heart wall (very vascular layers)

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4. Epicardium (corresponds to the visceral pericardium) – a serous membrane of epithelial
tissue that reduces friction.
a. Myocardium – a thick layer of cardiac muscle that forms the bulk of the heart. It is the
Heart valves layer that contracts and forces the blood out of the heart chambers. Supplied with blood
open and close capillaries, lymph capillaries, and nerve fibers (axons of neurons).
in response to (1) The myocardium around the left ventricle is 3X thicker than the myocardium
difference in around the right ventricle.
blood pressure
(2) The left ventricle must force the blood to all parts of the body (the systemic
on either side.
circuit). Right ventricle pumps blood a short distance (the pulmonary circuit);
b. Endocardium – squamous epithelium that lines the heart chambers.

 Inflammation of the Wall

1. Percarditis - inflammation of the paricardium
2. Endocarditis - inflammation of the endocardium and also the valves
3. Myocarditis – inflammation of the myocardium

Heart chambers and valves

a. 4 chambers – 2 superior atria
(singular, atrium), and 2 inferior
ventricles. The four of them
constitute two side-by-side pumps
(two hearts).
b. The atria receive blood returning to
the heart.
1) Right atrium receives blood
from the systemic circuit
through 3 veins: (See
(a) Superior vena cava –
drains blood from body
parts superior to the
diaphragm, except blood
returning from the
pulmonary circuit and the coronary ci rcuit.
(b) Inferior vena cava – drains blood from body parts below the diaphragm.
(c) Coronary sinus (large, flat vein in the
coronary sulcus) drains blood from the
2) Left atrium receives blood from the lungs
through the pulmonary veins.
3) The atria are small and have thin walls because
they do not need to contract too much to push
blood into the ventricles.
4) Auricles -Small appendages called (little ears),
which increase the atrial volume.
c. The ventricles
(1) Receive blood from the atria through the
atrioventricular valves. The atrioventricular
valves prevent backflow to the atria when the ventricles contract.
(a) Tricuspid valve on the right. (Three)

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(b) Bicuspid or mitral <m' tral> valve on the left) (Two)
 The papillary muscles and the chordae tendineae play a role in the
atrioventricular valve function. (They keep the atrioventricular valves from
being pushed to far into the atria.)
(2) Ventricles contract to force blood out into the arteries through the semilunar
(a) The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backflow to the heart during
ventricular relaxation. The pulmonary trunk, exiting the right ventricle, divides
into right and left pulmonary arteries transporting deoxygenated blood to the
lungs for gas exchange (pulmonary circuit).
(b) The aortic semilunar valve prevents backflow during ventricular relaxation.
The aorta, exiting the left ventricle, transports oxygenated blood to the systemic
(c) Systole Pressure (Top), Dyastole (Bottom) Relaxed – to the Atria contract and
the ventricle relax, then vice versa.
(3) There are no valves guarding the entrances of the venae cavae and pulmonary veins
into the right and left atria, respectively. Small amounts of blood do spurt back onto
these vessels during atrial contraction, but blood backflow is largely prevented
because the atrial myocardium compresses these venous entry points as it
d. Interatrial or interventricular septum – a partition that divides the heart longitudinally
and does not allow blood from one side to go into the other side.

Valvular Incompetence
1. A condition in which blood leaks in the wrong direction because the valves is closing
improperly. Also known as valvular regurgitation.
2. Leaky Valve – does not close completely
3. Valvular Stenosis – Vales does not open completely.
a. The flaps become stiff (Stenosis) the restrict the opening. That increases the load of
the heart. If in the left it will create congestion in the Lungs which is known as
“Congestive Heart Failure.” If in the right side of the heart it creates congestion in
the legs.
b. This is more common in the mitra valve. And the artic valve.
4. Murmur – The sound of regulation, the sound produced by the vibration of the thin
myocardium in the old or infants.

The fetal heart

a. The foramen ovale - The adult
interatrial septum bears a shallow
depression known as fossa ovale, which
marks the spot where an opening, the
foramen ovale, existed in the fetal heart.
The foramen ovale is a bypass of the
pulmonary circuit. Closure of the
foramen ovale begins immediately after
birth and is completed within a year.
b. The ductus arteriosum – This is another
bypass of the pulmonary circuit found
between the aorta and the pulmonary

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trunk. Its closure also begins immediately after birth. Only a remnant is left, which is
known as the ligamentum arteriosum.
c. 70% of the fetal blood goes through these bypasses. The other 30% may go through the
pulmonary trunk but will not be for gas exchange (fetal lungs are collapsed), only for
tissue nourishment.
d. The umbilical arteries and umbilical vein of the umbilical cord provide gas exchange for
the fetus.
e. Congenital heart failure – If any of these bypasses fail to close, it results in a congenital
heart failure.

5. Heart Skeleton – Rings of fibrous connective tissue surround the semilunar and AV valves
to provide attachment for the valves and to prevent AV valves dilation during contraction of
the myocardium. Dense fibrous connective tissue is present also in the septum.

Pathway of blood
a. Ventricles and atria are sometimes referred to as the right heart and the left heart.
b. They are two pumps, each serving a separate circuit:
1) The pulmonary circuit is served by the right heart.
 Pathway: Oxygen-poor/carbon dioxide rich blood goes from the right ventricle
through pulmonary semilunar valve  pulmonary trunk  right and left
pulmonary arteries  lungs  pulmonary veins left atrium  through
atrioventricular bicuspid valve  left ventricle.)
2) The systemic circuit is served by the left heart.
 Pathway: Oxygen-rich blood goes from the left ventricle  through the aortic
semilunar valve  aorta  smaller arteries  systemic capillaries  small veins 
venae cavae  to the right atrium  through the tricuspid atrioventricular valve
 right ventricle.

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Note: It takes around 60 seconds for one drop of blood to go around the whole system.

Blood supply to the heart (Coronary Circulation)

a. It is part of the systemic circulation.
b. The heart is beating constantly to supply blood to all the body tissues, so the cells of the
cardiac muscle (the myocardium) require a constant supply of oxygen.
c. The first two branches of the aorta supply blood to the heart.
1) The right coronary artery and the left coronary artery, which subdivide into
anterior and posterior interventricular arteries and the marginal artery, etc.
2) The openings to the right and left coronary arteries are just beyond the semilunar
aortic valve.
d. After passing through capillary beds of the myocardium, venous blood is collected by
the cardiac veins to be returned to the heart.
e. In the posterior side of the heart all the cardiac veins join to form a very large vessel
known as the coronary sinus or great cardiac vein, which drains the blood into the
right atrium.
f. IMPORTANT: Any blockage to the coronary arteries can be very serious or even
1) Partial obstruction results in reduced oxygen supply to myocardial cells (ischemia
= lack of blood), which in turn results in angina pectoris (thoracic pain). Cells are
weakened, but they do not die.
2) However, in complete obstruction
(coronary thrombosis or blot clot
obstruction) cells die and it results
in a myocardial infarction (heart
attack). Whether a person survives a
myocardial infarction depends on the
extent and location of the damage.
3) Contraction of the myocardium
shortly blocks the coronary arteries.
The myocardium receives blood only
during diastole. If the heart rate is
high, plus there is atherosclerosis in
the coronary arteries, the blood supply to the myocardium is seriously decreased,
which results in damage to the cardiac muscle.

Coronary Occlusion
 CHD – Coronary heart disease
 Partial or complete blocking of coronary artery.
Angina pectoris.
 Complete obstruction of coronary arteries - heart
 Atherosclerosis -

Congestive Heart Failure

 CHF – the heart is not pumping efficiently. It is the
result of other cardiac conditions.
 Because there is less blood being pumped the heart has to work more, this enlarges the

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 It is going to congest in the lungs.

Heart Actions
1. Cardiac cycle
a. Cardiac cycle is all the events associated
with the flow of blood through the heart
during one complete heartbeat. In other
words, a cardiac cycle is atrial systole and
diastole followed by ventricle systole and
b. The term systole and diastole refer to the
contraction and relaxation period of heart
c. Each chamber goes through a systole and diastole period.
1) When the atria relax (diastole), blood flows into them from the large venae cavae,
the coronary sinus, and the pulmonary veins. As pressure increases in those
chambers, the A-V valves open and allow 70% of the blood to flow passively into the
ventricles. As blood is flowing into the ventricles the atria contract (systole) and
force the rest of the
(1) .
(2) Begins the chemical digestion of carbohydrates with amylase (a digestive
2) Dissolves food blood (30%) into the ventricles.
3) Due to increased pressure in the ventricles, the A-V valves close, the ventricles
contract (systole) and the semilunar valves are forced open. Blood is ejected into
the large arteries (pulmonary trunk and aorta). Pressure in the ventricles drop and
they relax (diastole). Blood in the arteries begin to back flow, which causes the
semilunar valves to close.
4) The cardiac cycle includes all the events associated with the flow of blood through
the heart during one complete heartbeat - that is, atrial systole and diastole
followed by ventricular systole and diastole.
5) One heartbeat equals a cardiac cycle.
6) Heart rate is the total heartbeats in a minute. The average heart rate is 70 to 80
heartbeats per minute.
7) Sinoatrial (SA) node, AV node, atrioventricular bundle – The SA node is also
known as the heart pacemaker. It is a mass of conducting cells located in the right
atrium (below the superior vena cava). It generates impulses that cause contraction
of cardiac muscle (70 to 80 per minute). Impulses from SA node travel to the AV
node (near the tricuspid valve) and down the septum on the atrioventricular
8) Tachycardia – heart rate >100.
9) Bradycardia – heart rate <60
10) LUBB-DUPP – is the sound of the opening and closing of the valves. This is one heart

2. Cardiac Output is the quantity of blood pumped into the aorta each minute by the heart. a.
Cardiac output = Stroke Volume (SV) x Heart Rate (HR)
c. Stroke volume = the volume of blood pumped by a ventricle with each heartbeat.
d. CO = SV X HR

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e. CO = Is the quantity of blood pumped into the aorta in a minute.
f. SV = is the volume of blood pumped by a ventricle with each heart beat.
g. HR = is total heart beats in a minute.
h. Tachycardia = HR > 100
i. Bracdycardia = HR < 60
j. Ventricular Diastole = as preasure increases in the atria, the AV valves open and allow
about 70% of the blood to flow passively into the ventricles. Then atria contacts to force
the rest of the blood in the ventricles.

3. Venous return is the quantity of blood flowing from the veins into the right atrium each
a. The venous return and the cardiac output are most of the time equal to each other.
b. Blood in the veins is under low pressure. The venous return is aided by four factors
known as the muscular pump, the venous valve
c. Comes from the venae cavae and the coronary sinus into the right atrium each minute.

Factors that contribute to venous return

 Respiratory Pump
o Main organ is the diaphragm
 Muscular Pump
 Venous Valves – one way valves that help the blood
to move one way up back to the heart.
 Large Lumen – the hollow space inside the vain
 Venous Constriction – nervous impulse to vain to

S-A Node
 The nature pace maker for the heart
 Sometimes controlled by the medulla oblongata.
 A-V Node controls the rate of the heart.
 A-V bundles – this is the fibers that send the impulses.

4. Heart sounds
a. A heartbeat sounds like lub-dub.
b. It is due to vibration in the heart
tissues during the opening and
closing of the valves.
c. The lub occurs when the A-V valves
close, during ventricular contraction
d. The dub occurs when the semilunar
valves snap shut, during ventricular
relaxation (diastole).
e. Heart murmurs are abnormal or
unusual heart sounds that often
indicate valve problems (leaking or
incompetent valves that allow blood
backflow). Such backflow is known as
regurgitation. Regurgitation

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produces the sounds known as murmurs. However, the thin heart walls in old people or
young children may vibrate with the rushing blood and produce heart murmurs also.

5. Cardiac muscle fibers (See Overhead.).

a. Cardiac muscle fibers, like skeletal muscle fibers, are striated.
b. Contraction is accomplished by the sliding filament mechanism.
c. Cardiac muscle fibers are short, branched, and interconnected by the intercalated discs,
whereas skeletal muscle fibers are independent of one another.
d. Because of this interconnection of the cardiac fibers, the entire myocardium functions as
a single unit

6. Electrocardiogram - This is the recording of the electrical changes in the myocardium

during a cardiac cycle.

Blood Vessels

1. The blood vessels of the body form a closed delivery system that begins and ends at the
heart. Function: blood transport

2. There are three major types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries, and veins.

3. The walls of blood vessels, except for the very small capillaries, are composed of three
layers or tunics that surround the central opening known as lumen.
a. Tunica interna or intima (in intimate contact with the blood)– contains the
endothelium (very smooth simple squamous epithelium) and a subendothelial layer of
loose connective tissue that supports the endothelium. Very thin in both arteries and
b. Tunica media – a layer of smooth muscle cells that contract (vasoconstriction) and
relax (vasodilation) depending on the needs of the body. Vasoconstriction and
vasodilation are actions regulated by the autonomic nervous system to control blood
pressure. This layer is thicker in arteries. It contains elastic fibers and elastin sheets.
c. Tunica externa or adventitia (“coming from outside”)– Composed mainly of collagen
fibers that protects the blood vessels. Has nerve fibers and very tiny blood vessels
(nourish the external tissues of the blood vessel walls).
Blood pressure in
Arteries vessels decreases as
distance from the left
(BP =120 to 70 mm Hg) ventricle increases.
a. Carry oxygenated blood (except for the pulmonary arteries) away from the heart
under high pressure.
b. There are three groups of arteries that “branch” down. (Not in the book.)
1) Elastic arteries – (aorta and major branches)
(a) Thick arteries near the heart that conduct the blood from the heart to medium-
sized arteries. Know as conductive arteries.
(b) Largest in diameter and the most elastic.
Arteriosclerosis (c) Have a large lumen.
(a) Are very distensible (capacity to stretch) because they contain elastin in all
is hardening of
three tunics, which allows arteries to expand and recoil adjusting to changes
the blood vessel. in blood volume. The tunica media of the elastic arteries contains most of the
results in increased
elastin (elastic membrane. (See Overhead)
peripheral resistance,
which leads to HBP.
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(b) If blood pressure is constantly high, arteries weaken and may balloon out
(aneurysm) and even burst. It is the same as a hernia.
2) Muscular (distributing) arteries –
(a) Deliver blood to organs (kidneys, heart, liver, etc.) Known as distributing arteries
(b) Contain less elastin than elastic arteries.
(c) Their tunica media is thicker (more smooth muscle fiber) because these arteries
are more active in vasoconstriction.
3) Arterioles -
(a) The smallest of the arteries.
(b) Contain very little elastin.
(c) Larger arterioles have the three tunics (each very thin).
(d) The smaller arterioles have no tunica externa. They are merely a very thin
layer of smooth muscle cells (tunica media) around the endothelial lining

(BP = 40 to 20 mm Hg. 40 in the beginning and 20 at the end of the capillary bed)
a. Microscopic blood vessels.
b. Consist of tunica interna only (very thin endothelium). So thin that RBCs have to flow
through in single file.
c. Semipermeable vessels, through which substances are exchanged between blood and
tissue fluids (interstitial fluid).
d. Function: allow for exchange of material (gases, nutrients, hormones, ions, etc.)
between blood and interstitial fluid. The exchange is done by diffusion (from higher
concentration to lower concentration- oxygen and nutrients), filtration (molecules are
forced through the membrane by pressure) and osmosis (diffusion of water).
e. Capillaries do not function independently. They form a network called capillary beds.
f. Smooth muscle fibers (precapillary sphincters) encircle capillary entrances and
regulate blood distribution in the capillaries. If cells are low in oxygen or nutrients,
sphincters relax and blood flows in.
g. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation of arterioles and the precapillary sphincters
determine the route of blood flow. Example: during exercise blood flow is
increased to capillary beds of the skeletal muscles, while blood flow to capillary
network of the digestive tract is reduced.
h. Most tissue have a rich capillary supply (tendons and ligaments are poorly
vascularized). Tissues that require large quantities of oxygen and nutrients (muscle and
nerve) have more capillaries than tissues that require less oxygen and nutrients.
Cartilage and epidermis lack capillaries.
i. The blood that flows from arterioles to venules through capillary beds is called

(drain blood from capillaries) (BP in all veins = aprox. 20 mm Hg)
a. Blood is carried from the capillaries to the heart by veins that “merge.”
b. Capillaries join/merge to form venules.
c. Smaller venules = only endothelium (tunica interna).
d. Larger venules = may have the three tunics (interna, media and externa) but each is
very thin.

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a. Venules join/merge to form veins.
b. Veins have three tunics; but they are thinner. As a result veins have thinner walls than
arteries, and they collapse.
c. Large lumen.
d. Carry blood under low pressure (about 20 mm Hg).
e. Low pressure condition demands some special adaptation to help return blood to the
heart. There are five factors aiding venous return:
(1) Respiratory pump – abdominal pressure increases, which forces blood to the
thoracic cavity
(2) Muscular pump – Skeletal muscles around deep veins contract and squeeze or milk
the blood.
 Skeletal muscle inactivity during prolonged period of standing may result in
swollen ankles because blood poolins in the feet.
(3) Large lumen – The larger the lumen the lower the peripheral resistance.
(4) Venous valves (formed from folds of the tunica intima) – Only open upward,
preventing backflow of blood.
(5) Venous Constriction - low venous pressure stimulates SNS, which stimulates
smooth muscle in the walls of veins to contract.
f. Venous valves are abundant in veins of the limbs. They are absent in veins of the ventral
g. Varicose veins are veins that have become tortuous and dilated because of
incompetent venous valves. Causes: prolong standing, obesity, pregnancy and
constipation. The belly of an obese person or a pregnant lady exerts pressure on vessels
of the groin. This restricts return of blood to the heart. Blood pools in the legs and, with
time, the valves weaken and the venous walls stretch and become floppy.
h. Venous sinuses are large flattened veins with extremely thin walls that are supported
by the tissues around them. Example: coronary sinus supported by the pericardium,
the dural sinus in the dural space.

Blood Pressure
1. Blood pressure is the force the blood exerts against the inner walls of blood vessels.
2. The direct cause of blood pressure is the volume of blood in the vessels. The larger the
blood volume, the more pressure the blood exerts on the walls of the arteries.
3. Prolonged hypertension causes the myocardium to thicken and the heart enlarges. If
coronary heart vessels cannot supply all myocardium, heart muscle fibers die and heart
4. Blood pressure changes with age. In a newborn baby BP is 90/55. This tends to increase
with age, due to arteriosclerosis (hardening of the vessels). Elastin in blood vessels
deteriorates and walls are not so distensible.
5. This force occurs throughout the whole vascular system, but it is highest in the arteries and
lowest in the veins. The term blood pressure usually refers to pressure in the larger
arteries (elastic arteries) near the heart.
6. Ventricular systole forces blood into the pulmonary trunk and aorta, which increases the
pressure in these arteries. Since the pumping of the heart is intermittent, the arterial
pressure fluctuates between a systolic pressure of 120 and a diastolic pressure of 80. The
maximum pressure during ventricular systole is called systolic pressure. During
ventricular diastole the arterial pressure drops, and the lowest pressure before the
next ventricular systole is diastolic pressure.

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7. Blood pressure is expressed in terms of millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). 120 mm Hg is
equal to the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 120 mm high.
8. As the blood flows through the systemic circulation, the blood pressure drops until it gets to
near zero in the large venae cavae.
9. Factors that influence arterial blood pressure are:
a. Cardiac output = the blood volume discharged from the left ventricle per minute.
(Higher cardiac output = higher pressure because it increases blood volume in the
(1) Cardiac output depends on heart rate. Heart rate is controlled by sympathetic and
parasympathetic division of nervous system and by the hormones of the adrenal
(2) Often, when the heart rate increases, each contraction of the left ventricle takes
place so rapidly that it has little time to fill, and it squeezes out much less blood than
usual into the aorta. Lower stroke volume results in lower pressure.

b. Blood volume = the amount of blood in the vascular system. (Average is 5 liters.)
Hemorrhage reduces blood volume. High sodium or glucose increases blood volume
because of an increase in osmotic pressure.
c. Peripheral resistance = Resistance is opposition to flow produced by friction between
the blood and the walls of blood vessels. (Higher resistance = higher pressure.) There
are three factors that increase resistance:
1) Blood viscosity
2) Length of vessels
3) Diameter of vessels - Vasoconstriction and vasodilation affect the peripheral
(a) A hot footbath induces vasodilation and decreases the peripheral resistance.
(b) Atherosclerosis can increase the resistance by decreasing the diameter of the
vessel. (The smaller the vessel the greater the peripheral resistance.)
(c) Arteriosclerosis can increase the resistance by decreasing the distensibility of
the vessel.
d. Blood viscosity = thickness of the blood. (The greater the viscosity, the greater the
force required to move the blood through the vascular system.) Polycythemia (too many
erythrocytes) increases the viscosity of the blood.
e. Total blood vessel length increases peripheral resistance = higher blood pressure.
Example: an extra pound or two of fat requires that miles of small vessels be added to
service the new tissue.
f. Fear, anger, exercise, and rise in body temperature.

Hypertension = persistent high blood pressure.

a. Possible causes:
1) Kidney tumor or diseases (increases blood volume)
2) High sodium intake (increases blood volume)
3) Obesity (increases total blood vessel length, which increases peripheral resistance)
4) Stress (sympathetic nervous system response – increased heart rate, etc.) If
sustained high blood pressure, the baroreceptors tend to “reset” to monitor
pressure changes at a higher set point. This is why exercise is an important factor in
the prevention and control of hypertension. Stress is eliminated and baroreceptors
will not “reset” the set point.
5) Arteriosclerosis (loss of elasticity of the vessels) increases peripheral resistance
6) Atherosclerosis (accumulation of fatty plaque or lipid containing material reduces

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diameter of the blood vessel, which also increases peripheral resistance)
7) Hormonal imbalance
(a) Aldosterone hypersecretion (mineralocorticoid of the adrenal cortex) -
Aldosterone reduces excretion of sodium from the body by stimulating sodium
reabsorption into bloodstream, and where sodium goes water follows, which
leads to increase blood volume and HBP.
(b) Epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenal medulla)– Constrict blood vessels,
which increases peripheral resistance. Also increase heart rate, which may
increase cardiac output.
(c) Antidiuretic hormone (neurohypophysis) – Increases retention of water,
which increases blood volume.

Hypertension can lead to left heart failure.

 Left heart weakens because of work overload.
 Ventricle cannot pump out all of its blood.
 Blood dams back to the left atrium and into the pulmonary veins.
 Pulmonary circuit becomes congested, which increases blood pressure in the pulmonary
 Fluid in the pulmonary capillaries filtrate into the interstitial spaces and into the alveoli
(pulmonary edema)
 This impairs gas exchange, which can be life threatening.

Blood pressure homeostasis

–By baroreceptors and hormonal control
a. Baroreceptors are located in the carotid, aorta and nearly all elastic arteries of neck
and thorax. When blood pressure increases baroreceptors are stretched, which sends
impulses to vasomotor center of the medulla oblongata. (Vasomotor center in the
medulla oblongata contains clusters of nerve fibers that stimulate vasoconstriction.)
The vasomotor center is inhibited when impulses from the baroreceptors are received.
That results in vasodilation, which decreases the BP.
b. Baroreceptors also send impulses to other medulla centers (1) the cardio inhibitory
center (parasympathetic fibers) and (2) the cardio acceleratory center (sympathetic
fibers). Impulses from these centers are send to the SA node and the heart rate either
increases or decreases.

is the cause of ischemic heart disease (insufficient coronary blood flow).
a. A common site for development of atherosclerotic plaque is the first few centimeters of
the major coronary arteries.
b. Atherosclerosis causes a rough endothelium.
c. That leads to platelet aggregation and fibrin production.
d. A thrombus (a non-moving blood clot, attached blood clot) is formed.
e. Thrombus continues to grow until it occludes the artery
f. Or the clot breaks away (an embolus) and blocks a more distal coronary artery.
g. After the coronary occlusion, blood flow ceases beyond the occlusion, which results in
necrosis (death of the tissue) known as myocardial infarction.

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The Digestive System

1. Digestion – The mechanical and chemical

breakdown of foods into nutrients that cell
membranes can absorb.

2. Accomplished by the alimentary canal also

known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which
is a continuous, muscular digestive tube from
the mouth to the rectum.

3. The GI tract digests (dissolves) food, and

absorbs the digested fragments through its
lining into the blood.

Digestive Processes
The processing of food by the digestive system involves
six essential activities: ingestion, propulsion,
mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation.

1. Ingestion – taking of food into the GI tract via the mouth. (Only the mouth ingests.)
2. Propulsion – moving food through the GI tract. Includes:
a. Swallowing (initiated voluntarily by the tongue)
b. Peristalsis (peri = around; stalsis = constriction) Involuntary process of alternate waves
of contraction and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls. Squeezes food from one
organ to the next. Peristaltic waves are so powerful that food and fluids will reach your
stomach even if you stand on your head.
3. Mechanical digestion – physical preparation of food for chemical digestion. Only the
appearance of the food changes. Mechanical processes include:
a. Mixing of food with saliva by the tongue
b. Churning food in the stomach (very powerful contractions, three layers of muscle
c. Segmentation – a rhythmic local constrictions of the small intestine that mixes food
with digestive juices and increases absorption by moving the chyme closer to the
intestinal wall.
4. Chemical digestion – a series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are
broken down to their chemical building blocks or monomers. (Carbohydrates into
monosaccharides, fats into fatty acids, proteins into amino acids, and nucleic acids into
a. Chemical digestion is accomplished by enzymes secreted by various glands into the
lumen of the GI tract.
(1) Salivary amylase – Salivary Glands
(2) Gastric enzymes - Pepsinogen (chief cells), HCl, and Intrinsic factor (Not enzymes,
but part of the gastric juice.) (parietal cells)
(3) Bile – Liver cells (Not an enzyme but needed for the emulsification of fats.)
(4) Pancreatic enzymes – pancreatic amylase, lipase and protease (Secreted by the
acinar cells of the pancreas)

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(5) Intestinal enzymes - maltase, sucrase, lactase, lipases, proteases – Secreted by the
brush border (secretory cells of the small intestine)
b. Enzymatic breakdown or chemical digestion of food begins in the mouth and is
completed in the small intestine.
5. Absorption – the passage of digested end products (monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty
acids) plus vitamins, minerals, water, etc., from the lumen of the GI tract into the blood or
lymph. Most of the absorption takes place in the small intestine.
6. Defecation – Elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus in the form
of feces. (Only the large intestine defecates.)

Components of the Gastric Juice

 Pepsin – formed by the activation of pepsinogen in the presence of HCl. Pespsinogen is
secreted by the chief cells of the gastric glands.
 HCl – activates pepsinogen, lowers the pH in the stomach. Secreted by the parietal cells.
 Intrinsic Factor – Binds to B12 and protects it from the low pH. Necessary for B12
absorption in the ileum. Secreted by the parietal cells.
 Mucus – Lubricaton and compacting of the chime. Secreated by surface mucus cells, mucus
neck cells and goblet cells.

All these cells are found in the gastric glad.

Structure of the Wall of the GI Tract

1. The GI tract in a cadaver is
approximately 9 meters long
(about 30 feet). Shorter in a
living person because of muscle
2. Food material within this tube
is technically outside the body
because the canal is open to
external environment at both
3. Most of the alimentary tract
resides in the abdominopelvic
cavity (esophagus is in the
thoracic cavity). Remember
that the ventral body cavities
contain a slippery serous
membrane. In the
abdominopelvic cavity this
membrane is call the
peritoneum – the visceral
peritoneum and the parietal
peritoneum. Between the two
peritoneum is the peritoneal
cavity filled with serous fluid that protects the organs as they carry out their digestive
4. From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are
made up of the same four basic layers:

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a. The mucosa
1) Most inner layer around the lumen.
2) An endothelium made mostly of simple columnar epithelium (from the stomach
and down) rich in mucus-secreting goblet cells. Mouth, pharynx, and esophagus are
nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
3) May have folds (like rugae in the stomach), projections (like vili in the large
intestine), or circular folds (like folds in the small intestine).
4) Functions of the mucosa are:
(a) Secretion – the mucosa is a serous membrane that secretes a serous fluid. It also
secretes hormones and enzymes.
(b) Protection – Protects against infectious diseases with bactericidal secretions,
and mucus secreted by goblet cells protects some organs from being digested by
the strong digestive enzymes.
(c) Absorption – Vitamins, minerals, and water are absorbed into the blood.
b. The Submucosa
c. - Loose (areolar) connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels,
lymph nodes, and nerve fibers. The vessels nourish surrounding tissues and carry
away absorbed material.
d. The muscular layer
1) Consists of two layers of smooth
muscle tissue and nerve plexus (a
network of nerve fibers). The
muscular layer of the stomach has
three layers of muscle fibers -
circular, longitudinal, and the
2) Responsible for peristalsis,
churning, and segmentation.
When circular fibers contract, the
diameter of the tube decreases.
When the longitudinal fibers
contracts, the length of the tube
3) In several places along the GI tract
the circular layer thickens to form
sphincters that act as valves to
prevent backflow and control food
passage from one organ to the next.
(a) upper esophageal sphincter
(b) lower esophageal sphincter
(c) pyloric sphincter
(d) ileocecal valve
(e) external anal sphincter (of voluntary control)
(f) internal anal sphincter
4) A peristalsis wave occurs when a ring of smooth muscle fibers contracts at the
same time that the muscular wall just ahead of the ring relaxes.
e. The Serosa
1) Also known as the visceral peritoneum.
2) Made of loose areolar connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium.
3) It is a moist outer covering that protects the GI tract. Secretes serous fluid which

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moistens and lubricates the tube so that organs of abdominal cavity slide freely
against one another.

Six Sphincters of the GI Tract

1. Upper esophageal sphincter
2. Lower esophageal sphincter ( Cardiac sphincter)
3. Pyloric sphincter
4. Ileocecal valve
5. Internal anal sphincters
6. External anal sphincters

Organs of the Digestive System

(organs of the GI tract: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large
intestine; accessory organs: teeth, tongue, salivary gland, liver, gallbladder, pancreas)

1. Mouth or oral cavity (See Overhead)

a. Digestive function
1) Ingestion
2) Mechanical digestion (chewing and mixing food)
3) Chemical digestion of starches (a complex carbohydrate)
4) Propulsion (initiated by the tongue)
b. A chamber known as the oral cavity, and a space known as the vestibule between the
teeth, cheeks and lips.
c. Boundaries are the lips anteriorly, the cheeks laterally, the palate superiorly, and the
tongue inferiorly. Lips are made of skeletal muscles and sensory receptors helpful in
judging the temperature and texture of food.
d. Openings are: oral orifice anteriorly, and the fauces posteriorly.

e. Functions:
f. Begins ingestion and
g. mechanical digestion by reducing the size of solid particles and
h. mixing them with saliva (beginning of chemical digestion). Only of the complex
i. Tongue mixes the food with enzymes and mucuse, forms a bolus (propulsion)

j. Cheeks lining consists of moist (non-keratinized) stratified squamous epithelium.

Cheeks help maintain food out of the vestibule.
k. The tongue (an accessory organ of the digestive system)
(1) Consists largely of skeletal muscles
(2) Mixes food particles with saliva during chewing,
(3) Compacts the food into a bolus
(4) Pushes food toward the pharynx when swallowing
(5) Has papillae and taste buds (sensory receptors of taste)
(6) Posterior part of the tongue is anchored to the hyoid bone
(7) Contains the lingual tonsil in the posterior aspect (Lingual tonsil is a lymphatic
organ that helps protect the body against infections.)
l. Hard palate, soft palate and uvula. The palate is the roof of the mouth cavity. During
swallowing, the soft palate and the uvula move upward, preventing food from entering
the nasal cavity. If we try to talk or inhale while swallowing, the various protective

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mechanisms may be interrupted and food may enter the respiratory tract. This triggers
the cough reflex in an attempt to expel the food.
m. Palatine tonsils are located on either side of the fauces (back opening of the mouth).
These lymphatic organs are common sites of infections (tonsillitis) (tonsillectomy =
surgical extraction).
n. Pharyngeal tonsils – another lymphatic organ on the posterior wall of the pharynx.
Also known as adenoids. They may become infected and enlarged blocking the
o. Lingual tonsils (posterior surface of the tongue)

p. Tubal tonsils (around the opening of the auditory tube)

q. Pharangeal tonsils
r. Lingual tonsils
s. Palatine tonsils

t. Teeth (accessory organs of the digestive system) (See Overheads)

1) Primary teeth – There are ten in each jaw. Their roots are resorbed and pressure
from the secondary teeth pushes them out of their socket.
2) Secondary teeth – Sixteen in each jaw.
3) Teeth break food into smaller pieces, which enables digestive enzymes to mingle
more effectively with food molecules. There are four types:
(a) Incisors (-’) - bite pieces off large pieces of food.
(b) Cuspids – (one cusp or pointed projection) grasp and tear food.
(c) Bicuspids (two cusps) and (d) molars (four cusps)– grind food.
4) Parts: crown (part above the gingiva or gum), root (anchors the teeth to the
jawbone), neck (where the crown and the root meet), enamel (covers the crown),
dentin (part under the enamel, harder than bone), pulp cavity-within the crown,
root canal-within the root (contain blood vessels and nerves), cementum (encloses
the root and attaches the tooth to the jaw)
u. Mastication muscles – masseter and temporalis Salivation is
controlled by the
Salivary glands
division of the
(See Overhead (accessory organs of the digestive system) nervous system.
a. Functions of saliva:
Salivary centers
(3) Cleanses the mouth. are in the pons
(4) Protects against microorganisms with and medulla
(a) antibodies - immunoglobulin A (Ig A)
(b) bactericidal – lysozyme (enzyme that inhibits bacterial growth in the mouth and
protects against tooth decay)
(c) antibiotics - defensins, which function as cytokines to call defensive cell
(lymphocytes and phagocytes) into the mouth for battle
(5) Aids in propulsion (mucin) - Moistens and binds food particles, making a bolus
that is easy to swallowmolecules so they can be sensed by the gustatory cells in the
taste buds (97% water)
b. Extrinsic salivary glands - found outside the oral cavity and empty their secretions
into the mouth through ducts.
c. Intrinsic salivary glands - known as buccal glands that are found throughout the
mucosa of the oral cavity. These secrete saliva continuously.
d. There are 3 pairs of extrinsic salivary glands, which are major exocrine glands that
secrete saliva (not hormones) through ducts when food enters the mouth.

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e. Salivary glands are composed of serous (watery secretion containing enzymes) cells,
and mucous (sticky secretion) cells. These cells are present in varying proportions
within different glands.
(1) Parotid glands – Largest of the salivary glands. Secrete a serous fluid that contains
amylase, which begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Mumps is an inflammation
of the parotid gland caused by a virus that spreads from person to person in the
(2) Submandibular glands – Secrete serous fluid and mucus, which bind food
particles to make a bolus and to lubricate during swallowing.
(3) Sublingual glands – Smallest of the major salivary glands. More mucus than serous
f. Major components of saliva:
(1) Water – 97%
(2) Digestive enzymes - Most significant is amylase
(3) Mucus - Mucin
(4) Bactericidals - Ex: lysozyme
(5) Antibodies - Ex: Immunoglobulin A
(6) Antibiotics - Ex: defensins
g. Smelling, tasting, or thinking of food stimulates parasympathetic nerve impulses to
elicit secretion of large volumes of saliva.
h. Halitosis may be the result of a dried mouth because decomposing food particles are
allowed to accumulate in the mouth and bacteria can grow. Drinking water increases
secretion of saliva.

(Connects the nasal and oral cavity with the larynx and the esophagus.)
a. A passageway for food from the mouth to the esophagus (oropharynx and
b. Digestive function: food propulsion The muscular wall of the pharynx propels food
into the esophagus.
c. Mucosa membrane consists of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
d. Muscular layer is skeletal muscle. (Remember that first part of swallowing is a
voluntary action.)
e. Pharingitis – Inflammation of the pharynx.

a. A food passage, approximately 10 inches long, from the pharynx to the stomach.
b. Mucosa is non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
c. Muscular layer is
(1) First third = skeletal muscle fibers
(2) Second third = a mixture of skeletal muscle fibers and smooth muscle fibers
(3) Inferior third = only smooth muscle fibers
d. Glands in the mucosa secrete lubricating mucus that aids in food propulsion.
e. Begins at the base of the pharynx and descends behind the trachea, passing through
the mediastinum and penetrating the diaphragm through an opening called the
esophageal hiatus where it enters the abdomen to join the stomach. The esophageal
hiatus surrounds the cardiac sphincter of the stomach and helps keep it closed when
food is not being swallowed.

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f. Has two sphincters (upper esophageal and lower esophageal sphincters)
g. Hiatal hernia: A portion of the superior part of the stomach protrudes slightly above
the diaphragm. Since the diaphragm no longer reinforces the cardiac sphincter, gastric
juices may flow back into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux) causing heartburn.
If this reflux is prolonged, an esophageal ulcer may result.
h. Heartburn: (gastroesophageal reflux disease) Burning pain that occurs when gastric
juice regurgitates into the esophagus. Symptoms are similar to those of a heart attack.
Heartburn is most likely to occur when one has eaten or drunk to excess or in
conditions such as extreme obesity, pregnancy, and running.
i. Caffeine
j. Tobacco
k. Stress
l. Running
m. Spicy or fatty foods, citrus, onion, coffee, or alcohol
n. Shortage of saliva
o. Side effects of certain drugs

p. Natural Treatment for heartburn: (1)Aloe vera one hour after meals or any time
heartburn occurs helps reduce burning pain by coating the walls of the esophagus. (2)
One tsp. slippery elm powder with ¼ cup aloe vera before meals. (3) No overeating. (4)
Avoiding strong stimulants of acid secretion like coffee and alcohol. (5) Avoiding
smoking and certain foods like fats and chocolate, which reduces esophageal sphincter
competence. (6) No tight clothing around the waist. (7) Elevating the head of the bed 6

a. General characteristics:
(1) J-shaped organ with 1 liter or more
capacity. (Maximum capacity: about 1 gallon
of food extending all the way to the pelvis.) 4
(2) Mucosa is made of simple columnar
epithelium with lots of mucus producing
goblet cells. This mucus protects the wall
from being digested by the pepsin. The
epithelium is completely renewed every three
to six days.
(3) Thick folds of the lining called rugae allow
the stomach walls to distend when food is
b. Digestive functions of the stomach
(1) Continues mechanical digestion (churning)
to produce a chyme (a creamy mixture).
(2) Chemical digestion –
(a) Begins digestion of proteins with pepsin.
(b) The digestion of carbohydrates continues in the stomach for a short period of
time until the stomach content is mixed with the gastric juice. The gastric juice
blocks the activity of amylase. Carbohydrates' digestion is resume later in the
duodenum, because the pancreatic secretion contains large amounts of amylase.
(3) Absorption – The stomach absorbs only small amounts of water, some salts, alcohol

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and some drugs, like aspirin. (alcohol and aspiring absorption cause gastric
(4) Propulsion – Food moves from the body region to the pyloric region aided by
stomach contractions (peristaltic waves), and as the pyloric region fills up, the
pyloric sphincter relaxes, allowing small
portions of the chyme to move to the
duodenum of the small intestine for further
(5) Stomach emptying takes approximately 4
hours (depending on the quantity and quality
of food).
(6) Another function of the stomach: A holding
tank. Holds chyme until duodenum is ready to
receive it.
c. Anatomy of the stomach: (See Overhead)
(1) Cardiac region – small regions that surrounds
the cardiac orifice.
(2) Fundus – the dome-shaped part of the
(3) Body – the main part of the stomach where most of the chemical digestion occurs.
(4) Pyloric region – a funnel shaped region that continues to narrow and become the
(5) Pylorus – This is the opening to the duodenum.
(6) Pyloric sphincter - where the muscular wall of the stomach thickens to form a
valve, which controls gastric emptying.
d. Gastric secretions
(1) The lining of the stomach mucosa is a simple columnar epithelium composed
entirely of goblet cells (tiny glands), which produce a protective coat of mucus
(protects the mucosa from being digested by its own highly acidic enzymes).
(2) Gastric glands – Found in the gastric
pits of the stomach wall. Made of three
types of secretory cells that collectively
produce the gastric juice.
(a) Mucous neck cells – mucus (not
the same as the goblet cells’ mucus)
Its about 1mm thick.
(b) Chief cells - pepsinogen (the
inactive form of pepsin) Pepsinogen
is activated by hydrochloric acid.
(c) Parietal cells - hydrochloric acid
(HCl) and intrinsic factor (necessary
for B12 absorption in the small
intestine). HCl is very acid (pH 1.5-
3.5), harsh enough to kill many of
the bacteria ingested with foods.
(d) The mixture of the mucus, the
hydrochloric acid and the digestive
enzymes is called gastric juice
(3) Pyloric Glands - Found in the pyloric region
(a) Similar to the gastric glands but less parietal and chief cells.
(b) Mostly mucous cells that secrete a thin mucus that lubricate chyme movement

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and protect the stomach wall from digestion
(c) Also secrete the hormone gastrin which controls gastric secretion its in
inhibitor of the gastric juices.
(4) Surface mucous cells - A different type of mucous cells found on the entire surface
of the stomach mucosa
(a) Secrete large quantities of a very viscous, sticky mucus.
(b) Provides a shell of protection for the stomach wall (>1 mm thick).
(c) It is alkaline.
(d) So a normal stomach wall is never exposed to the highly acidic gastric juice.
(5) In the presence of hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen becomes pepsin, an enzyme
that digests proteins. Pepsin can digest the stomach itself, but the secretion of the
goblet cells (mucus) creates a barrier between the pepsin and the stomach walls.
(6) Gastric ulcers - Hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid or hyposecretion of mucus can
offset the mucosal barrier and lead to ulcer. (A perforated ulcer can lead to
peritonitis or severe hemorrhage when blood vessels are perforated also.)
(7) Factors that favor high HCl or low mucus production are:
(a) Aspirin
(b) Smoking
(c) Alcohol
(d) Coffee
(e) Stress
(8) Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that buries itself under the mucosa, destroys the
mucosa and leaves unprotected wall areas. Treatment: 2 antibiotics, a coating agent
(bismuth) like Pepto-Bismol, and a drug that inhibits hydrochloric acid secretion
like Zantac or Tagamet. Natural Treatment: Goldenseal tea + another antibiotic
(garlic, burdock root, mullein or yellow dock root), aloe vera gel, slippery elm tea or
(9) Regulation of gastric secretions
(a) The sight, smell, and taste of food initiate parasympathetic impulses that
stimulate gastric glands to secrete more.
(b) Parasympathetic impulses also stimulate the production of the gastric
hormone gastrin, which increases the secretory activity of the gastric glands.
(More gastrin = more HCl acid and more pepsinogen.)
(c) Protein molecules in the stomach stimulate the production of gastrin. (high
protein diet)
(d) Distention of the stomach stimulates the production of gastrin. (overeating)
(e) Caffeine in coffee, colas, and tea stimulate the production of gastrin. (addiction)
(f) Emotional upsets, fear, anxiety, or anything that triggers the fight-or-flight
response inhibits gastric secretion, because the sympathetic division overrides
the parasympathetic control of digestion.

Gastric emptying
1. The stomach usually empties completely
within four hours 4-6 after a meal.
2. Liquid meals pass quickly through the stomach.
3. Carbohydrates usually pass through rapidly.
4. Proteins take longer than carbohydrates. It is
digested in the stomach.
5. However, the rate of gastric emptying depends

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also on what is happening in the duodenum. When the chyme entering the duodenum is
fatty, food may remain in the stomach six hours or more. (high fat diet = longer digestion,
high carbohydrates diet = shorter digestion)
6. Fatty foods may remain in the stomach from 5-6 hours. That is because portions of a fatty
chyme are digested slowly by the enzymes in the small intestine, and that causes the rest of
the chyme to stay longer in the stomach. If food is too long in the stomach, fermentation
f. Gastritis – An inflammation of the underlying
layers of the stomach wall due to a breach in the
mucosal barrier. Persistent gastritis can lead to a
stomach ulcer (erosion of the stomach wall).

(an accessory organ of the digestive system)
a. The pancreas has two functions –
endocrine and exocrine functions.
b. Structure of the pancreas
(1) It joins the C-shaped curve of the
(2) Exocrine cells are the pancreatic
acinar cells. They make the bulk
of the pancreas. (Endocrine cells <alpha and beta cells> are found only in the islets
of Langerhans. Alpha cells secrete glucagon and beta cells secrete insulin.)
(3) Acinar cells release their secretion into tiny tubes that join the pancreatic duct.
(4) The pancreatic duct extends the length of the pancreas and fuses with the bile
duct just before it enters the duodenum. (The bile duct transport bile from the liver
and gallbladder.)
(5) The secretion of the acinar cells is called the pancreatic juice, which contains
different enzymes: pH8 – alkaline (The stomach is pH2 – acid)
(a) Pancreatic amylase – breaks down carbohydrate molecules (starch and
(b) Pancreatic lipase – breaks down fat molecules into fatty acids.
(c) Pancreatic protease – breaks down protein molecules into amino acids. This
enzyme is secreted in an inactive form and is activated in the duodenum. This is
to prevent the pancreas from self-digestion.
(d) Pancreatic nuclease – breaks down nucleic acids into nucleotides.
(e) Bicarbonate – makes the juice alkaline.

Cholecystokinin – is a hormone which is released to the gallbladder and the pancreas

– which helps the releasing of Bicarbonate

c. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas that could be the cause of a gallstone within
the sphincter of Oddi (hepatopancreatic sphincter) blocking the pancreatic juice
resulting in a build up that could digest part of the pancreas. Alcohol intake, traumatic
injuries, certain drugs can also cause pancreatitis.

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Hepatopancreatic Sphincter - the one out let for the Liver, Gallbladder and Pancreas


(accessory organ of the digestive system)

a. Hepatocytes = 150 days of average lifespan.
b. Veins draining the digestive viscera empty their blood into a common vessel, the
hepatic portal vein, which transports the blood into the liver before it is allowed to
enter the major systemic circulation via the hepatic veins.
c. Blood drained from digestive organs carry nutrients into the liver to nourish the hepatic
d. Over 500 functions
e. Lymphatic function: Macrophages (Kupffer <koopfer> cells) in the lymphatic tissue of
the liver remove pathogens that were absorbed through the intestinal wall and remove
worn-out blood cells from the blood. (Blood Purification)
f. Metabolic function: Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
(1) Changes glucose to glycogen when glucose level is high (glycogenesis).
(2) Breaks down glycogen to glucose when glucose level is low (glycogenolysis).
(3) Makes new glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules (gluconeogenesis).
e. Storage function: Stores glycogen, iron, and vitamins A, D, and B12.
f. Makes clotting factors with vitamin K
g. Detoxification of blood: Removes toxic substances such as alcohol.
h. Digestive function: to produce bile for export to the duodenum through the hepatic
duct. Bile breaks fat globules (large round pieces) into tiny particles that are more
accessible to the digestive enzyme lipase. This is known as emulsification of fats.
(1) Bile is a yellowish green liquid that hepatic cells secrete continuously.
(2) Bile contains water, bile salts, bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin, waste
products of hemoglobin breakdown), cholesterol, and electrolytes.
(3) Bile salts are the most abundant substances of bile. Bile salts are the only bile

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substances with a digestive function.
i. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver due to viral infection, alcohol or drug toxicity,
characterized by necrosis (death of tissue).
(1) Today there are 6 known forms of hepatitis: A – F.
(2) Hepatitis A is the most benign. (32% of the cases in the USA)
(3) Hepatitis B can lead to cancer of the liver. (40% of the cases in the USA)
(4) Hepatitis C is also dangerous, but responds to treatment of interferon.
(5) Hepatitis D is a mutated virus that needs B to be infectious.
(6) Hepatitis E is similar to A.
(7) Types A and E are transmitted by contact with food, water or objects that are
contaminated with feces. Ex: unwashed hands.
(8) Types B, C, and D are the most chronic cases that are transmitted by blood or other
body fluids like saliva, semen, and lymph.
(9) Little is known so far about the newly discovered hepatitis F.

(an accessory organ of the digestive system)
a. A small, green muscular sac with a duct (the cystic
duct) that is seen in the inferior part of the liver.
b. Function of the gallbladder: Stores bile that is not
immediately needed for digestion and concentrates it
by absorbing some of its water.
c. Function of the bile: Emulsification of fat molecules
(large fat globules are broken down into millions of
small droplets so that the fat splitting enzymes can
digest fat more effectively).
d. When its muscular wall contracts, bile is expelled into
the cystic duct. Bile then flows into the common bile
duct to be released into the duodenum through the
hepatopancreatic sphincter.

Regulation of bile secretion:

a. When fatty chyme enters the duodenum, minor endocrine glands in the intestine release
cholecystokinin, a hormone that
stimulates the gallbladder contractions.
(Bile is not release unless gallbladder
b. Cholecystokinin also stimulates secretion
of the pancreatic juice, which contains
c. Gallstones - Bile salts keep the
cholesterol dissolved within the bile. Too
much cholesterol or too few bile salts can
lead to crystallization of cholesterol,
forming gallstones. When the gallbladder
or its duct contract, the sharp crystals
cause agonizing pain. Treatment: drugs
that dissolve the crystals, ultrasound vibration to pulverize the crystals, vaporizing with

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lasers, or surgical removal of the gallbladder. When the gallbladder is surgically
removed, the cystic duct enlarges to assume the bile-storing role. Natural Treatment:
Prevention (low saturated fat and cholesterol diet, high fiber diet, exercise, and water)
Drinking plenty of water reduces risk of gallstones because bile is kept diluted. Healing
Treatment: Apple juice and apple diet for the whole day. The pectin will dissolve the
crystals. Olive oil & lemon juice at night.
Absorption Object Lesson:
Small Intestine We can eat the bread of life, but if the
General characteristics heart does not absorb it, we will
(1) Extends from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve. experience spiritual deficiencies. We
(2) Occupies most of the abdominal cavity. need to be doers, not only hearers.
(3) Longest part of the GI tract (about 20 feet long).
(4) Receives secretions from pancreas and liver. (Chemical digestion)
(5) Completes digestion of nutrients in chyme (3-6 hours journey). (Chemical digestion)
(6) Segmentation movements – ringlike contractions that divide chyme into segments and
move it back and forth. (Mechanical digestion)
(7) Absorbs the end products of digestion. (Absorption)
(8) Transports the residues to the large intestine with peristalsis. (Propulsion) (After most
nutrients have been absorbed peristalsis gets stronger and segmenting movements
8) Diarrhea - The chyme in the small intestine moves slowly. If the intestinal wall
becomes irritated by toxins and bacteria the chyme is rushed (peristaltic rush) into
the large intestine so quickly that water, nutrients, and electrolytes are not
absorbed through the wall of the small intestine. This causes a watery stool
(diarrhea) and a lost of electrolytes (vitamin and mineral deficiencies) and water

a. Anatomy of the small intestine

(1) Three portions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Treatment for (a) Duodenum – a short C-shape section about 10 inches long, from the pyloric
Diarrhea: sphincter to the jejunum.
Carob powder, (b) Jejunum (8 feet) - about 8 feet long
Slurry water for (c) Ileum – about 12 feet long, joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve. – This
babies, is where B12 is digested.
1-2 Tbsp charcoal
in one large glass
H2O for adults. (2) Microscopic anatomy
(a) Mucosa consists of simple columnar epithelium.
(b) Circular folds of the mucosa and submucosa allow for distention and
(c) Villi – fingerlike projections of the mucosa that increase the surface area of the
mucosa. (This allows for more absorption.) Inside each villus is a blood
capillary bed and a lymphatic capillary (lacteal – absorbs fatty acids). End
products of digestion are absorbed by these capillaries.
(d) Microvilli (Brush Border) – tiny projections of the plasma membrane of the
cells of the mucosa that increase surface area even more and release more
digestive enzymes like sucrase (sucrose), maltase (maltose) and lactase
(lactose), which split sugars into monosaccharides. Another intestinal enzyme
is protease, which breaks down short peptides into amino acids, and more
lipase for the final digestion of fat.
(e) Peyer’s patches (lymphoid nodules) are found in the submucosa to prevent

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the entrance of bacteria into the blood.
(3) Absorption in the small intestine
(a) Monosaccharides (Simple Sugar)- Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the
mouth and is finished in the small intestine (monosaccharides).
Monosaccharides are then absorbed by the blood capillaries in the villi of the
intestinal mucosa.
(b) Amino acids – Digestion of proteins begins in the stomach and is completed
(Pepsin) in the small intestine (amino acids). Amino acids are then absorbed by
the blood capillaries of the villi of the intestinal mucosa.
(c) Fatty acids – Digestion of fats begins in the duodenum and is finished there
(fatty acids). Fatty acids are then absorbed mainly by the lymphatic capillary
(lacteal) in the villi. A D E K Are Fat soluble vitamins.
(d) Electrolytes (mineral salts) - are absorbed by the blood capillaries in the villi.
(e) Water – most of the water ingested is absorbed by the blood capillaries in the
microvilli. Some water absorption occurs in the stomach and in the large
(f) Vitamins: After separation from fiber, fat soluble vitamins are absorbed by the
lacteals, water soluble vitamins are absorbed into the blood, these are all the B
and C.

 Diarrhea
 Intestinal wall becomes irritated by toxins and bacteria
 Chyme is rushed into the large intestine
 Poor absorption of water, nutrients, and electrolyte (watery stool)
 Electrolytes imbalance and dehydration.

Large intestine
a. Shorter than the small
intestine, but larger in
b. Major functions are to absorb
water from indigestible food
residues, which are delivered
in a fluid state, and eliminate
them from the body as
semisolid feces. (Absorption
and defecation)
c. Parts of the large intestine:
(1) Cecum – First part of the
large intestine. It lies below
the ileocecal valve. The
vermiform appendix,
which contains masses of lymphoid tissue, is attached to cecum and plays an important
role in the immunity system. Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix. If the
appendix ruptures, bacteria can spread over the abdominal cavity causing a serious
infection of the peritoneum called peritonitis.
(2) Colon – It is subdivided into four regions: Ascending colon, transverse colon,
descending colon, and the sigmoid colon.

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(3) Rectum – begins at the end of the sigmoid colon. Hemorrhoids: dilated veins of the
anorectal area. Internal and external. Major causes: straining to have a bowel
movement (constipation) and childbirth.
(4) Anal canal – Last segment of the large intestine. It has two sphincters, the internal anal
sphincter of smooth muscle, and the external anal sphincter of skeletal muscle.
d. The mucosa is made of simple columnar epithelium except in the anal canal, which is
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
e. The mucosa contains lots of mucus producing goblet cells. The mucus eases the passage of
feces and protects the intestinal wall.
f. Content of the large intestine has 12 to 24 hours more to spend there.
g. Digestive processes occurring in the large intestine:
(1) No chemical digestion occurs in the large intestine (just bacterial digestion)
(2) Some water absorption takes place in the large intestine, but it is not a major
function of this organ.
(3) Propulsion and defecation are the primary functions of the large intestine.
(4) Propulsion is accomplished by mass peristalsis or mass movement (powerful
but slow contraction waves that force the contents toward the rectum). Mass
peristalsis only occurs three or four times a day (during or after eating).
(5) Constipation: When food remains in the colon for extended periods too much
water is absorbed and the stool becomes dry, hard, and difficult to pass.
Constipation may result from a lack of fiber in the diet, improper bowel habits
(failing to heed the “call”), lack of exercise, emotional upset (anxiety, fear, and
stress), laxative abuse, or lack of water.
h. Inflammatory bowel diseases (Ulcerative Colitis, Chron’s Disease)

Normal Flora
 At birth the entire intestinal tract is sterile, but bacteria enters the first feed
 Some bacteria that enter the cecum are still alive.
 These bacteria ferment some of the indigestible carbohydrates
 Bacterial digestion produces gases, vit K, and come vit B
 If you don’t have good Flora then you while have a lot of gas (this can come from lost of

Normal flora is found mostly;

 On the skin
 In the eyes
 In the nose
 In the mouth
 In the upper throat
 In the lower urethra
 In the small intestine
 In the larger intestine

Benefits of normal flora

 Prevent colonization of pathogens
 Protects against infection
 Synthesize vit K, folate
 Prevent cancer by lowing pH, which lowers the risk of colon cancer.
 Mutualism – E.Coli this lives in the intestines, it produces vit K, which the human body

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requires for the process of blood clotting.

Factors that destroy normal flora

 High sugar diet – refined foods
 Drinking alcohol
 Use of enemas
 Use of colonics
 Use if laxatives
 Antibiotics

Factors that bost the normal flora

 Easting many servings of fruits and vegetables a day
 High fiber / low fat diet
 Go easy on sugar
 Avoid or limit consumptions of refined foods
 Avoid alcohol

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The Lymphatic System
Definition of infection: The multiplication of pathogens. Pathogens are disease-causing agents
like viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoans. The body can prevent the entry of pathogens or
destroy them once they gained entrance. It employs different mechanisms to protect itself against
pathogens: (1) nonspecific surface and chemical defense and (2) specific defense: immunity.)

General Functions
 Returns fluid to the blood
 Transports digested fats and some protein molecules
to the bloodstream
 Protects the body from pathogens

What is the Lymphatic system?

 Organs and glands that produce cells and
 A network of vessels that transport lymph fluid.

Lymphoid Organs
 Lymph nodes
 Spleen
 Thymus
 Tonsils
 Bone marrow
 Adenoids
 Patches of lymphoid tissues
 Vessels

Lymph Nodes
These are the filters;
 Contains masses of lymphocytes (B and T cells)
 Functions:
o Filters lymph (macrophages)
o Destroy antigens (T cells)
o Secrete antibodies (B cells)
o Lymphocyte production

Clusters of lymph nodes

 Submandibular nodes
 Cervical nodes
 Axillary nodes
 Lumber nodes
 Inguinal nodes
 Pelvic nodes
 Mesenteric nodes
 Popliteal nodes

Only lymph nodes filter lymph

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Structure of the lymph Node
There is more vessels coming in, and few coming out which is building up of pressure

Non-specific defense system

1. Non-specific defense system is always ready and responds immediately against all types
(not a specific type) of pathogens.
a. Species resistance - Tissues of some species do not provide the environment for the
development of a particular pathogen.
b. Surface or mechanical barriers - The skin and the mucous membranes. (First line of
(1) The dermis and the epidermis (keratinized cells) along with the connective tissues
underneath form a very thick barrier. Cannot be penetrated very easily unless it is
cut, scratched, perforated or burnt.
(2) The linings (mucous membrane) of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and
reproductive systems create a protection (mechanical) barrier.
c. Chemical barriers – The secretions of the skin and mucous membranes. (Second line of
(1) The acid mantle consists of skin secretions -sweat (perspiration) and sebum.
(a) It has a low pH making the epidermal surface acid.
(b) The sebum also contains chemicals that are toxic to bacteria.
(c) Skin cells also secrete a natural antibiotic called human defensin, which punches
wholes in bacteria.
(2) The linings are mucous membranes that secrete protecting chemicals (chemical
(a) The stomach mucosa secretes a concentrated hydrochloric acid and pepsin
(which digests proteins) that kill pathogens.
(b) The saliva and the lacrimal fluid contain lysozyme, an enzyme that destroys
(c) Sticky mucus (secreted by goblet cells) traps many microorganisms that enter
the digestive and respiratory passageways.
(d) Mucus coated hairs inside the nose trap inhaled particles. The cilia of the
respiratory tract sweep dust and bacteria upward towards the pharynx.
(e) Interferons produced by lymphocytes and other cells inhibit the replication of
(3) Melanin, secreted by the melanocytes in the stratum basale of the epidermis,
prevents ultraviolet light damage.
(4) All these surface and chemical barriers are quite effective, but small nicks and cuts
resulting from brushing your teeth, shaving, burns, etc. allow pathogens to invade
deeper tissues. It is here that phagocytes come into action...
d. Phagocytes (a non-specific cellular defense)
(1) They engulf pathogens and digest them with chemicals like lysozyme.
(2) Macrophages
(a) Derived from the WBC known as monocytes.
(b) Leave the bloodstream by squeezing between cells of the endothelium (di”-pd-
(c) Differentiate into macrophages, and search for foreign invaders
(d) Are the chief phagocytes. Some macrophages are:
 Kupffer cells in the liver
 Langerhans cells in the skin

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 Alveolar macrophages in the alveoli (air sags in the lungs)
 Macrophages of the Peyer’s patches in the small intestine
(3) Neutrophils, the most abundant type of leukocytes. They also leave the bloodstream
and become very phagocytic.
(4) Eosinophils are weak phagocytes; however, they destroy parasitic worms by
discharging their destructive chemical (enzymes) all over the invaders.
Natural killer cells (another non-specific cellular defense)
(1) A special type of lymphocyte that police the blood and lymph.
(2) Can kill cancer cells and virus-infected cells.
(3) Destroy the target cell's membrane, causing the nucleus to disintegrate.

1. It is a tissue response to injury or infection.
2. It inhibits the spread of pathogens and toxic substances by enclosing the injured or infected
area in a sac of fibrous connective tissue. Produces:
(a) Redness – caused by increased blood volume to the area as a result of blood vessel
dilation caused by prostaglandins (tissue hormones that induce vasodilation).
(b) Swelling – Increased capillary permeability as a result of histamine (a strong
vasodilator secreted by the basophils), which increases fluid leakage, resulting in
edema (swelling). The increased amount of blood to the area adds to the swelling.
(c) Heat – Produced by the warmer blood that comes from deeper body parts.
(d) Pain – the edema (increased volume of interstitial fluid) presses on the nearby nerve
endings (pain receptors or nociceptors) causing pain and limiting movement, which in
turn aids in the healing process. Pain also results from bacterial toxins, lack of nutrition
to cells in the area, etc.
(e) Leukocytosis - Leukocytes are attracted to the area to clear it of debris and pathogens.
(f) Fribrin and other fibers - form a capsule that prevents the spread of toxins and
pathogens to other areas.
(g) Four cardinal signs of inflammation are redness, heat, swelling, and pain

1. Bacteria require large amounts of iron and zinc. High body temperature causes iron and
zinc to go to liver and spleen, which stops the replication of fungi and bacteria.
2. Phagocytes become more active in higher temperature.
3. Fever also increases the metabolic rate of the tissue cells, speeding up defensive actions.

Specific Defenses
 The third line of defense
 Known as immunity
 Provides resistance to specific antigens that resisted the first and second line defense
(surface and chemical barrier)
 Provided by lymphocytes
 Lymphocytes attack “nonself” molecules, known as antigens (proteins)
 Substances that can mobilize the immune system and provoke an immune response.
 A contraction of “antibody generating” anti-gens
 If the immune system fails, devastating diseases like cancer, lupus, AIDS develop.

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Cells of the Immune System
 T lymphocytes (T Cells)
 B lymphocytes (B cells)
 Origin of Lymphocytes
o Bone marrow (irregular, and flat bones)
o The then go to the Thymus glad
o They then become a T Cell
o Some lymphocytes come from Bone marrow (B Cells)
o Travel in the Blood
o Then go to the Lymph node
 T Cells
o Provide cell-mediated immunity (direct attack, by cell to cell to contact)
o Secrete chemicals to attract other T cells to the area and cause B cells proliferation
o Secrete toxins (cytokines) that are lethal to antigens
 Growth inhibiting factors – prevent target cell growth
 Interferon – interfere with the production of antigens
o Types of T Cells
 Killer T Cells – Destroy antigens directly
 Helper T Cells – Release cytokines to stimulate B Cells, T Cells, and
macrophages to destroy antigens.
 Suppressor T Cells – Inhibit or suppress the immune response.
 Memory T Cells – Do not respond to antigens on first exposure, but are
ready to become active immediately upon subsequent exposure to the same
antigen. This is immunity.
 B Cells
o Provide antibody-mediated immunity
o Differentiates into plasma cells and memory cells
o The plasma cells produce antibodies also known as immunoglobulin (lg)
o The antibodies destroy antigens
o The long-lived memory cells can immediately differentiated into plasma cells when
 Two Main Categories of immunity
o Inborn Immunity
 Genetical differences that makes
us immune to diseases that affect
other species.
o Acquired Immunity
 Immunity developed as the
person encounters specific
antigens in life.
 Nature acquired immunity there
are Two Type;
 Natural
o Active –
Exposure to an
antigen producing an immune response. (like chicken pox,
we develop an immunity)
o Passive – Antibodies are passed from mother to fetus via
placenta and milk. No immune response.

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 Artificial
o Active – Vaccination with antigen to stimulate an immune
o Passive – Injection pf antibody-rich plasma from a donor. No
immune response.

Be able to explain what the course of informational is

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