Religion, the New Millennium, and Globalization Author(s): José Casanova Source: Sociology of Religion, Vol. 62, No.

4, Special Issue: Religion and Globalization at the Turn of the Millennium (Winter, 2001), pp. 415-441 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3712434 . Accessed: 30/12/2010 01:48
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2001, 62:4 415-441 Sociology Religion of

2000 Presidential Address

Religion,

the

New

Millennium,

and

Globalization

JoseCasanova*
NewSchool Social Research for

It seems all havesurvived passage the millennium we the of without many visibletrialsand tribulations. one couldcontendthat Dionysius Actually, the 525A.D.cameup with the A.D. calendar Exiguus, monkwho around division in usearound globe,miscalculated postdated birthof now the and the at leastfouryears,in whichcaseourmillennial celebrations were Jesusby one actuallya few yearslate.1Alternatively, couldbelievethat Dionisius was in the rather and Exiguus misguided choosing Incarnation thanthe Passion ResurrectionChrist theanno of as in which wewere fewdecades case a Domini, or calendar, the Islamic one, or the early.Or one mightfollowthe Jewish in is Chinese,the Aztec,whichever, whichcasethe B.C./A.D.convention Oronecouldbea strict and meaningless. separationist deemit unconstitutional to imbue strictly our secular calendar conventions anyparticular with denominational therefore wouldcarefully one lowercase the and, religious meaning intothe religiously B.C./A.D.signs neutral before after comand "our b.c.la.c., mon era." who are the we? Which,of course,only opensup the question Common whom? to Whicheraarewe talking about? couldcontinue We this The fact is that mostChristian whether believers, pre-millennial, postor a-millennial thefactthatonlytheFather millennial, simply knows the accept hourandthe dayanddespite numerology,maybe futileto tryto curtail all it God'sfreedom tyingthe divineeschatological by plansto our own secular calendars human and deadlines. Sacred timeandsecular timearerelated, for sacred timecan onlyhappen withinworldly time.Butthe relationship not is or and believers compelled search God's are to for objective automatic, therefore
*DirectallcorrespondenceDr.JoseCasanova, to: New 65 Sociology Department, School Social Research, Fifth for NewYork, 10003.E-mail: NY casanova@newschool.edu. Avenue,
1 The BC dating was first introduced two centuries later around 731 by the Anglo-Saxon monk, the Venerable Bede.

exercise infinitum adabsurdum. ad and

415

led was contemporaneous the Aum Shinrikyo millenarian movementswere some people to the conjecturethat apocalyptic wereno longerprimarily Christian restricted or a and assuming globalcharacter to their traditionalbreedinggroundin the United States (Hall and Schuyler of 1997. by the ritualmurders collective and and suicidesof membersof the Orderof the Solar Temple in Switzerland in between 1994 and 1997. The fact that eschatological activity in and and Solaire Temple happened francophone Europe Canada that it l'affaire with saringas attacksin Japan. culminating the 1997 masssuicideof the Quebec to led GateUFOcult in California.lookingat the year2000 predominantly andcelebrations fewstriking a thingsstandout.most and terror frenzy the firstone. given 1998.Stearns1996).the secondmillennium turnedout to be not unlike around1000A.OF 416 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION revelations. strangelyinforming anxieties on East.Lamy1996). Here in the United States. I am anticipations.Alas!The fearedmillennialfrenzy journalists expertsandsensational not materialize.Not surprisingly.D." that it .Strozier Flynn 1997.lookedat the year2000 as a significant Mostof the hooplaconnectedwith the year2000 was event in God'scalendar. by did alike. and followedby the apocalypticimmolationof the BranchDavidiansin Waco. Mullins 1997).andwerefeedingthe paranoid debates. to selectfive: going the is 1) The moststriking thing perhaps how little millenarian turnof the secondmillennium turnedout to be.televangelism. particularly the Middle to of extremistfringegroupsfromCatholicMarianapocalypticism the rightand Identitymovement(Boyer1992.Particularly.nowfilteredthrough of and the best-selling books of Hal Lindseyhad entered the mainstream secular masscultureand werenow routinely American Hollywood exploitedby Americangeo-political were (The Rapture. secularin originandcharacter. Traditionalpre-millennialist (Marsden imagesand pre-millennialism the popular mediaof religious radio. Benjamin were outbursts anticipated academic millennial suchan apocalyptic cauldron. dispensationalist peculiarculturalsurvivalof Anglo-American 1980). the public re-emergence in the 1980s had exposed to public view this ProtestantFundamentalism Protestantism. and The few well-publicized incidentsof apocalyptic mayheminducedby millenariandoomsday withthe collectivesuicideof the Peoples cults. Indeed.beginning Temple in Jonestownin 1978. has 2) In this respect. manyexperts anticipate Heaven's increasing millenarian (Robbinsand Palmer1997).with or withoutthe help of prophetic signsin worldly Very few Christianmillennialists. wing militiasof Survivalists the Christian Cuneo1997. The visionsof millennial historians now admit. Armageddon). were concocted by 18th and 19th century rationalist or the romantichistorians. TX in 1993. events. preparations. greatFrenchhistorianJulesMichelet wrote such a vivid and realistic narrative of the "Terrorsof the year 1000. beliefs. This is the moresurprising has given the muchgreater outbursts millenarian of fervor signs anticipating manybuild-up aroundthe year 2000 (Clagett 1999.Wojcik1997. however..

Indeed.which are mucholder Antiochian-Syrian-Middle and institutionally closer to earlyChristianity. Crusades (Headand Landes1992). Magyars. useddifferent calenEurope Peoplethroughout of not darsandwereprobably muchaware livingthrough1000A.Let'snot Westerncolonialand post-colonial the withthe forgetthat the coreof WesternChristendom. GLOBALIZATION417 becamea standard account (Bernstein1999). the however. Both proanxiety(Briggs1985. the one thousand Christianity.. the Cluniac reform. Western Christianity WesternEuropean is in Europe lessand less the core of Christiancivilizationand Christianity its mostdynamic forms todayis lessandlessEuropean. but sociologicallyspeakingthe core institutionsand social formsof of which formone of the foundations modern WesternEuropean Christendom Westerncivilizationare only 1000 yearsold: the first 500 yearsas Medieval and Christendom centeredaroundthe Papacy the next 500 yearsas European multi-denominational modernWesternChristianityin its post-Reformation formsand in its expanded forms.albeitfor reasons maybe morerightin arguing marksa turningpoint in WesternEuropean little to do with millennialism.one couldeven saythat the period of constitutes veryformative the foundation WesternChristendom a civilias zation.we are witnessing end of hegemonicEurodue to a dual processof advancedsecularization postin pean Christianity Christian and of the increasing of a de-territorialized and Europe globalization de-centered between Thus. a system religious beliefsandpractices maybe the year case.We areaccustomed thinkof WesternEuropean to as Christianity a 2000 As of this old civilization. Lastturnof the century characterized a dual was by or fever and by fin de siecle atmosphere spirit. and Western and EasternSlavs and with the consolidation the schismbetweenEastern WesternChristianity 1054 of and in with the excommunication the Patriarch Constantinople.D.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: RELIGION.Weber 1986. Eastern. . MILLENNIUM. preparing the century:the Peace of God.the Papalreformation. we areentering Western and As Christianity the thirdmillennium.wasonly established 962 andthat its internal Papacy externalboundaries becamefixed around1000.Schwartz fever and anxiety have been manifestlyabsent from the year 2000 gressive millennial celebrations. with the conversionof only Norse and Vikings.the end of the 20thcentury muchunlike eschatological the endof the 9thcentury. Alexandrian-Coptic. of of None of the other non-Western formsof Christianity Byzantine. was 3) If the turnof the secondmillennium not unlikethe firstin its lackof millenarian was fervor. as well as from its much shorter anticipatory .etc. the groundfor all the reformmovementsof the 11th Christianity. HolyRomanEmpire in as its spiritual and head. yearold association and civilizationis comingto an end. and thus one could say more of Christian.by post-millennial progressive 1990). Armenian.ButLandes that mayhave that the period. RichardLandes'(1997) recent of revisionist to reopenandgive new life to the apocalyptic atmosphere attempt the year1000 is unconvincing.Schorske1981.none of them has evinced the historicaldynamism primitively in its European New Worldforms.

Gould 1997). equallydependenton contributions of and It nialismand utopianism.and taken for fromboth. millenwas grantedworldview.than a centuryago. of andteleological The view thatmodern philosophies historyas progressive have a Judeo-Christian rationalistbeliefs in progress well as Enlightenment has formsof Biblicalmillennialism. even blase. the thesis is infusedwith utopianEnlightenment millennialism not correct. suasivelyand systematically KarlLowith's in The rebuttal HansBlumenberg's Legitimacy theModem founda forceful Age.as well as the post-colonial deconstructionsof Western shouldbe viewednot so muchas the cause.OF 418 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION has Despiteall the millennialmediahype.and the expansionof social capitalism.as well as to the utopianvisions of a new anthropocentric aim wasto in orderwhichoriginated suchhistorical Blumenberg's experiences.TheodoreOlson (1982) offereda conbelief in progress. of In an attemptto defendthe Enlightenment modernscientificrationalism and fromNietzchean-based (1983) traces Blumenberg convincingly critiques. and an and does not have a religious therefore irrational show that modernity forhe seemedto have been Judeo-Christian Inadvertently. . of unaware the heatedGermandebate.post-millennialism be viewed as secularized If rationalism. through the Renaissance. was the peculiarcombination millennialism in and almostantithetical character with traditions twoold separate utopianism. equally and senseof superiorviewsof historical the modern progress the self-confident over backto the actualhistorical experience ity of "themoderns" "theancients" of Western Europeansocieties from the late Middle Ages. but it is my impressionthat we may be witnessing the end of postof millennialism a progressive as philosophy history. of the roots. an and maybe viewedas secularized origin old pedigreeand has been stated in manydifferentforms. the andfuture historians analyzing spiritof ourown agemayor maynot confirm it. illegitimate pedigree. From beliefsin progress.2It is of coursetoo earlyto tell. of the two legs sustaining but rather beliefin historical the modern progress.perhapsmost perin The thesis Meaningin History. The post-modern critiquesof Enlightenmentrationalismand historical grand narratives. one becauseof the collapseof utopianism.that explains nature modern verydifferent Christian can this perspective.the attitude been much preparations. moresubdued. we enterthe 21St 2 The concept of century as a one hundred year calendar unit emerged first around 1300 and became firmlyestablished in its secularusageonly in the 16th century. to vincingresolution the debateby showingthat the modern in as it crystallized the 18thcenturyas a dominant.but ratheras evidential modernity As of century.the early modernScientific Revolution. historyis expression the collapseof utopianism.The year 1700 marksthe first public turn of the century celebration in Europe. we may be witnessingthe end of post-millennialism so much due millennialism to further becauseof the declineof Christian secularization. a practice which became increasinglywidespreadand globalized in the next three centuries (Schwartz1990.pervasive.

becausehistoryhas reachedits immanenttelos with the not. .we've learnedto take the most scientific technological and in astounding breakthroughsstride. and drivenprocess. the contrary. but (1992) "endof history" Fukuyama's as he implies. vitalityof traditional Protestant pre-millennialismand the enduring fast growth of the most millennialist Christian of denominations Mormons.(as much as this may be indeed a prodigious historicalachievement). may failed electoral to b) Thinkof how the Clinton-Gore slogan"abridge the 21stcentury" as We can onlythinkof the nextcentury moreof the same to catchthe popular imagination. Francis thesismaybe rightafterall. CatholicChurch. The end of post-millennialism we'veknownit. Year of of withthe dearth anykindof forecasting the 21st of not daring century.teleological. Jehovah's SeventhDayAdventists.notwithstanding fact that it in and happened the midstof the millennium is certainto haverevolutionary consequences for humanlife on earth. is 4) Equallystrikingand even paradoxical the fact that the least millennialist all Christian of the had denominations. realizationof the Hegelian dialectic of masterand slave throughthe final triumphof liberaldemocracy. we neitherby progressive and not as something new. looklike. One only needsdirectaccessto the Gospels Baumgartner unmediated historicaltraditions unencumbered churchdoctrinesto and by by findtherethe paradigmatic modelof a successful millenarian cult. as does not necesmeanthe end of Christian millennialism.but ratherbecauseof the collapseof the utopianism of the whichhad sustained modernconceptions history. GLOBALIZATION419 no longer taken for grantedas a meaningful. of and of vision: threesymbolic illustrations ourflattened Just utopian a) Contrastthe long-list of utopian. and Witnesses. Our utopianvision deadened. 22nd. is the crisis On it sarily of utopianism of the imminentprogressive and of historyit entailed philosophy that opensthe wayfor the unexpectedrevivalof transcendent millennialisms. however. to speak anybody the to imagine whatthe next century. as Christian well as non-Christian. MILLENNIUM.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION.fromRestifde la Bretonne's 1789playTheYear KahnandAnthonyJ. The moderninterpretive of Jesus the as understanding charismaticleaderof an eschatologicalcult helps to explain the perennial presence of millenariansects in the history of Christianity(Cohn 1970. worldview hasbeenso uncontested almost a that for immanently threecenturies even the unequaled andthe unprecethat historical catastrophes dentedinhuman barbarisms the 20thcentury of couldat firstnot makea dent on it. Wiener's1967exercisein social-scientific The 2000. collapse of utopian and visionsis happening a timeof accelerating at technological scientificrevolutions at the veryinception a newglobalage. the greatest millennialcelebrationand prepared the coming of the millenniumwith for almostmillenarian The traditional of amillennialism the Roman anticipation.and futuristicscientificworks on 2000 to Herman centered the year2000. forecasting. c) Consider the perplexing lack of excitement generated by the news of the achievement the human of the extraordinary genome project. 1999.science-fiction.Weber 1999).Paradoxically. the surprising Thus. and therefore are possessed radically fevernorbyexistential angst.progressive.

granting indulgences to those who visited the main Roman basilicas during the year in commemorationof the century past and in celebration of the new age to come.4 3 EmperorConstantine."and against the Pope and Roman church.The reaction of the Donatistswas fraughtwith equally fatefulprecedents. he and many Catholics interpretedas a clear sign of divine grace and as confirmationof his papal mission.420 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Catholic Church is well known."the Antichrist. 4 The Catholic traditionof Jubileeyearsgoes back to 1300AD. Considering that traditional Catholicism had been characterizedby a negative philosophy of history which viewed the modern age as a concatenation of relatedheresies from Protestantismto atheist communism. he carefully prepared and anxiously anticipated for years."In its spatial dimension this processof internalsecularizationentails an innerworldlyreorientation.The very fact that he was alive to celebrate the special Jubilee year 2000. thus setting a fateful precedentof state repressionagainst millennial groupsand establishingthe model of church in the Weberian sense. the reversalis quite remarkable. It marked. who despite his advanced age and fragile health devoted himself with amazing vigor to the year-long millennial celebrations. when Pope Boniface VIII issuedthe bull Antiquorum. In other words. It was the first time that state authority was used to repressa dissenting movement within Christianity. This general Catholic reorientation was reinforced and shaped in a particular direction by the personal millennialism of the present Pope John Paul II. used the repressive power of the state to enforce church unity."establishing images which have endured with every millennialist sect until the present.They embracedmartyrdom proudly. From now on. even before his baptism. This innerworldlyhistoricist reorientation has led Catholicism to embrace a progressiveview of history to such an extent that Catholicism may be today the most post-millennialist of all major Christian denominations. as an institution claiming the monopoly of the means of grace over a territory. that is.therefore. By the end of the 15th century the custom of celebrating a . the secularworldand the secularage. and redirectedthe apocalyptic invectives of the Book of Revelation against the firstChristianemperor. It was consolidated in the fourth century in its conflict with the North African millennialist Donatist sect. "the whore of Babylon. The more Roman the Christian church became. the more it had to shed its millennialism and the antiimperialanti-Romanvitriolic of the Apocalypse. and thus the church'sobligation to discernprophetically"the signs of the times. the legitimacy of the modern age entails the acceptance of the principle of historicity. action on behalf of peace and justice and participationin the transformationof the world will become not an added but a constitutive dimension of the church'sdivine mission. Jerome set the basisfor Catholic amillennialismby deridingthe idea of a thousandyearsearthly kingdom of God as a fable and St. Augustine gave it the standard definitive form.frequently through self-immolationby fire. the first celebration of the end of a Christian century. the modern secular age and the modern secularworld.3 St. the continuous revelation of God's plans of salvation in and through history. Thereafter. to The Vatican aggiornamento of the 60s altered radically the traditional Catholic position by embracing the saeculum.the Catholic Church rejected the vision of a Kingdomof God on earth as well as the idle numerical millennial calculations. the Kingdom of God was both otherworldlyand eternal and thus unrelated to the saeculum. In its temporaldimension.

and commitment conditionfor the successof the divine plans.The massive devisedand implemented Cardinal his release fromprison.followed the yearly in of vowsof the by Great Novena culminatingin the 1966 millenniumcelebrationsof Polish The attemptof the regimeto upstagethe churchby organizing Christianity.changeof heart.and culminating the visit of the recentlyelected Polish pope. practice critique the indulgences continued albeitwith muchdiminished until its recentrevival vigorous and reaffirmation popular support by thepresent pope. John Paul II has tried to recreatethis millennial revivalism within the entireCatholicChurch.The crescendoof the unanticipated collective effervescence was palpable to participantsand observersalike (Casanova 1994). altogedispensationalist therdifferent numerical calendar oriented the commemoration to calculations of past events. beganwiththe rededication of It of the nationto the "Queen Poland" 1956.with moremixedresults.and it demandsfrombelieversthe appropriate as penance.it can also prepare groundfor radicalsocial clearly transformation. formof revivalism often linkedto a call for this is actionwhichhas not merely conservative traditionalist or As implications. 26 years. the As firstnon-Italianpope in almostfive centuries. he felt a special mission to liberate the Slavic peoples from the communist ecumenical with the Eastern churches. the rise of Solidarityone year after the completion of the Marianprogram of mobilization the indicates. yokeand to further dialogue and Luther's jubileeevery25 yearswaswell established despite of the trade. for around traditional the Marian devotionto OurLady Czestochowa.MILLENNIUM. We couldcall it Durkheimian with millennialism. It shouldbe clearthatthis is a verydifferent kindof millennialism the than one.Furthermore. celebrations the millennium Polishstatehood of of failedmiserably. . leading up to the celebrationof the ninth every single in in of of centenary the martyrdom SaintStanislaw 1979.it scrutinizesthe "signsof the times" in order to divine propheticallyGod's attitudeof redemptive plans. Inspiredby the Polish revivalistexperienceand imbuedwith a powerful sense of divine mission.It also linkssacred historyandsecular historyin an intricate way. This celebration constituted a turning point in the protractedbattle between the Catholic Church and the Communistregimeover the mindsof the Polish of effervescent celebration servedas the culmination a plan people. GLOBALIZATION 421 Butfor Karol of Wojtyfithe modelfor the Jubilee2000 wasthe experience the celebrationof the millenniumof Polish Christianityin 1966.and as the firstSlavic pope in history. competing This triumphwas cappedby the annualprocession the BlackMadonna of to town in Poland. It certainlyillustratesin paradigmatic fashionthe powerof religiousbeliefsand ritualsto servethe causeof social the of of integration re-creating bondsof solidarity the imagined by community the nation.& 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS:RELIGION. ratherthan futureones. by Wyszyrisky upon to keepthe churchandthe nationmobilized.

is that it was the first commoncollective globalcelebroadand reciprocal brationin the historyof humanity.Humanity. this are has no commonhistory.Indeed. redateall ourcalendars globally gestingthat we humans that is.it was a secularparty or devoidof religious peoplearound symbolism meaning. makingthem reflexivelyawareof partaking the same commonglobal humancelebration. to he Frustrated. imageof a yearzerois not so far-fetched one no its name. as the firstyearof ourtrulycommonera. of materialist to confrontthe presence a stubbornly capitalist the traditionalcore of Western Christendom.that he came to perceiveas increasinglypagan.422 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION him in his mission. the virtually sametime andthe samespace.The failed assassination attemptand the recoverywhich he attributedto a miraculous him in his millennialvision and mission. goal 5) The fifth strikingthing. historicalor mythical.tonguein cheek.the globeand humanity. as the firstcollectivecelebratory perspective. celebration the secondmillennium becamenowa millenarian in itself.I am even to a to proposethat ASR sponsors resolutionaddressed humanitysuggoing andresetY2Kas YOac. Yet froma Durkheimian it maybe viewedas a sacred event. the or the 24 time-zones spaces.to the commonpresentsharedby global was and The referent the symbolism primarily spatial.Indeed. turnedto EasternEurope. despite some referent. For the first time in historyhumanityshared virtualgatheringof humanity.Globalizationis the new philosophyof space that has come to as of the replaceprogress. hedonist and unresponsiveto his revivalist message.Strictly speaking.Only now in the age of globalization we sense. if the Now a bit moreseriously.absolutely celebration that the millennium considers had. particularly CatholicPoland.If there was any temporal referentit was solely to the present.What madethe event something as specialand differentfromother televisedspectacleswith perhaps largean built into it and shared the audiencewasthe reciprocal by reflexivity virtually in active participants.Both are conceivedsimilarly .now Marianintercession confirmed messianism Marian and withthe withsuffering connected tinged apocalypticism The of thirdsecretof Fatima. WesternEurope.still them to serve as the "spiritual untouchedby capitalistmaterialism. only to findout thatWesternmaterial materialistvalues were flooding the Easternspiritualreservoir. now focusingnarrowly upon the Y2K'sNew Eve Year's celebration. urging of reservoir" Christian goodsand Europe.The simultaneous the globemadethem into around castingof the 24 hour-long partycelebrations morethan a globalpartyhypedby the media. old philosophy history.now redefined the as The fall of the BerlinWall confirmed of Christian reunification spiritual and Buthis visionhad regeneration Europe. con-celebrants The werenot commemorating common temporal in historyor some commonpast event.One could say that with globalization spatial of has metaphor metaphor come to replacethe dominanttemporal-historical modernity.mostreligious the worldmayhave purposefully stayedawayfromit. the writingand constructing first worldhistories.

system. withthe world * Globalization servesas an analyticalcategoryto indicatethat these processes. but its primary reference is not temporal but spatial. much less a comprehensive. as a result. GLOBALIZATION423 RELIGION. in the same way as history also happens in space. * While continuouswith modernity. immanently driven. Globalizationand Religion Now let's bring religion back in! Obviously.but it altersradically the whichwereclustered withinthe nation-state: system dissociating elements by together administrative territorial market civil state. I am not going to try to discuss the different ways in which globalization may affect religion or vice versa.politicalsocietyor bodyof citizens. Both processes just happen before humans become reflexively aware of them and of their own actions' complicity in bringing them about. Globalization not meanthe end of statesor the does model. moral political. therefore and fostersits further as well as qualitatively. andnation. answer. but has no intrinsic spatial referent. while haveentered qualitatively phase. it meansthe end of their fusionin the sovereign but territorialnation-state. it freescapitalism capitalist fromits territorial-juridical in embeddedness stateandnationaleconomies. globalization is also a temporal-historical process in so far as it happens in historical time. the In is post-colonial. quantitatively by extrinsic or cultural. I am not going to touch upon the kind of issues which have been the .globalization post-modem. state sovereignty." Of course. For instance. * Globalization alsocontinuous is withthe world of that system states.undermines hegemonic projectof Westernuniversalization. economy. principles. world and of system states. this sense. territorially governed the principle by undivided exclusive and Globalization limitsandrelativizes sovereignty. Only then can they become "projects.all embedded withina system of society. I will begin with a series of general statements about globalization. freescapitalist market civil societyfromits territorial-juridical and in embeddedness state and nation. a new continuous. * Globalization surely is continuous withthe world but system. andpost-Western. I can only select arbitrarily a few entry points in the hope that they may illuminate some areas of the complex and fluid field.and. anddecenters worldsystem. and forward advancing processes. breakswith the grandnarratives and globalization of the philosophies history. end of nationsand nationalism. process * Historically.dissolvesthe particular fusionof nation and state which out and at emerged of Westernmodernity becameinstitutionalized worldwide. meaningful. is with the capitalist globalization a processcontinuouswith modernity. leastas a afterthe French Revolution. unencumbered development. upon which I cannot elaborate further thus they will have to be taken at face value: * Globalization not a historical is can whoseorigins be dated. teleological. GLOBALIZATION? So what do we mean by globalization and how does it affect religion? Obviously. I cannot try to offer a systematic.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: MILLENNIUM.

claims. poverty.overthe meansof violencein the caseof the state(Weber1978:54and each 56). we should distinguishanalytically:the as functions Not cult religion religions.Beyer1994). Both are defined by the same dual principleof and claims. argumentation in reviewing froma long-term historical the changesin the patterns perspective of relationsbetweenchurch.Following line of the (Robertson initiatedabove. and Church State thereis an intrinsicrelation As the Weberian definitions both indicates.Nor does everycommunity functionas a religionof salvationfromsicksalvationofferingthe individual individual individual qua ness. plays the Durkheimian of as whichfunction sects denominations. the systemof states. nation and civil societybroughtabout by I'll of After reviewingthese changesanalytically. or mutuallyexclusive and antagonistic.Globalizationfurthersthis processby undermining and levels. the Historically formationof the modernEuropean which later gained worldwide expansion.or most caesaro-papist imperial cults. Catholicism fromtwo contemporary formsof globalreligion: some illustrations andPentecostalism. politicalcommunity Think of the many function of societal integration. churchis a particular (Casanova of religion which.This modelof church-state challenged the liberalby of furtherby processes globalization. followingWeber..As I've written elsewhere fusionof two types historical the 1994:45-48). the earlyabsolutist the triedto reproduce modelof Christendom state and churchin Europe every whichdefactomeantthat all the eius cuius to regio religio.The universalization globalization at of territoriality various principle their of humanrightsdeterritorializes state-based i.Simpson1996. state and is now undermined democratic claimsof churches introducing the statechallenged monopolistic The liberal by and freedomor expedient constitutional either principled separation religious the religioustoleration.overthe meansof salvationin the caseof territoriality monopolistic the church. offer processes globalization. Bothareeithermutually enforcing legitimating other's dependent. of between church and state.424 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION analyticalfocusof our dean of globalization theoryRolandRobertson(1992) in and associates. Think of state in Confucianism China. Shintoismin Japan. everysalvation community andsalvation or is coextensivewith a territorial a community cult. the human . i. I'vealways been. since I couldonly rehashtheirarguments less eloquentform andChirico1985. according the principle controlof the absolutist fell nationalchurches underthe caesaropapist territorial fusionwasalready state.state. or cultsin America primarily religions cult individual salvation. and from all sorts of distress and danger. jurisdiction.I am particularly as interested..e.and the postWestphaliansystem were churches into Christendom competing of dissolution Western Reformation In conditioned and interrelated reciprocally phase processes.e.

andsacred people. into andterrilanguage pluralized. New Israel.and based civil society. and the rulesand institutions limitstateterritorial sovereignty undermine tradiin tional etatist principleof non-externalinterference the internalaffairsof states.was consciousof recreating myth when. sacred the one history.MILLENNIUM. became generalized in Catholic and Orthodoxcountries.At the very least.market. the fusion nation.usingbiblical of the New Jerusalem. torialized churches. state similar .andfreedom conscienceis the most personis the carrier inalienable sacredof thesepersonal The worldsystemof statesand its supranational rights. we can say that globalization definitionof both.playsa as the in function 16thcentury Russian nationalism.afterthe Fallof Constantinople. Again. SecondRome.ADDRESS:RELIGION.are to be by found throughout 16th century Europe: in Spain.The great French nationalist historian.exemplified the Anglicanization the Churchof England. medievalChristendom. France.Jules century the Michelet.anticipating samecombination findsin 19th secular nationalism.he decidedthat France to takethe placeof God were had "whom miss" thathis belovedcountry to fill the "incommensurable we and had 1999:114).The processof nationalization the state of churches.first the archetypes used probably Savanarola 15thcenturyrepublican in Florence. and The archetypical England.& GLOBALIZATION 2000 PRESIDENTIAL 425 of of rights. following Anderson (1991:12).outmoded increasingly and makesWeber's irrelevant.Similarversions the samenationalmillennial of myth. The new state churchesfunctionedas community cults of the absolutiststate and as national religiouscommunitiesintegrated the by nationalvernaculars whichweregradually transformed high literinto emerging of ary languages the printing by press. churchandstate. modern nationalism to be understood as a formof "self-consciously has not held 5 The mythof Moscow the ThirdRome. Portugal. old transnational the sacredcommunity integrated by Latinas a sacred wastransformed fragmented.By undermining territorially-based of state. convincedthat church andChristianity dead.and the chosenpeople. globalization also underminesthe model of territorially national religionor culture.5 myth servesto link togethersacredland.as shown by the Gallicanization the French of CatholicChurchandby the Russification the Orthodox of ChurchunderPeter the Great. Durkheim's secularrepublicanism equallyselfis conscious of filling the same void. and as Communities Church Nation Imagined nationhas to be As Benedict Anderson (1991) has pointedout.Thus spoke abyssleft by an extinguished Christianity"(Bernstein MicheletbeforeZarathustra. the modern as understood the combinedsuccessorof the dynasticmonarchy political as dissolutionof With the systemand of the churchas a religiouscommunity.was by in mostpronounced Protestant also but countries.

religion and globalization.it cameinto being. the persistence religiosityin Europe or oligopolistic or eitherestablishment of highlyregulated religious monopolistic markets (Caplow1985. ratesof religious decline.S." as a secularized "outof whichas wellas against which.the Americanparadigm individual sidetheoryof religionneedsto explainwhythereis no greater supply in salvationin Europe the face of open free markets demandfor religious and.offers relatively plausible but to muchless to explain developments.Finke 1997).and high levels of individualreligiosity. the whereareoften accompanied persistent by impasse.Low levels of of by ought to be explained.I say we. and facts. have reached impasse the debate." on Excursus Secularization It should be evident. open.The orthodox model worksrelatively well for Europebut not for The worksfor the U.426 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION but formof the religiousculturalsystems. and even moreso. why religious suppliers. the relative validity of the two theorieswill be measured not eventually by how muchthey areableto account for what happensto religion in Europeor the United States.and pluralrelationship istic religiousmarket. But as Steve evidencewithin Bruce(2000) has shownconvincingly. but not for Europe.seem unable to gener- ate or mobilizegreaterreligiousdemand. The traditional European whichpostulates structural betweensocialdiffera link theoryof secularization. but for what in to We an happens religionin the restof-theworld. But allow me a briefexcursuswhich is relatedto our topic at hand. political ideology. Europesimply high Monopolisticsituationsin Polandand Irelandare linked to persistently elseand liberalization state deregulation while increasing levels of religiosity.Starkand lannaccone1994. becauseI am caughtin the middleurgingboth sidesto take in moreseriously orderto learnfromthe validpointsand each other's arguments the blind spots in both positions(Casanova1994). Warner(1993) has called state and society (Casanova2001).Thus. free.accordingly. I hope. sociological. is unableor unwilling takeseriously.After all. competitive. America. a entiationand religious accountof European decline. not worry! am not goingto rehashthe fruitless secularization debatebetweenEuropeans Americans overagain and all (Bruce 1992).internalcomparative does not supportthe basic tenets of the Americantheory. there have been plentyof religious entrepreneurswho have failed lately in Western Europe. the surprisingvitality and extreme pluralismof denominationalforms of of salvation the secularization notwithstanding pronounced religionin America. What Stephen turnsthe orthodoxmodelof secularization American "theemerging paradigm" on its head and uses the Americanevidenceto postulatean equallystructural an betweendisestablishment. flies in the faceof European . that therein lies the key to the radical secularization Christian of I Do Europe.The notion of a constantreligious demand of a constantdemand supernatural or for is acompensators a-historical.

you do not think that this is strictlyspeakinga European problem. hard to imaginein other commodities' markets.in the Weberiansense. to think of them.why individuals Europe.people ceased for lost goingto churchandstopped looking alternatives.do not bother to look for. yet continued to functionas community cults of the nation in the absenceof a secularnationtheirabilityto functionalsoas religions individual of state.that of nationalcommunities.so similarto Polandand Ireland otherwise. theywill makemoresense will but of complexhistorical realities will leadto greater and understanding.we cannot skip the Weberianquestion. The trulypuzzling in Europe. contrast. .in the Durkheimian senseof the term. ourtheories be lesselegantandlessscientific. havingapparently also the needfor individual so We salvation.let psychologists and economistsaddressthis question. lost also is."salvation. MILLENNIUM.churches individual salvation closerto homeso that (Davie2000). Why does religiontoday in remain"implicit" insteadof takingmoreexplicit institutional If forms? Europe we wantto answer question the the lackof appealof religions individual of why salvationin Europe. in once the secular nationtakesover by theirfunctionas community tend also to declineas religions of cults.andhave maintained salvation.Fora vividillustration. In or this context. Once the Catholic Churchceasedbeing the community cult of Quebec. religious couldrephrase questionand ask. The issueof greater lessermonopolyis relevantbut not the mostcrucialone. the in once they lose faith in their national churches. the suddencollapseof Catholicismthere with the rise of Quebequois secularnationalism. Imagined Religions.the one we sociolois gists of religion should be addressing.and for what?" interesting sociological question. not whetherreligiousand salvation needs remainuniversally constantacrosstime and space.think of and Quebec. as collectiverepresentations the imagined in the processtheirabilityto functionas religions individual of salvation. evidentonly a decadebefore. from The what. systems less as religious Surely. why churchesand ecclesiastical institutions. we simplymust think of religionsmoreas cultural and markets. or actuallylook salvation Such a kindof brandloyaltyis disdainfully uponalternative religions. They will also be less-UScentric. secular nation-state theirtraditional historical functionas community cults.but ratherthe changingcharacter their of cultural manifestations across societies through and history. in Weber's salvationinstitutions firms. Globalization If we want to make sense of religion today not only in Europebut the throughout world.as monopolistic Ireland Polandillustrate case of churches and the which werestrictlyspeaking not monopolisticallyestablished. we need to one question is once they cededto the address.as collectiverepresentations imagined of than communities. it maybe morehelpfulto think of churches.Elsewhere Europe.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION. or sense. GLOBALIZATION427 and Communities.and with this we arebackto our topic.

cultures. The mentalmappings.. Butnot everything that happens in time is historical. By de-territorialization terriof mean the disembeddedness culturalphenomenafromtheir "natural" I embedded. cultural indeed.includingreligious ones? I would suggest that one of its most importanteffects is their "deI territorialization" (Basch. waters.as "anareaassigned jurisdiction" fora special purpose.Temporal narratives.Schiller.theybecame of The expulsion Jewsand MoorsfromSpain.Cultural historyhave been territorially systemsthroughout in do not meansimplythat culturalphenomenaare in space. Global So how does globalization affect all culturalsystems. civil But the samehappenedto peoples. as "thedomain in this first. are only whenthey becomepartof meaningful phenomena historical in whenthey areembedded a becomemeaningful Similarly. By term. nation. within the nation-state.the so-called of within the fixed boundaries nations-states.in the samesenseas everything in time.all becameterritorially of of instance.and Blanc 1994). spatialphenomena in the strictsenseof the I alsodo not meansimply ecology territory. Civilizations. of members state or Before peoplebecamesubjects citizensof states. Territories.and Every havebeenparceled territorial of out. was The point I am tryingto make is that this logic of territorialization into and initiatedby the dissolutionof WesternChristendom its pluralization Extra Outsidethe state.e. i. As an institution. universal everybody.everypieceof land. embedded People.no legalperson. and territorialized appropriated.was exclusionoutside. territorial stato nulla personais a version of the church principle extraecclesianulla salus. writing address the mountains state exercises whicha sovereign and.Consequently. territory I The dictionary was usingwhile character.Everything the is worldis in space. samehappened religious and civilizations worldreligions.is as are Territories imagined spaces. and have a proprietary purposeful over definedterritory.markets.a countrywherethe threeAbrahamic religions . has historical meaning. space.was required preciselybecauseJews and Muslimscould not become subjectsof the new Catholicnationalstate. Spain.second. largeportions the seas. and to The forcedto becomepartof a state territory.religions. as the relationsbetween organismsand their physicalenvironments.for society.428 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION and CivilSociety Territorialization.whichmaybe nationalchurches. tories. territorialization of viewedas the starting process universal point of the modern and was certainlythe first instanceof modernethnic cleansing.for instance.becameterritorialized throughthe universalization the principle 1992 ). as an imagined muchan imagined moreover.sciences. community." of and of With the triumph European system statesit modernity of the world the carried with its globalcolonialexpansioneverywhere. statesand nationalchurches. entireworldunderform wenta particular of territorialization. after the FrenchRevolution(Brubaker citizenship and withina territory of inclusion is citizenship basedon the principle universal or individual group.to systems. territory.

Glocalization also be interpreted a dimensionof can as what I call de-territorialization.Rajaee Glocalization.The solid territorial underthe sovereign of the state is dissolving into more jurisdiction phenomena fluidconditions. Otherswouldfollow. and regional Local real spaces.as to the mental mapsof even beforeReformation became now exclusively Catholicterritory. Christians.Muslim. civil society.refersto the simultaneousreassertion and plex processes of relevance the localandthe globaloverthe national. the of mediaand information subcultures identities(youth.as central to the mental mapsof Jews and Muslims. and global global systems. indigenouspeople).communities or and imagined.Butglobalization beginning loosenup the straight to is jacket of the sovereign evermoreporous. Greenpeace. But humanity itselfcan hardlybecomean identitygroupor an .informaand tion systemsand media. statesare becomingless undivided exclusive sovereignterritorialdomainsand more regulatory administrative territorial networks interlinked and overlapping with wider networks of embeddedness all social (Guehenno1995. (Beck2000.identities.The national increasing is fragmented within into smaller units without particularistic and transcended into ever larger units. globalhumanity for and unit.I do not need to emphasize relevance the global. and and Counter-Reformation dividedup Europe had into Protestant Catholic territories.its boundaries becoming and but systemof statesis not disappearing. into WesternChristendom the first civilizationto be territorialized was nation-states. Civilizations to have lost their relevanceas units of analysis.at least for social appeared of scientists. they meantas a matter course nationalsocieties.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: MILLENNIUM.subcultures ethnic groupsall gain spatialautonomy fromthe state-national territories withinwhichthey have been embedded and circumscribed. world The are state. social movementsand public spheresare not only those boundaries also overlapping but nationalterritransgressing increasingly toriesandthusbecoming transnational 2000).Peoplesand their identities.had coexisted for centuries. Jewish. Whensociologists talkedof societies. traversing The globe itselfbecomesthe physical withinwhich spaceand mentalterritory the nation-stateitself and everythingembedded within its territory becomes circumscribed. global movementsand organizations (Amnesty Internationalandhumanrights.Globalmarkets.Shaw 1997). Doctors WithoutBorders) a of feminism. all proliferateand become increasinglymore relevant global national borders transcending and nationalterritories (Castells1997).commodities firms.the reflexive pointof reference all societiesandpeoples(Robertson Chirico1985).Christian. The local gains a territoryof its own independentfrom the nation. GLOBALIZATION429 RELIGION. becomesa self-reflexive self-referential and Consequently. Islamwas the last to be forced into the of straight-jacket sovereignterritorialstates (Piscatori 1986). and civilizations.another of these awful neologisms we social scientists termsto characterize com1992)like to useas shorthand (Robertson analytical and phenomena.

fault lines. of None of you. (1996) thesis "the clash of civilizations. and awareof theirown particularity they need an other to becomereflexively muchless its telos.most frequently its "essenvision(Huntington West-centric and tialism" for its undiluted 1996. The religion of humanity. and the cult of the individual fathersof sociology. that.movements. old godsandthe old religions of of the of becoming carriers the process sacralization humanity. dying while the new ones had not yet been born. mostrelevant imagined Thereinlies the meritof Samuel and againthe old civilizations worldreligions. by Globalizationfacilitates the return of the old civilizations and world and cultural but systems as religionsnot only as units of analysis as significant communities. are likelyto becomeevermoreprominent."in recognizingthe Huntington's for and of relevance cultural systems civilizations worldpolitics." What none of the couldhave anticipated was and Enlightenment prophets positivistsociologists weregoingto gainnew life the that. gious ones arelikelyto be once the will communities emerge.by announced the founding by by by Durkheim indeedarrived(Casanova2000). space peoplecommonto all .430 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION Individual collectiveidentitiesarenecessarily and imagined plural. particularly While new transnational ones.whereHuntington particularly Riesebrodt 2000).a transnational community. its sacralization.organizations. hegemonic is But in my view. dimensions theirleading theirtransnational Globalizationalso representsa great threat insofar as it implies the deto threatens dissolvethe of Globalization territorialization all cultural systems. Saint-Simon. it is not itselfa territorially organized societyor domain. The triumphand the global has expansionof human rightsdoctrinesand movementsat the end of the 20th centuryseemsto confirmat leastpartof their visions. I suppose. The analysismissesthe fact that globalization civilizational along not only a great opportunityfor the old civilizationsand world represents to fromthe straight to jacketof the nation-state. in Durkheim's religions. is The end-result the process globalization. one single global netGlobalcivil society is a transnational space. sacred andsacred link intrinsic betweensacred time.overlappingand at times in competition with the imagined Nationswill continueto be.But they werewrongin the of wouldsooneror laterreplace old that assuming the new religion humanity "theold godswere theocentric (1965:475)words. that work of associations.paradoxically.but local and transnational identities. of of singularity.The increasing for thesis has been widely and rightlycriticized. and communications the but transcends territorial nation-state. wrongis in units akin to nationof civilizations territorial as his geo-politicalconception which leadshim to anticipatefutureglobal conflicts states and superpowers.relevant imaginedcommunitiesand carriersof collective identities reliwithinthis globalspace. expectsthe formation one singleglobalreligion. regain religions freethemselves and rolesin the globalcenterstage. imagined future. community.one worldsociety. unlikely to be one world government. forthe foreseeable nationalcommunities. Comte.

and Transnational Catholicism Of all the worldreligionsnone wasas threatenedat its core by the emerworldsystemof sovereignterritorial statesas the Roman gence of the modern church. throughthe controlof the nominationof bishops the papacy will progressively gaincontrolover the nationalCatholicchurches. which have definedall civilizations.One by one.In this respect. of The papacyof BenedictXV marksanother milestone in the processof of for Electedshortlyafterthe outbreak globalization Catholicism two reasons.Catholic lost its originalconnotation of universality became and term the simplya denominational distinguishing RomanchurchfromotherChristian denominations. of WorldWarI. Fromnow on. its Catholic. philosophy history(Casanova it was the loss of territorial state sovereigntywith the incorIronically. the firstgeneralconflagration nation-states.the verysameyearthatthe PapalStateswere the FirstVaticanCouncilproclaimed dogmaof papalinfallibility the lost.1997). This processwasfacilitated the expansionof the liberalsecularstate which by etatist claimsto controlthe nationalchurches.workedtireand bitterly the of lessly for peace negotiations. The Protestant Reformation undermined claimsto be the One. of poration the PapalStatesinto the new Italianstate. non-Catholicliberalstates werethe firstones to acceptthe transnational and papalclaims. MILLENNIUM. GLOBALIZATION431 worldreligions.and with it the seeminglyessentialbondsbetweenhistories. and reaffirmed papalsupremacy the entireCatholicchurch. 1870. the over 1870 represents original the milestonein the modern of of process globalization Catholicism. condemned of he the senselessslaughter the generalchauvinistfrenzy. gave up the old caesaro-papist Not surprisingly. which wouldmediatenationalconflictsand establishthe conditions .that allowedthe Papacy to be reconstituted anew as the hegemoniccenter of a much revivedtransnationalreligious In regime. rather two versions Christianity: of or of Catholicism Pentecostalism. me offerbrief Let peoplesand territories of illustrations someof thesethreats opportunities a summary very and from and selectivereviewof two worldreligions. dissolution Wester The of Christendomundermined role of the Papacyas the spiritualhead of a the universalChristianmonarchy The represented the Holy RomanEmpire. by lost to Catholic Papacy controlof the nationalCatholicchurches caesaro-papist monarchs Concordats it itselfbecameterritorialized the Papal and into through States. thereforethat the Catholic church remainedfor centuriesadamantlyantimodern developed negative and a of 1996.and supported organization a Leagueof Nations.and ApostolicChristianChurch.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION. Holy. reducedto being just another marginaland increasinglyirrelevant territorial state. mostof the transnational dimensions of sovereign MedievalCatholicismrecededor disappeared It is not surprising altogether.whileCatholicmonarchs statestriedto preserve theirold claims statesupremacy.

The had territories of modern beyondits traditional European expansion Catholicism been connected until the mid-nineteenthcenturywith the global European colonial expansion.but because of the of the modern discourseof human rights in his definitive incorporation encyclical Pacemin Terris(1963). growinginternational advocatesof world-wideinternationalbodies.Even transnational orders. popeshave been consistent recognition.followedby the generalimmigration other European But the CatholicpresencebeyondEurope. until the Catholics. sistentlyopposed the of had condemned Declaration the Rightsof BriefCaritas adamantly papal that the rightsto freedomof Man by the FrenchNationalAssembly. of other Britishcolonies.The 2500 Fathers in no attendance came from all over the world. yet majority.432 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION fell The pope'sintervention on for a justpeace. breaking of the groundfor the moderninternationalization the Catholic church. that the Vaticanbeganto In addition.Vatican I still had been a predominantly council.whichlimitabsolutist the disputes. even European one-tenthof fromthe United Statescomprised already thoughthe 49 prelates the gathered bishops.who had been expelled from their home to die fortheircountries(Holmes laws countries anti-clerical returned by solithanhumanor Christian muchstronger Nationalsolidarity 1981).fromthe World Court to the international statesovereignty. arbitrate United Nations. of the papacy in internationalaffairs.the renewalof its historical role as of mediator courtof appeals. the answered on deafears.Catholicpriests enthusiastically patriotic everywhere calls to arms. by contrast.S.not only becauseof the convocationof the Second Vatican it Council and the processof aggiomamento instituted. Vatican II.it was underBenedictXV'spapacy promotethe recruitmentof indigenousclergy and the formationof native coloniallegacyandpreparing with the European Catholichierarchies. was the first truly global ecumenical council in the history of Christianity. the Jesuits. Old to the New The papacy of John XXIII marks another milestone in Catholic globalization.Despiteits failure.The fromthe the of numbers represent notabledisplacement the Catholicpopulation WorldandfromNorthto South.and represent interestsof the entire familyof nations (Hanson 1987). Until then the Catholic churchhad conof modern PopePiusVI in his 1791 conceptions humanrights. U.had expanded a had overseas Catholicism been primarily transplanted 20th century. delegation smallerthan the combined228 indigenousAsian and Africanbishops. Europeans longer formed a was The with over 200 bishops the secondlargest.includingthe most transreligious national and papal of them.not one imposed the defeated.had of The massiveimmigration IrishCatholicsto the United Statesand churches.with the exception of indenational been led and controlledby European pendentJesuitinitiatives. proved marks reinsertion the the however.Even its missionary efforts.arguing . European institution. papalintervention darity.and the point of departure its and international the Thereafter.

He also becamean untiringworld travelerproclaiming the everywhere sacreddignityof the humanperson.the Catholicchurchhas been at the vanguard the globalhumanrightsrevolution.as defensor spokesman In hominis. Freedom. humansociety.more than any other pope in history. were contraryto the divine principlesof the Church. Forty one percent of the 135 cardinals presently eligible to vote for the next pope are from the third world. The College of Cardinalsthat elected the first non-Italian pope in fourcenturies alreadyhad a much more global representation:27 Italians.the role of first citizen of a catholic.pope.Huntington1991). of has John PaulII in particular servedas one of the most effectivespokesof this globalrevolutionand represents definitiveglobalization the of persons the Catholicchurch.As and of we all know.Collegeof Cardinals has ceasedto be a predominantly As Roman-Italian institution. The fact that there is even speculationthat the next pope may be African indicateshow farand how fast the church has changed. a radialstructure centeredin Rome.The papal was the and condemnation reiterated throughout 19thcentury PiusIX included in the principle humanrightsand mostmodern of freedoms the Syllabus (1864) of errors.Thereafter. in movements the "third waveof democratization" the mid-70sto the 90s from (Casanova1996. 11 North Americans.e.12 Africans.John Paul II himself has now nominated 166 cardinals .as well as the Declaration the Equality all Men. Dignitatis the changedthe Catholiccourseby recognizing inalienablerightof radically to of it everyindividual freedom conscience. makingit partof everypapalencyclicalandof mostepiscopal the world-historical pastorallettersthroughout world.ADDRESS: & 2000PRESIDENTIAL RELIGION. 29 other Europeans. GLOBALIZATION433 on of of religionandfreedom the press.This has had dramatic as evidencedby the global role of the Catholicchurchand Catholic effects.6 urbi to Bishopof Rome.He wantsto be viewednot justas Holy Father all Catholics as commonfather of but of God's childrenand as self-appointed of humanity.grounding in the sacreddignityof the humanperson.The churchat its apex. . the processthe pope has learnedto playmoreeffectivelythan any competitor. 19 Latin Americans. churchhas adopted discourse human the of the rightsas its own.. welcoming liberation fromthe strait-jacket the territorial of nation-state which sovereign had restricted catholicuniversalclaims. i.as well as the separation churchandstate. 13 Asians.But the embraceis not uncritical.VaticanCuria. MILLENNIUM. the city and to the globe (Weigel 1999). et orbi. In the last decadestherehas been a only remarkable increasein transnational Catholic networks and exchangesof all 6 At the end of World War II two-thirdsof all cardinalswere still Italian. of The contemporary of does not have globalization Catholicism.VaticanII'sDeclaration Religious on Humanae.he has assumed eagerlyits roleto speakliterally.moreover. global and universal. Indeed.The Catholicchurchhas embraced its globalization. its The church remained of the publicvoicesleft stillquestioning has one capitalist and demandingthe humanization and moralization market of globalization economies and a more just and fair internationaldivision of labor and distribution worldresources. freedom particularly was odioussince it implied the Religious equating truereligion the falseones.

Contemporary offersto a highly decentralized which globalization favorableopportunities and rootsor identity. important to and that Christians Muslims remains. dialogue Inter-religious than is Church-state of basicto the future faith.declaring fromthe Holy Spirit. the modemnationstateis relativized nationalsovereignty as evidentthat still into displaced societalarrangements to be invented. in the globe wherethe can and which therefore makeitselfat home anywhere moves. the "Third Testament. consecratedOur Lady of and as Guadalupe the Virginof all the Americas. the major is more or Hinduor Buddhist.institutional materialresources.434 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Rome.. Let me give two anecdotal of of illustrations the potentialimplications this process. confident in its abilityto thrive in a relativelyopen globalsystemof religious Pentecostalismmay serve to illustratethe equally regimes. came that his visions.it will be increasingly American or to of and faithsarecarriers culture thatit is moresectarian be French. In a lecture at the Library Congressin 2000. global Christianity George vision: is and In the next millennium. And amongthe dialogues.. nationsandworldregions. firstPentecostal in ecstasyand whenMontanus in 2ndcentury ment. thoughthat dialogue. north and south. its outcome determine a century from now. Pope John Paul II gatheredthe bishops of all the Americas. linksto tradition no territorial with no historical religion.In his last visit to Mexico in 1999. religious religious and and centersof learning intellectual transnational networks. Russian than to be Christian Muslim. beganprophesying Phrygia.the spiritof Pentecosthas movedChristians confirming them in theirfaith that the apostoliccharismatic of revelationis not closed age .whichcrisscross the century one can observe an amazing resurgenceof the throughout of whichforcenturies been had transnational dimensions medieval Catholicism of not and recessiveor dormant: only papalsupremacy the centralization the of as councilsalready church's government. ments. well as the convocation ecumenical movetransnational but mentioned.. alsotransnational cadres. and international encounters(Casanova centers of pilgrimage transnational 1997). schools. Catholic Francis an Cardinal offered equally andtheMillennium. oftenbypassing kinds. Pentecostalism Global Catholicismillustratesthe opporof The transformation contemporary offersto a transnational tunities which the processof globalization religious with a highly centralizedstructureand an imposingtransnational regime which feels therefore and networkof human." speakingin tongues.therefore. The conversation for of mostsignificant the future the human will whatthe globewill looklike but andIslamis not yet faradvanced. Spirit moveChristian sectarian the Since the riseof Montanism. between promises be the betweenChristianity race. urgedthem to ceaseviewing and themselvesas nationalCatholicchurches to becomeone single American of Catholic church.Indeed.

taneously typically American and transnationalfrom the start. I am using Pentecostalism here in the widest possiblesense to include Pentecostalchurchesand denominationsin the strictsense of the term. Coptic churchin Ethiopia." "gifts includingany in combination healing. in fact Pentecostal is the Christianity a 20thcenturyphenomenon. only my ignorance to a followingwith a grainof salt. take the So. and all kinds of independent neo-Pentecostal such as the UniversalChurchof mega-churches. and that a "third of the Spirit" nearif not already is here.that the two oldest Pentecostal churchesin pattern. of and as prophecy. globalChristian of in Pentecostalism Strictly speaking course. and to althoughI am referring primarily Protestant in orderto come to termswith the trulygeneraland Christianity. In this sense.the categories helpfulto stickto rigorous analytical more I read from what experts in the field have to say.as the attemptof an outsider organize chaotic fieldbybringing ownexternal his prejudgements. Hamilton.One could view such Pentecostal of sectarianmovements prefigurations contemporary as But developments. is already yet most dynamicand fastestgrowingsectorof Protestant worldwide Christianity of and is likelyto becomethe predominant globalformof Christianity the 21st century.Westmeier 1999). Perhaps allows me to make bold generalizations.Lehmann 1996.the broadcharismaticrenewallately grippingmuch of EvangelicalChristianity in worldwide.and Walker 1997).and the Orthodox church in Romania.then we can confidentlysay that the phenomenonis a one. Hunt.we mustconsideras well the increasing relevanceof the charismatic renewaltaking place within Catholic and even Eastern Whencharismatic revivalism as reaches farandwideas the Christianity.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & MILLENNIUM. the CongregaiioCristado Brasil (Christian Congregation)and the . well as an emphasison emotional and experiential expressionsover and against discursive doctrinalones. Its initial transnational followedat firstalso the typicalevangelical expansion missionary It is revealing. Moreover.however.Indeed. Brazil.it was simulChristianity. speaking tongues. the "thirdage of the Spirit"is already uponusas we enterthe thirdmillennium. things. and they say very oftencontradictory the different.I mustconfess.exorcism.Corten 1999.the morecomplicated fieldgets.particularly the Third World. What all the phenomena have in gatheredunderthe termPentecostalism commonis an emphasis the charismatic on of the spirit. of globalcharacter the phenomenon. GLOBALIZATION435 RELIGION. or of the field is so complexand fluidthat I do not think it wouldbe eitherpossibleor fromthe past.the Catholic churchin India. syncretistic the Kingdom God in Brazil The Lightof the Worldin Mexico.Joachim Fiore's of age millennialtheologyand the movementit spun is only one of the speculative most famousand intellectualized versions. possibly linking all the Christian churches (Poewe 1994. originated the UnitedStatesat the beginningof the centurywith dual roots in transplanted Americanized Methodismand African-American In this respect.at least for me (Martin1996.

widespread the though not uniformexpansion.436 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION in Assembleia Deus(Assembly God). The transnational is of character Brazilian Pentecostalism inscribedin its very beginnings. Protestants The proportions higherin Chile (over20 percent)or Guatemala are population. Stoll 1990).It arrivedfromthe United States. Yet. In this roots there. a by Christianity de-territorialized takingindigenous Catholic territory.as the firstmisleading religious interpretations in authenticLatin Americanproduct.by missionaries. and immediately assumedan indigenousBrazilian Brazilian Pentecostalism a dualprocess de-territorialization: of sense.It is not anymoreProtestantism Latin America. founded via Chicagoby two Swedish pastors.The proportion Brazilis smallerbut it dwarfs everyother in absolute one LatinAmerican numbers million). even beforeit had taken form.are Latin Americanreligiousresponsesto Latin American conditions.who led a typicalsectarian a church church. thus only a few yearsafterthe firstAmericanPentecostalchurches.has . Indeed.but an firm. in The Assemblyof God. at last. the largestPentecostal church in Braziland probablyin the world.but LatinAmericanProtestantism. two-thirds all LatinAmerican Today Pentecostals-Charismatics.and the dynamicgrowthof Latin American now constitute10 percentof the LatinAmerican Pentecostalism. Indeed.I'd ventureto say it is as LatinAmerican liberation of as theology. in (over 30 percent).at least until very recentlywith 8 was also approximately millionmembers.even if Catholicism continues to be for the foreseeablefuturethe majorityreligion of all Latin Americancountries. growth Pentecostalism throughout explosive Latin Americahas ceased being Catholic territory. non-American of The ChristianCongregation Brasilwas established an Italianimmiby schismfroma local Brazilian grantfromChicago. (Lehmann Be it as it may. we juxtaposing are beginningto see trulyilluminating comparative analysesbringingthe two similarities complexdifferences and togetherin all their intriguing phenomena 1996.wereestablished de of respectively 1910and 1911.It remained until the 1930sprimarily Pentecostal Presbyterian of Italianimmigrants Brazil. Latin American is Pentecostalism neithera foreignimportnora local branchof a transnational tendedto suggest.In Rio de Janeiro (25 country new evangelical church pops up every day and 90 percent of those are of are Protestants Pentecostal-Charismatic. irrespective theirtransnational roots or origins. particularlyBrazil. afterso many misguided one-sidedinterpretations the supposedly radical differences betweenthe two phenomena. represents American is rootsin Brazil. Latin America.Today.This is the most importantconsequence of the of LatinAmerica.Corten1999).Both.I do not believe that the often fantasticprojectionsof in rates contemporary of growthof Protestantism LatinAmericainto the future are realisticor sustainable(Martin 1990.therecan be no doubtaboutthe localnature. which therefore leads to the de-territorializationof Catholicism from Brazil.

" is.is simultaneously by globaland local. case and global Buthow can it be de-territorialized localat the sametime?Because is and it an uprooted localcultureengagedin spiritual warfare with its own roots. Protestantism forcesor beings.The Pentecostalattitudeis neithercompromise denialbut frontal hand-to-handcombat.Nigeria. of a globalculture. as the relationship that betweenthe catholic. samecouldbe repeated about Pentecostalismin Korea or China. It is trulythe firstglobalreligion.The growthof Pentecostal in Africa(Ghana. In this respectit is historically andunprecedented. SouthAfrica) Christianity Sub-Saharan is equallyexplosive. is AfricanPentecostalism as local. in fromit hasnowbegunto radiate all directions.. since"theSecondGreatAwakening" a national was withmultiple phenomenon focalpoints. Indeed. from the traditionalCatholic patternof and tolerationof local folkloreand generousaccommodation condescending beliefsand practices. global Pentecostalism source diffusion of parallel developments. which is diffusion.GlobalPentecostalism not a religionwith a particular territorial center like Mormonism. syncresis the general the local.i.e. against Vodou in Haiti. rational.7 Yet LatinAmericais not the only worldcenter.Pentecostalism. mattercosmos.and Asia. is America. only getsus so far.Pentecostals for an unabashed and uncompromising instance.againstwitchcraftin Africa.characterized parallelinvention. longas these assume so theirsubordinate magical popular statuswithinthe Catholichierarchic andfromthe typicalsober. an Argentinian church founded by an Spanish immigrant in 1967 in BuenosAires is expanding in Latin Europeand the United Kingdom. and disenchanting monotheistic attitude of ascetic of-fact. as Hexham and Poewe mustbe seen as "a multi(1994:61) have pointed out." David In 7 Rios de Vida (Life's Rivers). is it a kindof syncretic Nor particular or of and symbiosis symbiotic are.complexdiffusion and by international networks with multilateral flows. .e. phenomenon different forms a localterritorial of culture. everywhereleading onslaught againsttheir local cultures: againstAfro-Brazilian spiritcults in Brazil. GLOBALIZATION 437 becomein a veryshorttime a worldcenterof Pentecostal whereChristianity." We could also think of it as a global "greatawakening" with multiple.This is the paradox the localcharacter Pentecostalism.by denyingtheir againstmagicalor supernatural nor veryexistence.In in this they are differentfrom both.acquiringa transnationalcharacter." separate.Africa."encompassingEurope.Moreover.Zimbabwe. is the historically It first unique andparadigmatic of a de-centered de-territorialized culture.againstshamanism Korea.& 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: RELIGION.MILLENNIUM. contrast. universal the local.In the words PaulFreston with of the (1997:185). foremost scholar Brazilian of "new churches localexpressions are Pentecostalism. indigenous andautonomous its LatinAmerican as The counterpart. cannotbe understood of of It in the traditionalsense of Catholic "inculturation. globalreach. what they call "spiritual warfare. is actually and It its is Pentecostalism not a translocal whichassumes the veryopposite. particular..Nor is it a transnational rapidly gainingworldwide religiousregime likeCatholicism.i. anddistinct"burned-over Yetthe parallel districts.

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