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CENTRO UNIVERSITÁRIO UNIGRAN CAPITAL

CURSO DE TECNOLOGIA EM RADIOLOGIA

Disciplina: Inglês Instrumental


Prof. Fabrício Garmus Sousa

Aula 08: Gramática

I) Comparativos e superlativos
Os comparativos e superlativos são utilizados para estabelecer comparações de
igualdade, superioridade ou inferioridade entre os elementos expressos no texto.

Comparativos de igualdade
São formadas com “as ___________ as”.
Exemplo:
- Mary is as tall as her brother, but not as intelligent as he is. (Mary é tão alta quanto seu
irmão, mas não tão inteligente quanto ele)

Comparativos e superlativos de superioridade – formas regulares


Forma comparativa e superlativa de adjetivos e advérbios
a) Adjetivos/advérbios curtos: acrescente os sulfixos “–er” (comparativo) e “–est”
(superlativo)

Adjetivo/Advérbio Comparativo Superlativo


Tall Taller (the) tallest
Early Earlier (the) earliest
Fast Faster (the) fastest
Hot Hotter (the) hottest

Exemplos de comparativos:
- Analysis of physicist Albert Einstein´s brain revealed that it was slightly smaller than the
average human brain. (A análise do cérebro do físico Albert Einstein revelou que o seu
cérebro era levemente menor que a média do cérebro humano)
- She is taller than her sister. (Ela é mais alta que a sua irmã)
- She has one appointment with the boss. She arrived earlier today. (Ela tem um encontro
com o chefe. Ela chegou mais cedo hoje).

Exemplos de superlativos:

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- The quickest solution to deforestation would be to simply stop cutting down trees. (A
solução mais rápida para o desflorestamento seria simplesmente parar de cortar
árvores).
- John is the tallest student in his classroom. (John é o aluno mais alto da sua sala)
- Today was the hottest day of March. (Hoje foi o dia mais quente de março)

b) Adjetivo/advérbios longos: use more + adjetivo/advérbio (comparativo) e most +


adjetivo/advérbio (superlativo)

Adjetivo/Advérbio Comparativo Superlativo


Interesting More interesting (the) most interesting
Easily More easily (the) most easily
Power More powerful (the) most powerful
Complex More complex (the) most complex

Exemplos de comparativos:
- Healthy lifestyles are more influential than genetic factors in avoiding deterioration
traditionally associated with aging. (Estilos de vida saudáveis são mais influentes que
fatores genéticos em evitar a deteriorização tradicional associada ao envelhecimento)
- Students consider more interesting the practice than studying. (Estudantes consideram
mais interessante a prática que o estudo)
- Your brain is faster and more powerful than a supercomputer. (O seu cérebro é mais
rápido e mais poderoso que um supercomputador)

Exemplos de superlativos:
- Learning occurs most easily when learners feel comfortable. (O aprendizado ocorre
mais facilmente quando os aprendizes se sentem confortáveis)
- The most interesting part of the book is the chapter 10. (A parte mais interessante do
livro é o capítulo 10)
- It is a structure so amazing a famous scientist once called it “the most complex thing we
have yet discovered in our universe”. (É uma estrutura tão fantástica que um famoso
cientista uma vez chamou de “a coisa mais complexa que nós descobrimos no nosso
universo”

Comparativos e superlativos – formas irregulares


Para formas irregulares, existem palavras específicas para o comparativo e superlativo:

Adjetivo Comparativo Superlativo


Good Better (the) best
Bad Worse (the) worst

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Far Farther (the) fartherest
Little Less (the) least
Much/many More (the) most

Exemplos de comparativos:
- Scientists warn that global warming is worse than predicted. (Cientistas advertiram que
o aquecimento global é pior que o previsto)
- She is getting better every day. (Ela está se tornando melhor a cada dia)

Exemplos de superlativos:
- Vegetables and fruit are two of the best foods to man. (Vegatais e frutos são os melhores
alimentos para o homem)
- He is the worst student is his classroom. (Ele é o pior aluno da classe)

Comparativos e superlativos de inferioridade – para comparativo, utilize less antes


do adjetivo, e para superlativos, utilize (the) least antes do adjetivo.

Adjetivo Comparativo Superlativo


Colorful Less colorful (the) least colorful
Happy Less happy (the) least happy
Developed Less developed (the) least developed

Exemplos:
- A fund was established to support a work program to assist less developed countries.
(Uma verba foi destinada para financiar o programa de trabalho nos países menos
desenvolvidos)
- Lethal injection is the least cruel of five methods employed in US. (A injeção letal é o
menos cruel entre os 5 métodos empregados nos Estados Unidos)

Exercícios:
1) Identifique as formas comparativas/superlativas de adjetivos nos trechos abaixo:
a) Exercise helps make you smarter. It is well known that any exercise makes your heart
beat faster, like running or playing basketball, is great for your body and can even help
improve your mood. But scientists have recently learned that for a period of time after you
have exercised, your body produces a chemical that makes your brain more receptive to
learning.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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b) The world’s largest river in watershed area and volume of water discharged, the
Amazon has only one rival as the world’s longest: the Nile.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

c) The river’s watershed includes the world’s largest and wettest tropical plain.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

d) The canopy shelters the Earth’s richest and most diverse ecosystem.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

e) In 2008 the performance of the economy was less satisfactory than in the previous
year.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

f) “The cheapest Big Macs are found in China, Malasya, the Philippines and South Africa,
and all cost less than $1.20. In other words, these countries have the most undervalued
currencies, by more than 50%. The most expensive Big Macs are found in Britain,
Denmark and Switzerland, which by implication have the most overvalued currencies.
Sterling, for example, is 12% overvalued against the dollar – less than two years ago, it
was overvalued by 26%”.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

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II) Tempos verbais
Os verbos têm grande importância para a compreensão do texto, uma vez que
exprimem ação. Os verbos, em geral, aparecem após o sujeito da frase e estabelecem
o tempo em que se dá a ação (presente, passado ou futuro).

a) Presente simples
- Em verbos regulares, é formado pelo infinitivo do verbo, sem a partícula “to”.
- A terceira pessoa do singular (he, she, it) recebe “-s, -es ou -ies”, dependendo
da forma do verbo.

Exemplos de verbos no presente simples:

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- Comer: to eat
I eat a piece of bread every morning
You eat a piece of bread every morning
She eats a piece of bread every morning
He eats a piece of bread every morning
We eat a piece of bread every morning
They eat a piece of bread every morning
- Estudar: to study
I study every day
He studies every day
- Pegar algo: to catch
The cat catches the ball

Geralmente os verbos no presente simples referem-se a:


- Fatos imutáveis:
Water boils at 100ºC (A água ferve a 100ºC)
- Ações ou situações habituais:
My sister goes to work at 7h a.m. (Minha irmã vai trabalhar as 7h da manhã)
British people drink a lot of tea (Os britânicos tomam muito chá)
- Estados:
My father lives in Italy (Meu pai mora na Itália)
- Opiniões e sentimentos:
I don´t like fiction movies. (Eu não gosto de filmes de ficção)

Na forma negativa, utiliza-se don´t (do not) ou doesn´t (does not) antes do verbo no
infinitivo:
- I don´t like to study on weekends
- You don´t like to study on weekends
- He doesn´t like to study on weekends
- She doesn´t like to study on weekends
- We don´t like to study on weekends
- They don´t like to study on weekends

b) Presente contínuo
Formado pela junção do verbo to be com outro verbo no gerúndio (-ing):
Verbo to be:
I am (I´m)
You are (You´re)
He/She/It is (He´s, She´s, It´s)
We are (We´re)

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You are (You´re)
They are (They´re)

Exemplo de verbos no presente contínuo:


- I´m reading a book
- He´s writing a poem

Geralmente o presente contínuo é utilizado para descrever:


- Ações ou situações que estão ocorrendo em um instante específico
- Hurry up! We´re all waiting for you.
- ações ou situações temporárias
- I´m staying in a hotel until I find a flat.
- ações ou situações que estão em andamento
- I´m learning how to drive

c) Passado simples
- Em verbos regulares,.é formado pelo verbo acrescido de “–ed ou –d”. Verbos
irregulares têm sua forma própria.

Exemplos de verbos regulares no passado simples:


- Dançar: to dance
She danced every Saturdays when she was young.
- Estudar: to study
She studied all weekend, because she had tests.
- Jogar: to play
John played with his kids all weekend

Exemplos de verbos irregulares no passado simples:


- Escrever: to write
She wrote a letter to her boyfriend last week.
- Pegar ou levar: to take
Mary took her children to the park last Saturday.
- Comer: to eat
Peter ate a lot at his party.
- Fazer: to make
She made the dinner last night.
- Contar algo, dizer: to tell
Bill told me he was sick.

Os verbos no passado simples são utilizados geralmente para descrever:

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- Ações concluídas:
I lived in London until I was fourteen.
He walked into the bar and ordered a vodka and tonic.
- Hábitos passados:
Every day I went to the park.
When I was a child we always went to the seaside in August.
- Estados passados:
In those days, I didn’t like reading.

d) Futuro
Existem duas formas mais comuns de expressar o futuro:
i) Will + verbo no infinitivo: futuro relacionado a previsões. É utilizado para descrever
fatos já previstos de antemão, ou algo que se acredita ser verdadeiro.
I will see you next week (I´ll see you next week)
The experiment will help many people
The company will make a profit next year

ii) verbo to be + going to: geralmente envolve intenções ou planos.


She is going to have a baby in June
I am going to wait here until Carol gets back
I am going to travel next July

e) Verbos modais
Verbos que dão sentido especial aos verbos que acompanham.
i) Can: indica possibilidade ou habilidade/capacidade física
Possibilidade:
Smoke can cause cancer
Scotland can be very warm in September
Habilidade/capacidade física:
Can you drive?
We can see the lake from our bedroom window

ii) Could: indica o passado de can ou o futuro condicional (algo que poderia)
Passado de can:
My grandmother could speak five languages
Alf played well, but he couldn’t beat Jack
Futuro condicional:
New medicine could be the solution to our problems
This could be your big chance

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iii) May: indica permissão (uso formal) ou probabilidade
Permissão:
May I come in? (Posso entrar?)
Probabilidade:
I may fly to Recife next week. (Talvez)

iv) Might: o mesmo que may, porém com menor ênfase


I wonder if I might ask you a favor? (poderia)
Peter might phone. If he does, could you ask him to ring later?

Exercícios sobre os tempos verbais:


1) Assinale a alternativa correta. A frase: “She is going to buy a new house next month”,
encontra-se no tempo verbal:
a) Presente simples
b) Presente contínuo
c) Passado simples
d) Futuro

2) Assinale a alternativa correta. A frase: “I want to go to the movies today” encontra-se


no tempo verbal:
a) Presente simples
b) Presente contínuo
c) Passado simples
d) Futuro

3) A frase: “She made me feel really bad. She didn´t want to see me and shut the door in
my face and told me to go away” encontra-se no tempo verbal:
a) Presente
b) Passado
c) Futuro

4) Na frase: “It gives you time to think things over and how you could have killed someone.
You feel embarrassed because you don´t think you could even end up in a cell”.
a) Os verbos sublinhados acima encontram-se em que tempos verbais?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

5) Leia o texto abaixo e responda:


“Coins have many uses. People save them or spend them. Some people collect coins for
fun or for profit. Others “toss a coin” to make a decision or use coins in magic tricks.

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Children use coins in tabletop games such as “penny hockey”. Sometimes coins are used
in jewelry or as adornment on clothes.”
a) Descreva resumidamente o assunto do texto.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

b) Os verbos: “save”, “collect”, “make” e “use” encontram-se em que tempo verbal?


______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Exercício sobre os verbos modais:


1) Assinale o sentido dos verbos modais nas sentenças abaixo:
a) Fortunately for Ochoa, evidence from the crime was still avaliable for DNA fingerprint,
a simple test that can prove whether a biological sample did or did not come from a
suspect.
( ) permissão
( ) habilidade/ capacidade

b) “Before DNA, you would have a good suspect, and do all the tests you could do, and
you would end up with 30 percent to 40 percent of the population qualifying”
( ) habilidade/capacidade
( ) probabilidade

c) These 10, among 93 capital convictions that have been vacated since 1973, have
helped raise public fears that executions may be based on questionable convictions.
( ) probabilidade
( ) permissão

d) Dieter say the technique is so powerful and scientifically reliable that it can, as in
Ochoa´s case, even refute a confession.
( ) possibilidade
( ) habilidade/capacidade

e) He says it is “not a panacea for every case, it may not be involved in a simple shooting,
where somebody dies but there are no bodily fluids left”.
( ) probabilidade
( ) permissão

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f) There´s also a disturbing possibility that DNA fingerprinting could finger the wrong
person – if labs make mistakes, or if cops plant evidence or lie on the witness stand.
( ) permissão
( ) poderia (futuro condicional)

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