Religion, the New Millennium, and Globalization Author(s): José Casanova Source: Sociology of Religion, Vol. 62, No.

4, Special Issue: Religion and Globalization at the Turn of the Millennium (Winter, 2001), pp. 415-441 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3712434 . Accessed: 30/12/2010 01:48
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2001, 62:4 415-441 Sociology Religion of

2000 Presidential Address

Religion,

the

New

Millennium,

and

Globalization

JoseCasanova*
NewSchool Social Research for

It seems all havesurvived passage the millennium we the of without many visibletrialsand tribulations. one couldcontendthat Dionysius Actually, the 525A.D.cameup with the A.D. calendar Exiguus, monkwho around division in usearound globe,miscalculated postdated birthof now the and the at leastfouryears,in whichcaseourmillennial celebrations were Jesusby one actuallya few yearslate.1Alternatively, couldbelievethat Dionisius was in the rather and Exiguus misguided choosing Incarnation thanthe Passion ResurrectionChrist theanno of as in which wewere fewdecades case a Domini, or calendar, the Islamic one, or the early.Or one mightfollowthe Jewish in is Chinese,the Aztec,whichever, whichcasethe B.C./A.D.convention Oronecouldbea strict and meaningless. separationist deemit unconstitutional to imbue strictly our secular calendar conventions anyparticular with denominational therefore wouldcarefully one lowercase the and, religious meaning intothe religiously B.C./A.D.signs neutral before after comand "our b.c.la.c., mon era." who are the we? Which,of course,only opensup the question Common whom? to Whicheraarewe talking about? couldcontinue We this The fact is that mostChristian whether believers, pre-millennial, postor a-millennial thefactthatonlytheFather millennial, simply knows the accept hourandthe dayanddespite numerology,maybe futileto tryto curtail all it God'sfreedom tyingthe divineeschatological by plansto our own secular calendars human and deadlines. Sacred timeandsecular timearerelated, for sacred timecan onlyhappen withinworldly time.Butthe relationship not is or and believers compelled search God's are to for objective automatic, therefore
*DirectallcorrespondenceDr.JoseCasanova, to: New 65 Sociology Department, School Social Research, Fifth for NewYork, 10003.E-mail: NY casanova@newschool.edu. Avenue,
1 The BC dating was first introduced two centuries later around 731 by the Anglo-Saxon monk, the Venerable Bede.

exercise infinitum adabsurdum. ad and

415

beliefs. has 2) In this respect. Armageddon). and The few well-publicized incidentsof apocalyptic mayheminducedby millenariandoomsday withthe collectivesuicideof the Peoples cults. This is the moresurprising has given the muchgreater outbursts millenarian of fervor signs anticipating manybuild-up aroundthe year 2000 (Clagett 1999. Benjamin were outbursts anticipated academic millennial suchan apocalyptic cauldron.. Traditionalpre-millennialist (Marsden imagesand pre-millennialism the popular mediaof religious radio.nowfilteredthrough of and the best-selling books of Hal Lindseyhad entered the mainstream secular masscultureand werenow routinely American Hollywood exploitedby Americangeo-political were (The Rapture.with or withoutthe help of prophetic signsin worldly Very few Christianmillennialists. events.beginning Temple in Jonestownin 1978. secularin originandcharacter.the secondmillennium turnedout to be not unlike around1000A.Lamy1996). by the ritualmurders collective and and suicidesof membersof the Orderof the Solar Temple in Switzerland in between 1994 and 1997.Wojcik1997. particularly the Middle to of extremistfringegroupsfromCatholicMarianapocalypticism the rightand Identitymovement(Boyer1992. given 1998. Here in the United States.Alas!The fearedmillennialfrenzy journalists expertsandsensational not materialize. preparations. Indeed. The fact that eschatological activity in and and Solaire Temple happened francophone Europe Canada that it l'affaire with saringas attacksin Japan.andwerefeedingthe paranoid debates. greatFrenchhistorianJulesMichelet wrote such a vivid and realistic narrative of the "Terrorsof the year 1000. manyexperts anticipate Heaven's increasing millenarian (Robbinsand Palmer1997). wing militiasof Survivalists the Christian Cuneo1997. and followedby the apocalypticimmolationof the BranchDavidiansin Waco.Not surprisingly. to selectfive: going the is 1) The moststriking thing perhaps how little millenarian turnof the secondmillennium turnedout to be. Mullins 1997). by did alike. dispensationalist peculiarculturalsurvivalof Anglo-American 1980). the public re-emergence in the 1980s had exposed to public view this ProtestantFundamentalism Protestantism. culminating the 1997 masssuicideof the Quebec to led GateUFOcult in California.led was contemporaneous the Aum Shinrikyo millenarian movementswere some people to the conjecturethat apocalyptic wereno longerprimarily Christian restricted or a and assuming globalcharacter to their traditionalbreedinggroundin the United States (Hall and Schuyler of 1997. strangelyinforming anxieties on East. however.Strozier Flynn 1997. The visionsof millennial historians now admit.Stearns1996). TX in 1993.OF 416 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION revelations.lookingat the year2000 predominantly andcelebrations fewstriking a thingsstandout." that it .most and terror frenzy the firstone. I am anticipations.lookedat the year2000 as a significant Mostof the hooplaconnectedwith the year2000 was event in God'scalendar.D.televangelism. were concocted by 18th and 19th century rationalist or the romantichistorians.Particularly.

useddifferent calenEurope Peoplethroughout of not darsandwereprobably muchaware livingthrough1000A. Armenian.we are witnessing end of hegemonicEurodue to a dual processof advancedsecularization postin pean Christianity Christian and of the increasing of a de-territorialized and Europe globalization de-centered between Thus. the one thousand Christianity.Schwartz fever and anxiety have been manifestlyabsent from the year 2000 gressive millennial celebrations. Alexandrian-Coptic. was 3) If the turnof the secondmillennium not unlikethe firstin its lackof millenarian was fervor. with the conversionof only Norse and Vikings. HolyRomanEmpire in as its spiritual and head. the Cluniac reform.D. as well as from its much shorter anticipatory . Magyars. Eastern.wasonly established 962 andthat its internal Papacy externalboundaries becamefixed around1000.the Papalreformation.none of them has evinced the historicaldynamism primitively in its European New Worldforms. .& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: RELIGION. of of None of the other non-Western formsof Christianity Byzantine.ButLandes that mayhave that the period.Let'snot Westerncolonialand post-colonial the withthe forgetthat the coreof WesternChristendom. the however. and thus one could say more of Christian. but sociologicallyspeakingthe core institutionsand social formsof of which formone of the foundations modern WesternEuropean Christendom Westerncivilizationare only 1000 yearsold: the first 500 yearsas Medieval and Christendom centeredaroundthe Papacy the next 500 yearsas European multi-denominational modernWesternChristianityin its post-Reformation formsand in its expanded forms. Western Christianity WesternEuropean is in Europe lessand less the core of Christiancivilizationand Christianity its mostdynamic forms todayis lessandlessEuropean. we areentering Western and As Christianity the thirdmillennium.Schorske1981.etc. the groundfor all the reformmovementsof the 11th Christianity.Weber 1986. and Western and EasternSlavs and with the consolidation the schismbetweenEastern WesternChristianity 1054 of and in with the excommunication the Patriarch Constantinople. preparing the century:the Peace of God.by post-millennial progressive 1990). Both proanxiety(Briggs1985. Crusades (Headand Landes1992).We areaccustomed thinkof WesternEuropean to as Christianity a 2000 As of this old civilization. Lastturnof the century characterized a dual was by or fever and by fin de siecle atmosphere spirit.the end of the 20thcentury muchunlike eschatological the endof the 9thcentury. a system religious beliefsandpractices maybe the year case. yearold association and civilizationis comingto an end. MILLENNIUM..which are mucholder Antiochian-Syrian-Middle and institutionally closer to earlyChristianity. Indeed.albeitfor reasons maybe morerightin arguing marksa turningpoint in WesternEuropean little to do with millennialism. GLOBALIZATION417 becamea standard account (Bernstein1999).one couldeven saythat the period of constitutes veryformative the foundation WesternChristendom a civilias zation. RichardLandes'(1997) recent of revisionist to reopenandgive new life to the apocalyptic atmosphere attempt the year1000 is unconvincing.

pervasive. a practice which became increasinglywidespreadand globalized in the next three centuries (Schwartz1990. From beliefsin progress. but it is my impressionthat we may be witnessing the end of postof millennialism a progressive as philosophy history. of the two legs sustaining but rather beliefin historical the modern progress. to vincingresolution the debateby showingthat the modern in as it crystallized the 18thcenturyas a dominant. of unaware the heatedGermandebate. an and maybe viewedas secularized origin old pedigreeand has been stated in manydifferentforms. the andfuture historians analyzing spiritof ourown agemayor maynot confirm it.as well as the post-colonial deconstructionsof Western shouldbe viewednot so muchas the cause. moresubdued. was the peculiarcombination millennialism in and almostantithetical character with traditions twoold separate utopianism.OF 418 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION has Despiteall the millennialmediahype. of andteleological The view thatmodern philosophies historyas progressive have a Judeo-Christian rationalistbeliefs in progress well as Enlightenment has formsof Biblicalmillennialism.perhapsmost perin The thesis Meaningin History. one becauseof the collapseof utopianism.TheodoreOlson (1982) offereda conbelief in progress. through the Renaissance.and taken for fromboth. the thesis is infusedwith utopianEnlightenment millennialism not correct. suasivelyand systematically KarlLowith's in The rebuttal HansBlumenberg's Legitimacy theModem founda forceful Age. and an and does not have a religious therefore irrational show that modernity forhe seemedto have been Judeo-Christian Inadvertently. of the roots. . equallydependenton contributions of and It nialismand utopianism. illegitimate pedigree.post-millennialism be viewed as secularized If rationalism. millenwas grantedworldview.that explains nature modern verydifferent Christian can this perspective. The post-modern critiquesof Enlightenmentrationalismand historical grand narratives.the early modernScientific Revolution.and the expansionof social capitalism.the attitude been much preparations. we enterthe 21St 2 The concept of century as a one hundred year calendar unit emerged first around 1300 and became firmlyestablished in its secularusageonly in the 16th century.than a centuryago.as well as to the utopianvisions of a new anthropocentric aim wasto in orderwhichoriginated suchhistorical Blumenberg's experiences.but ratheras evidential modernity As of century. of In an attemptto defendthe Enlightenment modernscientificrationalism and fromNietzchean-based (1983) traces Blumenberg convincingly critiques. equally and senseof superiorviewsof historical the modern progress the self-confident over backto the actualhistorical experience ity of "themoderns" "theancients" of Western Europeansocieties from the late Middle Ages. historyis expression the collapseof utopianism.2It is of coursetoo earlyto tell. even blase. we may be witnessingthe end of post-millennialism so much due millennialism to further becauseof the declineof Christian secularization.Gould 1997).The year 1700 marksthe first public turn of the century celebration in Europe.

we've learnedto take the most scientific technological and in astounding breakthroughsstride. CatholicChurch. the greatest millennialcelebrationand prepared the coming of the millenniumwith for almostmillenarian The traditional of amillennialism the Roman anticipation. forecasting. 22nd. The moderninterpretive of Jesus the as understanding charismaticleaderof an eschatologicalcult helps to explain the perennial presence of millenariansects in the history of Christianity(Cohn 1970. worldview hasbeenso uncontested almost a that for immanently threecenturies even the unequaled andthe unprecethat historical catastrophes dentedinhuman barbarisms the 20thcentury of couldat firstnot makea dent on it. GLOBALIZATION419 no longer taken for grantedas a meaningful. The end of post-millennialism we'veknownit. the contrary. MILLENNIUM. as does not necesmeanthe end of Christian millennialism. One only needsdirectaccessto the Gospels Baumgartner unmediated historicaltraditions unencumbered churchdoctrinesto and by by findtherethe paradigmatic modelof a successful millenarian cult. and therefore are possessed radically fevernorbyexistential angst. we neitherby progressive and not as something new. vitalityof traditional Protestant pre-millennialismand the enduring fast growth of the most millennialist Christian of denominations Mormons.(as much as this may be indeed a prodigious historicalachievement).but ratherbecauseof the collapseof the utopianism of the whichhad sustained modernconceptions history.and futuristicscientificworks on 2000 to Herman centered the year2000. is 4) Equallystrikingand even paradoxical the fact that the least millennialist all Christian of the had denominations. Francis thesismaybe rightafterall. may failed electoral to b) Thinkof how the Clinton-Gore slogan"abridge the 21stcentury" as We can onlythinkof the nextcentury moreof the same to catchthe popular imagination. the surprising Thus.science-fiction. and Witnesses. Jehovah's SeventhDayAdventists. c) Consider the perplexing lack of excitement generated by the news of the achievement the human of the extraordinary genome project. looklike. . Wiener's1967exercisein social-scientific The 2000. realizationof the Hegelian dialectic of masterand slave throughthe final triumphof liberaldemocracy.notwithstanding fact that it in and happened the midstof the millennium is certainto haverevolutionary consequences for humanlife on earth.Weber 1999).progressive.Paradoxically. however.fromRestifde la Bretonne's 1789playTheYear KahnandAnthonyJ.teleological. is the crisis On it sarily of utopianism of the imminentprogressive and of historyit entailed philosophy that opensthe wayfor the unexpectedrevivalof transcendent millennialisms.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION. as Christian well as non-Christian. and drivenprocess. of and of vision: threesymbolic illustrations ourflattened Just utopian a) Contrastthe long-list of utopian.becausehistoryhas reachedits immanenttelos with the not. Year of of withthe dearth anykindof forecasting the 21st of not daring century. 1999. but (1992) "endof history" Fukuyama's as he implies. Our utopianvision deadened. collapse of utopian and visionsis happening a timeof accelerating at technological scientificrevolutions at the veryinception a newglobalage. to speak anybody the to imagine whatthe next century.

as an institution claiming the monopoly of the means of grace over a territory. when Pope Boniface VIII issuedthe bull Antiquorum."the Antichrist.The very fact that he was alive to celebrate the special Jubilee year 2000. the continuous revelation of God's plans of salvation in and through history. The more Roman the Christian church became. that is. even before his baptism. and thus the church'sobligation to discernprophetically"the signs of the times. 4 The Catholic traditionof Jubileeyearsgoes back to 1300AD.420 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Catholic Church is well known. In other words.therefore. he and many Catholics interpretedas a clear sign of divine grace and as confirmationof his papal mission. the modern secular age and the modern secularworld."and against the Pope and Roman church. In its temporaldimension. This general Catholic reorientation was reinforced and shaped in a particular direction by the personal millennialism of the present Pope John Paul II. the reversalis quite remarkable.3 St. By the end of the 15th century the custom of celebrating a . Augustine gave it the standard definitive form. This innerworldlyhistoricist reorientation has led Catholicism to embrace a progressiveview of history to such an extent that Catholicism may be today the most post-millennialist of all major Christian denominations.They embracedmartyrdom proudly. It marked.granting indulgences to those who visited the main Roman basilicas during the year in commemorationof the century past and in celebration of the new age to come. and redirectedthe apocalyptic invectives of the Book of Revelation against the firstChristianemperor. action on behalf of peace and justice and participationin the transformationof the world will become not an added but a constitutive dimension of the church'sdivine mission. thus setting a fateful precedentof state repressionagainst millennial groupsand establishingthe model of church in the Weberian sense. It was the first time that state authority was used to repressa dissenting movement within Christianity. Jerome set the basisfor Catholic amillennialismby deridingthe idea of a thousandyearsearthly kingdom of God as a fable and St. used the repressive power of the state to enforce church unity. the first celebration of the end of a Christian century. From now on. the legitimacy of the modern age entails the acceptance of the principle of historicity. to The Vatican aggiornamento of the 60s altered radically the traditional Catholic position by embracing the saeculum.the Catholic Church rejected the vision of a Kingdomof God on earth as well as the idle numerical millennial calculations."establishing images which have endured with every millennialist sect until the present.frequently through self-immolationby fire."In its spatial dimension this processof internalsecularizationentails an innerworldlyreorientation. the more it had to shed its millennialism and the antiimperialanti-Romanvitriolic of the Apocalypse. Considering that traditional Catholicism had been characterizedby a negative philosophy of history which viewed the modern age as a concatenation of relatedheresies from Protestantismto atheist communism.The reaction of the Donatistswas fraughtwith equally fatefulprecedents. the secularworldand the secularage. he carefully prepared and anxiously anticipated for years. "the whore of Babylon. Thereafter. It was consolidated in the fourth century in its conflict with the North African millennialist Donatist sect. who despite his advanced age and fragile health devoted himself with amazing vigor to the year-long millennial celebrations.4 3 EmperorConstantine. the Kingdom of God was both otherworldlyand eternal and thus unrelated to the saeculum.

It certainlyillustratesin paradigmatic fashionthe powerof religiousbeliefsand ritualsto servethe causeof social the of of integration re-creating bondsof solidarity the imagined by community the nation.The massive devisedand implemented Cardinal his release fromprison. This celebration constituted a turning point in the protractedbattle between the Catholic Church and the Communistregimeover the mindsof the Polish of effervescent celebration servedas the culmination a plan people. altogedispensationalist therdifferent numerical calendar oriented the commemoration to calculations of past events. he felt a special mission to liberate the Slavic peoples from the communist ecumenical with the Eastern churches. ratherthan futureones.It also linkssacred historyandsecular historyin an intricate way.The crescendoof the unanticipated collective effervescence was palpable to participantsand observersalike (Casanova 1994). competing This triumphwas cappedby the annualprocession the BlackMadonna of to town in Poland. GLOBALIZATION 421 Butfor Karol of Wojtyfithe modelfor the Jubilee2000 wasthe experience the celebrationof the millenniumof Polish Christianityin 1966. 26 years. practice critique the indulgences continued albeitwith muchdiminished until its recentrevival vigorous and reaffirmation popular support by thepresent pope.Furthermore. the As firstnon-Italianpope in almostfive centuries.changeof heart. John Paul II has tried to recreatethis millennial revivalism within the entireCatholicChurch.MILLENNIUM. yokeand to further dialogue and Luther's jubileeevery25 yearswaswell established despite of the trade. formof revivalism often linkedto a call for this is actionwhichhas not merely conservative traditionalist or As implications.& 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS:RELIGION. for around traditional the Marian devotionto OurLady Czestochowa.and commitment conditionfor the successof the divine plans.it can also prepare groundfor radicalsocial clearly transformation. the rise of Solidarityone year after the completion of the Marianprogram of mobilization the indicates. by Wyszyrisky upon to keepthe churchandthe nationmobilized.and culminating the visit of the recentlyelected Polish pope.and it demandsfrombelieversthe appropriate as penance. .followed the yearly in of vowsof the by Great Novena culminatingin the 1966 millenniumcelebrationsof Polish The attemptof the regimeto upstagethe churchby organizing Christianity.and as the firstSlavic pope in history. leading up to the celebrationof the ninth every single in in of of centenary the martyrdom SaintStanislaw 1979. It shouldbe clearthatthis is a verydifferent kindof millennialism the than one.it scrutinizesthe "signsof the times" in order to divine propheticallyGod's attitudeof redemptive plans. We couldcall it Durkheimian with millennialism. beganwiththe rededication of It of the nationto the "Queen Poland" 1956. Inspiredby the Polish revivalistexperienceand imbuedwith a powerful sense of divine mission. celebrations the millennium Polishstatehood of of failedmiserably.with moremixedresults.

I am even to a to proposethat ASR sponsors resolutionaddressed humanitysuggoing andresetY2Kas YOac. old philosophy history. despite some referent. urging of reservoir" Christian goodsand Europe. turnedto EasternEurope.it was a secularparty or devoidof religious peoplearound symbolism meaning. con-celebrants The werenot commemorating common temporal in historyor some commonpast event. historicalor mythical.now redefined the as The fall of the BerlinWall confirmed of Christian reunification spiritual and Buthis visionhad regeneration Europe.422 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION him in his mission. if the Now a bit moreseriously.to the commonpresentsharedby global was and The referent the symbolism primarily spatial. particularly CatholicPoland.the globeand humanity. to he Frustrated.absolutely celebration that the millennium considers had. redateall ourcalendars globally gestingthat we humans that is.One could say that with globalization spatial of has metaphor metaphor come to replacethe dominanttemporal-historical modernity.Indeed.If there was any temporal referentit was solely to the present. only to findout thatWesternmaterial materialistvalues were flooding the Easternspiritualreservoir.mostreligious the worldmayhave purposefully stayedawayfromit.tonguein cheek. Yet froma Durkheimian it maybe viewedas a sacred event. as the firstyearof ourtrulycommonera. hedonist and unresponsiveto his revivalist message. celebration the secondmillennium becamenowa millenarian in itself.Only now in the age of globalization we sense. WesternEurope.is that it was the first commoncollective globalcelebroadand reciprocal brationin the historyof humanity.Strictly speaking. of materialist to confrontthe presence a stubbornly capitalist the traditionalcore of Western Christendom. makingthem reflexivelyawareof partaking the same commonglobal humancelebration. For the first time in historyhumanityshared virtualgatheringof humanity.still them to serve as the "spiritual untouchedby capitalistmaterialism. now focusingnarrowly upon the Y2K'sNew Eve Year's celebration. the or the 24 time-zones spaces. the writingand constructing first worldhistories.Indeed.Humanity.The simultaneous the globemadethem into around castingof the 24 hour-long partycelebrations morethan a globalpartyhypedby the media.that he came to perceiveas increasinglypagan. the virtually sametime andthe samespace. as the firstcollectivecelebratory perspective.What madethe event something as specialand differentfromother televisedspectacleswith perhaps largean built into it and shared the audiencewasthe reciprocal by reflexivity virtually in active participants. this are has no commonhistory. imageof a yearzerois not so far-fetched one no its name.The failed assassination attemptand the recoverywhich he attributedto a miraculous him in his millennialvision and mission.Both are conceivedsimilarly .now Marianintercession confirmed messianism Marian and withthe withsuffering connected tinged apocalypticism The of thirdsecretof Fatima.Globalizationis the new philosophyof space that has come to as of the replaceprogress. goal 5) The fifth strikingthing.

answer. Both processes just happen before humans become reflexively aware of them and of their own actions' complicity in bringing them about. I can only select arbitrarily a few entry points in the hope that they may illuminate some areas of the complex and fluid field. * Globalization surely is continuous withthe world but system. freescapitalist market civil societyfromits territorial-juridical and in embeddedness state and nation.dissolvesthe particular fusionof nation and state which out and at emerged of Westernmodernity becameinstitutionalized worldwide. Only then can they become "projects. the In is post-colonial. but its primary reference is not temporal but spatial. economy. it meansthe end of their fusionin the sovereign but territorialnation-state. * Globalization alsocontinuous is withthe world of that system states. this sense. teleological. end of nationsand nationalism. a new continuous.and. globalization is also a temporal-historical process in so far as it happens in historical time. meaningful. leastas a afterthe French Revolution.globalization post-modem. but has no intrinsic spatial referent.undermines hegemonic projectof Westernuniversalization. andnation. immanently driven. I cannot try to offer a systematic.but it altersradically the whichwereclustered withinthe nation-state: system dissociating elements by together administrative territorial market civil state. unencumbered development. breakswith the grandnarratives and globalization of the philosophies history. process * Historically. Globalizationand Religion Now let's bring religion back in! Obviously." Of course. as a result. system. * While continuouswith modernity.all embedded withina system of society. For instance. andpost-Western. I am not going to touch upon the kind of issues which have been the . quantitatively by extrinsic or cultural. therefore and fostersits further as well as qualitatively. while haveentered qualitatively phase. it freescapitalism capitalist fromits territorial-juridical in embeddedness stateandnationaleconomies. I am not going to try to discuss the different ways in which globalization may affect religion or vice versa. GLOBALIZATION? So what do we mean by globalization and how does it affect religion? Obviously. much less a comprehensive. state sovereignty. principles. upon which I cannot elaborate further thus they will have to be taken at face value: * Globalization not a historical is can whoseorigins be dated. and forward advancing processes. Globalization not meanthe end of statesor the does model. is with the capitalist globalization a processcontinuouswith modernity. world and of system states. GLOBALIZATION423 RELIGION. in the same way as history also happens in space. territorially governed the principle by undivided exclusive and Globalization limitsandrelativizes sovereignty. I will begin with a series of general statements about globalization. withthe world * Globalization servesas an analyticalcategoryto indicatethat these processes. moral political.politicalsocietyor bodyof citizens.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: MILLENNIUM. anddecenters worldsystem.

the human .e. poverty.or most caesaro-papist imperial cults. or mutuallyexclusive and antagonistic. claims.Beyer1994).Following line of the (Robertson initiatedabove. state and is now undermined democratic claimsof churches introducing the statechallenged monopolistic The liberal by and freedomor expedient constitutional either principled separation religious the religioustoleration. Think of state in Confucianism China. churchis a particular (Casanova of religion which. i.. and Church State thereis an intrinsicrelation As the Weberian definitions both indicates. Catholicism fromtwo contemporary formsof globalreligion: some illustrations andPentecostalism. jurisdiction. of between church and state.. Bothareeithermutually enforcing legitimating other's dependent. Both are defined by the same dual principleof and claims. argumentation in reviewing froma long-term historical the changesin the patterns perspective of relationsbetweenchurch.overthe meansof violencein the caseof the state(Weber1978:54and each 56).and the postWestphaliansystem were churches into Christendom competing of dissolution Western Reformation In conditioned and interrelated reciprocally phase processes.Globalizationfurthersthis processby undermining and levels. since I couldonly rehashtheirarguments less eloquentform andChirico1985. according the principle controlof the absolutist fell nationalchurches underthe caesaropapist territorial fusionwasalready state.e.424 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION analyticalfocusof our dean of globalization theoryRolandRobertson(1992) in and associates. nation and civil societybroughtabout by I'll of After reviewingthese changesanalytically. followingWeber. we should distinguishanalytically:the as functions Not cult religion religions. and from all sorts of distress and danger.As I've written elsewhere fusionof two types historical the 1994:45-48). the Historically formationof the modernEuropean which later gained worldwide expansion.The universalization globalization at of territoriality various principle their of humanrightsdeterritorializes state-based i.I am particularly as interested.overthe meansof salvationin the caseof territoriality monopolistic the church.Nor does everycommunity functionas a religionof salvationfromsicksalvationofferingthe individual individual individual qua ness. the systemof states.Simpson1996. plays the Durkheimian of as whichfunction sects denominations. politicalcommunity Think of the many function of societal integration. offer processes globalization. the earlyabsolutist the triedto reproduce modelof Christendom state and churchin Europe every whichdefactomeantthat all the eius cuius to regio religio. everysalvation community andsalvation or is coextensivewith a territorial a community cult. Shintoismin Japan.state. or cultsin America primarily religions cult individual salvation. I'vealways been.This modelof church-state challenged the liberalby of furtherby processes globalization.

first the archetypes used probably Savanarola 15thcenturyrepublican in Florence.and the chosenpeople. following Anderson (1991:12). became generalized in Catholic and Orthodoxcountries.market. Portugal. torialized churches.are to be by found throughout 16th century Europe: in Spain. sacred the one history.usingbiblical of the New Jerusalem. churchandstate. medievalChristendom. Durkheim's secularrepublicanism equallyselfis conscious of filling the same void.& GLOBALIZATION 2000 PRESIDENTIAL 425 of of rights. SecondRome. globalization also underminesthe model of territorially national religionor culture.afterthe Fallof Constantinople.Thus spoke abyssleft by an extinguished Christianity"(Bernstein MicheletbeforeZarathustra. modern nationalism to be understood as a formof "self-consciously has not held 5 The mythof Moscow the ThirdRome.he decidedthat France to takethe placeof God were had "whom miss" thathis belovedcountry to fill the "incommensurable we and had 1999:114). The new state churchesfunctionedas community cults of the absolutiststate and as national religiouscommunitiesintegrated the by nationalvernaculars whichweregradually transformed high literinto emerging of ary languages the printing by press.and based civil society.Similarversions the samenationalmillennial of myth.playsa as the in function 16thcentury Russian nationalism.was by in mostpronounced Protestant also but countries.as shown by the Gallicanization the French of CatholicChurchandby the Russification the Orthodox of ChurchunderPeter the Great.anticipating samecombination findsin 19th secular nationalism. New Israel. the fusion nation.5 myth servesto link togethersacredland.was consciousof recreating myth when.ADDRESS:RELIGION. old transnational the sacredcommunity integrated by Latinas a sacred wastransformed fragmented.Jules century the Michelet. the modern as understood the combinedsuccessorof the dynasticmonarchy political as dissolutionof With the systemand of the churchas a religiouscommunity. convincedthat church andChristianity dead.By undermining territorially-based of state. and as Communities Church Nation Imagined nationhas to be As Benedict Anderson (1991) has pointedout. and The archetypical England.outmoded increasingly and makesWeber's irrelevant.The great French nationalist historian.At the very least. and the rulesand institutions limitstateterritorial sovereignty undermine tradiin tional etatist principleof non-externalinterference the internalaffairsof states. Again.andsacred people.The processof nationalization the state of churches.MILLENNIUM. into andterrilanguage pluralized. state similar .andfreedom conscienceis the most personis the carrier inalienable sacredof thesepersonal The worldsystemof statesand its supranational rights.exemplified the Anglicanization the Churchof England. we can say that globalization definitionof both. France.

" on Excursus Secularization It should be evident. is unableor unwilling takeseriously. but not for Europe." as a secularized "outof whichas wellas against which. I hope. ratesof religious decline.The orthodox model worksrelatively well for Europebut not for The worksfor the U.it cameinto being.Low levels of of by ought to be explained. why religious suppliers. The traditional European whichpostulates structural betweensocialdiffera link theoryof secularization. there have been plentyof religious entrepreneurswho have failed lately in Western Europe. America.and pluralrelationship istic religiousmarket. have reached impasse the debate. that therein lies the key to the radical secularization Christian of I Do Europe. and even moreso. But as Steve evidencewithin Bruce(2000) has shownconvincingly. Europesimply high Monopolisticsituationsin Polandand Irelandare linked to persistently elseand liberalization state deregulation while increasing levels of religiosity. but for what in to We an happens religionin the restof-theworld. the whereareoften accompanied persistent by impasse. Warner(1993) has called state and society (Casanova2001).accordingly. and facts.seem unable to gener- ate or mobilizegreaterreligiousdemand. the persistence religiosityin Europe or oligopolistic or eitherestablishment of highlyregulated religious monopolistic markets (Caplow1985.I say we.After all.S.Finke 1997).Starkand lannaccone1994. a entiationand religious accountof European decline. the relative validity of the two theorieswill be measured not eventually by how muchthey areableto account for what happensto religion in Europeor the United States. not worry! am not goingto rehashthe fruitless secularization debatebetweenEuropeans Americans overagain and all (Bruce 1992). the surprisingvitality and extreme pluralismof denominationalforms of of salvation the secularization notwithstanding pronounced religionin America. political ideology. sociological.internalcomparative does not supportthe basic tenets of the Americantheory. open. competitive.offers relatively plausible but to muchless to explain developments.and high levels of individualreligiosity. flies in the faceof European .the Americanparadigm individual sidetheoryof religionneedsto explainwhythereis no greater supply in salvationin Europe the face of open free markets demandfor religious and.The notion of a constantreligious demand of a constantdemand supernatural or for is acompensators a-historical. But allow me a briefexcursuswhich is relatedto our topic at hand.Thus. What Stephen turnsthe orthodoxmodelof secularization American "theemerging paradigm" on its head and uses the Americanevidenceto postulatean equallystructural an betweendisestablishment.426 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION but formof the religiousculturalsystems. religion and globalization. free. becauseI am caughtin the middleurgingboth sidesto take in moreseriously orderto learnfromthe validpointsand each other's arguments the blind spots in both positions(Casanova1994).

2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION. Globalization If we want to make sense of religion today not only in Europebut the throughout world.and with this we arebackto our topic.Fora vividillustration.think of and Quebec. the suddencollapseof Catholicismthere with the rise of Quebequois secularnationalism. to think of them. why churchesand ecclesiastical institutions.so similarto Polandand Ireland otherwise. Why does religiontoday in remain"implicit" insteadof takingmoreexplicit institutional If forms? Europe we wantto answer question the the lackof appealof religions individual of why salvationin Europe. we need to one question is once they cededto the address.Elsewhere Europe.that of nationalcommunities. The issueof greater lessermonopolyis relevantbut not the mostcrucialone.why individuals Europe.in the Durkheimian senseof the term.and for what?" interesting sociological question. GLOBALIZATION427 and Communities. The trulypuzzling in Europe. the in once they lose faith in their national churches.we cannot skip the Weberianquestion. havingapparently also the needfor individual so We salvation."salvation. religious couldrephrase questionand ask. or actuallylook salvation Such a kindof brandloyaltyis disdainfully uponalternative religions. secular nation-state theirtraditional historical functionas community cults. Imagined Religions. They will also be less-UScentric. or sense. contrast. yet continued to functionas community cults of the nation in the absenceof a secularnationtheirabilityto functionalsoas religions individual of state. evidentonly a decadebefore. in once the secular nationtakesover by theirfunctionas community tend also to declineas religions of cults.andhave maintained salvation. MILLENNIUM.as monopolistic Ireland Polandillustrate case of churches and the which werestrictlyspeaking not monopolisticallyestablished. hard to imaginein other commodities' markets. theywill makemoresense will but of complexhistorical realities will leadto greater and understanding.as collectiverepresentations imagined of than communities.let psychologists and economistsaddressthis question. . we simplymust think of religionsmoreas cultural and markets. Once the Catholic Churchceasedbeing the community cult of Quebec. from The what.but ratherthe changingcharacter their of cultural manifestations across societies through and history. systems less as religious Surely. you do not think that this is strictlyspeakinga European problem. in Weber's salvationinstitutions firms.churches individual salvation closerto homeso that (Davie2000).do not bother to look for.people ceased for lost goingto churchandstopped looking alternatives. not whetherreligiousand salvation needs remainuniversally constantacrosstime and space.in the Weberiansense. In or this context. as collectiverepresentations the imagined in the processtheirabilityto functionas religions individual of salvation. lost also is.the one we sociolois gists of religion should be addressing. ourtheories be lesselegantandlessscientific. it maybe morehelpfulto think of churches.

waters. universal everybody. within the nation-state. largeportions the seas. of members state or Before peoplebecamesubjects citizensof states.is as are Territories imagined spaces. i. Global So how does globalization affect all culturalsystems. nation.theybecame of The expulsion Jewsand MoorsfromSpain. samehappened religious and civilizations worldreligions. territorial stato nulla personais a version of the church principle extraecclesianulla salus. territory. was The point I am tryingto make is that this logic of territorialization into and initiatedby the dissolutionof WesternChristendom its pluralization Extra Outsidethe state. as an imagined muchan imagined moreover. Territories. By term. and have a proprietary purposeful over definedterritory.cultures.for instance.no legalperson.the so-called of within the fixed boundaries nations-states." of and of With the triumph European system statesit modernity of the world the carried with its globalcolonialexpansioneverywhere.Temporal narratives. are only whenthey becomepartof meaningful phenomena historical in whenthey areembedded a becomemeaningful Similarly.becameterritorialized throughthe universalization the principle 1992 ).to systems.and Every havebeenparceled territorial of out. as "thedomain in this first. cultural indeed.Cultural historyhave been territorially systemsthroughout in do not meansimplythat culturalphenomenaare in space. The mentalmappings. has historical meaning.and Blanc 1994).religions.was exclusionoutside. and territorialized appropriated. spatialphenomena in the strictsenseof the I alsodo not meansimply ecology territory. statesand nationalchurches. territorialization of viewedas the starting process universal point of the modern and was certainlythe first instanceof modernethnic cleansing. community.as "anareaassigned jurisdiction" fora special purpose. and to The forcedto becomepartof a state territory. embedded People.all becameterritorially of of instance. Spain.428 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION and CivilSociety Territorialization. territory I The dictionary was usingwhile character. entireworldunderform wenta particular of territorialization.Schiller.includingreligious ones? I would suggest that one of its most importanteffects is their "deI territorialization" (Basch.Consequently. space.Everything the is worldis in space.in the samesenseas everything in time. civil But the samehappenedto peoples.everypieceof land. As an institution.a countrywherethe threeAbrahamic religions .e. Civilizations.markets. as the relationsbetween organismsand their physicalenvironments..second. tories. after the FrenchRevolution(Brubaker citizenship and withina territory of inclusion is citizenship basedon the principle universal or individual group. Butnot everything that happens in time is historical.was required preciselybecauseJews and Muslimscould not become subjectsof the new Catholicnationalstate.sciences. writing address the mountains state exercises whicha sovereign and.whichmaybe nationalchurches.for society. By de-territorialization terriof mean the disembeddedness culturalphenomenafromtheir "natural" I embedded.

But humanity itselfcan hardlybecomean identitygroupor an . global movementsand organizations (Amnesty Internationalandhumanrights.as to the mental mapsof even beforeReformation became now exclusively Catholicterritory.Shaw 1997).I do not need to emphasize relevance the global. Christians.its boundaries becoming and but systemof statesis not disappearing.another of these awful neologisms we social scientists termsto characterize com1992)like to useas shorthand (Robertson analytical and phenomena.commodities firms. traversing The globe itselfbecomesthe physical withinwhich spaceand mentalterritory the nation-stateitself and everythingembedded within its territory becomes circumscribed. The local gains a territoryof its own independentfrom the nation.identities.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: MILLENNIUM.Peoplesand their identities.informaand tion systemsand media.Globalmarkets. into WesternChristendom the first civilizationto be territorialized was nation-states.The national increasing is fragmented within into smaller units without particularistic and transcended into ever larger units.the reflexive pointof reference all societiesandpeoples(Robertson Chirico1985).at least for social appeared of scientists. becomesa self-reflexive self-referential and Consequently.Muslim. indigenouspeople). globalhumanity for and unit. Jewish. Whensociologists talkedof societies. Civilizations to have lost their relevanceas units of analysis.had coexisted for centuries. civil society.communities or and imagined. statesare becomingless undivided exclusive sovereignterritorialdomainsand more regulatory administrative territorial networks interlinked and overlapping with wider networks of embeddedness all social (Guehenno1995. all proliferateand become increasinglymore relevant global national borders transcending and nationalterritories (Castells1997).Christian. (Beck2000. the of mediaand information subcultures identities(youth.Rajaee Glocalization. and global global systems. and civilizations.Butglobalization beginning loosenup the straight to is jacket of the sovereign evermoreporous. and regional Local real spaces. Islamwas the last to be forced into the of straight-jacket sovereignterritorialstates (Piscatori 1986).refersto the simultaneousreassertion and plex processes of relevance the localandthe globaloverthe national. Greenpeace. GLOBALIZATION429 RELIGION. they meantas a matter course nationalsocieties.subcultures ethnic groupsall gain spatialautonomy fromthe state-national territories withinwhichthey have been embedded and circumscribed.Glocalization also be interpreted a dimensionof can as what I call de-territorialization. world The are state.as central to the mental mapsof Jews and Muslims. and and Counter-Reformation dividedup Europe had into Protestant Catholic territories. Doctors WithoutBorders) a of feminism. social movementsand public spheresare not only those boundaries also overlapping but nationalterritransgressing increasingly toriesandthusbecoming transnational 2000).The solid territorial underthe sovereign of the state is dissolving into more jurisdiction phenomena fluidconditions. Otherswouldfollow.

unlikely to be one world government. imagined future. fault lines. and the cult of the individual fathersof sociology. is The end-result the process globalization. regain religions freethemselves and rolesin the globalcenterstage. by Globalizationfacilitates the return of the old civilizations and world and cultural but systems as religionsnot only as units of analysis as significant communities. community.a transnational community. space peoplecommonto all . of of singularity.relevant imaginedcommunitiesand carriersof collective identities reliwithinthis globalspace. Saint-Simon.The increasing for thesis has been widely and rightlycriticized. that.but local and transnational identities. mostrelevant imagined Thereinlies the meritof Samuel and againthe old civilizations worldreligions. of None of you. particularly While new transnational ones. in Durkheim's religions." What none of the couldhave anticipated was and Enlightenment prophets positivistsociologists weregoingto gainnew life the that. wrongis in units akin to nationof civilizations territorial as his geo-politicalconception which leadshim to anticipatefutureglobal conflicts states and superpowers. expectsthe formation one singleglobalreligion.organizations. gious ones arelikelyto be once the will communities emerge. its sacralization."in recognizingthe Huntington's for and of relevance cultural systems civilizations worldpolitics. Comte. The triumphand the global has expansionof human rightsdoctrinesand movementsat the end of the 20th centuryseemsto confirmat leastpartof their visions.paradoxically. and awareof theirown particularity they need an other to becomereflexively muchless its telos. old godsandthe old religions of of the of becoming carriers the process sacralization humanity. The analysismissesthe fact that globalization civilizational along not only a great opportunityfor the old civilizationsand world represents to fromthe straight to jacketof the nation-state.But they werewrongin the of wouldsooneror laterreplace old that assuming the new religion humanity "theold godswere theocentric (1965:475)words. dying while the new ones had not yet been born.whereHuntington particularly Riesebrodt 2000).most frequently its "essenvision(Huntington West-centric and tialism" for its undiluted 1996. I suppose.one worldsociety. one single global netGlobalcivil society is a transnational space.movements. The religion of humanity.430 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION Individual collectiveidentitiesarenecessarily and imagined plural.by announced the founding by by by Durkheim indeedarrived(Casanova2000). (1996) thesis "the clash of civilizations.overlappingand at times in competition with the imagined Nationswill continueto be. that work of associations. it is not itselfa territorially organized societyor domain. sacred andsacred link intrinsic betweensacred time. are likelyto becomeevermoreprominent. and communications the but transcends territorial nation-state. hegemonic is But in my view. dimensions theirleading theirtransnational Globalizationalso representsa great threat insofar as it implies the deto threatens dissolvethe of Globalization territorialization all cultural systems. forthe foreseeable nationalcommunities.

workedtireand bitterly the of lessly for peace negotiations. of The papacyof BenedictXV marksanother milestone in the processof of for Electedshortlyafterthe outbreak globalization Catholicism two reasons. Holy. GLOBALIZATION431 worldreligions.whileCatholicmonarchs statestriedto preserve theirold claims statesupremacy.1997). which wouldmediatenationalconflictsand establishthe conditions .and supported organization a Leagueof Nations.the verysameyearthatthe PapalStateswere the FirstVaticanCouncilproclaimed dogmaof papalinfallibility the lost. philosophy history(Casanova it was the loss of territorial state sovereigntywith the incorIronically. reducedto being just another marginaland increasinglyirrelevant territorial state. of WorldWarI. The Protestant Reformation undermined claimsto be the One. MILLENNIUM. condemned of he the senselessslaughter the generalchauvinistfrenzy. its Catholic. 1870. mostof the transnational dimensions of sovereign MedievalCatholicismrecededor disappeared It is not surprising altogether. thereforethat the Catholic church remainedfor centuriesadamantlyantimodern developed negative and a of 1996.One by one.that allowedthe Papacy to be reconstituted anew as the hegemoniccenter of a much revivedtransnationalreligious In regime.and ApostolicChristianChurch. which have definedall civilizations. by lost to Catholic Papacy controlof the nationalCatholicchurches caesaro-papist monarchs Concordats it itselfbecameterritorialized the Papal and into through States. rather two versions Christianity: of or of Catholicism Pentecostalism. the over 1870 represents original the milestonein the modern of of process globalization Catholicism. gave up the old caesaro-papist Not surprisingly. This processwasfacilitated the expansionof the liberalsecularstate which by etatist claimsto controlthe nationalchurches. the firstgeneralconflagration nation-states.In this respect. non-Catholicliberalstates werethe firstones to acceptthe transnational and papalclaims. and reaffirmed papalsupremacy the entireCatholicchurch. of poration the PapalStatesinto the new Italianstate. throughthe controlof the nominationof bishops the papacy will progressively gaincontrolover the nationalCatholicchurches. Fromnow on.and with it the seeminglyessentialbondsbetweenhistories. me offerbrief Let peoplesand territories of illustrations someof thesethreats opportunities a summary very and from and selectivereviewof two worldreligions.Catholic lost its originalconnotation of universality became and term the simplya denominational distinguishing RomanchurchfromotherChristian denominations. and Transnational Catholicism Of all the worldreligionsnone wasas threatenedat its core by the emerworldsystemof sovereignterritorial statesas the Roman gence of the modern church. dissolution Wester The of Christendomundermined role of the Papacyas the spiritualhead of a the universalChristianmonarchy The represented the Holy RomanEmpire.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION.

proved marks reinsertion the the however. growinginternational advocatesof world-wideinternationalbodies.had expanded a had overseas Catholicism been primarily transplanted 20th century.and the point of departure its and international the Thereafter.S.Even its missionary efforts. papalintervention darity.The fromthe the of numbers represent notabledisplacement the Catholicpopulation WorldandfromNorthto South. popeshave been consistent recognition. Europeans longer formed a was The with over 200 bishops the secondlargest.had of The massiveimmigration IrishCatholicsto the United Statesand churches.The had territories of modern beyondits traditional European expansion Catholicism been connected until the mid-nineteenthcenturywith the global European colonial expansion.it was underBenedictXV'spapacy promotethe recruitmentof indigenousclergy and the formationof native coloniallegacyandpreparing with the European Catholichierarchies. of other Britishcolonies. was the first truly global ecumenical council in the history of Christianity. the Jesuits.who had been expelled from their home to die fortheircountries(Holmes laws countries anti-clerical returned by solithanhumanor Christian muchstronger Nationalsolidarity 1981). European institution.fromthe World Court to the international statesovereignty. sistentlyopposed the of had condemned Declaration the Rightsof BriefCaritas adamantly papal that the rightsto freedomof Man by the FrenchNationalAssembly. the answered on deafears.arguing . Vatican II.includingthe most transreligious national and papal of them. by contrast. of the papacy in internationalaffairs.Catholicpriests enthusiastically patriotic everywhere calls to arms.followedby the generalimmigration other European But the CatholicpresencebeyondEurope.whichlimitabsolutist the disputes.The 2500 Fathers in no attendance came from all over the world. even European one-tenthof fromthe United Statescomprised already thoughthe 49 prelates the gathered bishops. U.and represent interestsof the entire familyof nations (Hanson 1987). that the Vaticanbeganto In addition. Until then the Catholic churchhad conof modern PopePiusVI in his 1791 conceptions humanrights.not only becauseof the convocationof the Second Vatican it Council and the processof aggiomamento instituted.with the exception of indenational been led and controlledby European pendentJesuitinitiatives. breaking of the groundfor the moderninternationalization the Catholic church. yet majority. Old to the New The papacy of John XXIII marks another milestone in Catholic globalization. until the Catholics.432 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION fell The pope'sintervention on for a justpeace.not one imposed the defeated.Despiteits failure. delegation smallerthan the combined228 indigenousAsian and Africanbishops.but because of the of the modern discourseof human rights in his definitive incorporation encyclical Pacemin Terris(1963). arbitrate United Nations.the renewalof its historical role as of mediator courtof appeals.Vatican I still had been a predominantly council.Even transnational orders.

its The church remained of the publicvoicesleft stillquestioning has one capitalist and demandingthe humanization and moralization market of globalization economies and a more just and fair internationaldivision of labor and distribution worldresources. the processthe pope has learnedto playmoreeffectivelythan any competitor.as well as the Declaration the Equality all Men.the Catholicchurchhas been at the vanguard the globalhumanrightsrevolution. He also becamean untiringworld travelerproclaiming the everywhere sacreddignityof the humanperson.more than any other pope in history. were contraryto the divine principlesof the Church.as defensor spokesman In hominis.The Catholicchurchhas embraced its globalization.the role of first citizen of a catholic. et orbi.But the embraceis not uncritical.12 Africans. In the last decadestherehas been a only remarkable increasein transnational Catholic networks and exchangesof all 6 At the end of World War II two-thirdsof all cardinalswere still Italian.as well as the separation churchandstate. The College of Cardinalsthat elected the first non-Italian pope in fourcenturies alreadyhad a much more global representation:27 Italians.pope. 19 Latin Americans.This has had dramatic as evidencedby the global role of the Catholicchurchand Catholic effects.6 urbi to Bishopof Rome.He wantsto be viewednot justas Holy Father all Catholics as commonfather of but of God's childrenand as self-appointed of humanity.Collegeof Cardinals has ceasedto be a predominantly As Roman-Italian institution. i.e. 13 Asians. makingit partof everypapalencyclicalandof mostepiscopal the world-historical pastorallettersthroughout world.Huntington1991). Dignitatis the changedthe Catholiccourseby recognizing inalienablerightof radically to of it everyindividual freedom conscience. Forty one percent of the 135 cardinals presently eligible to vote for the next pope are from the third world.Thereafter.VaticanCuria.The churchat its apex.The papal was the and condemnation reiterated throughout 19thcentury PiusIX included in the principle humanrightsand mostmodern of freedoms the Syllabus (1864) of errors. in movements the "third waveof democratization" the mid-70sto the 90s from (Casanova1996. GLOBALIZATION433 on of of religionandfreedom the press. global and universal. Freedom. freedom particularly was odioussince it implied the Religious equating truereligion the falseones. humansociety.ADDRESS: & 2000PRESIDENTIAL RELIGION. The fact that there is even speculationthat the next pope may be African indicateshow farand how fast the church has changed..As and of we all know. a radialstructure centeredin Rome. of The contemporary of does not have globalization Catholicism. of has John PaulII in particular servedas one of the most effectivespokesof this globalrevolutionand represents definitiveglobalization the of persons the Catholicchurch.moreover.grounding in the sacreddignityof the humanperson.VaticanII'sDeclaration Religious on Humanae. welcoming liberation fromthe strait-jacket the territorial of nation-state which sovereign had restricted catholicuniversalclaims. churchhas adopted discourse human the of the rightsas its own. the city and to the globe (Weigel 1999). 11 North Americans.John Paul II himself has now nominated 166 cardinals . Indeed. . 29 other Europeans. MILLENNIUM.he has assumed eagerlyits roleto speakliterally.

therefore.In his last visit to Mexico in 1999. Catholic Francis an Cardinal offered equally andtheMillennium.the spiritof Pentecosthas movedChristians confirming them in theirfaith that the apostoliccharismatic of revelationis not closed age .Indeed.. In a lecture at the Library Congressin 2000. important to and that Christians Muslims remains. Pope John Paul II gatheredthe bishops of all the Americas. dialogue Inter-religious than is Church-state of basicto the future faith. consecratedOur Lady of and as Guadalupe the Virginof all the Americas. confident in its abilityto thrive in a relativelyopen globalsystemof religious Pentecostalismmay serve to illustratethe equally regimes." speakingin tongues. Let me give two anecdotal of of illustrations the potentialimplications this process. the modemnationstateis relativized nationalsovereignty as evidentthat still into displaced societalarrangements to be invented. in the globe wherethe can and which therefore makeitselfat home anywhere moves. north and south.it will be increasingly American or to of and faithsarecarriers culture thatit is moresectarian be French..declaring fromthe Holy Spirit. the major is more or Hinduor Buddhist. alsotransnational cadres.434 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Rome. firstPentecostal in ecstasyand whenMontanus in 2ndcentury ment. linksto tradition no territorial with no historical religion. ments. beganprophesying Phrygia. and international encounters(Casanova centers of pilgrimage transnational 1997). Contemporary offersto a highly decentralized which globalization favorableopportunities and rootsor identity. Pentecostalism Global Catholicismillustratesthe opporof The transformation contemporary offersto a transnational tunities which the processof globalization religious with a highly centralizedstructureand an imposingtransnational regime which feels therefore and networkof human. schools. And amongthe dialogues. its outcome determine a century from now.. the "Third Testament. Russian than to be Christian Muslim. religious religious and and centersof learning intellectual transnational networks. urgedthem to ceaseviewing and themselvesas nationalCatholicchurches to becomeone single American of Catholic church. came that his visions. global Christianity George vision: is and In the next millennium.whichcrisscross the century one can observe an amazing resurgenceof the throughout of whichforcenturies been had transnational dimensions medieval Catholicism of not and recessiveor dormant: only papalsupremacy the centralization the of as councilsalready church's government. well as the convocation ecumenical movetransnational but mentioned. between promises be the betweenChristianity race. nationsandworldregions.institutional materialresources. Spirit moveChristian sectarian the Since the riseof Montanism. thoughthat dialogue. oftenbypassing kinds. The conversation for of mostsignificant the future the human will whatthe globewill looklike but andIslamis not yet faradvanced.

Brazil.at least for me (Martin1996. taneously typically American and transnationalfrom the start. and that a "third of the Spirit" nearif not already is here. of globalcharacter the phenomenon. Perhaps allows me to make bold generalizations.Lehmann 1996. things.Indeed. the CongregaiioCristado Brasil (Christian Congregation)and the . syncretistic the Kingdom God in Brazil The Lightof the Worldin Mexico.One could view such Pentecostal of sectarianmovements prefigurations contemporary as But developments. globalChristian of in Pentecostalism Strictly speaking course.Joachim Fiore's of age millennialtheologyand the movementit spun is only one of the speculative most famousand intellectualized versions. well as an emphasison emotional and experiential expressionsover and against discursive doctrinalones.and Walker 1997). Moreover.particularly the Third World.then we can confidentlysay that the phenomenonis a one.the categories helpfulto stickto rigorous analytical more I read from what experts in the field have to say. and they say very oftencontradictory the different.the Catholic churchin India. GLOBALIZATION435 RELIGION.the broadcharismaticrenewallately grippingmuch of EvangelicalChristianity in worldwide. I am using Pentecostalism here in the widest possiblesense to include Pentecostalchurchesand denominationsin the strictsense of the term. speaking tongues. only my ignorance to a followingwith a grainof salt. Its initial transnational followedat firstalso the typicalevangelical expansion missionary It is revealing." "gifts includingany in combination healing.it was simulChristianity.however.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & MILLENNIUM. or of the field is so complexand fluidthat I do not think it wouldbe eitherpossibleor fromthe past.exorcism.Corten 1999. Coptic churchin Ethiopia.and the Orthodox church in Romania. Hunt. What all the phenomena have in gatheredunderthe termPentecostalism commonis an emphasis the charismatic on of the spirit. In this sense.Westmeier 1999). originated the UnitedStatesat the beginningof the centurywith dual roots in transplanted Americanized Methodismand African-American In this respect.that the two oldest Pentecostal churchesin pattern.as the attemptof an outsider organize chaotic fieldbybringing ownexternal his prejudgements. and to althoughI am referring primarily Protestant in orderto come to termswith the trulygeneraland Christianity. the "thirdage of the Spirit"is already uponusas we enterthe thirdmillennium.the morecomplicated fieldgets. Hamilton.we mustconsideras well the increasing relevanceof the charismatic renewaltaking place within Catholic and even Eastern Whencharismatic revivalism as reaches farandwideas the Christianity.I mustconfess. possibly linking all the Christian churches (Poewe 1994. is already yet most dynamicand fastestgrowingsectorof Protestant worldwide Christianity of and is likelyto becomethe predominant globalformof Christianity the 21st century. and all kinds of independent neo-Pentecostal such as the UniversalChurchof mega-churches. take the So. of and as prophecy. in fact Pentecostal is the Christianity a 20thcenturyphenomenon.

but LatinAmericanProtestantism.I'd ventureto say it is as LatinAmerican liberation of as theology. irrespective theirtransnational roots or origins.who led a typicalsectarian a church church.has .It arrivedfromthe United States.are Latin Americanreligiousresponsesto Latin American conditions. afterso many misguided one-sidedinterpretations the supposedly radical differences betweenthe two phenomena. Indeed. a by Christianity de-territorialized takingindigenous Catholic territory.The proportion Brazilis smallerbut it dwarfs everyother in absolute one LatinAmerican numbers million). Latin America. the largestPentecostal church in Braziland probablyin the world. particularlyBrazil. two-thirds all LatinAmerican Today Pentecostals-Charismatics. Stoll 1990). Protestants The proportions higherin Chile (over20 percent)or Guatemala are population. Latin American is Pentecostalism neithera foreignimportnora local branchof a transnational tendedto suggest. In this roots there. The transnational is of character Brazilian Pentecostalism inscribedin its very beginnings.Corten1999).It is not anymoreProtestantism Latin America. (Lehmann Be it as it may.at least until very recentlywith 8 was also approximately millionmembers.even if Catholicism continues to be for the foreseeablefuturethe majorityreligion of all Latin Americancountries.I do not believe that the often fantasticprojectionsof in rates contemporary of growthof Protestantism LatinAmericainto the future are realisticor sustainable(Martin 1990. Yet.436 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION in Assembleia Deus(Assembly God).wereestablished de of respectively 1910and 1911.therecan be no doubtaboutthe localnature.This is the most importantconsequence of the of LatinAmerica.In Rio de Janeiro (25 country new evangelical church pops up every day and 90 percent of those are of are Protestants Pentecostal-Charismatic. even beforeit had taken form.and the dynamicgrowthof Latin American now constitute10 percentof the LatinAmerican Pentecostalism. non-American of The ChristianCongregation Brasilwas established an Italianimmiby schismfroma local Brazilian grantfromChicago.Today. widespread the though not uniformexpansion. at last. Indeed. founded via Chicagoby two Swedish pastors.Both. which therefore leads to the de-territorializationof Catholicism from Brazil.but an firm. and immediately assumedan indigenousBrazilian Brazilian Pentecostalism a dualprocess de-territorialization: of sense.as the firstmisleading religious interpretations in authenticLatin Americanproduct. thus only a few yearsafterthe firstAmericanPentecostalchurches.It remained until the 1930sprimarily Pentecostal Presbyterian of Italianimmigrants Brazil. we juxtaposing are beginningto see trulyilluminating comparative analysesbringingthe two similarities complexdifferences and togetherin all their intriguing phenomena 1996. represents American is rootsin Brazil. growth Pentecostalism throughout explosive Latin Americahas ceased being Catholic territory. in The Assemblyof God. in (over 30 percent).by missionaries.

longas these assume so theirsubordinate magical popular statuswithinthe Catholichierarchic andfromthe typicalsober. is actually and It its is Pentecostalism not a translocal whichassumes the veryopposite.Moreover.by denyingtheir againstmagicalor supernatural nor veryexistence." We could also think of it as a global "greatawakening" with multiple. as Hexham and Poewe mustbe seen as "a multi(1994:61) have pointed out. is the historically It first unique andparadigmatic of a de-centered de-territorialized culture.This is the paradox the localcharacter Pentecostalism.& 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: RELIGION." separate.. cannotbe understood of of It in the traditionalsense of Catholic "inculturation. in fromit hasnowbegunto radiate all directions."encompassingEurope. Protestantism forcesor beings. It is trulythe firstglobalreligion. is it a kindof syncretic Nor particular or of and symbiosis symbiotic are.The growthof Pentecostal in Africa(Ghana.Zimbabwe. an Argentinian church founded by an Spanish immigrant in 1967 in BuenosAires is expanding in Latin Europeand the United Kingdom. everywhereleading onslaught againsttheir local cultures: againstAfro-Brazilian spiritcults in Brazil.e.In in this they are differentfrom both. contrast.Nor is it a transnational rapidly gainingworldwide religiousregime likeCatholicism. In this respectit is historically andunprecedented.againstwitchcraftin Africa. case and global Buthow can it be de-territorialized localat the sametime?Because is and it an uprooted localcultureengagedin spiritual warfare with its own roots. Indeed. what they call "spiritual warfare. phenomenon different forms a localterritorial of culture. from the traditionalCatholic patternof and tolerationof local folkloreand generousaccommodation condescending beliefsand practices." David In 7 Rios de Vida (Life's Rivers). .7 Yet LatinAmericais not the only worldcenter.GlobalPentecostalism not a religionwith a particular territorial center like Mormonism.Pentecostalism.and Asia. indigenous andautonomous its LatinAmerican as The counterpart. syncresis the general the local.. globalreach.i. GLOBALIZATION 437 becomein a veryshorttime a worldcenterof Pentecostal whereChristianity. is AfricanPentecostalism as local." is. global Pentecostalism source diffusion of parallel developments.Pentecostals for an unabashed and uncompromising instance.e.In the words PaulFreston with of the (1997:185). and disenchanting monotheistic attitude of ascetic of-fact. against Vodou in Haiti. only getsus so far. particular. as the relationship that betweenthe catholic.is simultaneously by globaland local. universal the local. anddistinct"burned-over Yetthe parallel districts. rational.The Pentecostalattitudeis neithercompromise denialbut frontal hand-to-handcombat. samecouldbe repeated about Pentecostalismin Korea or China. SouthAfrica) Christianity Sub-Saharan is equallyexplosive. of a globalculture.againstshamanism Korea.i.complexdiffusion and by international networks with multilateral flows.Nigeria. is America. foremost scholar Brazilian of "new churches localexpressions are Pentecostalism. which is diffusion.Africa.characterized parallelinvention.MILLENNIUM. since"theSecondGreatAwakening" a national was withmultiple phenomenon focalpoints.acquiringa transnationalcharacter. mattercosmos.

Blumenberg. MA:Harvard University facesthe future. Scientific of Religion Study .Ironically. and C. Blanc. 1999. their diasporas are becoming dynamic centers for their global transformation. 1900:The 19th century of essays Asa Briggs. Verso. but The opportunitiesare greatestfor it also offersthe threat of de-territorialization. For the world religions globalizationoffers to all the opportunityto become for the first time truly world religions. 1992. Clarendon thesis. Religion modernization: Press. L. The supply-side for 39:32-46.In Thecollected A. Nationsunbound: nation-states. 291-309. 1983. "when it comes to witchcraft. Judaism.Urbana: MA: Harvard in and and R.The threat is greatest for those embedded in civilizational territories like Islam and Hinduism. of for Baumgartner.Towards of Vol. Ed. Basch. belief Prophecy in modem Boyer. Smithsonian 30:114-125. University the debate secularization and and Sociologists historians Bruce. 1998.438 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Martin's (1996:29-30) words. The dynamic core of Anglicanism no longer resides in England.S. 1994.Terrorin A. St.What globalization? Picador. those world religions like Islamand Buddhismwhich alwayshad a transnational structure.Religion globalization.forced to become de-territorializedfrom the Land of Israelmillennia ago. Schiller.When shall no more: Press. Benjamin. Beyer.Citizenship nationhood France Germany. 1985. and London: P. University IllinoisPress. MA: H. N. Cambridge: Beck.Imagined Transnational projects. 1999. Cambridge. has become tied again to the physical Land of Israelin the very age of globalization."and againstthe powerof spirit cults they invoke the cult of "the most powerful Spirit of all.the diasporareligion par excellence. But through global immigration they are also becoming global and de-territorialized. 1991. and Langhore. Press. SagePublications. Pentecostals fight fire with fire throughexorcism. Brubaker. MITPress. 2000. global.Thelegitimacy themodem Cambridge. Indeed. communities. 1000?(What reallyhappened1000 yearsago).London: Anderson.The Patriarchof Constantinople has re-emergedas a global center of EasternChristianity. 1994. Obviouslytoday I could at best only scratch the surfaceof the phenomenon. culture. New in F." It is in their very struggleagainst local culturethat they prove how locally rooted they are. i. Longing theend. of age. 1992. Berstein.Living theendof theworld.D.e. S. Briggs. American time be Cambridge. Similar illustrations could be offered from other branches of Christianity and from the other world religions. B. REFERENCES Rev.Journal the modelof religion: .2000.P. at London: M.. Press. deterritorialized Breach.A history millennialism Wester civilization. 2. PA: Gordon and postcolonial predicaments. York: Martin's is PolityPress.U. G. 1992. P. Oxford: The Nordicand Balticstates. ed.

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