Religion, the New Millennium, and Globalization Author(s): José Casanova Source: Sociology of Religion, Vol. 62, No.

4, Special Issue: Religion and Globalization at the Turn of the Millennium (Winter, 2001), pp. 415-441 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3712434 . Accessed: 30/12/2010 01:48
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2001, 62:4 415-441 Sociology Religion of

2000 Presidential Address

Religion,

the

New

Millennium,

and

Globalization

JoseCasanova*
NewSchool Social Research for

It seems all havesurvived passage the millennium we the of without many visibletrialsand tribulations. one couldcontendthat Dionysius Actually, the 525A.D.cameup with the A.D. calendar Exiguus, monkwho around division in usearound globe,miscalculated postdated birthof now the and the at leastfouryears,in whichcaseourmillennial celebrations were Jesusby one actuallya few yearslate.1Alternatively, couldbelievethat Dionisius was in the rather and Exiguus misguided choosing Incarnation thanthe Passion ResurrectionChrist theanno of as in which wewere fewdecades case a Domini, or calendar, the Islamic one, or the early.Or one mightfollowthe Jewish in is Chinese,the Aztec,whichever, whichcasethe B.C./A.D.convention Oronecouldbea strict and meaningless. separationist deemit unconstitutional to imbue strictly our secular calendar conventions anyparticular with denominational therefore wouldcarefully one lowercase the and, religious meaning intothe religiously B.C./A.D.signs neutral before after comand "our b.c.la.c., mon era." who are the we? Which,of course,only opensup the question Common whom? to Whicheraarewe talking about? couldcontinue We this The fact is that mostChristian whether believers, pre-millennial, postor a-millennial thefactthatonlytheFather millennial, simply knows the accept hourandthe dayanddespite numerology,maybe futileto tryto curtail all it God'sfreedom tyingthe divineeschatological by plansto our own secular calendars human and deadlines. Sacred timeandsecular timearerelated, for sacred timecan onlyhappen withinworldly time.Butthe relationship not is or and believers compelled search God's are to for objective automatic, therefore
*DirectallcorrespondenceDr.JoseCasanova, to: New 65 Sociology Department, School Social Research, Fifth for NewYork, 10003.E-mail: NY casanova@newschool.edu. Avenue,
1 The BC dating was first introduced two centuries later around 731 by the Anglo-Saxon monk, the Venerable Bede.

exercise infinitum adabsurdum. ad and

415

Lamy1996).Wojcik1997. by the ritualmurders collective and and suicidesof membersof the Orderof the Solar Temple in Switzerland in between 1994 and 1997. beliefs.Stearns1996). Traditionalpre-millennialist (Marsden imagesand pre-millennialism the popular mediaof religious radio. TX in 1993.andwerefeedingthe paranoid debates. secularin originandcharacter. Mullins 1997). to selectfive: going the is 1) The moststriking thing perhaps how little millenarian turnof the secondmillennium turnedout to be. by did alike.D. Indeed.OF 416 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION revelations.Particularly. and The few well-publicized incidentsof apocalyptic mayheminducedby millenariandoomsday withthe collectivesuicideof the Peoples cults.the secondmillennium turnedout to be not unlike around1000A. Here in the United States. the public re-emergence in the 1980s had exposed to public view this ProtestantFundamentalism Protestantism.led was contemporaneous the Aum Shinrikyo millenarian movementswere some people to the conjecturethat apocalyptic wereno longerprimarily Christian restricted or a and assuming globalcharacter to their traditionalbreedinggroundin the United States (Hall and Schuyler of 1997. strangelyinforming anxieties on East. particularly the Middle to of extremistfringegroupsfromCatholicMarianapocalypticism the rightand Identitymovement(Boyer1992.Alas!The fearedmillennialfrenzy journalists expertsandsensational not materialize. wing militiasof Survivalists the Christian Cuneo1997. and followedby the apocalypticimmolationof the BranchDavidiansin Waco. were concocted by 18th and 19th century rationalist or the romantichistorians.Strozier Flynn 1997.most and terror frenzy the firstone.with or withoutthe help of prophetic signsin worldly Very few Christianmillennialists.beginning Temple in Jonestownin 1978. has 2) In this respect. The fact that eschatological activity in and and Solaire Temple happened francophone Europe Canada that it l'affaire with saringas attacksin Japan. I am anticipations.nowfilteredthrough of and the best-selling books of Hal Lindseyhad entered the mainstream secular masscultureand werenow routinely American Hollywood exploitedby Americangeo-political were (The Rapture. This is the moresurprising has given the muchgreater outbursts millenarian of fervor signs anticipating manybuild-up aroundthe year 2000 (Clagett 1999. given 1998. dispensationalist peculiarculturalsurvivalof Anglo-American 1980).lookedat the year2000 as a significant Mostof the hooplaconnectedwith the year2000 was event in God'scalendar. preparations. manyexperts anticipate Heaven's increasing millenarian (Robbinsand Palmer1997).lookingat the year2000 predominantly andcelebrations fewstriking a thingsstandout. Benjamin were outbursts anticipated academic millennial suchan apocalyptic cauldron.." that it . events.televangelism. Armageddon). The visionsof millennial historians now admit. however. culminating the 1997 masssuicideof the Quebec to led GateUFOcult in California. greatFrenchhistorianJulesMichelet wrote such a vivid and realistic narrative of the "Terrorsof the year 1000.Not surprisingly.

none of them has evinced the historicaldynamism primitively in its European New Worldforms. yearold association and civilizationis comingto an end. Eastern.Schorske1981. was 3) If the turnof the secondmillennium not unlikethe firstin its lackof millenarian was fervor. and Western and EasternSlavs and with the consolidation the schismbetweenEastern WesternChristianity 1054 of and in with the excommunication the Patriarch Constantinople. Lastturnof the century characterized a dual was by or fever and by fin de siecle atmosphere spirit.etc. Alexandrian-Coptic.We areaccustomed thinkof WesternEuropean to as Christianity a 2000 As of this old civilization. Magyars. useddifferent calenEurope Peoplethroughout of not darsandwereprobably muchaware livingthrough1000A. Western Christianity WesternEuropean is in Europe lessand less the core of Christiancivilizationand Christianity its mostdynamic forms todayis lessandlessEuropean. MILLENNIUM.Schwartz fever and anxiety have been manifestlyabsent from the year 2000 gressive millennial celebrations.by post-millennial progressive 1990).Weber 1986. the groundfor all the reformmovementsof the 11th Christianity.wasonly established 962 andthat its internal Papacy externalboundaries becamefixed around1000.the end of the 20thcentury muchunlike eschatological the endof the 9thcentury. but sociologicallyspeakingthe core institutionsand social formsof of which formone of the foundations modern WesternEuropean Christendom Westerncivilizationare only 1000 yearsold: the first 500 yearsas Medieval and Christendom centeredaroundthe Papacy the next 500 yearsas European multi-denominational modernWesternChristianityin its post-Reformation formsand in its expanded forms. we areentering Western and As Christianity the thirdmillennium.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: RELIGION.the Papalreformation. the one thousand Christianity. of of None of the other non-Western formsof Christianity Byzantine.D. RichardLandes'(1997) recent of revisionist to reopenandgive new life to the apocalyptic atmosphere attempt the year1000 is unconvincing.we are witnessing end of hegemonicEurodue to a dual processof advancedsecularization postin pean Christianity Christian and of the increasing of a de-territorialized and Europe globalization de-centered between Thus. Armenian.which are mucholder Antiochian-Syrian-Middle and institutionally closer to earlyChristianity. and thus one could say more of Christian.albeitfor reasons maybe morerightin arguing marksa turningpoint in WesternEuropean little to do with millennialism.Let'snot Westerncolonialand post-colonial the withthe forgetthat the coreof WesternChristendom.ButLandes that mayhave that the period. GLOBALIZATION417 becamea standard account (Bernstein1999). the however. Both proanxiety(Briggs1985. with the conversionof only Norse and Vikings. HolyRomanEmpire in as its spiritual and head. the Cluniac reform. preparing the century:the Peace of God. a system religious beliefsandpractices maybe the year case..one couldeven saythat the period of constitutes veryformative the foundation WesternChristendom a civilias zation. . Indeed. Crusades (Headand Landes1992). as well as from its much shorter anticipatory .

Gould 1997). we may be witnessingthe end of post-millennialism so much due millennialism to further becauseof the declineof Christian secularization.The year 1700 marksthe first public turn of the century celebration in Europe. an and maybe viewedas secularized origin old pedigreeand has been stated in manydifferentforms. equally and senseof superiorviewsof historical the modern progress the self-confident over backto the actualhistorical experience ity of "themoderns" "theancients" of Western Europeansocieties from the late Middle Ages.that explains nature modern verydifferent Christian can this perspective. illegitimate pedigree. historyis expression the collapseof utopianism. a practice which became increasinglywidespreadand globalized in the next three centuries (Schwartz1990.as well as to the utopianvisions of a new anthropocentric aim wasto in orderwhichoriginated suchhistorical Blumenberg's experiences.2It is of coursetoo earlyto tell.TheodoreOlson (1982) offereda conbelief in progress.pervasive.than a centuryago. one becauseof the collapseof utopianism.but ratheras evidential modernity As of century.and taken for fromboth. to vincingresolution the debateby showingthat the modern in as it crystallized the 18thcenturyas a dominant. and an and does not have a religious therefore irrational show that modernity forhe seemedto have been Judeo-Christian Inadvertently.as well as the post-colonial deconstructionsof Western shouldbe viewednot so muchas the cause. suasivelyand systematically KarlLowith's in The rebuttal HansBlumenberg's Legitimacy theModem founda forceful Age. From beliefsin progress. we enterthe 21St 2 The concept of century as a one hundred year calendar unit emerged first around 1300 and became firmlyestablished in its secularusageonly in the 16th century. even blase. equallydependenton contributions of and It nialismand utopianism.OF 418 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION has Despiteall the millennialmediahype. of andteleological The view thatmodern philosophies historyas progressive have a Judeo-Christian rationalistbeliefs in progress well as Enlightenment has formsof Biblicalmillennialism. of the two legs sustaining but rather beliefin historical the modern progress. through the Renaissance. millenwas grantedworldview. of unaware the heatedGermandebate.the attitude been much preparations. of the roots.and the expansionof social capitalism. moresubdued. of In an attemptto defendthe Enlightenment modernscientificrationalism and fromNietzchean-based (1983) traces Blumenberg convincingly critiques. . The post-modern critiquesof Enlightenmentrationalismand historical grand narratives.post-millennialism be viewed as secularized If rationalism. the thesis is infusedwith utopianEnlightenment millennialism not correct. was the peculiarcombination millennialism in and almostantithetical character with traditions twoold separate utopianism.the early modernScientific Revolution. the andfuture historians analyzing spiritof ourown agemayor maynot confirm it. but it is my impressionthat we may be witnessing the end of postof millennialism a progressive as philosophy history.perhapsmost perin The thesis Meaningin History.

fromRestifde la Bretonne's 1789playTheYear KahnandAnthonyJ. and Witnesses. . the greatest millennialcelebrationand prepared the coming of the millenniumwith for almostmillenarian The traditional of amillennialism the Roman anticipation.science-fiction. of and of vision: threesymbolic illustrations ourflattened Just utopian a) Contrastthe long-list of utopian. Our utopianvision deadened.progressive.and futuristicscientificworks on 2000 to Herman centered the year2000.teleological. as does not necesmeanthe end of Christian millennialism. the contrary. collapse of utopian and visionsis happening a timeof accelerating at technological scientificrevolutions at the veryinception a newglobalage.Weber 1999). the surprising Thus. 1999. is the crisis On it sarily of utopianism of the imminentprogressive and of historyit entailed philosophy that opensthe wayfor the unexpectedrevivalof transcendent millennialisms.notwithstanding fact that it in and happened the midstof the millennium is certainto haverevolutionary consequences for humanlife on earth. Year of of withthe dearth anykindof forecasting the 21st of not daring century. worldview hasbeenso uncontested almost a that for immanently threecenturies even the unequaled andthe unprecethat historical catastrophes dentedinhuman barbarisms the 20thcentury of couldat firstnot makea dent on it. and drivenprocess. The moderninterpretive of Jesus the as understanding charismaticleaderof an eschatologicalcult helps to explain the perennial presence of millenariansects in the history of Christianity(Cohn 1970. vitalityof traditional Protestant pre-millennialismand the enduring fast growth of the most millennialist Christian of denominations Mormons.(as much as this may be indeed a prodigious historicalachievement). MILLENNIUM. 22nd. looklike.Paradoxically. Jehovah's SeventhDayAdventists. we neitherby progressive and not as something new. forecasting. Wiener's1967exercisein social-scientific The 2000. GLOBALIZATION419 no longer taken for grantedas a meaningful. CatholicChurch. One only needsdirectaccessto the Gospels Baumgartner unmediated historicaltraditions unencumbered churchdoctrinesto and by by findtherethe paradigmatic modelof a successful millenarian cult. and therefore are possessed radically fevernorbyexistential angst. c) Consider the perplexing lack of excitement generated by the news of the achievement the human of the extraordinary genome project. The end of post-millennialism we'veknownit.we've learnedto take the most scientific technological and in astounding breakthroughsstride.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION.but ratherbecauseof the collapseof the utopianism of the whichhad sustained modernconceptions history. realizationof the Hegelian dialectic of masterand slave throughthe final triumphof liberaldemocracy. but (1992) "endof history" Fukuyama's as he implies. may failed electoral to b) Thinkof how the Clinton-Gore slogan"abridge the 21stcentury" as We can onlythinkof the nextcentury moreof the same to catchthe popular imagination. Francis thesismaybe rightafterall. is 4) Equallystrikingand even paradoxical the fact that the least millennialist all Christian of the had denominations. as Christian well as non-Christian.becausehistoryhas reachedits immanenttelos with the not. to speak anybody the to imagine whatthe next century. however.

"establishing images which have endured with every millennialist sect until the present. the legitimacy of the modern age entails the acceptance of the principle of historicity. The more Roman the Christian church became. This general Catholic reorientation was reinforced and shaped in a particular direction by the personal millennialism of the present Pope John Paul II.granting indulgences to those who visited the main Roman basilicas during the year in commemorationof the century past and in celebration of the new age to come. the first celebration of the end of a Christian century. thus setting a fateful precedentof state repressionagainst millennial groupsand establishingthe model of church in the Weberian sense.the Catholic Church rejected the vision of a Kingdomof God on earth as well as the idle numerical millennial calculations. to The Vatican aggiornamento of the 60s altered radically the traditional Catholic position by embracing the saeculum."the Antichrist. It marked.420 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Catholic Church is well known. Augustine gave it the standard definitive form. who despite his advanced age and fragile health devoted himself with amazing vigor to the year-long millennial celebrations. From now on.4 3 EmperorConstantine. Jerome set the basisfor Catholic amillennialismby deridingthe idea of a thousandyearsearthly kingdom of God as a fable and St. when Pope Boniface VIII issuedthe bull Antiquorum.therefore. It was the first time that state authority was used to repressa dissenting movement within Christianity. action on behalf of peace and justice and participationin the transformationof the world will become not an added but a constitutive dimension of the church'sdivine mission. In its temporaldimension. the more it had to shed its millennialism and the antiimperialanti-Romanvitriolic of the Apocalypse. and redirectedthe apocalyptic invectives of the Book of Revelation against the firstChristianemperor. and thus the church'sobligation to discernprophetically"the signs of the times. the continuous revelation of God's plans of salvation in and through history. It was consolidated in the fourth century in its conflict with the North African millennialist Donatist sect.3 St.The very fact that he was alive to celebrate the special Jubilee year 2000."In its spatial dimension this processof internalsecularizationentails an innerworldlyreorientation. he carefully prepared and anxiously anticipated for years.frequently through self-immolationby fire."and against the Pope and Roman church. This innerworldlyhistoricist reorientation has led Catholicism to embrace a progressiveview of history to such an extent that Catholicism may be today the most post-millennialist of all major Christian denominations.They embracedmartyrdom proudly. that is.The reaction of the Donatistswas fraughtwith equally fatefulprecedents. By the end of the 15th century the custom of celebrating a . Considering that traditional Catholicism had been characterizedby a negative philosophy of history which viewed the modern age as a concatenation of relatedheresies from Protestantismto atheist communism. In other words. the modern secular age and the modern secularworld. "the whore of Babylon. as an institution claiming the monopoly of the means of grace over a territory. Thereafter. 4 The Catholic traditionof Jubileeyearsgoes back to 1300AD. the Kingdom of God was both otherworldlyand eternal and thus unrelated to the saeculum. the secularworldand the secularage. used the repressive power of the state to enforce church unity. he and many Catholics interpretedas a clear sign of divine grace and as confirmationof his papal mission. even before his baptism. the reversalis quite remarkable.

he felt a special mission to liberate the Slavic peoples from the communist ecumenical with the Eastern churches. yokeand to further dialogue and Luther's jubileeevery25 yearswaswell established despite of the trade. . competing This triumphwas cappedby the annualprocession the BlackMadonna of to town in Poland.and culminating the visit of the recentlyelected Polish pope. It certainlyillustratesin paradigmatic fashionthe powerof religiousbeliefsand ritualsto servethe causeof social the of of integration re-creating bondsof solidarity the imagined by community the nation. John Paul II has tried to recreatethis millennial revivalism within the entireCatholicChurch. altogedispensationalist therdifferent numerical calendar oriented the commemoration to calculations of past events. 26 years.The massive devisedand implemented Cardinal his release fromprison. We couldcall it Durkheimian with millennialism. ratherthan futureones. the As firstnon-Italianpope in almostfive centuries.MILLENNIUM. leading up to the celebrationof the ninth every single in in of of centenary the martyrdom SaintStanislaw 1979. the rise of Solidarityone year after the completion of the Marianprogram of mobilization the indicates.and as the firstSlavic pope in history. formof revivalism often linkedto a call for this is actionwhichhas not merely conservative traditionalist or As implications. This celebration constituted a turning point in the protractedbattle between the Catholic Church and the Communistregimeover the mindsof the Polish of effervescent celebration servedas the culmination a plan people.and it demandsfrombelieversthe appropriate as penance.& 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS:RELIGION. practice critique the indulgences continued albeitwith muchdiminished until its recentrevival vigorous and reaffirmation popular support by thepresent pope. by Wyszyrisky upon to keepthe churchandthe nationmobilized.it can also prepare groundfor radicalsocial clearly transformation. for around traditional the Marian devotionto OurLady Czestochowa.with moremixedresults.The crescendoof the unanticipated collective effervescence was palpable to participantsand observersalike (Casanova 1994). GLOBALIZATION 421 Butfor Karol of Wojtyfithe modelfor the Jubilee2000 wasthe experience the celebrationof the millenniumof Polish Christianityin 1966.followed the yearly in of vowsof the by Great Novena culminatingin the 1966 millenniumcelebrationsof Polish The attemptof the regimeto upstagethe churchby organizing Christianity.It also linkssacred historyandsecular historyin an intricate way. celebrations the millennium Polishstatehood of of failedmiserably.and commitment conditionfor the successof the divine plans.Furthermore.it scrutinizesthe "signsof the times" in order to divine propheticallyGod's attitudeof redemptive plans. beganwiththe rededication of It of the nationto the "Queen Poland" 1956. Inspiredby the Polish revivalistexperienceand imbuedwith a powerful sense of divine mission. It shouldbe clearthatthis is a verydifferent kindof millennialism the than one.changeof heart.

Humanity. the writingand constructing first worldhistories.now Marianintercession confirmed messianism Marian and withthe withsuffering connected tinged apocalypticism The of thirdsecretof Fatima.absolutely celebration that the millennium considers had.now redefined the as The fall of the BerlinWall confirmed of Christian reunification spiritual and Buthis visionhad regeneration Europe. if the Now a bit moreseriously.If there was any temporal referentit was solely to the present. particularly CatholicPoland. despite some referent. imageof a yearzerois not so far-fetched one no its name. goal 5) The fifth strikingthing. the or the 24 time-zones spaces. urging of reservoir" Christian goodsand Europe.mostreligious the worldmayhave purposefully stayedawayfromit.the globeand humanity. Yet froma Durkheimian it maybe viewedas a sacred event. this are has no commonhistory. now focusingnarrowly upon the Y2K'sNew Eve Year's celebration. to he Frustrated.One could say that with globalization spatial of has metaphor metaphor come to replacethe dominanttemporal-historical modernity.What madethe event something as specialand differentfromother televisedspectacleswith perhaps largean built into it and shared the audiencewasthe reciprocal by reflexivity virtually in active participants. of materialist to confrontthe presence a stubbornly capitalist the traditionalcore of Western Christendom.Indeed. redateall ourcalendars globally gestingthat we humans that is.Globalizationis the new philosophyof space that has come to as of the replaceprogress.Both are conceivedsimilarly .is that it was the first commoncollective globalcelebroadand reciprocal brationin the historyof humanity.The simultaneous the globemadethem into around castingof the 24 hour-long partycelebrations morethan a globalpartyhypedby the media. the virtually sametime andthe samespace. as the firstcollectivecelebratory perspective.tonguein cheek. old philosophy history.still them to serve as the "spiritual untouchedby capitalistmaterialism.Strictly speaking.The failed assassination attemptand the recoverywhich he attributedto a miraculous him in his millennialvision and mission. historicalor mythical. as the firstyearof ourtrulycommonera.422 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION him in his mission.I am even to a to proposethat ASR sponsors resolutionaddressed humanitysuggoing andresetY2Kas YOac. hedonist and unresponsiveto his revivalist message.Only now in the age of globalization we sense.it was a secularparty or devoidof religious peoplearound symbolism meaning.to the commonpresentsharedby global was and The referent the symbolism primarily spatial. celebration the secondmillennium becamenowa millenarian in itself. makingthem reflexivelyawareof partaking the same commonglobal humancelebration. con-celebrants The werenot commemorating common temporal in historyor some commonpast event. WesternEurope. turnedto EasternEurope. For the first time in historyhumanityshared virtualgatheringof humanity.that he came to perceiveas increasinglypagan. only to findout thatWesternmaterial materialistvalues were flooding the Easternspiritualreservoir.Indeed.

therefore and fostersits further as well as qualitatively. this sense. I will begin with a series of general statements about globalization. unencumbered development. andpost-Western. * While continuouswith modernity. as a result. economy. Globalization not meanthe end of statesor the does model. state sovereignty.and. andnation. breakswith the grandnarratives and globalization of the philosophies history. * Globalization alsocontinuous is withthe world of that system states. process * Historically. principles. quantitatively by extrinsic or cultural. I can only select arbitrarily a few entry points in the hope that they may illuminate some areas of the complex and fluid field. territorially governed the principle by undivided exclusive and Globalization limitsandrelativizes sovereignty. while haveentered qualitatively phase.dissolvesthe particular fusionof nation and state which out and at emerged of Westernmodernity becameinstitutionalized worldwide. end of nationsand nationalism. answer. leastas a afterthe French Revolution. much less a comprehensive. I am not going to touch upon the kind of issues which have been the . the In is post-colonial. system. moral political. but its primary reference is not temporal but spatial." Of course. withthe world * Globalization servesas an analyticalcategoryto indicatethat these processes. I am not going to try to discuss the different ways in which globalization may affect religion or vice versa. but has no intrinsic spatial referent. it meansthe end of their fusionin the sovereign but territorialnation-state. teleological. GLOBALIZATION? So what do we mean by globalization and how does it affect religion? Obviously. a new continuous.but it altersradically the whichwereclustered withinthe nation-state: system dissociating elements by together administrative territorial market civil state. it freescapitalism capitalist fromits territorial-juridical in embeddedness stateandnationaleconomies.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: MILLENNIUM. anddecenters worldsystem. Globalizationand Religion Now let's bring religion back in! Obviously. meaningful.all embedded withina system of society. GLOBALIZATION423 RELIGION. in the same way as history also happens in space. immanently driven. globalization is also a temporal-historical process in so far as it happens in historical time. For instance. upon which I cannot elaborate further thus they will have to be taken at face value: * Globalization not a historical is can whoseorigins be dated. Only then can they become "projects. freescapitalist market civil societyfromits territorial-juridical and in embeddedness state and nation.politicalsocietyor bodyof citizens. Both processes just happen before humans become reflexively aware of them and of their own actions' complicity in bringing them about. * Globalization surely is continuous withthe world but system.undermines hegemonic projectof Westernuniversalization. is with the capitalist globalization a processcontinuouswith modernity. and forward advancing processes. I cannot try to offer a systematic.globalization post-modem. world and of system states.

I'vealways been.overthe meansof salvationin the caseof territoriality monopolistic the church. since I couldonly rehashtheirarguments less eloquentform andChirico1985. claims. argumentation in reviewing froma long-term historical the changesin the patterns perspective of relationsbetweenchurch.. everysalvation community andsalvation or is coextensivewith a territorial a community cult.The universalization globalization at of territoriality various principle their of humanrightsdeterritorializes state-based i.state. Both are defined by the same dual principleof and claims.e. offer processes globalization. the Historically formationof the modernEuropean which later gained worldwide expansion. the systemof states. the human .This modelof church-state challenged the liberalby of furtherby processes globalization.overthe meansof violencein the caseof the state(Weber1978:54and each 56). Bothareeithermutually enforcing legitimating other's dependent. Shintoismin Japan.Nor does everycommunity functionas a religionof salvationfromsicksalvationofferingthe individual individual individual qua ness. i. or mutuallyexclusive and antagonistic.and the postWestphaliansystem were churches into Christendom competing of dissolution Western Reformation In conditioned and interrelated reciprocally phase processes. followingWeber. poverty. plays the Durkheimian of as whichfunction sects denominations. and Church State thereis an intrinsicrelation As the Weberian definitions both indicates.Simpson1996.Globalizationfurthersthis processby undermining and levels. according the principle controlof the absolutist fell nationalchurches underthe caesaropapist territorial fusionwasalready state.I am particularly as interested. churchis a particular (Casanova of religion which.Beyer1994).Following line of the (Robertson initiatedabove. the earlyabsolutist the triedto reproduce modelof Christendom state and churchin Europe every whichdefactomeantthat all the eius cuius to regio religio. politicalcommunity Think of the many function of societal integration.As I've written elsewhere fusionof two types historical the 1994:45-48). nation and civil societybroughtabout by I'll of After reviewingthese changesanalytically. and from all sorts of distress and danger. of between church and state.424 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION analyticalfocusof our dean of globalization theoryRolandRobertson(1992) in and associates. Catholicism fromtwo contemporary formsof globalreligion: some illustrations andPentecostalism. we should distinguishanalytically:the as functions Not cult religion religions.e.. jurisdiction. Think of state in Confucianism China. or cultsin America primarily religions cult individual salvation.or most caesaro-papist imperial cults. state and is now undermined democratic claimsof churches introducing the statechallenged monopolistic The liberal by and freedomor expedient constitutional either principled separation religious the religioustoleration.

afterthe Fallof Constantinople.market.andfreedom conscienceis the most personis the carrier inalienable sacredof thesepersonal The worldsystemof statesand its supranational rights. medievalChristendom.The processof nationalization the state of churches.first the archetypes used probably Savanarola 15thcenturyrepublican in Florence. sacred the one history. SecondRome.and the chosenpeople.and based civil society. into andterrilanguage pluralized.he decidedthat France to takethe placeof God were had "whom miss" thathis belovedcountry to fill the "incommensurable we and had 1999:114). globalization also underminesthe model of territorially national religionor culture. and as Communities Church Nation Imagined nationhas to be As Benedict Anderson (1991) has pointedout.playsa as the in function 16thcentury Russian nationalism.5 myth servesto link togethersacredland.The great French nationalist historian.ADDRESS:RELIGION.Similarversions the samenationalmillennial of myth.andsacred people.anticipating samecombination findsin 19th secular nationalism. old transnational the sacredcommunity integrated by Latinas a sacred wastransformed fragmented. following Anderson (1991:12).was by in mostpronounced Protestant also but countries. Durkheim's secularrepublicanism equallyselfis conscious of filling the same void. state similar . convincedthat church andChristianity dead. the fusion nation.was consciousof recreating myth when.as shown by the Gallicanization the French of CatholicChurchandby the Russification the Orthodox of ChurchunderPeter the Great. became generalized in Catholic and Orthodoxcountries. modern nationalism to be understood as a formof "self-consciously has not held 5 The mythof Moscow the ThirdRome. New Israel.exemplified the Anglicanization the Churchof England. The new state churchesfunctionedas community cults of the absolutiststate and as national religiouscommunitiesintegrated the by nationalvernaculars whichweregradually transformed high literinto emerging of ary languages the printing by press. France. and The archetypical England. churchandstate. the modern as understood the combinedsuccessorof the dynasticmonarchy political as dissolutionof With the systemand of the churchas a religiouscommunity.& GLOBALIZATION 2000 PRESIDENTIAL 425 of of rights.are to be by found throughout 16th century Europe: in Spain.By undermining territorially-based of state. Portugal. we can say that globalization definitionof both.outmoded increasingly and makesWeber's irrelevant.usingbiblical of the New Jerusalem. and the rulesand institutions limitstateterritorial sovereignty undermine tradiin tional etatist principleof non-externalinterference the internalaffairsof states.MILLENNIUM. Again.At the very least.Thus spoke abyssleft by an extinguished Christianity"(Bernstein MicheletbeforeZarathustra.Jules century the Michelet. torialized churches.

have reached impasse the debate. the surprisingvitality and extreme pluralismof denominationalforms of of salvation the secularization notwithstanding pronounced religionin America.Thus. But as Steve evidencewithin Bruce(2000) has shownconvincingly.Finke 1997). the relative validity of the two theorieswill be measured not eventually by how muchthey areableto account for what happensto religion in Europeor the United States.and high levels of individualreligiosity. why religious suppliers.offers relatively plausible but to muchless to explain developments. What Stephen turnsthe orthodoxmodelof secularization American "theemerging paradigm" on its head and uses the Americanevidenceto postulatean equallystructural an betweendisestablishment.it cameinto being. not worry! am not goingto rehashthe fruitless secularization debatebetweenEuropeans Americans overagain and all (Bruce 1992). But allow me a briefexcursuswhich is relatedto our topic at hand. America. open. becauseI am caughtin the middleurgingboth sidesto take in moreseriously orderto learnfromthe validpointsand each other's arguments the blind spots in both positions(Casanova1994). but not for Europe. free. that therein lies the key to the radical secularization Christian of I Do Europe. sociological. but for what in to We an happens religionin the restof-theworld." on Excursus Secularization It should be evident." as a secularized "outof whichas wellas against which.S. and facts. flies in the faceof European . and even moreso. the persistence religiosityin Europe or oligopolistic or eitherestablishment of highlyregulated religious monopolistic markets (Caplow1985.426 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION but formof the religiousculturalsystems.The notion of a constantreligious demand of a constantdemand supernatural or for is acompensators a-historical.The orthodox model worksrelatively well for Europebut not for The worksfor the U. there have been plentyof religious entrepreneurswho have failed lately in Western Europe. political ideology.Low levels of of by ought to be explained. religion and globalization.the Americanparadigm individual sidetheoryof religionneedsto explainwhythereis no greater supply in salvationin Europe the face of open free markets demandfor religious and. The traditional European whichpostulates structural betweensocialdiffera link theoryof secularization. competitive.After all. Europesimply high Monopolisticsituationsin Polandand Irelandare linked to persistently elseand liberalization state deregulation while increasing levels of religiosity. I hope.internalcomparative does not supportthe basic tenets of the Americantheory. the whereareoften accompanied persistent by impasse. ratesof religious decline. a entiationand religious accountof European decline.accordingly. is unableor unwilling takeseriously.I say we.and pluralrelationship istic religiousmarket.seem unable to gener- ate or mobilizegreaterreligiousdemand. Warner(1993) has called state and society (Casanova2001).Starkand lannaccone1994.

as collectiverepresentations imagined of than communities.that of nationalcommunities. Once the Catholic Churchceasedbeing the community cult of Quebec.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION. we need to one question is once they cededto the address. the suddencollapseof Catholicismthere with the rise of Quebequois secularnationalism.people ceased for lost goingto churchandstopped looking alternatives. MILLENNIUM.and for what?" interesting sociological question. in Weber's salvationinstitutions firms. secular nation-state theirtraditional historical functionas community cults. or sense. theywill makemoresense will but of complexhistorical realities will leadto greater and understanding. as collectiverepresentations the imagined in the processtheirabilityto functionas religions individual of salvation.the one we sociolois gists of religion should be addressing. systems less as religious Surely.Fora vividillustration. Globalization If we want to make sense of religion today not only in Europebut the throughout world. from The what. religious couldrephrase questionand ask. The trulypuzzling in Europe. or actuallylook salvation Such a kindof brandloyaltyis disdainfully uponalternative religions. Imagined Religions. yet continued to functionas community cults of the nation in the absenceof a secularnationtheirabilityto functionalsoas religions individual of state. you do not think that this is strictlyspeakinga European problem. evidentonly a decadebefore.do not bother to look for.think of and Quebec. it maybe morehelpfulto think of churches.in the Weberiansense. not whetherreligiousand salvation needs remainuniversally constantacrosstime and space.Elsewhere Europe. The issueof greater lessermonopolyis relevantbut not the mostcrucialone.but ratherthe changingcharacter their of cultural manifestations across societies through and history. lost also is. contrast. .andhave maintained salvation.in the Durkheimian senseof the term. They will also be less-UScentric. the in once they lose faith in their national churches. we simplymust think of religionsmoreas cultural and markets. Why does religiontoday in remain"implicit" insteadof takingmoreexplicit institutional If forms? Europe we wantto answer question the the lackof appealof religions individual of why salvationin Europe. GLOBALIZATION427 and Communities.churches individual salvation closerto homeso that (Davie2000). in once the secular nationtakesover by theirfunctionas community tend also to declineas religions of cults.so similarto Polandand Ireland otherwise. to think of them. havingapparently also the needfor individual so We salvation. why churchesand ecclesiastical institutions. hard to imaginein other commodities' markets.let psychologists and economistsaddressthis question. In or this context.why individuals Europe.as monopolistic Ireland Polandillustrate case of churches and the which werestrictlyspeaking not monopolisticallyestablished. ourtheories be lesselegantandlessscientific.we cannot skip the Weberianquestion.and with this we arebackto our topic."salvation.

samehappened religious and civilizations worldreligions.for society. Spain. of members state or Before peoplebecamesubjects citizensof states.e. community.was exclusionoutside. has historical meaning.. The mentalmappings.in the samesenseas everything in time.Consequently. territory. Civilizations.Everything the is worldis in space.a countrywherethe threeAbrahamic religions . spatialphenomena in the strictsenseof the I alsodo not meansimply ecology territory.for instance. are only whenthey becomepartof meaningful phenomena historical in whenthey areembedded a becomemeaningful Similarly. within the nation-state.everypieceof land. territory I The dictionary was usingwhile character.all becameterritorially of of instance." of and of With the triumph European system statesit modernity of the world the carried with its globalcolonialexpansioneverywhere. as "thedomain in this first.Temporal narratives.is as are Territories imagined spaces. By term.cultures. waters.becameterritorialized throughthe universalization the principle 1992 ).includingreligious ones? I would suggest that one of its most importanteffects is their "deI territorialization" (Basch. and have a proprietary purposeful over definedterritory.Cultural historyhave been territorially systemsthroughout in do not meansimplythat culturalphenomenaare in space.to systems.sciences.and Every havebeenparceled territorial of out.428 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION and CivilSociety Territorialization. writing address the mountains state exercises whicha sovereign and.no legalperson. and to The forcedto becomepartof a state territory.whichmaybe nationalchurches.markets.second.as "anareaassigned jurisdiction" fora special purpose. By de-territorialization terriof mean the disembeddedness culturalphenomenafromtheir "natural" I embedded.theybecame of The expulsion Jewsand MoorsfromSpain. territorialization of viewedas the starting process universal point of the modern and was certainlythe first instanceof modernethnic cleansing. Butnot everything that happens in time is historical. civil But the samehappenedto peoples. as the relationsbetween organismsand their physicalenvironments. statesand nationalchurches. tories.was required preciselybecauseJews and Muslimscould not become subjectsof the new Catholicnationalstate. Territories. nation. cultural indeed. territorial stato nulla personais a version of the church principle extraecclesianulla salus. and territorialized appropriated.Schiller. largeportions the seas. entireworldunderform wenta particular of territorialization.religions. space. Global So how does globalization affect all culturalsystems. after the FrenchRevolution(Brubaker citizenship and withina territory of inclusion is citizenship basedon the principle universal or individual group. i. As an institution. as an imagined muchan imagined moreover.the so-called of within the fixed boundaries nations-states.and Blanc 1994). was The point I am tryingto make is that this logic of territorialization into and initiatedby the dissolutionof WesternChristendom its pluralization Extra Outsidethe state. embedded People. universal everybody.

communities or and imagined.Globalmarkets. globalhumanity for and unit.The solid territorial underthe sovereign of the state is dissolving into more jurisdiction phenomena fluidconditions.Shaw 1997). But humanity itselfcan hardlybecomean identitygroupor an .The national increasing is fragmented within into smaller units without particularistic and transcended into ever larger units.Rajaee Glocalization.at least for social appeared of scientists. all proliferateand become increasinglymore relevant global national borders transcending and nationalterritories (Castells1997).informaand tion systemsand media. Greenpeace. Otherswouldfollow. Whensociologists talkedof societies.the reflexive pointof reference all societiesandpeoples(Robertson Chirico1985). Christians. Jewish.Peoplesand their identities. they meantas a matter course nationalsocieties. indigenouspeople).Butglobalization beginning loosenup the straight to is jacket of the sovereign evermoreporous.I do not need to emphasize relevance the global.subcultures ethnic groupsall gain spatialautonomy fromthe state-national territories withinwhichthey have been embedded and circumscribed. civil society. and regional Local real spaces. world The are state. statesare becomingless undivided exclusive sovereignterritorialdomainsand more regulatory administrative territorial networks interlinked and overlapping with wider networks of embeddedness all social (Guehenno1995.Christian. traversing The globe itselfbecomesthe physical withinwhich spaceand mentalterritory the nation-stateitself and everythingembedded within its territory becomes circumscribed.had coexisted for centuries. GLOBALIZATION429 RELIGION. and and Counter-Reformation dividedup Europe had into Protestant Catholic territories.another of these awful neologisms we social scientists termsto characterize com1992)like to useas shorthand (Robertson analytical and phenomena. social movementsand public spheresare not only those boundaries also overlapping but nationalterritransgressing increasingly toriesandthusbecoming transnational 2000). becomesa self-reflexive self-referential and Consequently. global movementsand organizations (Amnesty Internationalandhumanrights.commodities firms. (Beck2000. into WesternChristendom the first civilizationto be territorialized was nation-states. Doctors WithoutBorders) a of feminism.refersto the simultaneousreassertion and plex processes of relevance the localandthe globaloverthe national.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: MILLENNIUM.its boundaries becoming and but systemof statesis not disappearing. and global global systems. the of mediaand information subcultures identities(youth.Glocalization also be interpreted a dimensionof can as what I call de-territorialization.as central to the mental mapsof Jews and Muslims. Islamwas the last to be forced into the of straight-jacket sovereignterritorialstates (Piscatori 1986).Muslim. and civilizations. Civilizations to have lost their relevanceas units of analysis.as to the mental mapsof even beforeReformation became now exclusively Catholicterritory.identities. The local gains a territoryof its own independentfrom the nation.

in Durkheim's religions. by Globalizationfacilitates the return of the old civilizations and world and cultural but systems as religionsnot only as units of analysis as significant communities.movements. one single global netGlobalcivil society is a transnational space.a transnational community. old godsandthe old religions of of the of becoming carriers the process sacralization humanity. sacred andsacred link intrinsic betweensacred time. (1996) thesis "the clash of civilizations. regain religions freethemselves and rolesin the globalcenterstage. fault lines. of of singularity.relevant imaginedcommunitiesand carriersof collective identities reliwithinthis globalspace. particularly While new transnational ones.430 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION Individual collectiveidentitiesarenecessarily and imagined plural. and communications the but transcends territorial nation-state. mostrelevant imagined Thereinlies the meritof Samuel and againthe old civilizations worldreligions. I suppose. imagined future. The triumphand the global has expansionof human rightsdoctrinesand movementsat the end of the 20th centuryseemsto confirmat leastpartof their visions. its sacralization. are likelyto becomeevermoreprominent.paradoxically. community. and the cult of the individual fathersof sociology. Comte. Saint-Simon. wrongis in units akin to nationof civilizations territorial as his geo-politicalconception which leadshim to anticipatefutureglobal conflicts states and superpowers. that work of associations.overlappingand at times in competition with the imagined Nationswill continueto be.The increasing for thesis has been widely and rightlycriticized. unlikely to be one world government.But they werewrongin the of wouldsooneror laterreplace old that assuming the new religion humanity "theold godswere theocentric (1965:475)words. space peoplecommonto all . gious ones arelikelyto be once the will communities emerge. forthe foreseeable nationalcommunities. that. of None of you. The religion of humanity.whereHuntington particularly Riesebrodt 2000).by announced the founding by by by Durkheim indeedarrived(Casanova2000). is The end-result the process globalization."in recognizingthe Huntington's for and of relevance cultural systems civilizations worldpolitics. and awareof theirown particularity they need an other to becomereflexively muchless its telos. The analysismissesthe fact that globalization civilizational along not only a great opportunityfor the old civilizationsand world represents to fromthe straight to jacketof the nation-state.but local and transnational identities. expectsthe formation one singleglobalreligion. dimensions theirleading theirtransnational Globalizationalso representsa great threat insofar as it implies the deto threatens dissolvethe of Globalization territorialization all cultural systems." What none of the couldhave anticipated was and Enlightenment prophets positivistsociologists weregoingto gainnew life the that. hegemonic is But in my view.organizations. dying while the new ones had not yet been born.one worldsociety.most frequently its "essenvision(Huntington West-centric and tialism" for its undiluted 1996. it is not itselfa territorially organized societyor domain.

which have definedall civilizations.the verysameyearthatthe PapalStateswere the FirstVaticanCouncilproclaimed dogmaof papalinfallibility the lost. and Transnational Catholicism Of all the worldreligionsnone wasas threatenedat its core by the emerworldsystemof sovereignterritorial statesas the Roman gence of the modern church.One by one. reducedto being just another marginaland increasinglyirrelevant territorial state. which wouldmediatenationalconflictsand establishthe conditions .Catholic lost its originalconnotation of universality became and term the simplya denominational distinguishing RomanchurchfromotherChristian denominations. This processwasfacilitated the expansionof the liberalsecularstate which by etatist claimsto controlthe nationalchurches. thereforethat the Catholic church remainedfor centuriesadamantlyantimodern developed negative and a of 1996. throughthe controlof the nominationof bishops the papacy will progressively gaincontrolover the nationalCatholicchurches.and supported organization a Leagueof Nations.and ApostolicChristianChurch. 1870. GLOBALIZATION431 worldreligions. me offerbrief Let peoplesand territories of illustrations someof thesethreats opportunities a summary very and from and selectivereviewof two worldreligions. gave up the old caesaro-papist Not surprisingly. Holy.In this respect. its Catholic. of WorldWarI.whileCatholicmonarchs statestriedto preserve theirold claims statesupremacy. philosophy history(Casanova it was the loss of territorial state sovereigntywith the incorIronically. the over 1870 represents original the milestonein the modern of of process globalization Catholicism. mostof the transnational dimensions of sovereign MedievalCatholicismrecededor disappeared It is not surprising altogether. dissolution Wester The of Christendomundermined role of the Papacyas the spiritualhead of a the universalChristianmonarchy The represented the Holy RomanEmpire. the firstgeneralconflagration nation-states. non-Catholicliberalstates werethe firstones to acceptthe transnational and papalclaims. Fromnow on. of poration the PapalStatesinto the new Italianstate. rather two versions Christianity: of or of Catholicism Pentecostalism.that allowedthe Papacy to be reconstituted anew as the hegemoniccenter of a much revivedtransnationalreligious In regime. The Protestant Reformation undermined claimsto be the One. MILLENNIUM. and reaffirmed papalsupremacy the entireCatholicchurch.and with it the seeminglyessentialbondsbetweenhistories.workedtireand bitterly the of lessly for peace negotiations.1997). condemned of he the senselessslaughter the generalchauvinistfrenzy. of The papacyof BenedictXV marksanother milestone in the processof of for Electedshortlyafterthe outbreak globalization Catholicism two reasons. by lost to Catholic Papacy controlof the nationalCatholicchurches caesaro-papist monarchs Concordats it itselfbecameterritorialized the Papal and into through States.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION.

whichlimitabsolutist the disputes.but because of the of the modern discourseof human rights in his definitive incorporation encyclical Pacemin Terris(1963). until the Catholics. delegation smallerthan the combined228 indigenousAsian and Africanbishops.and the point of departure its and international the Thereafter. the answered on deafears.who had been expelled from their home to die fortheircountries(Holmes laws countries anti-clerical returned by solithanhumanor Christian muchstronger Nationalsolidarity 1981).the renewalof its historical role as of mediator courtof appeals. popeshave been consistent recognition.had of The massiveimmigration IrishCatholicsto the United Statesand churches. even European one-tenthof fromthe United Statescomprised already thoughthe 49 prelates the gathered bishops.Vatican I still had been a predominantly council.it was underBenedictXV'spapacy promotethe recruitmentof indigenousclergy and the formationof native coloniallegacyandpreparing with the European Catholichierarchies. proved marks reinsertion the the however. by contrast.The fromthe the of numbers represent notabledisplacement the Catholicpopulation WorldandfromNorthto South. Until then the Catholic churchhad conof modern PopePiusVI in his 1791 conceptions humanrights. U. European institution. Europeans longer formed a was The with over 200 bishops the secondlargest.followedby the generalimmigration other European But the CatholicpresencebeyondEurope.had expanded a had overseas Catholicism been primarily transplanted 20th century. of other Britishcolonies. yet majority. papalintervention darity. breaking of the groundfor the moderninternationalization the Catholic church.432 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION fell The pope'sintervention on for a justpeace.not one imposed the defeated.The had territories of modern beyondits traditional European expansion Catholicism been connected until the mid-nineteenthcenturywith the global European colonial expansion. arbitrate United Nations.includingthe most transreligious national and papal of them.and represent interestsof the entire familyof nations (Hanson 1987). sistentlyopposed the of had condemned Declaration the Rightsof BriefCaritas adamantly papal that the rightsto freedomof Man by the FrenchNationalAssembly. of the papacy in internationalaffairs.arguing .S. Old to the New The papacy of John XXIII marks another milestone in Catholic globalization.Despiteits failure.The 2500 Fathers in no attendance came from all over the world.with the exception of indenational been led and controlledby European pendentJesuitinitiatives. Vatican II.not only becauseof the convocationof the Second Vatican it Council and the processof aggiomamento instituted.Catholicpriests enthusiastically patriotic everywhere calls to arms. the Jesuits. was the first truly global ecumenical council in the history of Christianity.Even transnational orders.fromthe World Court to the international statesovereignty.Even its missionary efforts. that the Vaticanbeganto In addition. growinginternational advocatesof world-wideinternationalbodies.

19 Latin Americans.moreover.ADDRESS: & 2000PRESIDENTIAL RELIGION. freedom particularly was odioussince it implied the Religious equating truereligion the falseones. churchhas adopted discourse human the of the rightsas its own.He wantsto be viewednot justas Holy Father all Catholics as commonfather of but of God's childrenand as self-appointed of humanity. 29 other Europeans. et orbi.. humansociety.as defensor spokesman In hominis.Thereafter.The churchat its apex. Forty one percent of the 135 cardinals presently eligible to vote for the next pope are from the third world.12 Africans.Collegeof Cardinals has ceasedto be a predominantly As Roman-Italian institution.As and of we all know.more than any other pope in history. in movements the "third waveof democratization" the mid-70sto the 90s from (Casanova1996.Huntington1991). makingit partof everypapalencyclicalandof mostepiscopal the world-historical pastorallettersthroughout world. The College of Cardinalsthat elected the first non-Italian pope in fourcenturies alreadyhad a much more global representation:27 Italians. of The contemporary of does not have globalization Catholicism.John Paul II himself has now nominated 166 cardinals . In the last decadestherehas been a only remarkable increasein transnational Catholic networks and exchangesof all 6 At the end of World War II two-thirdsof all cardinalswere still Italian. a radialstructure centeredin Rome.VaticanCuria.the role of first citizen of a catholic. the processthe pope has learnedto playmoreeffectivelythan any competitor.VaticanII'sDeclaration Religious on Humanae. the city and to the globe (Weigel 1999). welcoming liberation fromthe strait-jacket the territorial of nation-state which sovereign had restricted catholicuniversalclaims. The fact that there is even speculationthat the next pope may be African indicateshow farand how fast the church has changed. He also becamean untiringworld travelerproclaiming the everywhere sacreddignityof the humanperson. global and universal. 11 North Americans. 13 Asians.The papal was the and condemnation reiterated throughout 19thcentury PiusIX included in the principle humanrightsand mostmodern of freedoms the Syllabus (1864) of errors. Indeed.pope.the Catholicchurchhas been at the vanguard the globalhumanrightsrevolution.The Catholicchurchhas embraced its globalization. were contraryto the divine principlesof the Church. . i.But the embraceis not uncritical. its The church remained of the publicvoicesleft stillquestioning has one capitalist and demandingthe humanization and moralization market of globalization economies and a more just and fair internationaldivision of labor and distribution worldresources.e.as well as the separation churchandstate. MILLENNIUM.6 urbi to Bishopof Rome.as well as the Declaration the Equality all Men.he has assumed eagerlyits roleto speakliterally. GLOBALIZATION433 on of of religionandfreedom the press. Freedom. Dignitatis the changedthe Catholiccourseby recognizing inalienablerightof radically to of it everyindividual freedom conscience. of has John PaulII in particular servedas one of the most effectivespokesof this globalrevolutionand represents definitiveglobalization the of persons the Catholicchurch.grounding in the sacreddignityof the humanperson.This has had dramatic as evidencedby the global role of the Catholicchurchand Catholic effects.

religious religious and and centersof learning intellectual transnational networks.it will be increasingly American or to of and faithsarecarriers culture thatit is moresectarian be French. The conversation for of mostsignificant the future the human will whatthe globewill looklike but andIslamis not yet faradvanced. Contemporary offersto a highly decentralized which globalization favorableopportunities and rootsor identity. well as the convocation ecumenical movetransnational but mentioned. the modemnationstateis relativized nationalsovereignty as evidentthat still into displaced societalarrangements to be invented.institutional materialresources. in the globe wherethe can and which therefore makeitselfat home anywhere moves..declaring fromthe Holy Spirit. Pope John Paul II gatheredthe bishops of all the Americas.therefore. Russian than to be Christian Muslim. between promises be the betweenChristianity race. thoughthat dialogue. north and south. important to and that Christians Muslims remains." speakingin tongues. consecratedOur Lady of and as Guadalupe the Virginof all the Americas. beganprophesying Phrygia. the "Third Testament. Pentecostalism Global Catholicismillustratesthe opporof The transformation contemporary offersto a transnational tunities which the processof globalization religious with a highly centralizedstructureand an imposingtransnational regime which feels therefore and networkof human.. ments. came that his visions. dialogue Inter-religious than is Church-state of basicto the future faith. its outcome determine a century from now. In a lecture at the Library Congressin 2000.In his last visit to Mexico in 1999. the major is more or Hinduor Buddhist.. And amongthe dialogues. schools.434 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Rome. oftenbypassing kinds. firstPentecostal in ecstasyand whenMontanus in 2ndcentury ment. Catholic Francis an Cardinal offered equally andtheMillennium.Indeed. linksto tradition no territorial with no historical religion. urgedthem to ceaseviewing and themselvesas nationalCatholicchurches to becomeone single American of Catholic church.whichcrisscross the century one can observe an amazing resurgenceof the throughout of whichforcenturies been had transnational dimensions medieval Catholicism of not and recessiveor dormant: only papalsupremacy the centralization the of as councilsalready church's government. Let me give two anecdotal of of illustrations the potentialimplications this process. alsotransnational cadres. confident in its abilityto thrive in a relativelyopen globalsystemof religious Pentecostalismmay serve to illustratethe equally regimes. and international encounters(Casanova centers of pilgrimage transnational 1997). Spirit moveChristian sectarian the Since the riseof Montanism. global Christianity George vision: is and In the next millennium. nationsandworldregions.the spiritof Pentecosthas movedChristians confirming them in theirfaith that the apostoliccharismatic of revelationis not closed age .

originated the UnitedStatesat the beginningof the centurywith dual roots in transplanted Americanized Methodismand African-American In this respect." "gifts includingany in combination healing. taneously typically American and transnationalfrom the start. things.One could view such Pentecostal of sectarianmovements prefigurations contemporary as But developments. the "thirdage of the Spirit"is already uponusas we enterthe thirdmillennium.that the two oldest Pentecostal churchesin pattern.and the Orthodox church in Romania.the morecomplicated fieldgets. Coptic churchin Ethiopia. is already yet most dynamicand fastestgrowingsectorof Protestant worldwide Christianity of and is likelyto becomethe predominant globalformof Christianity the 21st century.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & MILLENNIUM. only my ignorance to a followingwith a grainof salt. possibly linking all the Christian churches (Poewe 1994.it was simulChristianity. In this sense. in fact Pentecostal is the Christianity a 20thcenturyphenomenon.I mustconfess.however. of and as prophecy. GLOBALIZATION435 RELIGION.Corten 1999. Moreover. Brazil. the CongregaiioCristado Brasil (Christian Congregation)and the .Westmeier 1999). Hunt.exorcism. and all kinds of independent neo-Pentecostal such as the UniversalChurchof mega-churches. well as an emphasison emotional and experiential expressionsover and against discursive doctrinalones.the categories helpfulto stickto rigorous analytical more I read from what experts in the field have to say.the Catholic churchin India. Hamilton.and Walker 1997). syncretistic the Kingdom God in Brazil The Lightof the Worldin Mexico. Perhaps allows me to make bold generalizations. and to althoughI am referring primarily Protestant in orderto come to termswith the trulygeneraland Christianity.at least for me (Martin1996. Its initial transnational followedat firstalso the typicalevangelical expansion missionary It is revealing.particularly the Third World.Lehmann 1996. and they say very oftencontradictory the different. of globalcharacter the phenomenon.then we can confidentlysay that the phenomenonis a one. globalChristian of in Pentecostalism Strictly speaking course. or of the field is so complexand fluidthat I do not think it wouldbe eitherpossibleor fromthe past. take the So. What all the phenomena have in gatheredunderthe termPentecostalism commonis an emphasis the charismatic on of the spirit.we mustconsideras well the increasing relevanceof the charismatic renewaltaking place within Catholic and even Eastern Whencharismatic revivalism as reaches farandwideas the Christianity. I am using Pentecostalism here in the widest possiblesense to include Pentecostalchurchesand denominationsin the strictsense of the term.the broadcharismaticrenewallately grippingmuch of EvangelicalChristianity in worldwide.as the attemptof an outsider organize chaotic fieldbybringing ownexternal his prejudgements.Joachim Fiore's of age millennialtheologyand the movementit spun is only one of the speculative most famousand intellectualized versions. speaking tongues.Indeed. and that a "third of the Spirit" nearif not already is here.

as the firstmisleading religious interpretations in authenticLatin Americanproduct.are Latin Americanreligiousresponsesto Latin American conditions. Yet. two-thirds all LatinAmerican Today Pentecostals-Charismatics. represents American is rootsin Brazil. Stoll 1990). which therefore leads to the de-territorializationof Catholicism from Brazil. in The Assemblyof God.by missionaries. (Lehmann Be it as it may. Indeed. particularlyBrazil.therecan be no doubtaboutthe localnature.436 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION in Assembleia Deus(Assembly God).who led a typicalsectarian a church church.but an firm.I'd ventureto say it is as LatinAmerican liberation of as theology. even beforeit had taken form.It arrivedfromthe United States. and immediately assumedan indigenousBrazilian Brazilian Pentecostalism a dualprocess de-territorialization: of sense.Both.and the dynamicgrowthof Latin American now constitute10 percentof the LatinAmerican Pentecostalism.Today.wereestablished de of respectively 1910and 1911. thus only a few yearsafterthe firstAmericanPentecostalchurches.but LatinAmericanProtestantism.has .The proportion Brazilis smallerbut it dwarfs everyother in absolute one LatinAmerican numbers million). at last. we juxtaposing are beginningto see trulyilluminating comparative analysesbringingthe two similarities complexdifferences and togetherin all their intriguing phenomena 1996. Latin American is Pentecostalism neithera foreignimportnora local branchof a transnational tendedto suggest.Corten1999). irrespective theirtransnational roots or origins. Protestants The proportions higherin Chile (over20 percent)or Guatemala are population. In this roots there.even if Catholicism continues to be for the foreseeablefuturethe majorityreligion of all Latin Americancountries. The transnational is of character Brazilian Pentecostalism inscribedin its very beginnings. in (over 30 percent). founded via Chicagoby two Swedish pastors. afterso many misguided one-sidedinterpretations the supposedly radical differences betweenthe two phenomena. Indeed.In Rio de Janeiro (25 country new evangelical church pops up every day and 90 percent of those are of are Protestants Pentecostal-Charismatic. widespread the though not uniformexpansion.It remained until the 1930sprimarily Pentecostal Presbyterian of Italianimmigrants Brazil. non-American of The ChristianCongregation Brasilwas established an Italianimmiby schismfroma local Brazilian grantfromChicago. growth Pentecostalism throughout explosive Latin Americahas ceased being Catholic territory.It is not anymoreProtestantism Latin America.I do not believe that the often fantasticprojectionsof in rates contemporary of growthof Protestantism LatinAmericainto the future are realisticor sustainable(Martin 1990.at least until very recentlywith 8 was also approximately millionmembers.This is the most importantconsequence of the of LatinAmerica. Latin America. a by Christianity de-territorialized takingindigenous Catholic territory. the largestPentecostal church in Braziland probablyin the world.

particular.and Asia. what they call "spiritual warfare.In in this they are differentfrom both.MILLENNIUM. ." separate.Pentecostals for an unabashed and uncompromising instance.Moreover. SouthAfrica) Christianity Sub-Saharan is equallyexplosive. is the historically It first unique andparadigmatic of a de-centered de-territorialized culture.GlobalPentecostalism not a religionwith a particular territorial center like Mormonism.Nigeria. global Pentecostalism source diffusion of parallel developments. phenomenon different forms a localterritorial of culture.This is the paradox the localcharacter Pentecostalism.The Pentecostalattitudeis neithercompromise denialbut frontal hand-to-handcombat. from the traditionalCatholic patternof and tolerationof local folkloreand generousaccommodation condescending beliefsand practices.acquiringa transnationalcharacter. rational.i. globalreach.Zimbabwe.The growthof Pentecostal in Africa(Ghana. syncresis the general the local." We could also think of it as a global "greatawakening" with multiple. Indeed. an Argentinian church founded by an Spanish immigrant in 1967 in BuenosAires is expanding in Latin Europeand the United Kingdom. is America. universal the local." is.is simultaneously by globaland local. indigenous andautonomous its LatinAmerican as The counterpart. is AfricanPentecostalism as local. contrast.Nor is it a transnational rapidly gainingworldwide religiousregime likeCatholicism. longas these assume so theirsubordinate magical popular statuswithinthe Catholichierarchic andfromthe typicalsober. which is diffusion. as the relationship that betweenthe catholic. case and global Buthow can it be de-territorialized localat the sametime?Because is and it an uprooted localcultureengagedin spiritual warfare with its own roots. cannotbe understood of of It in the traditionalsense of Catholic "inculturation. Protestantism forcesor beings. anddistinct"burned-over Yetthe parallel districts." David In 7 Rios de Vida (Life's Rivers). everywhereleading onslaught againsttheir local cultures: againstAfro-Brazilian spiritcults in Brazil. and disenchanting monotheistic attitude of ascetic of-fact. is it a kindof syncretic Nor particular or of and symbiosis symbiotic are.. in fromit hasnowbegunto radiate all directions. against Vodou in Haiti. samecouldbe repeated about Pentecostalismin Korea or China.e. GLOBALIZATION 437 becomein a veryshorttime a worldcenterof Pentecostal whereChristianity. foremost scholar Brazilian of "new churches localexpressions are Pentecostalism.i.& 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: RELIGION. only getsus so far. is actually and It its is Pentecostalism not a translocal whichassumes the veryopposite."encompassingEurope.7 Yet LatinAmericais not the only worldcenter. mattercosmos.characterized parallelinvention. of a globalculture.e..againstwitchcraftin Africa. In this respectit is historically andunprecedented.complexdiffusion and by international networks with multilateral flows.In the words PaulFreston with of the (1997:185). It is trulythe firstglobalreligion.Africa. as Hexham and Poewe mustbe seen as "a multi(1994:61) have pointed out.againstshamanism Korea. since"theSecondGreatAwakening" a national was withmultiple phenomenon focalpoints.by denyingtheir againstmagicalor supernatural nor veryexistence.Pentecostalism.

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