Religion, the New Millennium, and Globalization Author(s): José Casanova Source: Sociology of Religion, Vol. 62, No.

4, Special Issue: Religion and Globalization at the Turn of the Millennium (Winter, 2001), pp. 415-441 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3712434 . Accessed: 30/12/2010 01:48
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2001, 62:4 415-441 Sociology Religion of

2000 Presidential Address

Religion,

the

New

Millennium,

and

Globalization

JoseCasanova*
NewSchool Social Research for

It seems all havesurvived passage the millennium we the of without many visibletrialsand tribulations. one couldcontendthat Dionysius Actually, the 525A.D.cameup with the A.D. calendar Exiguus, monkwho around division in usearound globe,miscalculated postdated birthof now the and the at leastfouryears,in whichcaseourmillennial celebrations were Jesusby one actuallya few yearslate.1Alternatively, couldbelievethat Dionisius was in the rather and Exiguus misguided choosing Incarnation thanthe Passion ResurrectionChrist theanno of as in which wewere fewdecades case a Domini, or calendar, the Islamic one, or the early.Or one mightfollowthe Jewish in is Chinese,the Aztec,whichever, whichcasethe B.C./A.D.convention Oronecouldbea strict and meaningless. separationist deemit unconstitutional to imbue strictly our secular calendar conventions anyparticular with denominational therefore wouldcarefully one lowercase the and, religious meaning intothe religiously B.C./A.D.signs neutral before after comand "our b.c.la.c., mon era." who are the we? Which,of course,only opensup the question Common whom? to Whicheraarewe talking about? couldcontinue We this The fact is that mostChristian whether believers, pre-millennial, postor a-millennial thefactthatonlytheFather millennial, simply knows the accept hourandthe dayanddespite numerology,maybe futileto tryto curtail all it God'sfreedom tyingthe divineeschatological by plansto our own secular calendars human and deadlines. Sacred timeandsecular timearerelated, for sacred timecan onlyhappen withinworldly time.Butthe relationship not is or and believers compelled search God's are to for objective automatic, therefore
*DirectallcorrespondenceDr.JoseCasanova, to: New 65 Sociology Department, School Social Research, Fifth for NewYork, 10003.E-mail: NY casanova@newschool.edu. Avenue,
1 The BC dating was first introduced two centuries later around 731 by the Anglo-Saxon monk, the Venerable Bede.

exercise infinitum adabsurdum. ad and

415

secularin originandcharacter. This is the moresurprising has given the muchgreater outbursts millenarian of fervor signs anticipating manybuild-up aroundthe year 2000 (Clagett 1999.the secondmillennium turnedout to be not unlike around1000A. manyexperts anticipate Heaven's increasing millenarian (Robbinsand Palmer1997).lookingat the year2000 predominantly andcelebrations fewstriking a thingsstandout.with or withoutthe help of prophetic signsin worldly Very few Christianmillennialists.Alas!The fearedmillennialfrenzy journalists expertsandsensational not materialize.Wojcik1997. Indeed.Stearns1996). Here in the United States. preparations. and followedby the apocalypticimmolationof the BranchDavidiansin Waco. culminating the 1997 masssuicideof the Quebec to led GateUFOcult in California.lookedat the year2000 as a significant Mostof the hooplaconnectedwith the year2000 was event in God'scalendar.beginning Temple in Jonestownin 1978. Traditionalpre-millennialist (Marsden imagesand pre-millennialism the popular mediaof religious radio.Particularly.Strozier Flynn 1997. dispensationalist peculiarculturalsurvivalof Anglo-American 1980). has 2) In this respect..nowfilteredthrough of and the best-selling books of Hal Lindseyhad entered the mainstream secular masscultureand werenow routinely American Hollywood exploitedby Americangeo-political were (The Rapture. were concocted by 18th and 19th century rationalist or the romantichistorians. TX in 1993. however. and The few well-publicized incidentsof apocalyptic mayheminducedby millenariandoomsday withthe collectivesuicideof the Peoples cults." that it .led was contemporaneous the Aum Shinrikyo millenarian movementswere some people to the conjecturethat apocalyptic wereno longerprimarily Christian restricted or a and assuming globalcharacter to their traditionalbreedinggroundin the United States (Hall and Schuyler of 1997. by did alike. beliefs. the public re-emergence in the 1980s had exposed to public view this ProtestantFundamentalism Protestantism. Mullins 1997). greatFrenchhistorianJulesMichelet wrote such a vivid and realistic narrative of the "Terrorsof the year 1000.andwerefeedingthe paranoid debates.Not surprisingly. strangelyinforming anxieties on East.D.Lamy1996). given 1998.televangelism. I am anticipations.OF 416 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION revelations. wing militiasof Survivalists the Christian Cuneo1997. Benjamin were outbursts anticipated academic millennial suchan apocalyptic cauldron. by the ritualmurders collective and and suicidesof membersof the Orderof the Solar Temple in Switzerland in between 1994 and 1997. to selectfive: going the is 1) The moststriking thing perhaps how little millenarian turnof the secondmillennium turnedout to be. events.most and terror frenzy the firstone. particularly the Middle to of extremistfringegroupsfromCatholicMarianapocalypticism the rightand Identitymovement(Boyer1992. The fact that eschatological activity in and and Solaire Temple happened francophone Europe Canada that it l'affaire with saringas attacksin Japan. Armageddon). The visionsof millennial historians now admit.

but sociologicallyspeakingthe core institutionsand social formsof of which formone of the foundations modern WesternEuropean Christendom Westerncivilizationare only 1000 yearsold: the first 500 yearsas Medieval and Christendom centeredaroundthe Papacy the next 500 yearsas European multi-denominational modernWesternChristianityin its post-Reformation formsand in its expanded forms. and thus one could say more of Christian.by post-millennial progressive 1990). useddifferent calenEurope Peoplethroughout of not darsandwereprobably muchaware livingthrough1000A. the however. with the conversionof only Norse and Vikings. Indeed.. was 3) If the turnof the secondmillennium not unlikethe firstin its lackof millenarian was fervor. as well as from its much shorter anticipatory . GLOBALIZATION417 becamea standard account (Bernstein1999). and Western and EasternSlavs and with the consolidation the schismbetweenEastern WesternChristianity 1054 of and in with the excommunication the Patriarch Constantinople. RichardLandes'(1997) recent of revisionist to reopenandgive new life to the apocalyptic atmosphere attempt the year1000 is unconvincing.ButLandes that mayhave that the period. we areentering Western and As Christianity the thirdmillennium. of of None of the other non-Western formsof Christianity Byzantine.none of them has evinced the historicaldynamism primitively in its European New Worldforms.the end of the 20thcentury muchunlike eschatological the endof the 9thcentury. the groundfor all the reformmovementsof the 11th Christianity.the Papalreformation. Lastturnof the century characterized a dual was by or fever and by fin de siecle atmosphere spirit.albeitfor reasons maybe morerightin arguing marksa turningpoint in WesternEuropean little to do with millennialism. preparing the century:the Peace of God. the one thousand Christianity.Schorske1981. MILLENNIUM. yearold association and civilizationis comingto an end.Let'snot Westerncolonialand post-colonial the withthe forgetthat the coreof WesternChristendom.D. the Cluniac reform. HolyRomanEmpire in as its spiritual and head. Magyars.etc.Schwartz fever and anxiety have been manifestlyabsent from the year 2000 gressive millennial celebrations. Both proanxiety(Briggs1985.which are mucholder Antiochian-Syrian-Middle and institutionally closer to earlyChristianity. . Western Christianity WesternEuropean is in Europe lessand less the core of Christiancivilizationand Christianity its mostdynamic forms todayis lessandlessEuropean. Crusades (Headand Landes1992).we are witnessing end of hegemonicEurodue to a dual processof advancedsecularization postin pean Christianity Christian and of the increasing of a de-territorialized and Europe globalization de-centered between Thus. Eastern.We areaccustomed thinkof WesternEuropean to as Christianity a 2000 As of this old civilization.Weber 1986. a system religious beliefsandpractices maybe the year case. Alexandrian-Coptic.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: RELIGION. Armenian.wasonly established 962 andthat its internal Papacy externalboundaries becamefixed around1000.one couldeven saythat the period of constitutes veryformative the foundation WesternChristendom a civilias zation.

as well as to the utopianvisions of a new anthropocentric aim wasto in orderwhichoriginated suchhistorical Blumenberg's experiences. From beliefsin progress. and an and does not have a religious therefore irrational show that modernity forhe seemedto have been Judeo-Christian Inadvertently.that explains nature modern verydifferent Christian can this perspective. one becauseof the collapseof utopianism.the early modernScientific Revolution.post-millennialism be viewed as secularized If rationalism.The year 1700 marksthe first public turn of the century celebration in Europe. equallydependenton contributions of and It nialismand utopianism. to vincingresolution the debateby showingthat the modern in as it crystallized the 18thcenturyas a dominant. an and maybe viewedas secularized origin old pedigreeand has been stated in manydifferentforms.and the expansionof social capitalism.Gould 1997). millenwas grantedworldview. of the two legs sustaining but rather beliefin historical the modern progress.pervasive. equally and senseof superiorviewsof historical the modern progress the self-confident over backto the actualhistorical experience ity of "themoderns" "theancients" of Western Europeansocieties from the late Middle Ages. illegitimate pedigree. historyis expression the collapseof utopianism. of In an attemptto defendthe Enlightenment modernscientificrationalism and fromNietzchean-based (1983) traces Blumenberg convincingly critiques. The post-modern critiquesof Enlightenmentrationalismand historical grand narratives. the thesis is infusedwith utopianEnlightenment millennialism not correct.but ratheras evidential modernity As of century. moresubdued. of andteleological The view thatmodern philosophies historyas progressive have a Judeo-Christian rationalistbeliefs in progress well as Enlightenment has formsof Biblicalmillennialism. we enterthe 21St 2 The concept of century as a one hundred year calendar unit emerged first around 1300 and became firmlyestablished in its secularusageonly in the 16th century. was the peculiarcombination millennialism in and almostantithetical character with traditions twoold separate utopianism. even blase. a practice which became increasinglywidespreadand globalized in the next three centuries (Schwartz1990.2It is of coursetoo earlyto tell. suasivelyand systematically KarlLowith's in The rebuttal HansBlumenberg's Legitimacy theModem founda forceful Age. we may be witnessingthe end of post-millennialism so much due millennialism to further becauseof the declineof Christian secularization.and taken for fromboth. of unaware the heatedGermandebate.TheodoreOlson (1982) offereda conbelief in progress. the andfuture historians analyzing spiritof ourown agemayor maynot confirm it. through the Renaissance.OF 418 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION has Despiteall the millennialmediahype.the attitude been much preparations.than a centuryago.as well as the post-colonial deconstructionsof Western shouldbe viewednot so muchas the cause. . but it is my impressionthat we may be witnessing the end of postof millennialism a progressive as philosophy history. of the roots.perhapsmost perin The thesis Meaningin History.

Year of of withthe dearth anykindof forecasting the 21st of not daring century. may failed electoral to b) Thinkof how the Clinton-Gore slogan"abridge the 21stcentury" as We can onlythinkof the nextcentury moreof the same to catchthe popular imagination. The end of post-millennialism we'veknownit. Our utopianvision deadened. we neitherby progressive and not as something new. Francis thesismaybe rightafterall.fromRestifde la Bretonne's 1789playTheYear KahnandAnthonyJ. as does not necesmeanthe end of Christian millennialism. and therefore are possessed radically fevernorbyexistential angst. looklike. forecasting. 1999.Paradoxically. CatholicChurch. is 4) Equallystrikingand even paradoxical the fact that the least millennialist all Christian of the had denominations. 22nd.(as much as this may be indeed a prodigious historicalachievement). and drivenprocess.progressive.and futuristicscientificworks on 2000 to Herman centered the year2000. vitalityof traditional Protestant pre-millennialismand the enduring fast growth of the most millennialist Christian of denominations Mormons. as Christian well as non-Christian.Weber 1999). GLOBALIZATION419 no longer taken for grantedas a meaningful. collapse of utopian and visionsis happening a timeof accelerating at technological scientificrevolutions at the veryinception a newglobalage. . MILLENNIUM.notwithstanding fact that it in and happened the midstof the millennium is certainto haverevolutionary consequences for humanlife on earth. the greatest millennialcelebrationand prepared the coming of the millenniumwith for almostmillenarian The traditional of amillennialism the Roman anticipation. the surprising Thus. One only needsdirectaccessto the Gospels Baumgartner unmediated historicaltraditions unencumbered churchdoctrinesto and by by findtherethe paradigmatic modelof a successful millenarian cult.becausehistoryhas reachedits immanenttelos with the not. but (1992) "endof history" Fukuyama's as he implies. The moderninterpretive of Jesus the as understanding charismaticleaderof an eschatologicalcult helps to explain the perennial presence of millenariansects in the history of Christianity(Cohn 1970.but ratherbecauseof the collapseof the utopianism of the whichhad sustained modernconceptions history. however. of and of vision: threesymbolic illustrations ourflattened Just utopian a) Contrastthe long-list of utopian. realizationof the Hegelian dialectic of masterand slave throughthe final triumphof liberaldemocracy. is the crisis On it sarily of utopianism of the imminentprogressive and of historyit entailed philosophy that opensthe wayfor the unexpectedrevivalof transcendent millennialisms. c) Consider the perplexing lack of excitement generated by the news of the achievement the human of the extraordinary genome project. Wiener's1967exercisein social-scientific The 2000. Jehovah's SeventhDayAdventists.we've learnedto take the most scientific technological and in astounding breakthroughsstride.teleological. worldview hasbeenso uncontested almost a that for immanently threecenturies even the unequaled andthe unprecethat historical catastrophes dentedinhuman barbarisms the 20thcentury of couldat firstnot makea dent on it. and Witnesses. to speak anybody the to imagine whatthe next century. the contrary.science-fiction.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION.

In its temporaldimension. Thereafter. By the end of the 15th century the custom of celebrating a . This general Catholic reorientation was reinforced and shaped in a particular direction by the personal millennialism of the present Pope John Paul II.The reaction of the Donatistswas fraughtwith equally fatefulprecedents.3 St. he and many Catholics interpretedas a clear sign of divine grace and as confirmationof his papal mission. the Kingdom of God was both otherworldlyand eternal and thus unrelated to the saeculum. This innerworldlyhistoricist reorientation has led Catholicism to embrace a progressiveview of history to such an extent that Catholicism may be today the most post-millennialist of all major Christian denominations. the modern secular age and the modern secularworld. It marked. as an institution claiming the monopoly of the means of grace over a territory."and against the Pope and Roman church."In its spatial dimension this processof internalsecularizationentails an innerworldlyreorientation. when Pope Boniface VIII issuedthe bull Antiquorum. to The Vatican aggiornamento of the 60s altered radically the traditional Catholic position by embracing the saeculum. "the whore of Babylon.The very fact that he was alive to celebrate the special Jubilee year 2000. even before his baptism.frequently through self-immolationby fire. who despite his advanced age and fragile health devoted himself with amazing vigor to the year-long millennial celebrations. Considering that traditional Catholicism had been characterizedby a negative philosophy of history which viewed the modern age as a concatenation of relatedheresies from Protestantismto atheist communism. Jerome set the basisfor Catholic amillennialismby deridingthe idea of a thousandyearsearthly kingdom of God as a fable and St. It was the first time that state authority was used to repressa dissenting movement within Christianity. The more Roman the Christian church became. It was consolidated in the fourth century in its conflict with the North African millennialist Donatist sect. From now on. Augustine gave it the standard definitive form."establishing images which have endured with every millennialist sect until the present.420 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Catholic Church is well known.the Catholic Church rejected the vision of a Kingdomof God on earth as well as the idle numerical millennial calculations. and redirectedthe apocalyptic invectives of the Book of Revelation against the firstChristianemperor. 4 The Catholic traditionof Jubileeyearsgoes back to 1300AD. the secularworldand the secularage.therefore. and thus the church'sobligation to discernprophetically"the signs of the times. used the repressive power of the state to enforce church unity. the first celebration of the end of a Christian century.They embracedmartyrdom proudly.granting indulgences to those who visited the main Roman basilicas during the year in commemorationof the century past and in celebration of the new age to come. the reversalis quite remarkable. In other words. the more it had to shed its millennialism and the antiimperialanti-Romanvitriolic of the Apocalypse.4 3 EmperorConstantine. he carefully prepared and anxiously anticipated for years. thus setting a fateful precedentof state repressionagainst millennial groupsand establishingthe model of church in the Weberian sense. the legitimacy of the modern age entails the acceptance of the principle of historicity. the continuous revelation of God's plans of salvation in and through history. action on behalf of peace and justice and participationin the transformationof the world will become not an added but a constitutive dimension of the church'sdivine mission. that is."the Antichrist.

& 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS:RELIGION. celebrations the millennium Polishstatehood of of failedmiserably. for around traditional the Marian devotionto OurLady Czestochowa. 26 years.and culminating the visit of the recentlyelected Polish pope.changeof heart. beganwiththe rededication of It of the nationto the "Queen Poland" 1956. yokeand to further dialogue and Luther's jubileeevery25 yearswaswell established despite of the trade. leading up to the celebrationof the ninth every single in in of of centenary the martyrdom SaintStanislaw 1979. This celebration constituted a turning point in the protractedbattle between the Catholic Church and the Communistregimeover the mindsof the Polish of effervescent celebration servedas the culmination a plan people.The massive devisedand implemented Cardinal his release fromprison.and as the firstSlavic pope in history.with moremixedresults.Furthermore. formof revivalism often linkedto a call for this is actionwhichhas not merely conservative traditionalist or As implications. We couldcall it Durkheimian with millennialism. altogedispensationalist therdifferent numerical calendar oriented the commemoration to calculations of past events. competing This triumphwas cappedby the annualprocession the BlackMadonna of to town in Poland. by Wyszyrisky upon to keepthe churchandthe nationmobilized.and it demandsfrombelieversthe appropriate as penance. ratherthan futureones. GLOBALIZATION 421 Butfor Karol of Wojtyfithe modelfor the Jubilee2000 wasthe experience the celebrationof the millenniumof Polish Christianityin 1966.it can also prepare groundfor radicalsocial clearly transformation.It also linkssacred historyandsecular historyin an intricate way. the rise of Solidarityone year after the completion of the Marianprogram of mobilization the indicates.The crescendoof the unanticipated collective effervescence was palpable to participantsand observersalike (Casanova 1994). practice critique the indulgences continued albeitwith muchdiminished until its recentrevival vigorous and reaffirmation popular support by thepresent pope.MILLENNIUM. John Paul II has tried to recreatethis millennial revivalism within the entireCatholicChurch. Inspiredby the Polish revivalistexperienceand imbuedwith a powerful sense of divine mission.followed the yearly in of vowsof the by Great Novena culminatingin the 1966 millenniumcelebrationsof Polish The attemptof the regimeto upstagethe churchby organizing Christianity. It shouldbe clearthatthis is a verydifferent kindof millennialism the than one. he felt a special mission to liberate the Slavic peoples from the communist ecumenical with the Eastern churches. . the As firstnon-Italianpope in almostfive centuries.and commitment conditionfor the successof the divine plans.it scrutinizesthe "signsof the times" in order to divine propheticallyGod's attitudeof redemptive plans. It certainlyillustratesin paradigmatic fashionthe powerof religiousbeliefsand ritualsto servethe causeof social the of of integration re-creating bondsof solidarity the imagined by community the nation.

old philosophy history. only to findout thatWesternmaterial materialistvalues were flooding the Easternspiritualreservoir. imageof a yearzerois not so far-fetched one no its name. For the first time in historyhumanityshared virtualgatheringof humanity. as the firstyearof ourtrulycommonera.absolutely celebration that the millennium considers had.Indeed.now redefined the as The fall of the BerlinWall confirmed of Christian reunification spiritual and Buthis visionhad regeneration Europe. historicalor mythical. to he Frustrated.What madethe event something as specialand differentfromother televisedspectacleswith perhaps largean built into it and shared the audiencewasthe reciprocal by reflexivity virtually in active participants.One could say that with globalization spatial of has metaphor metaphor come to replacethe dominanttemporal-historical modernity.Humanity.Only now in the age of globalization we sense. makingthem reflexivelyawareof partaking the same commonglobal humancelebration. urging of reservoir" Christian goodsand Europe.Both are conceivedsimilarly .that he came to perceiveas increasinglypagan. turnedto EasternEurope. con-celebrants The werenot commemorating common temporal in historyor some commonpast event. particularly CatholicPoland. the virtually sametime andthe samespace.to the commonpresentsharedby global was and The referent the symbolism primarily spatial.I am even to a to proposethat ASR sponsors resolutionaddressed humanitysuggoing andresetY2Kas YOac.Globalizationis the new philosophyof space that has come to as of the replaceprogress.mostreligious the worldmayhave purposefully stayedawayfromit. the or the 24 time-zones spaces. despite some referent.The simultaneous the globemadethem into around castingof the 24 hour-long partycelebrations morethan a globalpartyhypedby the media.the globeand humanity. goal 5) The fifth strikingthing. redateall ourcalendars globally gestingthat we humans that is.If there was any temporal referentit was solely to the present. this are has no commonhistory. as the firstcollectivecelebratory perspective. if the Now a bit moreseriously.422 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION him in his mission.is that it was the first commoncollective globalcelebroadand reciprocal brationin the historyof humanity. celebration the secondmillennium becamenowa millenarian in itself. Yet froma Durkheimian it maybe viewedas a sacred event. now focusingnarrowly upon the Y2K'sNew Eve Year's celebration.it was a secularparty or devoidof religious peoplearound symbolism meaning. WesternEurope. hedonist and unresponsiveto his revivalist message. of materialist to confrontthe presence a stubbornly capitalist the traditionalcore of Western Christendom.Strictly speaking.The failed assassination attemptand the recoverywhich he attributedto a miraculous him in his millennialvision and mission.Indeed.tonguein cheek.now Marianintercession confirmed messianism Marian and withthe withsuffering connected tinged apocalypticism The of thirdsecretof Fatima.still them to serve as the "spiritual untouchedby capitalistmaterialism. the writingand constructing first worldhistories.

process * Historically. breakswith the grandnarratives and globalization of the philosophies history. this sense. a new continuous.undermines hegemonic projectof Westernuniversalization.all embedded withina system of society. moral political. territorially governed the principle by undivided exclusive and Globalization limitsandrelativizes sovereignty. in the same way as history also happens in space. is with the capitalist globalization a processcontinuouswith modernity. but its primary reference is not temporal but spatial. GLOBALIZATION423 RELIGION. andpost-Western. anddecenters worldsystem. I am not going to touch upon the kind of issues which have been the . as a result. I am not going to try to discuss the different ways in which globalization may affect religion or vice versa. For instance. it freescapitalism capitalist fromits territorial-juridical in embeddedness stateandnationaleconomies. therefore and fostersits further as well as qualitatively. GLOBALIZATION? So what do we mean by globalization and how does it affect religion? Obviously.globalization post-modem. globalization is also a temporal-historical process in so far as it happens in historical time. state sovereignty. quantitatively by extrinsic or cultural. while haveentered qualitatively phase. immanently driven. I can only select arbitrarily a few entry points in the hope that they may illuminate some areas of the complex and fluid field. freescapitalist market civil societyfromits territorial-juridical and in embeddedness state and nation. andnation. but has no intrinsic spatial referent. Globalizationand Religion Now let's bring religion back in! Obviously. unencumbered development. answer. principles. the In is post-colonial.dissolvesthe particular fusionof nation and state which out and at emerged of Westernmodernity becameinstitutionalized worldwide. meaningful. I will begin with a series of general statements about globalization. * Globalization alsocontinuous is withthe world of that system states. Only then can they become "projects.politicalsocietyor bodyof citizens.and. * Globalization surely is continuous withthe world but system. I cannot try to offer a systematic. and forward advancing processes. upon which I cannot elaborate further thus they will have to be taken at face value: * Globalization not a historical is can whoseorigins be dated. end of nationsand nationalism. system.but it altersradically the whichwereclustered withinthe nation-state: system dissociating elements by together administrative territorial market civil state. leastas a afterthe French Revolution. it meansthe end of their fusionin the sovereign but territorialnation-state. Both processes just happen before humans become reflexively aware of them and of their own actions' complicity in bringing them about. teleological. withthe world * Globalization servesas an analyticalcategoryto indicatethat these processes. much less a comprehensive." Of course. economy.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: MILLENNIUM. Globalization not meanthe end of statesor the does model. world and of system states. * While continuouswith modernity.

I'vealways been.overthe meansof violencein the caseof the state(Weber1978:54and each 56). Both are defined by the same dual principleof and claims. Catholicism fromtwo contemporary formsof globalreligion: some illustrations andPentecostalism. the human . since I couldonly rehashtheirarguments less eloquentform andChirico1985.Beyer1994). of between church and state. the Historically formationof the modernEuropean which later gained worldwide expansion. according the principle controlof the absolutist fell nationalchurches underthe caesaropapist territorial fusionwasalready state.overthe meansof salvationin the caseof territoriality monopolistic the church.This modelof church-state challenged the liberalby of furtherby processes globalization. Think of state in Confucianism China. offer processes globalization.state. Bothareeithermutually enforcing legitimating other's dependent. followingWeber. i.Simpson1996.Nor does everycommunity functionas a religionof salvationfromsicksalvationofferingthe individual individual individual qua ness. state and is now undermined democratic claimsof churches introducing the statechallenged monopolistic The liberal by and freedomor expedient constitutional either principled separation religious the religioustoleration..or most caesaro-papist imperial cults. Shintoismin Japan.As I've written elsewhere fusionof two types historical the 1994:45-48). nation and civil societybroughtabout by I'll of After reviewingthese changesanalytically. and from all sorts of distress and danger. the systemof states. or mutuallyexclusive and antagonistic. or cultsin America primarily religions cult individual salvation. plays the Durkheimian of as whichfunction sects denominations.e. claims.424 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION analyticalfocusof our dean of globalization theoryRolandRobertson(1992) in and associates.I am particularly as interested. we should distinguishanalytically:the as functions Not cult religion religions. argumentation in reviewing froma long-term historical the changesin the patterns perspective of relationsbetweenchurch. everysalvation community andsalvation or is coextensivewith a territorial a community cult. the earlyabsolutist the triedto reproduce modelof Christendom state and churchin Europe every whichdefactomeantthat all the eius cuius to regio religio. and Church State thereis an intrinsicrelation As the Weberian definitions both indicates. poverty.Following line of the (Robertson initiatedabove. politicalcommunity Think of the many function of societal integration.and the postWestphaliansystem were churches into Christendom competing of dissolution Western Reformation In conditioned and interrelated reciprocally phase processes..Globalizationfurthersthis processby undermining and levels. churchis a particular (Casanova of religion which. jurisdiction.The universalization globalization at of territoriality various principle their of humanrightsdeterritorializes state-based i.e.

convincedthat church andChristianity dead.was by in mostpronounced Protestant also but countries. Again. SecondRome. New Israel.andfreedom conscienceis the most personis the carrier inalienable sacredof thesepersonal The worldsystemof statesand its supranational rights.MILLENNIUM.Jules century the Michelet.and based civil society.as shown by the Gallicanization the French of CatholicChurchandby the Russification the Orthodox of ChurchunderPeter the Great.anticipating samecombination findsin 19th secular nationalism.he decidedthat France to takethe placeof God were had "whom miss" thathis belovedcountry to fill the "incommensurable we and had 1999:114). and The archetypical England. globalization also underminesthe model of territorially national religionor culture. became generalized in Catholic and Orthodoxcountries. state similar . churchandstate.At the very least.ADDRESS:RELIGION.5 myth servesto link togethersacredland.By undermining territorially-based of state. The new state churchesfunctionedas community cults of the absolutiststate and as national religiouscommunitiesintegrated the by nationalvernaculars whichweregradually transformed high literinto emerging of ary languages the printing by press.exemplified the Anglicanization the Churchof England.and the chosenpeople. Portugal. following Anderson (1991:12). sacred the one history. modern nationalism to be understood as a formof "self-consciously has not held 5 The mythof Moscow the ThirdRome. and as Communities Church Nation Imagined nationhas to be As Benedict Anderson (1991) has pointedout. into andterrilanguage pluralized.are to be by found throughout 16th century Europe: in Spain.The great French nationalist historian.Thus spoke abyssleft by an extinguished Christianity"(Bernstein MicheletbeforeZarathustra.afterthe Fallof Constantinople. France. we can say that globalization definitionof both. Durkheim's secularrepublicanism equallyselfis conscious of filling the same void. medievalChristendom. the fusion nation. old transnational the sacredcommunity integrated by Latinas a sacred wastransformed fragmented.andsacred people. the modern as understood the combinedsuccessorof the dynasticmonarchy political as dissolutionof With the systemand of the churchas a religiouscommunity.outmoded increasingly and makesWeber's irrelevant.market.was consciousof recreating myth when.first the archetypes used probably Savanarola 15thcenturyrepublican in Florence.Similarversions the samenationalmillennial of myth. and the rulesand institutions limitstateterritorial sovereignty undermine tradiin tional etatist principleof non-externalinterference the internalaffairsof states.playsa as the in function 16thcentury Russian nationalism.The processof nationalization the state of churches.usingbiblical of the New Jerusalem.& GLOBALIZATION 2000 PRESIDENTIAL 425 of of rights. torialized churches.

After all. Europesimply high Monopolisticsituationsin Polandand Irelandare linked to persistently elseand liberalization state deregulation while increasing levels of religiosity.Finke 1997).426 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION but formof the religiousculturalsystems.Low levels of of by ought to be explained.seem unable to gener- ate or mobilizegreaterreligiousdemand.internalcomparative does not supportthe basic tenets of the Americantheory. America. becauseI am caughtin the middleurgingboth sidesto take in moreseriously orderto learnfromthe validpointsand each other's arguments the blind spots in both positions(Casanova1994).The orthodox model worksrelatively well for Europebut not for The worksfor the U. religion and globalization. competitive." on Excursus Secularization It should be evident.Starkand lannaccone1994. why religious suppliers. open. The traditional European whichpostulates structural betweensocialdiffera link theoryof secularization. but not for Europe. is unableor unwilling takeseriously.The notion of a constantreligious demand of a constantdemand supernatural or for is acompensators a-historical. that therein lies the key to the radical secularization Christian of I Do Europe.and high levels of individualreligiosity. sociological. and facts. What Stephen turnsthe orthodoxmodelof secularization American "theemerging paradigm" on its head and uses the Americanevidenceto postulatean equallystructural an betweendisestablishment. But allow me a briefexcursuswhich is relatedto our topic at hand. the surprisingvitality and extreme pluralismof denominationalforms of of salvation the secularization notwithstanding pronounced religionin America. and even moreso. but for what in to We an happens religionin the restof-theworld. I hope. flies in the faceof European .accordingly. But as Steve evidencewithin Bruce(2000) has shownconvincingly. the persistence religiosityin Europe or oligopolistic or eitherestablishment of highlyregulated religious monopolistic markets (Caplow1985. a entiationand religious accountof European decline.the Americanparadigm individual sidetheoryof religionneedsto explainwhythereis no greater supply in salvationin Europe the face of open free markets demandfor religious and.offers relatively plausible but to muchless to explain developments. the whereareoften accompanied persistent by impasse. the relative validity of the two theorieswill be measured not eventually by how muchthey areableto account for what happensto religion in Europeor the United States. political ideology. free. there have been plentyof religious entrepreneurswho have failed lately in Western Europe. not worry! am not goingto rehashthe fruitless secularization debatebetweenEuropeans Americans overagain and all (Bruce 1992). have reached impasse the debate. Warner(1993) has called state and society (Casanova2001).S." as a secularized "outof whichas wellas against which.Thus.I say we. ratesof religious decline.it cameinto being.and pluralrelationship istic religiousmarket.

and with this we arebackto our topic.we cannot skip the Weberianquestion. Once the Catholic Churchceasedbeing the community cult of Quebec. Why does religiontoday in remain"implicit" insteadof takingmoreexplicit institutional If forms? Europe we wantto answer question the the lackof appealof religions individual of why salvationin Europe. or sense. from The what. MILLENNIUM.as monopolistic Ireland Polandillustrate case of churches and the which werestrictlyspeaking not monopolisticallyestablished.Elsewhere Europe. The issueof greater lessermonopolyis relevantbut not the mostcrucialone. we simplymust think of religionsmoreas cultural and markets. theywill makemoresense will but of complexhistorical realities will leadto greater and understanding. contrast.andhave maintained salvation.why individuals Europe. hard to imaginein other commodities' markets.let psychologists and economistsaddressthis question.in the Weberiansense. as collectiverepresentations the imagined in the processtheirabilityto functionas religions individual of salvation.as collectiverepresentations imagined of than communities.but ratherthe changingcharacter their of cultural manifestations across societies through and history. secular nation-state theirtraditional historical functionas community cults. evidentonly a decadebefore. havingapparently also the needfor individual so We salvation.that of nationalcommunities.Fora vividillustration. why churchesand ecclesiastical institutions.and for what?" interesting sociological question. Imagined Religions. the in once they lose faith in their national churches.the one we sociolois gists of religion should be addressing. religious couldrephrase questionand ask. ourtheories be lesselegantandlessscientific.do not bother to look for.in the Durkheimian senseof the term. GLOBALIZATION427 and Communities. They will also be less-UScentric. you do not think that this is strictlyspeakinga European problem."salvation. to think of them. systems less as religious Surely. it maybe morehelpfulto think of churches.think of and Quebec.churches individual salvation closerto homeso that (Davie2000). in once the secular nationtakesover by theirfunctionas community tend also to declineas religions of cults. yet continued to functionas community cults of the nation in the absenceof a secularnationtheirabilityto functionalsoas religions individual of state.so similarto Polandand Ireland otherwise. lost also is. in Weber's salvationinstitutions firms. not whetherreligiousand salvation needs remainuniversally constantacrosstime and space.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION. Globalization If we want to make sense of religion today not only in Europebut the throughout world. In or this context.people ceased for lost goingto churchandstopped looking alternatives. The trulypuzzling in Europe. we need to one question is once they cededto the address. . or actuallylook salvation Such a kindof brandloyaltyis disdainfully uponalternative religions. the suddencollapseof Catholicismthere with the rise of Quebequois secularnationalism.

has historical meaning. Spain. samehappened religious and civilizations worldreligions.in the samesenseas everything in time.to systems.as "anareaassigned jurisdiction" fora special purpose. civil But the samehappenedto peoples.all becameterritorially of of instance. as an imagined muchan imagined moreover. waters.Schiller.for society.sciences.is as are Territories imagined spaces. as "thedomain in this first.cultures. within the nation-state. largeportions the seas.. universal everybody. cultural indeed.and Every havebeenparceled territorial of out.markets. The mentalmappings. entireworldunderform wenta particular of territorialization.e. territorial stato nulla personais a version of the church principle extraecclesianulla salus.a countrywherethe threeAbrahamic religions . Civilizations." of and of With the triumph European system statesit modernity of the world the carried with its globalcolonialexpansioneverywhere.theybecame of The expulsion Jewsand MoorsfromSpain.becameterritorialized throughthe universalization the principle 1992 ). By term. tories.second.Everything the is worldis in space. territory.was exclusionoutside. community.religions.and Blanc 1994). and have a proprietary purposeful over definedterritory. territorialization of viewedas the starting process universal point of the modern and was certainlythe first instanceof modernethnic cleansing. spatialphenomena in the strictsenseof the I alsodo not meansimply ecology territory.includingreligious ones? I would suggest that one of its most importanteffects is their "deI territorialization" (Basch. after the FrenchRevolution(Brubaker citizenship and withina territory of inclusion is citizenship basedon the principle universal or individual group.was required preciselybecauseJews and Muslimscould not become subjectsof the new Catholicnationalstate.whichmaybe nationalchurches.428 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION and CivilSociety Territorialization. writing address the mountains state exercises whicha sovereign and. territory I The dictionary was usingwhile character.Cultural historyhave been territorially systemsthroughout in do not meansimplythat culturalphenomenaare in space. i. space. are only whenthey becomepartof meaningful phenomena historical in whenthey areembedded a becomemeaningful Similarly. and to The forcedto becomepartof a state territory.for instance. nation. statesand nationalchurches. Global So how does globalization affect all culturalsystems. Butnot everything that happens in time is historical. As an institution. as the relationsbetween organismsand their physicalenvironments. was The point I am tryingto make is that this logic of territorialization into and initiatedby the dissolutionof WesternChristendom its pluralization Extra Outsidethe state.Temporal narratives.no legalperson.everypieceof land. and territorialized appropriated. of members state or Before peoplebecamesubjects citizensof states. embedded People.the so-called of within the fixed boundaries nations-states. Territories.Consequently. By de-territorialization terriof mean the disembeddedness culturalphenomenafromtheir "natural" I embedded.

Islamwas the last to be forced into the of straight-jacket sovereignterritorialstates (Piscatori 1986). into WesternChristendom the first civilizationto be territorialized was nation-states. Whensociologists talkedof societies. and civilizations. Doctors WithoutBorders) a of feminism.commodities firms. Jewish.at least for social appeared of scientists.Glocalization also be interpreted a dimensionof can as what I call de-territorialization. world The are state.Butglobalization beginning loosenup the straight to is jacket of the sovereign evermoreporous. Civilizations to have lost their relevanceas units of analysis. globalhumanity for and unit.its boundaries becoming and but systemof statesis not disappearing.communities or and imagined.Globalmarkets. becomesa self-reflexive self-referential and Consequently. and regional Local real spaces. Otherswouldfollow.Rajaee Glocalization. Christians. and and Counter-Reformation dividedup Europe had into Protestant Catholic territories.The solid territorial underthe sovereign of the state is dissolving into more jurisdiction phenomena fluidconditions.refersto the simultaneousreassertion and plex processes of relevance the localandthe globaloverthe national. the of mediaand information subcultures identities(youth.& 2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: MILLENNIUM.as to the mental mapsof even beforeReformation became now exclusively Catholicterritory.Christian. GLOBALIZATION429 RELIGION. statesare becomingless undivided exclusive sovereignterritorialdomainsand more regulatory administrative territorial networks interlinked and overlapping with wider networks of embeddedness all social (Guehenno1995. The local gains a territoryof its own independentfrom the nation.as central to the mental mapsof Jews and Muslims.Shaw 1997).The national increasing is fragmented within into smaller units without particularistic and transcended into ever larger units.had coexisted for centuries. civil society. traversing The globe itselfbecomesthe physical withinwhich spaceand mentalterritory the nation-stateitself and everythingembedded within its territory becomes circumscribed.subcultures ethnic groupsall gain spatialautonomy fromthe state-national territories withinwhichthey have been embedded and circumscribed. (Beck2000. social movementsand public spheresare not only those boundaries also overlapping but nationalterritransgressing increasingly toriesandthusbecoming transnational 2000).identities.another of these awful neologisms we social scientists termsto characterize com1992)like to useas shorthand (Robertson analytical and phenomena. indigenouspeople). they meantas a matter course nationalsocieties. all proliferateand become increasinglymore relevant global national borders transcending and nationalterritories (Castells1997).informaand tion systemsand media.the reflexive pointof reference all societiesandpeoples(Robertson Chirico1985).Peoplesand their identities.Muslim. global movementsand organizations (Amnesty Internationalandhumanrights. Greenpeace. and global global systems.I do not need to emphasize relevance the global. But humanity itselfcan hardlybecomean identitygroupor an .

regain religions freethemselves and rolesin the globalcenterstage. (1996) thesis "the clash of civilizations.organizations.one worldsociety.430 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION Individual collectiveidentitiesarenecessarily and imagined plural." What none of the couldhave anticipated was and Enlightenment prophets positivistsociologists weregoingto gainnew life the that. dimensions theirleading theirtransnational Globalizationalso representsa great threat insofar as it implies the deto threatens dissolvethe of Globalization territorialization all cultural systems.overlappingand at times in competition with the imagined Nationswill continueto be. sacred andsacred link intrinsic betweensacred time.most frequently its "essenvision(Huntington West-centric and tialism" for its undiluted 1996. of None of you. in Durkheim's religions. expectsthe formation one singleglobalreligion.a transnational community. mostrelevant imagined Thereinlies the meritof Samuel and againthe old civilizations worldreligions. Comte. one single global netGlobalcivil society is a transnational space. that work of associations. forthe foreseeable nationalcommunities. imagined future. wrongis in units akin to nationof civilizations territorial as his geo-politicalconception which leadshim to anticipatefutureglobal conflicts states and superpowers. that. community. I suppose.whereHuntington particularly Riesebrodt 2000). hegemonic is But in my view. particularly While new transnational ones. its sacralization. unlikely to be one world government. old godsandthe old religions of of the of becoming carriers the process sacralization humanity. fault lines.But they werewrongin the of wouldsooneror laterreplace old that assuming the new religion humanity "theold godswere theocentric (1965:475)words. The analysismissesthe fact that globalization civilizational along not only a great opportunityfor the old civilizationsand world represents to fromthe straight to jacketof the nation-state.The increasing for thesis has been widely and rightlycriticized. of of singularity.but local and transnational identities. it is not itselfa territorially organized societyor domain.movements. The triumphand the global has expansionof human rightsdoctrinesand movementsat the end of the 20th centuryseemsto confirmat leastpartof their visions. Saint-Simon. The religion of humanity. and communications the but transcends territorial nation-state. by Globalizationfacilitates the return of the old civilizations and world and cultural but systems as religionsnot only as units of analysis as significant communities.relevant imaginedcommunitiesand carriersof collective identities reliwithinthis globalspace. and awareof theirown particularity they need an other to becomereflexively muchless its telos.paradoxically. is The end-result the process globalization. space peoplecommonto all . and the cult of the individual fathersof sociology."in recognizingthe Huntington's for and of relevance cultural systems civilizations worldpolitics. dying while the new ones had not yet been born. gious ones arelikelyto be once the will communities emerge. are likelyto becomeevermoreprominent.by announced the founding by by by Durkheim indeedarrived(Casanova2000).

mostof the transnational dimensions of sovereign MedievalCatholicismrecededor disappeared It is not surprising altogether. by lost to Catholic Papacy controlof the nationalCatholicchurches caesaro-papist monarchs Concordats it itselfbecameterritorialized the Papal and into through States.1997).In this respect. Fromnow on. rather two versions Christianity: of or of Catholicism Pentecostalism. of The papacyof BenedictXV marksanother milestone in the processof of for Electedshortlyafterthe outbreak globalization Catholicism two reasons. the over 1870 represents original the milestonein the modern of of process globalization Catholicism. MILLENNIUM. its Catholic. Holy.that allowedthe Papacy to be reconstituted anew as the hegemoniccenter of a much revivedtransnationalreligious In regime.whileCatholicmonarchs statestriedto preserve theirold claims statesupremacy.One by one.and ApostolicChristianChurch.the verysameyearthatthe PapalStateswere the FirstVaticanCouncilproclaimed dogmaof papalinfallibility the lost. reducedto being just another marginaland increasinglyirrelevant territorial state.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & RELIGION. condemned of he the senselessslaughter the generalchauvinistfrenzy. me offerbrief Let peoplesand territories of illustrations someof thesethreats opportunities a summary very and from and selectivereviewof two worldreligions.and with it the seeminglyessentialbondsbetweenhistories. and reaffirmed papalsupremacy the entireCatholicchurch. of WorldWarI. of poration the PapalStatesinto the new Italianstate. philosophy history(Casanova it was the loss of territorial state sovereigntywith the incorIronically. which have definedall civilizations. throughthe controlof the nominationof bishops the papacy will progressively gaincontrolover the nationalCatholicchurches. GLOBALIZATION431 worldreligions.and supported organization a Leagueof Nations. and Transnational Catholicism Of all the worldreligionsnone wasas threatenedat its core by the emerworldsystemof sovereignterritorial statesas the Roman gence of the modern church. This processwasfacilitated the expansionof the liberalsecularstate which by etatist claimsto controlthe nationalchurches. gave up the old caesaro-papist Not surprisingly.Catholic lost its originalconnotation of universality became and term the simplya denominational distinguishing RomanchurchfromotherChristian denominations. non-Catholicliberalstates werethe firstones to acceptthe transnational and papalclaims. dissolution Wester The of Christendomundermined role of the Papacyas the spiritualhead of a the universalChristianmonarchy The represented the Holy RomanEmpire. 1870. thereforethat the Catholic church remainedfor centuriesadamantlyantimodern developed negative and a of 1996.workedtireand bitterly the of lessly for peace negotiations. which wouldmediatenationalconflictsand establishthe conditions . The Protestant Reformation undermined claimsto be the One. the firstgeneralconflagration nation-states.

Until then the Catholic churchhad conof modern PopePiusVI in his 1791 conceptions humanrights. papalintervention darity. popeshave been consistent recognition. yet majority. even European one-tenthof fromthe United Statescomprised already thoughthe 49 prelates the gathered bishops. sistentlyopposed the of had condemned Declaration the Rightsof BriefCaritas adamantly papal that the rightsto freedomof Man by the FrenchNationalAssembly. proved marks reinsertion the the however. the Jesuits.it was underBenedictXV'spapacy promotethe recruitmentof indigenousclergy and the formationof native coloniallegacyandpreparing with the European Catholichierarchies.and the point of departure its and international the Thereafter.arguing .whichlimitabsolutist the disputes. Europeans longer formed a was The with over 200 bishops the secondlargest. by contrast.The had territories of modern beyondits traditional European expansion Catholicism been connected until the mid-nineteenthcenturywith the global European colonial expansion.not only becauseof the convocationof the Second Vatican it Council and the processof aggiomamento instituted.Despiteits failure. was the first truly global ecumenical council in the history of Christianity.Catholicpriests enthusiastically patriotic everywhere calls to arms. of the papacy in internationalaffairs. delegation smallerthan the combined228 indigenousAsian and Africanbishops. breaking of the groundfor the moderninternationalization the Catholic church.The 2500 Fathers in no attendance came from all over the world.had expanded a had overseas Catholicism been primarily transplanted 20th century.and represent interestsof the entire familyof nations (Hanson 1987).Even its missionary efforts.but because of the of the modern discourseof human rights in his definitive incorporation encyclical Pacemin Terris(1963). until the Catholics.the renewalof its historical role as of mediator courtof appeals.The fromthe the of numbers represent notabledisplacement the Catholicpopulation WorldandfromNorthto South. Vatican II. the answered on deafears.S.fromthe World Court to the international statesovereignty.432 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION fell The pope'sintervention on for a justpeace.Vatican I still had been a predominantly council.Even transnational orders. that the Vaticanbeganto In addition.with the exception of indenational been led and controlledby European pendentJesuitinitiatives. arbitrate United Nations. U.had of The massiveimmigration IrishCatholicsto the United Statesand churches.who had been expelled from their home to die fortheircountries(Holmes laws countries anti-clerical returned by solithanhumanor Christian muchstronger Nationalsolidarity 1981).followedby the generalimmigration other European But the CatholicpresencebeyondEurope.not one imposed the defeated. Old to the New The papacy of John XXIII marks another milestone in Catholic globalization.includingthe most transreligious national and papal of them. European institution. of other Britishcolonies. growinginternational advocatesof world-wideinternationalbodies.

The College of Cardinalsthat elected the first non-Italian pope in fourcenturies alreadyhad a much more global representation:27 Italians. 13 Asians.The Catholicchurchhas embraced its globalization.Thereafter. 19 Latin Americans.moreover. humansociety. He also becamean untiringworld travelerproclaiming the everywhere sacreddignityof the humanperson. the city and to the globe (Weigel 1999).As and of we all know.VaticanCuria. of has John PaulII in particular servedas one of the most effectivespokesof this globalrevolutionand represents definitiveglobalization the of persons the Catholicchurch.6 urbi to Bishopof Rome.The churchat its apex. freedom particularly was odioussince it implied the Religious equating truereligion the falseones.But the embraceis not uncritical. MILLENNIUM.. Dignitatis the changedthe Catholiccourseby recognizing inalienablerightof radically to of it everyindividual freedom conscience. in movements the "third waveof democratization" the mid-70sto the 90s from (Casanova1996.This has had dramatic as evidencedby the global role of the Catholicchurchand Catholic effects. a radialstructure centeredin Rome.more than any other pope in history. The fact that there is even speculationthat the next pope may be African indicateshow farand how fast the church has changed. its The church remained of the publicvoicesleft stillquestioning has one capitalist and demandingthe humanization and moralization market of globalization economies and a more just and fair internationaldivision of labor and distribution worldresources.the role of first citizen of a catholic. In the last decadestherehas been a only remarkable increasein transnational Catholic networks and exchangesof all 6 At the end of World War II two-thirdsof all cardinalswere still Italian.as well as the separation churchandstate.he has assumed eagerlyits roleto speakliterally. makingit partof everypapalencyclicalandof mostepiscopal the world-historical pastorallettersthroughout world.grounding in the sacreddignityof the humanperson. GLOBALIZATION433 on of of religionandfreedom the press. Forty one percent of the 135 cardinals presently eligible to vote for the next pope are from the third world.He wantsto be viewednot justas Holy Father all Catholics as commonfather of but of God's childrenand as self-appointed of humanity. 11 North Americans.e. . et orbi. Indeed.ADDRESS: & 2000PRESIDENTIAL RELIGION. were contraryto the divine principlesof the Church.The papal was the and condemnation reiterated throughout 19thcentury PiusIX included in the principle humanrightsand mostmodern of freedoms the Syllabus (1864) of errors. Freedom.John Paul II himself has now nominated 166 cardinals .12 Africans.Huntington1991).the Catholicchurchhas been at the vanguard the globalhumanrightsrevolution.VaticanII'sDeclaration Religious on Humanae.as defensor spokesman In hominis.Collegeof Cardinals has ceasedto be a predominantly As Roman-Italian institution. of The contemporary of does not have globalization Catholicism. the processthe pope has learnedto playmoreeffectivelythan any competitor.pope. churchhas adopted discourse human the of the rightsas its own. global and universal. 29 other Europeans. i.as well as the Declaration the Equality all Men. welcoming liberation fromthe strait-jacket the territorial of nation-state which sovereign had restricted catholicuniversalclaims.

urgedthem to ceaseviewing and themselvesas nationalCatholicchurches to becomeone single American of Catholic church. nationsandworldregions.whichcrisscross the century one can observe an amazing resurgenceof the throughout of whichforcenturies been had transnational dimensions medieval Catholicism of not and recessiveor dormant: only papalsupremacy the centralization the of as councilsalready church's government. Catholic Francis an Cardinal offered equally andtheMillennium. And amongthe dialogues. confident in its abilityto thrive in a relativelyopen globalsystemof religious Pentecostalismmay serve to illustratethe equally regimes. Let me give two anecdotal of of illustrations the potentialimplications this process. well as the convocation ecumenical movetransnational but mentioned. oftenbypassing kinds. Pentecostalism Global Catholicismillustratesthe opporof The transformation contemporary offersto a transnational tunities which the processof globalization religious with a highly centralizedstructureand an imposingtransnational regime which feels therefore and networkof human." speakingin tongues. The conversation for of mostsignificant the future the human will whatthe globewill looklike but andIslamis not yet faradvanced. north and south. beganprophesying Phrygia. In a lecture at the Library Congressin 2000.institutional materialresources. consecratedOur Lady of and as Guadalupe the Virginof all the Americas. between promises be the betweenChristianity race.. religious religious and and centersof learning intellectual transnational networks. dialogue Inter-religious than is Church-state of basicto the future faith.declaring fromthe Holy Spirit. important to and that Christians Muslims remains. the modemnationstateis relativized nationalsovereignty as evidentthat still into displaced societalarrangements to be invented.it will be increasingly American or to of and faithsarecarriers culture thatit is moresectarian be French. alsotransnational cadres. came that his visions. Pope John Paul II gatheredthe bishops of all the Americas. ments. in the globe wherethe can and which therefore makeitselfat home anywhere moves. thoughthat dialogue. Contemporary offersto a highly decentralized which globalization favorableopportunities and rootsor identity. linksto tradition no territorial with no historical religion. the major is more or Hinduor Buddhist. the "Third Testament. Russian than to be Christian Muslim. Spirit moveChristian sectarian the Since the riseof Montanism.Indeed.434 SOCIOLOGY RELIGION OF Rome. firstPentecostal in ecstasyand whenMontanus in 2ndcentury ment.In his last visit to Mexico in 1999. and international encounters(Casanova centers of pilgrimage transnational 1997).. schools.therefore.. its outcome determine a century from now.the spiritof Pentecosthas movedChristians confirming them in theirfaith that the apostoliccharismatic of revelationis not closed age . global Christianity George vision: is and In the next millennium.

What all the phenomena have in gatheredunderthe termPentecostalism commonis an emphasis the charismatic on of the spirit. Moreover.exorcism. globalChristian of in Pentecostalism Strictly speaking course. and to althoughI am referring primarily Protestant in orderto come to termswith the trulygeneraland Christianity.particularly the Third World. Brazil. Its initial transnational followedat firstalso the typicalevangelical expansion missionary It is revealing. Hunt. taneously typically American and transnationalfrom the start.Indeed. only my ignorance to a followingwith a grainof salt.the categories helpfulto stickto rigorous analytical more I read from what experts in the field have to say.the morecomplicated fieldgets.Westmeier 1999).Joachim Fiore's of age millennialtheologyand the movementit spun is only one of the speculative most famousand intellectualized versions.we mustconsideras well the increasing relevanceof the charismatic renewaltaking place within Catholic and even Eastern Whencharismatic revivalism as reaches farandwideas the Christianity. of globalcharacter the phenomenon." "gifts includingany in combination healing.2000PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: & MILLENNIUM. the "thirdage of the Spirit"is already uponusas we enterthe thirdmillennium. Coptic churchin Ethiopia. things. and that a "third of the Spirit" nearif not already is here. well as an emphasison emotional and experiential expressionsover and against discursive doctrinalones. and all kinds of independent neo-Pentecostal such as the UniversalChurchof mega-churches. syncretistic the Kingdom God in Brazil The Lightof the Worldin Mexico.I mustconfess. is already yet most dynamicand fastestgrowingsectorof Protestant worldwide Christianity of and is likelyto becomethe predominant globalformof Christianity the 21st century. or of the field is so complexand fluidthat I do not think it wouldbe eitherpossibleor fromthe past. Hamilton.and Walker 1997). of and as prophecy. GLOBALIZATION435 RELIGION.it was simulChristianity. Perhaps allows me to make bold generalizations.at least for me (Martin1996. speaking tongues.then we can confidentlysay that the phenomenonis a one. originated the UnitedStatesat the beginningof the centurywith dual roots in transplanted Americanized Methodismand African-American In this respect. possibly linking all the Christian churches (Poewe 1994.Lehmann 1996.and the Orthodox church in Romania. and they say very oftencontradictory the different.Corten 1999.however. In this sense. in fact Pentecostal is the Christianity a 20thcenturyphenomenon.that the two oldest Pentecostal churchesin pattern.the Catholic churchin India. the CongregaiioCristado Brasil (Christian Congregation)and the . take the So.the broadcharismaticrenewallately grippingmuch of EvangelicalChristianity in worldwide.as the attemptof an outsider organize chaotic fieldbybringing ownexternal his prejudgements.One could view such Pentecostal of sectarianmovements prefigurations contemporary as But developments. I am using Pentecostalism here in the widest possiblesense to include Pentecostalchurchesand denominationsin the strictsense of the term.

afterso many misguided one-sidedinterpretations the supposedly radical differences betweenthe two phenomena. even beforeit had taken form.Today. in (over 30 percent). Indeed.therecan be no doubtaboutthe localnature. particularlyBrazil.This is the most importantconsequence of the of LatinAmerica.The proportion Brazilis smallerbut it dwarfs everyother in absolute one LatinAmerican numbers million). a by Christianity de-territorialized takingindigenous Catholic territory. The transnational is of character Brazilian Pentecostalism inscribedin its very beginnings. growth Pentecostalism throughout explosive Latin Americahas ceased being Catholic territory. Yet. widespread the though not uniformexpansion. Latin America. at last.who led a typicalsectarian a church church. thus only a few yearsafterthe firstAmericanPentecostalchurches.It is not anymoreProtestantism Latin America.I do not believe that the often fantasticprojectionsof in rates contemporary of growthof Protestantism LatinAmericainto the future are realisticor sustainable(Martin 1990.It arrivedfromthe United States. in The Assemblyof God. the largestPentecostal church in Braziland probablyin the world.at least until very recentlywith 8 was also approximately millionmembers. Stoll 1990). (Lehmann Be it as it may.as the firstmisleading religious interpretations in authenticLatin Americanproduct.are Latin Americanreligiousresponsesto Latin American conditions. irrespective theirtransnational roots or origins.Both.but LatinAmericanProtestantism. and immediately assumedan indigenousBrazilian Brazilian Pentecostalism a dualprocess de-territorialization: of sense. which therefore leads to the de-territorializationof Catholicism from Brazil.even if Catholicism continues to be for the foreseeablefuturethe majorityreligion of all Latin Americancountries. Indeed.and the dynamicgrowthof Latin American now constitute10 percentof the LatinAmerican Pentecostalism.by missionaries.has .Corten1999).It remained until the 1930sprimarily Pentecostal Presbyterian of Italianimmigrants Brazil.but an firm.wereestablished de of respectively 1910and 1911. non-American of The ChristianCongregation Brasilwas established an Italianimmiby schismfroma local Brazilian grantfromChicago. two-thirds all LatinAmerican Today Pentecostals-Charismatics. we juxtaposing are beginningto see trulyilluminating comparative analysesbringingthe two similarities complexdifferences and togetherin all their intriguing phenomena 1996.436 OF SOCIOLOGY RELIGION in Assembleia Deus(Assembly God).I'd ventureto say it is as LatinAmerican liberation of as theology.In Rio de Janeiro (25 country new evangelical church pops up every day and 90 percent of those are of are Protestants Pentecostal-Charismatic. Protestants The proportions higherin Chile (over20 percent)or Guatemala are population. In this roots there. represents American is rootsin Brazil. Latin American is Pentecostalism neithera foreignimportnora local branchof a transnational tendedto suggest. founded via Chicagoby two Swedish pastors.

It is trulythe firstglobalreligion. in fromit hasnowbegunto radiate all directions.Africa. only getsus so far. universal the local. foremost scholar Brazilian of "new churches localexpressions are Pentecostalism.Nor is it a transnational rapidly gainingworldwide religiousregime likeCatholicism.Nigeria.i.acquiringa transnationalcharacter.MILLENNIUM.This is the paradox the localcharacter Pentecostalism. particular. In this respectit is historically andunprecedented.complexdiffusion and by international networks with multilateral flows. cannotbe understood of of It in the traditionalsense of Catholic "inculturation." David In 7 Rios de Vida (Life's Rivers). global Pentecostalism source diffusion of parallel developments.In in this they are differentfrom both. as Hexham and Poewe mustbe seen as "a multi(1994:61) have pointed out. SouthAfrica) Christianity Sub-Saharan is equallyexplosive. globalreach. from the traditionalCatholic patternof and tolerationof local folkloreand generousaccommodation condescending beliefsand practices. syncresis the general the local. phenomenon different forms a localterritorial of culture. and disenchanting monotheistic attitude of ascetic of-fact.The Pentecostalattitudeis neithercompromise denialbut frontal hand-to-handcombat..Pentecostals for an unabashed and uncompromising instance.GlobalPentecostalism not a religionwith a particular territorial center like Mormonism.by denyingtheir againstmagicalor supernatural nor veryexistence.is simultaneously by globaland local. is actually and It its is Pentecostalism not a translocal whichassumes the veryopposite." separate.againstshamanism Korea. contrast. . samecouldbe repeated about Pentecostalismin Korea or China.characterized parallelinvention. an Argentinian church founded by an Spanish immigrant in 1967 in BuenosAires is expanding in Latin Europeand the United Kingdom.7 Yet LatinAmericais not the only worldcenter.and Asia.Moreover. what they call "spiritual warfare. rational.The growthof Pentecostal in Africa(Ghana. GLOBALIZATION 437 becomein a veryshorttime a worldcenterof Pentecostal whereChristianity. case and global Buthow can it be de-territorialized localat the sametime?Because is and it an uprooted localcultureengagedin spiritual warfare with its own roots." We could also think of it as a global "greatawakening" with multiple. longas these assume so theirsubordinate magical popular statuswithinthe Catholichierarchic andfromthe typicalsober. is it a kindof syncretic Nor particular or of and symbiosis symbiotic are.& 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: RELIGION. is AfricanPentecostalism as local. anddistinct"burned-over Yetthe parallel districts. mattercosmos."encompassingEurope.. against Vodou in Haiti.i. everywhereleading onslaught againsttheir local cultures: againstAfro-Brazilian spiritcults in Brazil.e. indigenous andautonomous its LatinAmerican as The counterpart. of a globalculture. Indeed.Pentecostalism. which is diffusion. is the historically It first unique andparadigmatic of a de-centered de-territorialized culture. since"theSecondGreatAwakening" a national was withmultiple phenomenon focalpoints." is. as the relationship that betweenthe catholic.e. Protestantism forcesor beings.Zimbabwe. is America.againstwitchcraftin Africa.In the words PaulFreston with of the (1997:185).

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