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SECRET Copy No.

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The Tecr..nical Description of radar IIPC-3 is to be used for studying the radar by the technical and i'lying personnel of Air Force units utilizing ~he radar.

The Technical Description consists of three volumes.

The first volume contains general information on the radar, its functional deser tion, description of its composition and constructional design, and description of the functional diagrams of the radar channels.

The second and the third volumes contain comprehensive description of the radar units.

2

CillnffiNTIONAL DESIGNATIONS AND ABBP~VIATIONS USED IN THE DESCRIPI'ION

Yn~ - intermediate frequency amplifier (IFA) YIi'q-lO - IFA-lO

Yntt-Jo - IFA-JO

WAn~ - automatic frequency c0ntrol preRmplifier (AFCPA) llYn~ - intermediate frequency preampli~ier (IFPA)

C~Y - remote control system (ReS;

YUT - direct current amplifier (DCA)

Afl~ - automatic frequency control (AFe)

~ - automatic gain control (AGe)

PP11 - manual frequency control (NFC)

PPY - manual gain control (l'IGC)

Tn - television sight (TS)

TIn - bore-sighting gauge (BSG)

CLY - intercommunication system (reS)

~ - tail gun mount (TGMJ

COB - defensive armamerrt system (DAS)

R - resistor

L - inductance

C - capacitor

H3 - delay line

)l,p - choke

Tp - transforme=

M - electric motor

eH - selsyn

F - relay

m .- plug connector

B - switch and selector s~d t ch

BB - c omput er unit

BK - limit s1;od tch

rK - contact group

E - interlocking

EM - mechanical interlocking

Jlp - ruse

Jl - electron tube

WI - r;eon lamp

~E - incandescent lamp

P3il - receiver protection discharger (RPD)

,1l, - crysta.l detector

CB - selenium rectifier

~n - measuring i.nstru.l1lent

IT - test point

MY" - magnetic amplifier

3MY - amplidyne

CY - servo-amplifier (SA)

KK - test contact

fc~ - centre frequency of magnetron (fern)

fHM - lower frequency of magnetron (f1m)

f!~ - upper frequency 0f magnetron (fum)

bill iBK iRK flfl(

fCK i'n

Tl, T2

-rMl{ Fli!lllln

p

cp MUla

Y'!{C Y1l3

.. magnetron frequency change band (Afm) - upper frequency of klystron (iuk)

- lower frequency of klystron (ilk)

- klystron frequency change band (6fk)

- rate of radiator rotation, scanning frequency

- synchronizing pulse repetition frequency (fr)

- delay time of ultrasonic line Da3-3

- time of magnetron frequency change (-r~fm)

- pulse power of transmitter (P Is)

average power of transmitter 1Pav) - measuring delay line

- damping Signal amplifier (DSA)

- ultrasonic delay line

K - button

KH - indicator

YO - control winding

F,l{ - rheostat pickoff

Y - assembly

YK - ultrasonic calibrator (Ue)

Note. The numerical values of the parameters designated conventionally by letters are presented in the Radar. Operating Instructions.

!

I. GENERAL INFORHATION eli! ~AR A. PURPOSE

Tail detection and sighting radar nPC-) is designed for installation in jet bombera and serves for:

_ detection of air targets abaft the aircraft;

_ lock-on ot the selected target v automa.tic tracking of it and supplying the computer with data required for solving the air firing problem (these data are; the

angular coordinates of the target. the angular speed. the target range. and the range

derivative} •

B. OPERATING PRINCIPLE

In the aircraft defensive arm8~ent system, radar nPC-J carries out successively the task of scanning (observation of the air situation abaft the aircraft) and the task of sighting (directing the antenna head to the target located in the scanned

area, target lock-on and angle and range tracking) .. It aJ.sosupplies the computer with the target data (its angv.lar coordinates. angu.Lar' speed, range, and closing speed.) ,

: CorreSponding to these tasks. radar IIPC-J has the .following three modes of operation: the mode of space scanning. the mode of directing the antenna to the ta~et,

and the mode of target lock-on end angle and range tracking~

The design of the radar antenna makes it possible to fulfil the task of space

scanning and the task of sighting successively ..

The scanning of space is effected by means of spiral movement of the antenna beam (Fig. 1) due to rotation and simultaneous deflection of the reflector from the rotation axis (from the zero position). In the mode of scanning. the antenna of the radar scans the space within a 70° solid angle (Fig. 2).

At the operator's will. the scanned area in azimuth may be enlarged automaticallY by an angle of 20° or manua.lly by an angle of )0° due to shifting the acannd.ng axis

to the right and ~o the l~ft with 'respect to ~Ghe a.i..rC1.~~~ flig,_'1i;; direction {Fig. 3).

The area scanned by the radar (with the soli(!. angle being at least '7rP) is divided into the .following three zones: zone I of 0 to 12° with respect to ,[,;hf) sca."lD.ing axis; zone II of 12 to 24° with respect to the ac anndzig axis; zone IIIof 24 to 36° with

respect to the SC!IDIl.i.ug axis (Fig. 4).

If a target appear's in. the radar control BJL''3a, t;ha screen of the indicat·,J1' dis-

plays a mark o~the target with that of the scanned zone (Fig~ 5-).

The target marks caused by friendly aircraft are accompanied on the indicator screen bi mark FRIEND (CBOil): the wider mark which is farther than the target mark.

Hence, with the aid of the indicator screen, it is possible to determine:

_ the direction to the target with respect to the scanning axis (according to

the radial direction from the centre of the screen to the target mark); _ the scanned zone in which the target is located:

_ the distance to the target;

_ the national identity of the target;

_ a possible lock-on range according to the lock-on range mark.

After a target is detected, the antenna head ~an be directed to it either manually by the operator with the aid of the indicator scr-een or automatically.

When directing manually. ·the operator. using the indicator screen. determines the national identity of the target and ita pOSition in space, and then depresses

the action switch.

5

6

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:z
:z
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..- __... .-- -- -- - _..... _........- -- -

/'" /'" /" ...- -- --..........-..._

,/ /' ./ / ................ ..- _..:: .z: -~ <,

V / /' /' ./ /~-- - -::::- <, "', "

/ / /' /",/ / /' /y --:::;-,"' v r • \ ,

( ( I ( ( ( ( (~'- c.., ) )) ,,/ J._ 1/ / I I

\ \ \ '-.., -, <, '_~~-;.--/ ~ / / / I

<, <, <. > .:::: - -=-::..:;:::/"/ / ,,/ /

" ...._ -- - -_ /'././ _/

" __ -_ -_ - _--..- '" "

....... -.. - -_ - -- /" /'"

...._ -- -_ _- -- /'

-... - -- _...

......_ --- _- _..

-- - -

--- _ _,.-

7

o

FIG. 3. SHIFTING OF RADAR rlPC-J SCANNED AREA

00 - oxi s of central scanned area (O!OfiQ ~il(.:rof1 oxi s); 001 - uxi s of scanned eree shifted manually to the right throo3h 30"; 002 - axis of scanned area shifted manually to the left through 30°; 00 • axis of scanned area shifted automati· cally to the ri ght thro~j9h 200; 004, axi s of sconned area shifted outemuti co Ily

to the 1 eft 'lhrough 20°

8

V"> w :z: a N

UJ UJ ~ ::c J-

a I:z:

Cl ui o

> o ...::

UJ a:: <!:

Cl W Z :z ~ u

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2.

FIG. 5. APPEARANCE OF iNDICATOR SCREEN IN SCANNING MODE 1 . mark of friendly target in zone I; 2 - mcrk of torget in zone II; 3,

30 - ~no!ks of \orgets in zone II!; 4 • lock-on rnnqe mark; 5 • friendly torget identification mark

The rncrk s and Ih e tmgets o-:e ~howr~ in cccor donce wi th Fig. 4.

FIG . .) APFtAf~AtKE OF !NDiCATOR 5CR;::U~ ;ri MODe C}F f<iAYUAL t\NTEN~iA POSiTIO~HHG

• rr:'Jtk of ~:-~1p.f'no h~od ::;x:s a-t instont of p c )~,ifiQni,~g; 2 ~ ~nClrk of t'lfg,,~ in zon e i II (seen due \0 ofterg lo\-\' of CRT)

tion. The distance to the target is determined "oJ the time r'equired fcr 'che by the radar to travel to the target and to r-e tur:c to chs radar aft.lr b<"ir:.e;

In this case, the reflector of the antenna is attracted to the z.ez-c pOFic1.'")L. , .. ;, .. d. the radiator of the ant-enna starts l'otating. This means that tbe an+enna h e ad st,)=}~,· I ~~ s scanning function and starts its sighting !"uncticl),

As a result, the indicator screen will s t ar t displayi.ng an wtenna-positioniDg m~k in th~ form of a bright dot.

The target mark, in this case" w:Lll rellwin in view due to the afterglc,'! of 'i;;]", indicator cathode-ra..y tube (F:L2; ,. 6).

In this mode of operation, tile entire scale of the indicator corresponds to 7QG

of the solid angle in which the spac s ';.2 SGDlJLCd, azid is divided by two cirlcuwf,!:, enG",:' into three zones 'rlhich cOl.~respoD.d to the +hr-e e space-scanning zones. The centre of i:;~.,c~ scale corresponds to the axis of the scanned area.

The operator turns the handles and the control panel of Tll-IA in such a wa.f as "i~<. move the antenna-position.ing mar-k from the centre in the direction of the target, ',;11'(." has been selected for lock-on. to the rs i.dd Le of the zone ;"hnse mark followed li.1' 'U::, ~ target when scanning (Fig. '7).

After directing the ant-enna head to ':;he t2XgCt, the leek-oil of th:J tar'p;;,,<; ', ..

and its angle and range tracking beg":LJJB"

The angle tracking of the target is based or; ths princip1e of eqlJ.isltp'I,.:,J_ ,

which is obtained due to the rotation of the antrenna radia:tor de f'Lect ed tbr'·,".lC·" certain angle from the rotation axis (Fig> 22).

The measurement o r the target range depends 0:0. tn,;; pulse pr-Lnc i.p Le c)! r&d.,." VX"

FIG. 8, APPEAR MICE OF IfUDI CA TOR SCREEN IN MODE OF TARGET TRACKING

- mark of locked-on torge!; 2 ' mork d l_ck-on rungei 3 - mc;,k c] ~arg".:~ in ;:-~r.~c: ~~:~t~I;L;:;-cd b-) ~nte:1r:;a

from the target.

The lock-on of the target; is Lo.dicated by lamp LUc..a!:'·"OIi (3llBll.T) 'j whi,cb. S'i:;83~'l"" ing (the lamp is located on. the indicator). and 3.1[l~' h:y the locked-o.!.\ \;2.J~~;"',,~ ioB'·" appear-a on the SCrG2n. In thj S ca.se the :Lndic8t'~,::~ ;c;trc,:;·'·L' ·t:j Oi?eT'<.':~;':: ~. ·':',0 locked-an target indi"~atj GD (Fig. e',.

The mark of the lacked-on target is displayed OD. the indicator screen in ';~hc of a ring divided into three arcs.

The marks of other targets situated in the area scanned by the antenna bean tracking mode have the shape of circumferences. \rlhen the target approaches the range of aimed fire. lamp FIRE (OrOHh) (j!J. .;h.? ' cator starts glowing.

The opening of fire is effected by means of depressing button FTIiE (OrOBh)o fire can also be opened aut omatd c aj Ly, if switch FIRE (oroas) is set T.;O l'lATIC (A.BTO.l1AT) and if the target is located at the aJ.med 1'ire r&.!lgc,.

If it is necessary to stop target tracki.l1g, 1".,-,)1;t;011 TARGET RE::;:J;::LSE {C:U'()O D,Ulk} i to be depressed. The handles and the control panel ar-e returned. to the z('-;::,:· posi·:;ion and the action switch is released. The radar passes to the SC81l2ling ·40QE:. or ~~'eration.

In order that the antenna head may be directed to tl-e ta:cge"l: 1{ut::m!atically, ·~he operator switches the radar over to the mode of automatic pOGit~oniLg,

When a target appears in the scanned area. the antenna head is d:':r(;c·:;ed "':;0 tIt" target automatically (,d thout assistance of the operata:,:,). II, this c as e , ·':;r..e i32J.teLL': head stops its scanning function and begins its s:'.g.hting runc t t on, and t:tH:C :_O:;~'>·Ol:. automatic angle and range tracking of the target take place.

Hhen radar nPC-J operates jointl;} with the ide:.2tificat;ioD. SY£C;UIl of "~ ... ~ 0;-'3C--2 set. then no possibility is provided for directing the antenna tn frie::.d'::";y .:~h'c::'p .. fG automatically.

To exclude the possibility of locking on the ground when thE 2:ircraft :::ie,'3 at low altitudes, the radar is provided with setting of lock-on lim.it:'~tio:c..

The lirni tation of lock-on is set by the operator making use of kno·~) IDCK--ON RANGE C!J,A1IbH" 3.ilXB.} and the lock-on range mark on th·:') inc.:Lcat ()7! ,·3 "'I" E' H:::t ~ "~;h0 .j:arJ: is of the shape of a ring with a "darkened sector in i-';5, uppsr part (F:LE:;, 3),

xr the mark of the gr'f)'.J.nd or airel-aft, (targe~G) is Si"t'.I.a.tec. fart:::te:e tl'.,Ell C;k: lock-ou z-ange m'i.l"k. these objects cannot be l.Gcb.f:;' m·}"

Eada..r We--) j.g provided with protection '.;i.2.2,iu~1i; o.f}li,br~r1.':I;(: tion :,-s effected by means of chang:hlg tlt"" w.aGLu"t:e,)D. .frcqlJ.c£.cy·

The llB.g:ne·t;l'or.. has 12 fixed i'I~'equellc:lc:.} .to:{' t1!:[";.'![~.'

ChaJlg-,~ ...... OV·~·;~!~ i3:"Om one 1·i~c'J. /:ceg.u€:.c.:..:.:.~y tC) ~_]lo{:;he~ ::,,~,,-:}~:.l 1.10::::: (.~..!~, ·~',-::C·:)·-i.:(':. s-=_ ;;l.'.I:':;::C u!.c.n."i-!"a ... ::_17 0:'1.' 8.utQlllati'...:all;y-.

III tiK aatorJ3.i';ie CD&.nge-·v:er mode. the lilB.gt'l0tl>clri_ r:c(,~au!J,(,y ',~r ;'cl:.?;';<~ ~<_ '':;:nL; si;;;tt:J1lce of the oper",.tor if ja!TI1l!ing appea.!'n 0

I_"J. the m.anual change-over mode" lrnob F.3EQU.f"!'fC:r. GE~~'mL ~ITi.'::;"I;C''.rul:.r;X d>!)pressed.

The radar is also provided ,1ith j)J:'ctection agl'i.:L:lE't .";1 O:Q.l·;;YL.Gil.:c't'L'.G"J.!? p:,· .. '_+i i."';C·:&:C·'::'!!; ..

This protection is ef.fected by mean;", or selecting the target p121%F. [,tv:·; ·'.:0 ';):1(; transmi tted pulse recurrence frequency. The description of the ,select:'.0Z1. lZet.'lQ;l ,rI.:n be presented below.

In the de renai.ve armamen·t; s;ystCIil. of the a.ircra1't", radar .lIPC-3 o2el'at8~' :.:w :.o01£.;: tion with television sight Tn·-I! and sigb_ting-and-com.pu.ting m:i"::;:::. '~.lC ".(- ;1_, .• 2.1;y! coupled with the identification system (;.Jet CPJO-2) _ I;'2 thiE eJ~lterL, ';::8!·l·~:':'·}: G1 ·,·;:w

i;._, 1. gun mounts can be effected by means of:

(a) radar llPC-3 (the RADIO /PAUHO/ mode);

(b) teJ.evision sight Tn-lA (the OPTICS /ODT"ff.Y,J/ !:l()~c:c);

(c) radar IIPe-·) when the antenna head is dil.'ec';ed to ':;})'~ -~il.c:',~et';c·:'V~.3}_cr sight Tn-lA {the ANTENNA POSITIONING /HABO.nKA/ llJ.ork:! ,;

(0.) television sight Tll-IA when the target range and the"" C_.0;5J.llg speed W:'f~ determined by radar IlPC-J (the OPTICS - RANGE FINDER /OTIT!OOt - ,r:,;ki::)flOI'!::Zf'/ ID~lol0) c.

12

II. MAIN TA.CTICAL AND TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RADAR

A. TACTICAL CHARACTERISTICS

(a) The range of detection of attacking jet fighters is 6500 m with the closing speed being 100 mls.

(b) The scanned area is Dot less than 70° of solid angle.

The scanned area axis may be shifted in azimuth through +)00 manually and through !.20o automatically.

(c) The time of sce.w.ling '1;06. area is 2.7 to 3 s ,

(d) The range of Lock-on of -the identified target is 3000 m with a probability of not less than 95 per cent and a relative closing speed of 100 mjs.

(e) The radar provides automati~ tracking o~ targets within angles of +350 in angtl1ar height and within angles of !.65° in azimuth.

(f) The mean-square error in determining -che target position during ~'.lt':ll:J.at:cc tracking and in introducing the data into the computer should not exce ed 3 ';hlJusan.c~the of the distance at ranges of 400 to 3000 m with the relative a.ngular rate being .'J to') O.J rad/s and the angular acceleration up to 0.5 :;::-ad/s2• The error is de-:;errlinec: on

the weapoli.

(g) The ranges that can be supplied to the computer are 350 ~o 4000 ~.

(h) The maximum error in determining the target range and in introd.ucing i-.; :~n,=o the computer does not exceed 40 m for distances up to 2000 m. and 70 ~ for distances up to 4000 m ,

(i) The radar can produce a range deriva~ive in the limits from 0 to 300 mis. ~e accurac7 of generation of the range derivative is not worse than 30 m/s wit2in 0 to JOO mls.

(j) The screen of the indicator makes it possible:

- to de'bermine roughly the range to the target within .350 to 4500 ::n with the lIlaximUlll error being not more than .'1 e 50 m~ and at distanCeS !rom 4500 to lO.OCe l'l with the max.imua en'or not exceed.Lng 10 per ':':ent of the dis-+';'ance =_n question~

.. to determine the !losi i;ion of the target 2::1. space with respec': -:;::> -!;:'le geome-:;::'i-~ cal rods of the antenna with the aid of the marks of the zones in the 'llod~ of scanning;

- 1;0 d,;termine the angular position of the locked-on target to an accur-acy of ±9° with l:uob INDICATION ON (BU. ?H,IT,MK 0) dep::::-esseQ;

- to determine the nat:5_onal identity of the "target with the aid of !'lark FR~. (k) The minimum range of the rader (its dead area) does not exceed 350 a ,

(a) The range of mae;netron frequency change is!J. tm•

(b) The aver-age power of the transmitter :18 not less than? BY" (c) The synchronizing puIs" repetit:!.on .freqt:.ency is fr'

(d) The sensitivity of the receiving channel. as measured by the disappearance . of ';he .signal in noise, is not less i;han 98 dB wi "'.;1:. resp"ct to 1 mW.

(e) The beam width of the directivity pattern at the level of 0.5 :_s as :'0110'118: - 5,.2 io.ao in plane H;

5 ~ 0 80. 1 .~

- . <::!.' a.n p ane 1".

(f) The duration of the -!;r.9Jlsmitted pulse ':If the radar is 0.45 =-0.05 }ls.

!3

tiOll sri s.

XXI. FUNCTrO~AL D~Cli1PTlON __ OF~l!!P~

Synchronization of operation 01 allt;tuo' :,:ad.lSU' corsponenvs is et:te.:te'i by a l'JIll6ter blocking oscillato~.

The pulse recurrence frequency of the master blocking oscillator is stabilized by an uli;_;rasoni.c delay line (YJI3). The blocking oscillator is started by its own delayed in the delay channel by the ultTasonic line.

The master blocking oscillator shapes so-caUed sweep triggering pulses which trigger the range sweep circuit and the synchronizing pulse shapf ng circuit. 1'};l'.~ latter generates synchronizing 'pulses ".vhieh start thG rnbmodule};or.

The submodulator generates pulses ,.rhich trigger the M'JQulutor of the magnetron oscillator. The InagnEtron oscillator generates h:Lgh-power radio-frequency pulses or a 0<, 45-P.F.i du~~ation~ ~c'hose :c'epetition fY'€queilcy is equal to that or the synchronizing plAlE€iS"

The :cadio-t'l"eqUGIlc;y ellergy of the transmitter is supplied through antienna switch RECEIVE - TRANSMIT (IIPHEM ~ TIF.PEM!J.A) and, tb.Y'ough the waveguide system to the ant ';1hich :t'hv.iates the raclio-i"reqUEillcy energy into space.

Tue azrc enna has a reflector \ihleh bunches the radiated energy into a narl'QW beam. Scarming or space is eff8cted d,ue to a spiral movement of ths antenna beamo

ST:ch a movement of the azrcerma beruI:l~ 8.6 -was stated earlier, is obtained by means of rot~"t;ioIl. of the antenna reflector. arIel of 1.ts simul taneoue det2ection troll! the

The deflection. of th€ reflcc:tor is pei~fo:t'nled. by an electrOlll.6Che.ntcal system whicb ;;,;c'Zlsists of' CilIll!m:d;atoj,o El~6 linke(l l.!l8ch&illcally with the reflector deflecting mechauism and of a reflec1;;;]J:" deflection vontrt>!o ~:,:iI'eD.it ,.Ihich connects successively the '!:'}.eetrilJ "'3.gnetB o r th," cm'_,?~rjp,gs se:t'Vi:;;::g .for' cU~i'l'ecti_>:.ig the antrenna reflector and :t,etrt!x>I.l:':':c~~ it; b,'" t1.1e z ek'O poe:.'. t;i~)~'>

:\, :o_i_-;o

i;I,.,i;{<,e i:',:::eque:'l''::,{ O'f lihe .:.J.:ystron l(d;al "":~cil;'"Lt{):.:, m:;.tJ1l:: the f'r0<.F"·;"tW:/ 0;:';( '1;kc:;, 1.1.,\'< p\1lfE ~:,'t'f:L;",~·t.('d from the t8~~get)~ a:>:lf). ef',;;er :;he i,\~'Gt3'/'L:e!iistc·-;t:l.-equaj__(;o~/ pu:i. '-, :",'.' 1':1_,,,,1 by th,~: 5_l:.1teX"il'ledia'l:;e-fr6-que4CY l1Xi:;,u'n,plifier (IIYtrtI) ~ the target si,r"r;dz, ::clJ. ·,:he rC:E~_ (if intc,z,"ll.ediate--frequeIi.cy pulae,,. are ;R~Jpl:iec'. 'i~o th'? TFa-31J ma.:b_' r;::,,91:)'1:1..:::· Ui_fli _;5(,).

j.'~',:,I'6,6T tn P',"o'Fjde a <;;u',}ln;0JX(: &""-!<LU':'.~cs.tii:J;c1 .t.,::,t;,~ (;1' till", :Ln~:ar1D.lCldie,t-e-t!'equ",:::,c1 r·:;:'-6-'3'!lp:U.l'i,J:i:' 6,-.:~d~ ~oll.s::lq_u.eutl.J ~ &1. ;;;O;Jclt/o<3.l.1; level nJ: ,,,he, basi6 noiJle at the n;oA-'O'.n:<t~ V-'~~ use is made 01 a.utoIila;t.:i.c gaLl) c::;:ut:'£'c.1 in tLv, iuta~ediste-fr~q}.ume,' preamplifier.

3~.- elF 8. ::",·r:Jnt;~c:l Lf:t perto~ed by ;~ Il~Jj__~S.e ,IA-G<; c.l_r-1l(r~il:;$' To impX't)Y;J ':~h& Illlt.iJe.wmi:oS ,:;;_1ili ty oi: the l~odai:;~ tile 1:1'.&-,0 is tl-ig~e:>:,e6. by "'","<,..ns Q X the £:yt.;eptiOll keyer ouly for the time of :t'.;~pptiuu_ (i~,5 ::r? p.s).

ri'b~ aignal t.:.mpUfied by ttl, a '[FA--,?-O :!.5i cml"eI·t.ed i,:o."i,;f) a 7iti.eopu2stl by the second d0i:ec.tuz'9 theu it :1.$ AllIplifie,}':JY tb.'il \fideo amplifier au;;;:. tlUppll,ec. '1;0 'tile cu'e"nr; of In:'';:'-"';;'''·Gtioa agru.1fBt nO!1s:yncLr.-,!l.c!u;-;; p<s_1l:;8 J3Jn1Jling (to the ci:)l8.;t ~hlll',"',f'l and to the cQin;:,id,~y,c~' '';i;rc':l,u. t)~

To protect the receiving channel against the action or deliberate jaaming, the radar is provided with automatic change-over of the magnetron operating frequency. An increase of noise at the receiver output due to the presenee of jamming causes the juming recorder circuit to operate. The latter in its turn makes the magnetron change its frequency. The magnetron frequency is repeatedly changed by the frequency change mechanism until the jamming effect disappears at all or until its presence does not interfere with the radar operation. Provis:i.on is also made for manual change or the magnetron frequency at the operator's will~ and this is effected by depressing button

. ': FREQUENCY CHANGE.

Protection against llonsyncaronous pulse jamming is effected by means of selecting the pulses according to the recurrence frequency~ This method consists in the fact

. that all the signals arriving at the receiving channel of the radar pass to the coincidence circuit by the following two paths: (1) directly and (2) through the ultrasmUc delay line which delays the signal tor the synchronizing pulse recurrenca period.

If the direct and delayed signals arrive at the coincidence circuit simultaneously, which is the case for the target pulses, then they can pass through this cireuit~

In such a condition, the signals of pulse jallll"lting whose recurrence period is not e~al to the recurrence period ot the pulses transmitted by the radar cannot pass to the output of the receiver (from the coincidence circuit). From the output of the coincidenoe cireui t, the target signals are supplied to the target and mark: pulse mixer in which they are oombined with the pulses of zone marks and of lock-on range

.. marks and, when the target is looked on, with the pulses of locked-on target marks

. taken from the respective circuits. Besides, if ·the radar operates jointly with Bet CroO-2, applied to the target and mark pulse mixer fro~ the FRIEND mark circuit are the pulses serving tor determinin.g the national identity of the aircraft (the marks of the triendly aircraft).

The target and mark pulses amplified by the video amplifier are supplied to the cathode ot the cathode-ray tube of the indicator.

The range sweep circuit produces a linear voltage which, in the mode or scanniZlg~ is supplied to the rotor of rot&;r::v transf.ormer BTl-3 mechanically coupled with the antenna reflector rotation axis.

The mutually-perpendicular linear v,;)l tages picked oft the stator windings or the rotary transformer are supplied to the deflection coils of the indicator to produce a radial-circular sweep on the indicator screen.

Such i.s the way or synchrord.zing the direction of the ant enna beaa to the ta.rget with respect to the scanning axis and the direction from the centre of the screen to the target ma.rk~

In scanning, the target marks can be ob.served on the screen in the form of bright arcs whose distance from the centre of the screen makes it possible to determine the target range, while the direction trom the centre or the screen to the target mark makes it poasible to determine the direction to the target from the scanning axis

(lig. 13).

It targets are located in the zone from 12 to 2~o with respect to the scanning axis, the target marks on the indicator screen are accompanied by additional radial marks (zone marks) with a duration of 4 ua (600 m on th.e indicator scale). And it tugets are in the zone between 24 and 360 with respect to the scanning axis, these m~ks have a duration of 10 ps (1500 m)~ The mark of a target situated in the zone from 0 to 12° with respect to the scanning axis is not accompanied by the zone Ilark~

The identification mark makes it possible to distinguish friendly targets from bostile targets. It is .shaped from the signal cowing from. set CP30-2 b1 the identifi-

15

cation mark circuit. Set CF30-2 is started by a pulae of the synchronization syste. when switch INTERROGATION (Dr!POC) is turned. on, The reply signal of the Bet appears only when the target is friendly. When the identification system the !~iendly target marks on the indicator sereen are accompanied by additional wide !larks ei·im.ated faZ'th~X' than the m.ain marks.

The lock-on range mark on the scr.een is displayed in the form of a ring with a derkened arc in the upper pa:rt.

When locked on~ all the targets situated in the area scanned by the antenna are displ~yed on t.he indicator ·screen in the form or rings, the ring of the tracked t being divided into ·I;.hree arcs.

Provision is made in the radar for manual and automatic shift of the scanned in azimuth by means or coupling a differential selsyn between the Tll-lA transmitting sels;yn and receiving selsy.u CHl-6 of the anbenna, The manual shift is effected with th~ aid of knob ZONE SHIFT (C~. 30HU) ~y means of turning the rotor or differential sels1ll. C.H6-1 through an angle of. ±,300.

The automatic shift of the sca.nned area through an angle of ±.200 VO is effected with the aid ot the scanned area azimuth automatic shirt control circuit which, in synchronism with the deflection or the reflector, connects chokes to the open ends of the stator windings of' eelsyn CH6-1~

Vhell the antenna head pa.sses from the mode of space scazming to the mode of directing the antenna to the target~ the antenna stopa its scanning function and starts the sighting runction.~ which means that the deflection of the reflector from ita tien axis (the axis of the antenna head) discontinues (the rotating reflector is kept In the zero posItion) while the rad.iato!' atarts rotating, its axis being detlected with respect to the antenna head. The direction of the sighting antenna head to the target can be effected both lllanually by the operator and automatical1;Y$

When the antenna head is manually directed to the target, the indication of the ent;erm.a-positiolli.:ng mark ' .. ));1 the indicator screen is effected by means of supplying the deflection coils of the cathode-l.'aytube with the vol.tage taken from the positioning pctentiollletel's which axe lIlechanically coupled with the '.rTI~"l.A. control panel.

Jlor manual d~.X'ec t:i. on at' the antenna. head. to the target; 1 use 1.8 mad.e of synchronous coupling bet .... een the I9.z·ilxmth and tilt tranSJIli tting selsyns mechanically linked with the 'l":11-·1A control panel BJ'i6: the receiving selsyns of the antenna (azimuth sels;rn CHl-6 and tnt; seJ.syn CHl-5)"

'olhen the handles and the control panel of TIl··ll a..:r.e rotated~ voltages are set up across the rotors of the receiviug selsyns. The amplitude and the phase of the volt~ ages depend on the tl.irecti''")ll of the antenna-posi tiioning knob rotation.

These voltages are amplitied by the antenna-positioning voltage amplifier and supplied to the input of the azimuth and tilt commutators which also receive the rectangular pulses of the reference voltage w~ltivibrators+ As a. result or interaction between the voltages picked up from the rotOl.OS of selsyns CHl-6 and CHl-5 and the referenCe voltage pulses in the azimuth and tilt commutators, the outputs of the latter produce rectified voltages \those lFalll!;! and .sign depend on the value and the direction of rotation of the TrI-IA control panel and handles.

The output voltages of the commutators are amplified by the direct current amplifiers (YIlT) and by the amplidynes (3MY)~ and they are Bupplied to azimuth and tilt electric motors Ml-2 and HI-I. The electric motors rotate the sighting antenna head until the voltage acrOBS the roters of selsyns CHl-5 and CHl-6 becomes equal to zero. i.a.9 until the antenna is brought into coincidence with the positions of the handles and the control panel ot TIl-lie

16

To provide stability in operation ot the antenna-positioning electromechanical system, ~se is made ot a damping system consisting of damping signal amplifiers (1nC) through whieh a negative feedback is effected between the amplidynea and the direct eurrent amplifiers.

At some instant, when directing the antenna to the target, the radio beam encounters the target and the pulses reflected from the target get through the antenna to the input ot the recal viog channe'l ,

Just like in the mode or scanning, the reflected pulses are converted into intermediate-frequency pulses, amplified in the IFA-30~ detected, and amplified by the video amplifier.

From the output ot the jamming rejection circuit, they are supplied to the automatic angular loek-on device, while trom the output oX the 'r.ideo amplifier they are supplied through the range selector to the iuputo! the error signal separation circuit.

The automatic angular lock-on device receives also a lock-on range pulse. It is due to this pulse that the automatic lock-on device is caused to function only by the pulses of such targets which are 8i tuated lid thin the lock-on range~ The loek-on range is set by the operator with the aid of knob LOCK-ON RANGE (llAnbH9 3AXB.) depending on , the level of the interfering effect produced by the reflections from ground objects. The automatic Lock-on devi.ce functions and sn tahes over the radar from the antennaposi tioning mode to ·the tracking mod.e , The functioning of the automatic lock-on device is indicated by lamp LOCK-ON (3AXBAT)~ which starts glOwing, and by the change~ over of the indicator from the mode of the antenna head axis indication (in case or manual antenna. positioning) to the mode of tracked target indication.

When the target is locked on in angular coordinates, relay P3Y of the automatic a~lar lock-on device operates. Manual positioning selsyns CHl-6 and CHl-5 get disconnected from the antenna control circui.ts and the control of the antenna is passed

• to the target; angle tracking circuit t wi tb. the reflector movement c:ontrol circuit keeping the :;:>eflectoI' iLl ·the zeJ.:'(l posLtion. The L'adiator of the antenna continues rotating.

T,./hBn the radiator is rotating, the- antenna bealli discribes in space B. conical sur!ace who Be axis coincides with the reflee tor axis (Fig. 22).

In this caae , the target which is !lot located on this axis is illuminated duriD.g a single r"nrolu:tion of the bealll by pulse", oJ:: ,",J.ect-:t''!.)Jll&gnetic energy whose intensi ty varies.

Tberefore the axnpli tude of the reflected signal also varies. The amplitude varies accorcung to a periodi!'! law which is alm.{)st like the sinusoidal law9 the amplitude variatj_on frequeuc;.v (thfl modulatic:a frequency) being equ.al to radiator rotation rate fsc'

It is obvious that the farther the target is shifted Yith respect to the axis of the scanning cone (the reflector axis)t the greater is the pulse modulation depth. The phase of the r€flected pulse amplitude envelope is determined by the direction in

which the target is shifted from the equisignal direction~ downwards, to the lett, to the right~ etc. (Fig~ 23). When receiving reflected radio pulses whose amplitude e~ges with time~ the output of the receiver video amplifier produces video pulses whose amplitude varies according to the same law which governs the variation or the a~litude of the radio pulses at the input of the receiver.

These video pulses pass through the range selector and then they are converted in the error signal separation circuit into an alternating voltage whose frequency is eqaal to ths ratE'> of the antenna beam rotation and whose amplitude and phase are

.}

:,~,:

17

determined by the angular shift o! the target with respect to the equisign&l directi This voltage is called the error signal. If the amplitude of the reflected pulses does not var,r with time, which is the case when the target is situated in the equisignal direction there will be no error signal.

The error signal voltage is amplified and converted into two opposite-phase voltages supplied through the P3Y angular lock-on relay to the azimuth and tilt eommutators.

18

Mounted on the antenna radiator rotation axle are two magnets of inductors. The coila of the inductors are 900 apart and produce two pulses whose recurrence frequency is equal to radiator rotation rate fac• The pulses of the inductors trigger the azimuth and tilt reference voltage multivibrators.

The rectangular pulses of the multivibrators are supplied respectively to the azimuth and tilt commutators.

As a result of interaction between the error signal and the reference voltage pulses in the commutators, the outputs of the latter put out rectified voltages whose value and sign depend on the extent and the direction to which the target is shifted from the reflector axis.

The voltages from the outputs of the azimuth and tilt commutators are amplified by the direct current amplifiers (YUT) and by the amplidynes (~MY) and then supplied to the azimuth and tilt electric motors rotating thereby the antenna head in the direction of error signal decrease, i.e., in the direction of bringing the antenna head into line with the direction to the target. To eliminate self-oscillations of the antenna head in the angle tracking mode, use is made of a damping system consisting of damping signal amplifiers (Y~O). Through this system~ a negative feedback is effected between the amplidynes and the direct current amplifiers.

In order to provide a reliable accurate tracking of the target, the receiving channel should transfer. the modulation.of the target signals ~ithout distortion of its phase and modUlation factor under any conditions and in case of Rn7 variations of the amplitude of the signal caused by the target being tracked. For this purpose, the radar uses selected-target pulse AGO (pulse AGe). The pulse AGO changes the IiA-30 amplification depending on the mean amplitude of the tracked target signal, p~ovideB a distortionless passage of the modulated target pulses through the receiving channel, and suppresses any parasitic modulation or the error signal (i.e., the modulation by a frequency which differs from rae).

The automatic antenna positioning is performed in the following way. HOlUlted on the antenna are reflector rotation transmitting rotary transtormerBTl-2 and re~lector deflection transmitting rotary transformer BTl-l which, with their signals summed up~ put out the coordinates of the reflector and, consequently, the position of the beam in space with respect to the antenna head axis~

In additiont there are antenna head position picko!ts: two potentiometers Rl-l (ot tilt) and Rl-2 (of azimuth).

The coordinates of the reflector and of the antenna head are supplied to the azimuth and tilt phase detectors where they are summed up and converted into direct voltages whose values determine the complete coordinates of the beam in azimuth and tilt with respect to the aircraft axis, and these voltages are supplied to the memory circui tao

The target pulses are supplied to the hostile target generating circuit~ When a hostile target is detected in the scanned areat this circuit produces a hostile target pulse and sends it to the autom.atic antenna-positioning device. The lst·ter operates, starts thereb~ the azimuth and tilt target coordinate .emory circuit9~ ehanges the

There az-e t;ll., follo'riu:i; <!;ijltu~l fUliction",:';" :1oelatioll!.i iX.lbhe 1."8.:.2g.a n.Yl.der~

'J:b.oe 'Vall.H;~ by which the aO~fjo.lll$d :~'!,.1J..b<'; pul",c::,,, shaped hy the rauge pulse gen~:i:'·a.'\;o~.· delayed with l'espect to the ~.'l'ta-".'·l; pUJ.ses :w:!.L)';'esponds -[;0 ;;;ne va Lue of th0 inGe·gl"c;:.t·()]_· output ·vl)J.tegs. T'JJ.UfJ~ as 'clla in.tegrstoJ:" iJU·("ym.'; 'vQl';;a3s chan.ges.) the delay of the; ~"aE[<;e

· pulses Chi",~:q;·:,;s, 'l;oo~

When the $.t'.tol!:!8.tie angular lock-on dffvice f·~·4n;Yi.ious~ its relay F3Y sui t • chee Oil

the range search circuit .rihicD. causea tU0 iK!.tegl.~ator outPI;:''l; voltage to vary in accordance wL:;i the sa1olrtooth. 1&,#.

In this cs.set the range pu.lses start changing, froIl). oue repetition period to another, their delay ... i to :,r:'eepect to the start pv.ls<:1s 'wi tohi.,. 'l;he limits f:roll!. 2 too 4{1 ps.

The z-ange PllL18S se~m to be llIo'iiing aloDg ta..·~ "ti:.:4e axis \tTi thin these lil1i tE;~

It' 'I.;b.e ;ra..:lga pulses and the target J',(ollses I£ppli.,d to the automatic:: z-ange lock-,tHl

device ;;;niue-ide wi·t;:\l each other (whh:b. .... rill QbVi.Oll occuz- if ·t.;he d~lay of the rans:;;

pulses is equal to that ui" the tru.~get pulsss '",itt :t'?3:Pf:r;;t. totb.e iOItaJ'.°t :pulses), theli. the aul;cJi.!tt:Lc range lock-on device ~iriU. operata" As a. ~refl'J.H; ~ the iJ:l'r.e!:<;:ra:i;or cta:;.:'t" being co'lt;r.'o11edby the Ct)i:u~j.d",n()(., ci:t'cn':.t:;;, ·,·r.l::d.;;;;t\hl'CB12S that the :C'aD.ge finder" pastrolil~he search mode to the mode of' targtd;; tl'acLing in range.

In the tracking mod~, ·the range finder operatea 8.S rol1owa~

The range pulse (the so-called first range pulse) is applied to the first-pul'iliO coincidence circuit. The z-ange pulse d.el!?,yed by O.~ ps in the delay line (the 130 .. call ed

· an.tellll& ope-Tation froa scanning to eigllt:l..n§.h aud eoufplea antenna cont1:'c,l to th.e !!emor;r circuit~

For memorizing the vol tagea corresponding to the beam coordinates t the memoy?" cil"'cuits are conductive only for a rew milliseconds when the beam is directed to the target; they send these vol tagea to the direct cur-r-en.t 8lIlplifier cireui ts througl:l eoru,· pensating positioning potentiometers Rl-3 (of' tilt) and Hl-4 (of azimuth) installed

· on the antenna.

The sliders of compensating potentiometers Rl-, and Rl-4 are mechanically linked with the a:utenna hee.do

The automatic antenna~poBitioning eircuit ope~ates in such a way that a single position of the compensating potentiometer slider and, consequently, a defi-· te position of the ant~nna head at which there is no unbalance between the currants

of the direet current amplifiers correspond to a definite memorized voltage and , condefini te pOSition of the target wi'(;h respect to the scanning axis.

As long as there is no such a eo].·re8pondenc0~ the1.'e \'Jill be an unba.Lanee between currants of the direct current Bl11pliii1!rs, and. ~he ele.;tric motors 1;)'ill rotat;e

ant anna he ad (until it gets <lirected 'GO the memorized 'poBi'!;iou of the tar·get).

\Jhen the antenna. head gets di;L"eeted to the t8ll."get, the angulaJ:" lock-QD of the tuget will occur and the system will start tracking the target.

With the target being tracked, the angular posi~ion or the antenna head (ipe.,

the angular coordinates or the target) is introduced iatp the computer with tb.a aid of: tour transmitting aelsyns CH1-l thrOu.gh CHl-4 'Muich are coupled wi·till the antenna head azimuth and tilt :..:"educere,

A.fter the te.re;et is locked on in aUgJ.l1ar coordinate 6, the range finder starts operating, which serves for deteTiiliniug the target range (th" distance to i 1,;) and the "'peed of the target (the :i~ange der11..vati'o/e)o

The :range f5.nder io;; an eleci:x·olli¢ follo1,wl-'up system c(lllsis'i:oing of an in·tegratCl~' ~ :;" and range pulse coincidence circuits.;; aud a o.ex'i~

19

20

second range pulse) is applied to the second-·pulse coincidence c.ircuit~ Applied to both coincidence cirouits also is the target pulseu

If the target pulse coincides wit;h the range pu Laea , the output Df the coincidence circuits produces two pulses whose duration and amplitude are determined by the accuracy wtth ·l'7hi ch the first Dr the second range pulse coincides with the ta.:r-get pl:l1se. These pulses az-e applied iu oppo sd, te pol0.1.'i t:L~s to the inpvi; 1Of' the difference detector Df the deri vati 'Ie eir~u.H;o T'.Q0 (Ef?el~er.ce dGtee;toZ' separates Go v·o! te.ge proportional tc the difference between the V8.3.uss of these pu Lee a, '!'l:.is voltage controls integ:!C'atorcperation tb.r<Hllgb. the amp:ti.f:Ltn" 0:' ):;h8 deTi vuti ve circu.i tv

In this e aae , the :Lr.~tegrat;oX" cp::':2a-G6f:l Hl;) :i:oJ.lGwa. The vo11;a.ge at; the cm.tp'IJ.t of the integrator grows if the t;s ... :r'ge~; :pulse coinc;~(\';-s 1:1':1 th the firs~; z-ange pt'.lss to e greater extent than with the second range pulse ~ L I~, ~ 'Jhc'D. the te::::"get appz-oachaa, The target pu l.ae therewith seem,s to be cm.cin~ on to ·Gb.(" fiI's'!; x'ar.gc J?l11s8o ~:t is cb- ... ViOU.f; that tee highe:;.' is the closing speed of 'Ghe ta:.:'ge""J '(j'he De'ctG:;:' '(;11(", ';;az'get pu.:).se coincid.0S with the :first range pulse 9 the greater 'l;>d_11 01;> the cont:!'ol vcl':G:J_ge takey.J. from tbe difference d.et;ectoZ'~ and -(;l.~e quicln:l:l:' the illte8,.:l:'&tor (m:l;plJ.-" ·~]'o;U;E'.g,~ '-",il:-_ in~· crease.

,as the output voltage i!u.:)~easee 9 the &eJ.a;y of the range plJ.:'..ses '".:!!o;;:t )'."p.s?ect t.:) the sta:r'i; pulses decz-easee , Leo t the rs.nge pulses move in the 1"';&'RER (EJlIi~~) ro.ree-> tion, therebY' tracking the tru.~get,.

If the closing speed of the target is e9ua:i.. to zero 9 the voltage 8C2:'0108 the dif-· fel'fm.ce de) :'ecto:r output is also equ.al to zero and the range voltage does not change" In this case ~ the range pulse-s de no·t enange taei:r dela,y with :1;"eSI,I8ct to th9 start pu16a~

Hence ~ in the mod" of. tax-get l';ll'aek:i.ng La Z'Slge 0 the ()';l.'i>p1l!.ti l.1'onJ:tage tor is a v·;)ltsge directly P7'OpOJ..~tiOll~~ to ths :;,·s.nge (it is callec. ~'ll:'ru:lge volta.ge"'). '.i~e o'utput ~TO]/liage -of' the 02j_ffere:ace deteeto:r iB e..ireetly :y:r©poztiorr.Etl to "t;ll.e

elo .. i.ng i.3peed$ It i.s ampli.f:hH] lou-sC1. lis(~d as 11 :;'~W.gc2 deL~i '1rati'if0 (l'ol'{;age (closing; .apeed voltage).

1.t the ~a.nge lock-oJ:.[ :;reh.y CPoM) opez-anes , th.e :r'ang6 vol"tage is appJ5ed t( .... ·~hc

X"ange follot.,1--1'_P syste»t.. 1:'11le:re:J iD. ac.co:e'a.,~l.~1.~~ ?~ii \';1;, thit~1 v(.~~l-~af;t::: ~J r;.~l(~~~t~i::icl :1j7;O·~a.~,~ llfJj.:~ .... 1 tw.~..s -t;;he slidGI's of t;h'l:! !'D.uge pote}:l.tioIDet<;;;rso r.N1i3 r~sis',::a.uc;,::, pzcportiib,;;.a.l -GO thO'

tuget :!'e;ag;e 9 tf3 iut1.·oduc;;;it ':lith t;he aif.'. of the po1,entimlErte;ro 13\:01'')1'3 ilJ.tc ''::;26 1';};:cn;<f.p.-iate devices oJ' ·t;hG ail"<;X'uft; 8.)::mer<leut. GJTfi'!;eJ.il.c

If a nece saf ty arises to start t;;r.ack:Lag !illo'!;u'eI' i.;R;!:'set lo(;.st;ed :til th~ 5a.ltle il..i7.:',."r;tion but at a different t'l.i.st ance ~ then ·l;he opergto;r.' 3e'~,:3 ::m:U:;cn N.E!LEi.E0 •. _ Efl!?TB'.E.'E (Blllil:E - .t.1I..ITblllE) to th~ respective po sf ti()n~

As a roe sul t ~ the automat5 ... c range f.od!;··<m devxe e 5. S .6,,;1. tchell ott ~ i~hiJ.e the Y'8.Y-'.ge finder c:ireui tzoy :provides a free moveraerrt of' the rW.ge p,llses ant].l th.e (\'.e::Jir·:!o. is locked on , i. e. ~ the aeaz-ch in range beginso

'dhel1 the range Lock+on X'ela;y a:ge:r",.~~e8 in orde: ... to tl/j'f.1J.ate the yulse l~.G:\ ,-,,::1(; to provide shaping of the ma.rk of th~ h:lGh:ec1~o:n t<L'('ga·t ;i.11 ;;:01?.Il.30, the Z'f).X!.g'3 :'-r:iti,:atio::J. cui t shapes a pu.lse which coincide:o; in i;;i)'!'J,,~ ·tllth tIl::" lock"d-on tsZ'get~ P'I.~:.~~G,

When the target is locked on , 'GhG hOBt2_le targ8t seJ:1s.:t.~atio!1 (j~_?'()lX;ct :.;)).1'(;.," Gut 8, vol'-:~<lge or ~230 v whi,,::h is 3.:pplted to ·the a1.'.ta)!,\1ai;i,,:: fj.1~>~e"=-,('!ontrq)1 c.3~!ice ~>~ }?I:repf-_:_?~8 i..t

to", operat:l..on~

In addi t;ion~ 'l;fheu the range Lock-son ::elay O:Pf~~~&tes., G. z-ange voltaCe';: i,~ clz() ~'l.pplied to the automatic fire-contxol device~ 1I.nd 'When the tB,rget 8.PJl:::'o8.chec to ··'.;he a.imed fire re.nge~ the automatic i'iX'e--control device operates ana. st"aJ:'ts peri.od.iea12.y (for the time of' 1 to 2 aeconda, at intervals of 1 to 2 seconds) a.,~1tve:'ing a voltage of +27 V to the fire"open.:tng cdz:>cu.:!.to

When knob INDICATION ON is depressed, indication of the angular position ot the locked-on target is etfected with the aid of the degree scale ot the indicator by applring a voltage proportional to the deflection ot the locked-on target trom the aircraft flignt direction to the deflection coils.ot the cathode-ray tube,the voltage tuen trom potentiometers Rl-l3 and Rl-14.

The generation of the target angular speede by radar llPG-3 is eftected wi th the

. aid of the angular-speed gyro l>ieltotfs installed on the gyro platrorm. The g3ro platform provides movelllen~ .ot the gyro pick.orrs with angular speeds corresponding to the a~lar speeds ~t the target relative movement. lor this purpose, control ot the ~o plattorm is etfected trom. the radar antenna tracking the target through the selsyn ~hronous tollow-up system. The movable part ot the gyro platform provides movement of the angular-speed gyro pickoffs in two planes (horizontal and vertical) with the

aid of the respective drives (of azimuth and tilt) which are independent ot each other.

The radar anteuna mounta transmitting selsyn~ tor angIllar position ot the antenna head in azisuth (CBl-2. CHl-4) and in tilt (CRl-l, CRl-3) which are mechanically ~oupled with the respective redUcers at the antenna. 1he stators·ot these selsyns are electricall,. connected with those ot the respective receiving selsyns (CHl9-lt CHl9-2 for aziauth and CH19-3, CHl9-4 tor tilt) installed on the grN plattorm.

The azimuth and tilt drives are constructed on the principle ot a two-channel I:JSte., lIhich means that the sels;yn coupling between the gyro platto1"ll and the antenna il etteeted through coarse and tine channels. Hounted on the antenna and on the gyro plattorm are aelayne with a gear ratio ot 1 : 1 (CHl-l, CHl-2 and CBl9-1, CHl9-3) tor the coarse channel. and se1syns with a gear ratio ot 1 t 31 (CBl-3, CB:l-4 and CRl9-2. C1U9-4) for the fine channel. The tine channel provides a high accuracy with which the .~able part ot the grro platformtollows the antenna head, but it admits false matched positions (which occur ever,t 11°,6'). The coarse channel serves for eliminating these tuse matchinge. Change-over from one channel to the other is etfected by a selection circuit.

The azi.uth drive and the ·tilt drive are id3ntical, there tore described below 1Iill be onl,. the azimuth one. "When the antenna head tracks a target in azimuth, the rotors of the azimuth transmitting selsyna rotate, producing an electric error

8i~ in the circuitol the receiving sels7D roters. The error signal i8 proportional to the angle ot rotation of the antenna head in azimuth~

The error signal is amplified by :the l'espe~t;'v", amplitiers (the tine channe], ampliner, the coarse channel amplifier, the power !uD.pli!ie.I') and then it is supplied to the electric motor ot the gyro platform azimuth drive. The electric motor turns the movable part ot the gyro plat!orm,on which the gyro pickoffs are mounted, in the direction of decrease or the error signal, and continues to turn it until the error signal becomes equal to zero, i.e~t until the gyro platform movable part is in the position matched with the antenna head position. The angular-speed gyro pickoff responds only

to the angular speed of movement in azimuth and supplies the com.puter of the aircraft U'IIIament system with a current proportional to the angular speed or the antenna head

. lovement in azimuth.

Hence, in the mod9 of target tracking b7 the antenna, the gyro pickotts put out the relative angula;- speed ot the target.

21

IV. COMPOSITION AND CONSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN OF RADAR

Radar npc-~ consists of 25 constructionally completed units which are electri connected between one another by a system of cables (unit ~-15). The radiounits are connected between one another by means of waveguides.

The arrangement of the equipment in the units takes into account the functional relation between separate components of the radar.

Used as a basis for th~ constructional design of the radar is the principle of combining the circuits and assemblies in functional channels with due regard for arranging the radar in aircraft with the cable system having the minimum length and quantity of w~res. The units of the radar have abbreviated scribed 00 the Manufacturer's name plates of the units and io the technical for example: ~-l, ~-l9, 2APl7-9A, etc.

The number that follows the dash in these designations denotes the unit the radar. for example: 2AK-l is the first unit in radar DFC-).

The assemblies, tubes, parts and other items installed in the units are U~~~I~UB by letters which denote the abbreviated names of the items, by tigures which number ot the_unit in which the item is installed, and by the reference number item according to the schematic diagram ot the unit, tor example: CHl-2 is the se selsyn in unit ~-l, RlO-9 is the ninth resistor in unit 2AK-IO, etc.

Radar rIPC-:3 includes the following unitsl

- Unit 2AI-l (the antenna) which contains mechanisms and motors for turning the. antenna head, for rotating and deflecting the reflector, tor rotating the radiator, selsyns for directing the antenna and generating angular positions of the target,

antenna-positioning and indication potentiometers and rotary transformers. .

- Unit 2A2 (the transmitter) which contains a magnetron oscillat~r and a ~U'~~J.G~!

- Unit 24K-3 (the receiving. jamming rejectio~ and syncbroni~8tion uni~)

~r,a installed components serving for intermedi8t~rrequency amplification, protection. synchronization., and automatie gain contrQl. - Unit ~-3 which contains 14 separate electrical-circuit assemblies haviMg their ol.:n designations.

- Unit 2.lU(.-'" (the iM.icatol.', which is composed ot a. cathode-ray tube with focusing and deflecting coils, and 6 video amplifier.

- Unit aqK-5 (the ~onneetion box) which contains components for switching the circuits serving for contro~~ monitoring, antenna pOSitioning, tracking, couplin~ ot the radar with sight TU-IA, and deliveT,1 or data to the computer.

- Unit ~-6 (the control panel).

- Unit ~-7 (the control and monitoring panel) on which are arranged radar

controls, a measuring instrument, and switches which make it possible to check operation of all the channels of the radar.

Unit 2AP17-9A (the amplidynes)w

- Unit ~-lO (the angle tracking unit). Mounted in this unit ares automatic angular lock-on device~ error signal separation circuit, azimuth and tilt commutators, reference voltage multivibrators, antenna-positioning voltage amplifiers, change-over multivibrator, direct current amplifier·s, and damping signal amplifiers.

- Unit ZAl-ll (the range unit). Mounted in this unit arel range pulse generator. coincidence circuit, range derivative circuit with difference detector, integrator, range search and search starting circuit, range selector. speed selector, lock-on indication circuit, automatic lock-on device, and range follow-up system.

22

- Unit ~-12 - the supply unit with rectifiers and electronic stabilizers of voltagesz +230 V (st.), -230 V (at.) ~. +300 V (at.).

- Unit l2A (the indicator supply unit with +600O-V and +600-V rectifiers).

- Unit 2AK-13 (the mark and range sweep unit of the indicator). Mounted in this

unit are: circuits shaping the zone, identification, lock-on range marks and the marks of locked-on targets, mixer of mark and target pulses, hostile target generating circuit, range sweep generator~ and synchronization and brightening circuit.

- Unit 20K (the high-voltage rectifier of voltage 17 kV for supplying the magnetrOIl).~

Unit ~-22 (the radio-frequency receiving unit). The unit includes: discharger, signal and automatic frequency control balance mixers, klystron local oscillator, intermediate-frequency preamplifier, automatic frequency control preamplifier, and lIutomatic frequency control system.

- Unit ~-24 (the box of supply circuit fuses).

- Unit 2nK-25 (the waveguide line).

- Unit ~-26 (the klystron supply unit with -300-V and -600-V rectifiers).

- Unit ,D;K-28 - the supply unit with rectifiers and stabilizers of voltages~

+120 V (st.), +150 V (st.), -150 V (st.); and a stabilizer of voltage 115 V, 380 to 900 Hz.

- Unit ~-29 (the automatic antenna-positioning unit). Mounted in this unit are: control and lock-on circuits, memory circuits, tilt and azimuth phase detector. automatic fire-opening circuit, and scanning circuit.

- Unit .D;K-19 (the gyro platform). Arranged in this unit are gyro pickoffs for target angular speeds in azimuth and in tilt.

- Unit ~-30 (the unit of amplidynes which amplify the signals sent to the gyro platform) .

- Unit ~-31 (the connection box which couple the angular speed generating units with the defensive armament system).

- Unit AK-32 (the gyro platform amplifier).

As to their construction, the units are composed either of separate removable standard assemblies or of separate removable mounting panels.

The mounting panels are fastened to the frame of the chassis. The chassis has a removable cover and a bottom. Unit· 2,[U{- 3 represents constructionally a framework whose upper portion ,mounts removable standard assemblies.

All the units in which electron tubes are usedg and also unit 2MK-7 are mounted OIl shock-absorbing frames with shock absorbers, t:roe A/1,.

- Unit 2A2 and unit ~-22 are mounted on a common shock-absorbing frame.

Antenna unit 24K-l is coupled with units 2A2 and 2AK-22 with the aid of wave~~ide line 2.4K-25.

These units (2AK-l, 2A29 ~-22, and 2aK-25) and unit 20K are pressurized, and in flight st an altitude higher than 3 kIn additional pumping is needed for them.

All the control and check members of the radar are arranged in units ~-6, 2A.K-7 and 2,qK-4. The fuses of the supply circuits are located. in fuse box 2,iJ,K-24 ,.hicn has blown-fuse indicating lamps.

2,3

Y. SYNCHRONIZATION AND NONSYNCHRONOUS l:'ULSE J Al'IT1ING REJECTION CHANNEL

A. PURFOSE

The synchronization and nonsynchronous pulse jamming rejection ad for timing the operation of the radar devices, for synchronizing the CP30-2 set identification system~ and for protecting the automatic devices and the indication cha=el against nonsynchronou.s pulse jamming.

Bo ~JlT~ TECHNICAL ~nARACTERIBTICS

(a) The synchronizing pulse repetition frequency is f'rG

(b) The passing-through of noneynohr-onous pulse jaJllllli.ug at frequencies up to 6000 Hz is exc.Iud ed , The passing-through of jamming having frequencies higher than GOOO Hz is possible Qnly at such frequencies multiple: of the radar pulse recurrence frequency. In this case, the pass-band does not exceed 2 per cent of the jamming pulse recurrence frequency.

(c) The 6.1npli tude of the master blocking oscillator pulses is no+ less than 60 V '.Iith a duration of not less than 10 p s ,

of the sweep triggering pulses is not less than 40 V.

of the synchronizing pulses is not less than 70 V with a dura-

tioD.

Cd) 'I'oe amplitude
(e) The amplitude
of 1 to 4- P.R.
(f) The amplitude
{g) The e.mplitude of the s-~ar7; pulses is 130 :~g V with. 8. duration of 0.6 iD.l ps of the negative gate pulses is not less than 30 V with a dura-

t i on of 65 :l;,5 118"

(h) The amplitude of the tf'.rget pulses sent to the automatic lock-on devices (cormecto:r13 63 and. 67) is not less than 25 V with a dur-at i on of not longer than 1 us , (i) S:he am.pli tude of ';'ae target pu.I se s sent to the indication channel (connect-or 0:;3) :1.:: not hoss t;har., 20 V wi th R au.ration of n.at longer the.ll L p.:;, ,.

~Cb.~,,; cham..1~1 .i s composed of;,

(,~ ~ r:aE,_:-'~;;2r blocking os':;il:Le.~;o:.[' cirClti t (aBhe,~lJl;r 3Cf1 in unit; 2AK .... 3) 1

(b) s·weep trigger-in;:; pulse genez-at or- c,ir~!"(li_ t (a_;:~sc~Eb::::~'!'" 4Gd iZl uni.t 2./..l.X~"); (c) f;:tff!ep aad s,yncl.u:'onizing pulse sb.al;i;lg C:J:l:"~'.L;t (in unit 2.L(K-.13) ~

(d) start pulse Sh3.·,":L.1:.'g ~iJ;'cuj_l.; (in ·LiDi.t: 2.<12),

(5) negat i.ve gate p·c;J._B"; shap:ln3 circui.t (asse!.llbly 2CB ill w:d'i;; 24K-'5); (f) lO-MHz ezci.ter c.i.r-cu.i t (assembly L;·;}3J,:[ Ln )mi"!:; 2.4K-3) t

(g) ultrasonic delay Ella ~r]J3 (1133m3 in unit 2,ll,K- 3);

(h) lO-t'lHz intermediate-frequency ampli.fier (assembly 508 i.L.i. Ullit 2.lUr-3)? (i) corrilllutatoT (assembly 108 In. W2it; 2,L(.K'-3);

(j) delayed-signal video eID.plin~1r3.r.td cat.hod e f"r;,lh',lt'er circuit (assembl;;r i;.G8 :'_n unit 2AK-3);

(k) coincidence c i.z-cu it; (assemb:Ly :5113JJ; in unit 2P,Jr-3);

(1) J.O-11Hz i:otermediate-fl.'eque:a.c:y Dmpl].fier (I.i?i..-'lO) automatic gain corrt z-o L c i.zcu i.t, (a.ss81!l.bly llIT3 in unit 24K-3) 0

D" DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM

The operation and J.tlter2ction of the componezrt s of the sync.hror..izatl (7). a.ad jal!lllling rejectJ..on cha.nn.el is expla~I.led by l;h~ channel functions1 diagram and by the time r-e LatioD.ship d.iagram (b'ig, 11). The 8<'iin CCmp0D.E:nt b' of the synebronization channe L (Figc 9) are as fo:!_lowt:l ~

24

iJJe~t1Yed- .r{!na/ MUffler
~ YideU oh1plili~r lin' - blocking
sweep irrgflerirr§ _. oscillator --
p"'t~.Jrncr~;or (AsSJ3C8)
'/I. :.ry 4C8

Commafalo,..
(Ass] res) .....
+ t \
IFA-/O - UlfrCT~nic Exclfer
and oetector 00;:-
~ a'e!u!lline - (llssy4nSA)
(A..rsySC8)
~"" . .- ./(1 3-3 • L .J
I
\-_~C. nm_1- i"iI"""".l-'M;''''·~I .... ~.·n.-_,·~=·;; ... ._ .... FIG. 9. MASTER BUJCKING OSCiLLATOR SYNCHRONIZATION D~AGRAM

" ~

.,

25

26

- the master blockiDg oscil.l.a.tor (assem.blJ' ,cS in wdt 2JlK-3) which generates positive and negative pulses with an amplitude of not less than 60 V and a duration of not less than 10 ps. The blocking oscillator is started by its own pulse passing through a pulse delay circuit;

- the exciter (assembly 4n~);

- the ultrasonic delay line (na3-3);

- the lO-MHz intermediate-frequency amplifier (IIA-IO, assembly 508);

- the video amplifier and cathode follower (in assembly 408).

The positive pulses of. the master bloc~ oscillator (assemb17 ,08) are applie~ to the exciter (assembly 4U3A).

The exciter generates radio pulse~ or a frequency of 10 MHz, whose duration is equal to that ot the blocking oscillator pulses. The excite~ pulses are appli~ to the input of ultrasonic delay line lIa3-3 which uses two inputs and delays these pulses by Tl and T2 ps. To compensate the attenuation in the line, the radio pulses are supplied to the IO-MHz frequency amplifier (assembly 5ee) where they are amplified and into video pulses which are amplified in assembly 4C8 and used to start the master blocking oscillator. For synchronizing the rad~ with periods T2 and TI successively, only one of the pulses delayed by the delay line should be at the IrA-IO output. For this purpose, the rrA-lO input (assembly 5ea) is commutated by the commutator (a66embly lCS) pulses whose duration is T2 and Tlc The commutator is caused to operate by the trailing edge of the multivibrato,r (in assembly 3C8) pulse which cuts off the blocking oscillator for 250 ~O ps. If it is necessQr,1 to conceal the recurrence frequency

for the sake of radiocamouflage, the commutation of the I~A-IO inputs can be cut ofr

by lIleans of switch B3-l SWING - OFF (KAlJARlm - BBKJI.) t and in this case the synchronization of the radar is provided with period Tl (Fig. 11).

Since the blocking 06cilxator own period is selected to be longer than the delay time ot the u1trasonic delAQ' l1ne, the block:1llg oscillator period depends on the delay time of the ultrasonic delay lin~c

In order to lIl8intain a cOllstant ar-pJ.1tic8tion tactor of I~A-10t use is made of

an automatic gain control circuit whoae operation depends on the pulse of the master blocking oscillator. \/hen the Ili'J.-IO AGO circuit (assembly ll1I31 receives Simullial~ellfilll"'. 1y both the uster blocking oscillator pulses coming from 8888mbl,. 308 and th~ a.e1a;red pulses eQmiD~ from assembly 5Ca, its output produces a negative voltage proportional

to the amplitu.d~ o~ th .• IJ'J..-IO output voltage.

Tni. voltage is supplied to assembly 508 to maintain the ~litication !aGto~ constant.

The positive pulses of the master blocking oscillator are used for shaping the sweep triggering pulses.

~e sweep triggering pulse shaping circuit (assembly 4C8) shapes positive pulses of a 4O-V amplitude. The positive sweep triggering pulses are supplied to unit <AK-l, Where they are applied to the range sweep shaping JIlUl.tivibrator.

The pulses pasa ~rom the multivibrator to the synchronizing pulse shaping circuit. The 87Dchronizing pul •• is shift.d b7 20 !4 pa withreapect to the sweep trigg pIUS. 80 &8 to .ake the sveep sera coincident with the beginning of tranamitter radiation •

.Prom uni"t 2J4K-l3 the synchronizing pulses are supplied through connection" box 2AX-5 to unit ~ where they are amplUied b:r the starting amplifier and are ",sad

. for starting the submodulator.

The submodulator generates start pulses with an amplitude ot l~ ~~ V and a duration or 0.6 ~O.l p$.

(AsS)' rc 8 )

Commufalor IrQm3CB

- lllfrasollic de/u!! line

113-..1

IFA-IO aad defecfor (Ass)' SCS)

--

Exclfer

( Assy 4fl.Jfi)

Profcelt''' pulses II" lar!Je

rromIFA-30

F1G. W. DiAGRAM OF NONSYiKHRCNOUS JAMMING REJECTION IN RADAR

27

-r-. .., . ..._..

V Po.siHve pulses aFmrrJ'fcr6IocKi17.!loJcillafor

l n _ n n

~---,_.t

FIG. 11. TIME REL.AIIONSHIP DIAGRAM

28

~ .~-~. ~~----------------------------------

The start pulse £rom unit 2A2 is supplied through the contacts of relay P5-11

(unit ~-5) to unit ~-3 for starting the leck-on range pulse shaping circuit (assembly SU3A), and through line Ha3-7 (which delays the beginning of the reception with respect to the time of radiation of the transmitted signal) it is supplied for triggering the negative gate pulse ID.ultivibrator (assembly 2C8). In the monitoring mode. 1t 1s supplied through the contacts of: relay P5-12 to the m.onitoring pulse shapiDg circuito

In additionf the start pul.se is supplied to unit 2JT.K-22 :E'or cutting of'f the in.term.ediatefrequency preamplifier for the time when the transnrl. i:;ted pulse is radiated and the

!Fe circuit is si:;a:t1;eo'8 to unit 2JlK-ll for staxt:lng the range pulse generator, to u.nit ~9 to be applied·to the dangerous range generator! and to set CnO-3~

The protection of the radar agains·t ncnsynchr-onoue :pulse jamming and against mutual interference of raciar stations depends on the principle of time selection.

The pulses f.rom the video amplifier (assembly 6fI3A) are applied to one of the inputs of the coinciden.ce circuit (assembly 3113A) ~ while to the other input of tbe coincidence circuit the same pulses are applied and delayed t07: one period in the delay circuit (assemblies 4rr~1 n~ )-'3i 5C8, 4C8~ ria 3-Lf and Jl:a 3-5, see Fig. 10).

The operating conditi.on of t·he Goinc:l.dence cj.rc1.lit ts such that the signals may appear at its output only when the'::;arget pulses at the coincidence circuit inputs coincide I,i th each other in time. Delay lines J13 3-4 and JIa 3--5 are needed for compensating for the shift of the delayed target pulse with respect to the pulse arriving direct··· ly from the video rurtplifier (assembly 6IT3A).

The necessity for compensating for this shift is explained by the existence of

a certain advance of the delayed target pulse due to the fact that the blocking oscillator is triggered by the front edge of the trigger pulse. From the output of the coincidence circuit, the target pulses are supplied to the automatic range lOCK-on

device (unit 2,Qr-ll) and to automatic angular lock-on device (unit 2,LI,K-IO) through delay line n~}-6 and the cathode follower (lu,sembly 2C8) ~ to unit 2Jl.K-13? and to the exciter (assembly 4I1)J:t) :for eumaatn.cn, De Lay line J1::G~6 compensates for the delay of the Lderitificat5.oI! pul.ses arri ring fr()Jfi se'; CP30-2.

Since I;l certain 10;:)5 of ;,;ell.si:ti vi-(;7 occurs iI'. the coincic.8I1Ce {,;ircui t, unit 2,J.K- 3 uses a repeate;i summat.Lon circ,uit~ the protected. sign.als £'r012 the output of the coincidence c i.r-cu.i, t €.:ee again d",li v8red to t'"C.e tnput.,l tLt8 exca tel.' «ws~J).lbly 4H3}},:: ' .• lll=ore

they are 3U'".l!IH"d. u;:; ld.-t;}·, the unprot8Gt:sd puls0s arri7ine; .from the vi.deo s..mplifieI' (as,,~ sembly Sfl3l0.

It is due to such a summatri.cn tb.s.t the; sensit;bdt:y 10SS is compensated for and the relati-Jn §~ is i:ucrea"'''d

UOl.SC . ,"~- "

29

vr , RADIO~'.1!'E;g;gUENCY. AND AlJTOMATIC FREf'UEli'CY CONTROL CHANNEL

--~.~~~~~~~==~==

A. PURFOSE

The radio-frequency and automatic frequency control channel performs the follo~ :::v.g functions:

(a) generation of powerful radio pulses;

(b) reception of the radio pulses reflected from target and conversion of them into pulses of intermedtate .frequ'"Dcy~

(0) maint.enance of constancy 01' the receiving channel intermediate frequency; (d) detection of noise jamming effect on the receiving channel, and change-over o.r the 1~agnetron and klystron .frequencies.

{a) 'l'he operating frequency :range of the magnetron oscillator is M 8

III

Co) Tne duration of radio pulses is 0.45 .±.0.05 1-18 at the level of 0.5

(c) 'fhe radio pul se z-epet.L t ion frequency is f r"

{d.} '.)~he pulse power of the transmitter is Pp1s'

(e) Cj~b.~~ sensitivity of the receiving channe.l , as measur-ed by the disappearance

01' the signal in noise, is n.ot less than 98 dB with respect to 1 rn\l. (f) 'I'h~ klystron frequency change range is Mk~

(g) The intermed.iate frequency is 30 .±.Oo5 MHz.

(h) The accur-acy of maintainj_ug the intermediate frequency constant by the aut cmat Lc freqUE:ilcy cozrt r-o L circuit is not worse than .:':0.5 l.'lHz.

(i) ~!'he number- of the magnetron operating frequencies is 12.

{j) The total time I."equired for changing the magnetron frequency is not more'

Tb~:' cnanne l, is COIDIh)Sed of~

(a) ~;u::=~Bb J~~ w,sgnetx-on high·-})Q·~'-::;:[ radi~) pul t:3 t-;: gell8:rato;'_'" (J12'-7) '\rrl~th t}.l.e modl.l1,'3.,tion

c.8vice (I:2-1..., F2=2. JT2<)~ JI2-5 ~ JI2·-6) ~

~b) :!))~.r:~CDJJ_2. ch'-~o1J.g(:~~Q"}"er switch (TI22.-1);

~c) ~3:i.S,.;al channe-l .!.'adio-pulse .t'requellcy ba18.Ilce mixer (,[\22-1,0422-2); U:_")t;1J.l1able .::rlyst;ron local osc:.illatoI' (1122-2);

(tl) deL AJ!'G channel radio-pulse .frequency 'ba.l ance m.ixer (A22"~3? g22~4);

(f) automatic illte!'rJediate-freque.ll::Y control preamplifier AFCPA !IIYAIF{/ (.l125·~11

J125·0 ... 2, J125 ... ,3) ~

(g) electronic kEG cL.":'cui t {JI2&-l, JY26-2 , JI26-3~ 1J2&-4, J127-1, Ji27-~~~ J127-'3~ .IT which performs electronic tuning 0::: thE; klystron frequency;

(h) <~l\~(~tI'o!l1ecj:1_8_n.icel ft.:FG Cl.ITltit (JT2'!'-5 ~ JJ27-··G~ Jf.27-7 ~ l'IV"22-1, TF'22~2, H::~j~].) -i;.ihich :peri"orm..'5 ~r!.e·~_;rlan~;~cal tt:;_',~ling of the klystron :trequ6nc:r;

(1) electromechanical search cil.·cu.it (P22~2~ K1]23-1~ Kl12-3) which performs :\)ic.c<:~ ctu"":'Jge oX the kl;),stron frequency when. the ugh voltagt: is switched Qi1. and. 'cha~ll.a.gne':;ron. f:c3qllency has been changed.;

(5) Hntomati(~ frsquency Lock-eon device (n25'-4~ 1125-5£ JT2&-5, jJ26-6; J!2&-7., wh.i ch 5w:i:cches crres: the eleC"i;rclllee:':l.a!}ical automatic frequency control Ci.i:·Cllit from tb.<, sear-ch mode "CO U:·,t; follow-up mode and vice versa,

(k) noise ~12mmirlg Tt:,:,ordins ci:t'cu.it (assembly 18IT3t.\ in uuit 2,[tK-3h

30

(1) ms~etron frequency change device (B7-4, P2-5. M2-2, P5-11, K6-2); (m) manual frequency control circuit (P22-4, R7-11, B7-7).

D. DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONAL DIAG~

The functional diagram of the radio frequency and AFe cbannel is presented in the Album of .Functional Diagrams.

The synchronizing pulses delivered from unit ~-13 to unit 2A2 are amplified by the starting amplifier (1/2 of »2-6, »2-5) up to a voltage of 170 V which is sufficient for making the Bubmodulator conductive. In the intervals between the pulses, the submodulator is cut off by a negative voltage of -120 to -130 V.

The pulses arriving from the output o£ the starting amplifier cause the submodulator to conduct , The output winding of the submodu1.ator pulse transformer produces poBitive pulses having an amplitude of· 900 to 950 V and a duration of 0.5 ~s which are applied to the control grids of the modulator tubes.

Before the arrival of the pulses from the submodulator, the modulator tubes are

cut off by a negative voltage (700 - 850 V), and storage capacitor C2-18 is charged

from the high-voltage rectifier of unit 20K. When the positive pulse from the submodu·lator is applied to the grids of the modulator tubes, storage capacitor C2-18 is discharged through the modulator tubes and magnetron »2-7, the latter generating a powerful radio pulse which is delivered through the waveguide system to the radiator of the antenna.

A part of the energy reflected from the target is received by the antenna and delivered through the waveguide line to the signal :frequency balance mixer·Ol22-1,

A22-2), which serves as the input stage of the superheterodyne receiver. In the balance mxer, the frequency of the received radio pulse is mixed with the frequency of the klystron local oscillator (n22-2). As a result, the output of the mixer produces an intermediate-frequency pulse whose frequency is equal to the difference between the frequency of the klystron and that of the arriving signal. This pulse is applied to

the intermediate~frequency.preamplifier.

Operation of the transmitter and the receiver using the common antenna is provided by antenna switch RECEIVE - TRANSMIT (IIFHEM - llEPE.IWU).

In the course of radar operation, the frequencies of the magnetron and the klystron may vary .within an appreCiable range. This will result in a change of the difference between them. To maintain the intermediate frequency constant, use is made of an auto~tic frequency control device in unit 2AK-22.

The magnetron pulse weakened by attenuator AT22-l by 65 to 70 dB is supplied together with the TI22-2 klystron oscillations to the APC channel balance mixer (~22-3, A22-4). The output of the mixer produces intermediate-frequency pulses which are amplified by the automatic frequency control preamplifier (tubes JT25-l, TI25-2, TI25-3) and applied to the input of the electronic AFC circuit (»26-1, TI26-2, n26-3, n26-4 , n27-1, Jl27-2, JT27-3, JT27-4).·

The adjusting voltage from the output of the electronic AFC circuit is applied to the repeller of the klystron to adjust the klystron frequency so as to decrease the

:. error.

The initial tuning of the klystron frequency is provided by the electromechanical Bearch circuit, which consists of search relay P22-2, klystron frequency change mechamsm motor reversing contacts KTI23-l, and directional search contacts Kll2-3. wnen the magnetron does not generate, the control winding of klystron frequency change electric . motor I~3-l is disconnected from the search circuit, since relay P22-l of the automatic lock-on device is de-energized. When the magnetron is switched on, its current flowing

31

32

through the coil of relay P2-l produces a positive voltage which makes normally cutoff tube )126-7 of the automatic lock-on device conductive. As a result, relay P22-1 operates and the 115-Y 40Q-Hz voltage is applied across the control winding of electric mo t or- 1'123-·1 through contacts 2 and 3 of relay P22-1, contacts 1 and 2 01' KII2-2 the ccnt acts of search relay P22-2.

Ass1.Ulle t':LSt prior to applying the high voltage to the magnetron, relay P22-2 is de~energized~ .rhieh corresponds to the preceding trum.ng of the magnetron for increasing its frequency. The motor .!ill start rotating in the direction of the normally contact of group D123-1, changing the frequency of the klystron. If the frequency is Dot locked in this cas€1 -the cam mounted on the klystron frequency change mechanism

c Lo se s the normally open corrt ac't of gr-oup Kll23-1 ~ connecting search relay P22-2 to

the ground. The relay operates, :performing self-locking through its contacts 2 and

9~ the normally closed contacts of gl~OUp KfI23-1 and contacts 3 and 4 of group KII2-3" and its contacts 11, 5 and 4? 10 invert _the phase of the voltage across the control Hir.tding of electric ootor M23-1. The electric motor starts rotating now in the direction 0:;" the normally closed con+act, of" group KIT23~1, the frequency of the klystron again changes and, 'when the difference -between the klystron frequency and the magnetrOll frequency becomes equal to the intermediate frequency, the automatic lock-on wi:_l de--ensrgize relay 1'22-1, thereby switching the control winding of electric motor .r123-1 from the search circuit to the output of the electromechanical AFC circuit (to output "finding 8~ 9 of magnet Le aro,plifier l1Y22-1).

The elat.:-troruecnanical AFC circuit consists of a servo-amplifier(n27-5, JJ27-6, rr27~7) 9 magnetic amplii"ier I1Y22-l~ dz-Lve motor M23~l with the klystron frequency mechanism" The output wl.llding of magnetic amplifier ffi722-l is connected with the control winding Qf motor 1'123-1 through the normally closed contacts of relay P22-l. If the frequency of the klys-i:;roll or that of the magnetron change s , the output of the AFG- circuit produces a~~. error volt.age ~;b.ich is supplied to the repeller of klystron 1T22-2 and t(·j the in:Pl1.t o_f the seZ'Vo<-ampJ.i.fier (JI27-6). The output voltage of the servo-ramplifier is .suPFli.ed through the magnetic amplifier to the control winding of motor I123-l of the kly~lt:ron frecIueilcy change mechanism which changes tile Klystron frequency so as

to maintain the constant difference between the frequency of the klystron and that of the magnetroIL For stabilizing the sel"vo--ampJ.ifier~ use is made of a feedback. The; f~)edback vo1.tage is appL:.ed from the output winding of transformer Tp22-2 .to the s amplifier (1I27-5) ~ and is adjusted by means of PQt;entiometeJ:' R22-28. The electromechanical .AJ!C circuit is ~nvitched from the search mode to the follow-up mode by means the autroma't Lc frequency 10 clo-on device (1I25-J}, 1I25-5 ~ 1I26-6, 1126-7, P22-l, 1I26-5).

If the klystron frequency is tuned corr'ectly. the intermediate-frequency pulses 6.1'09 applied from the output ()f the .!FC preamplifier to the input of the lock-Oli eil .... cuf t, '1'1:lb8 JI26-7 gets cut cff~ de-eZlr::rgizing the lock-on relay which switches the control winding of motor M2}-1 fr0m the Search cireui t to the output of the electromechanic.al Me circuit (to the ou+put winding of magnetic amplifier MY22-1).

\.Jhe;2 noise jamming is r-e ce Lved by the radar receiving channel a change of the l1IagnetroD i'requency is effected. The notse jamming voltage is supplied from the output of assembly 6il3A (in unit 4'UC-3) to the input of the jamming recording circuit in. unit 2,1],1>'3. The ja=iug recording circuit consists of selector nlB-l, video amplifier ,)118-2, e.mplitud.e detector JIl8- 3 and controlling tiube )118-4 with P5-11 in the anode circuit. Tube lli2.-1 is nOrt:!lally cu:t off through its control and suppressor grids. !rube m.8-1 am .. pJ.ifie.s the jallllldng si.gnal whose level exceeds thE: threshold of the ja:mm.ing recorder operation,only during the time of action of the lock-on raIlge pulse. The cOllllllutation

of -I.;he jam.ming recorder by the Leek-on. range pulse is required for preventing the jammi_Ci.g indication c i.z cuf.t; from operation unde r the effect oJ.' the pulses reflected from

the ground. Switch B7-4 switches the magnetron frequency change from automatic to manual by breaking the anode supply circuit of thyratron Rl8-4.

When the automatic frequency change is in operation, the recorder is responsive

to such noise jamming the amplitude of which exceeds 18 ±2 V. In this case, the thyratron n18-4 current pulse causes relay P5-l1 to operate. One group of contacts of P5-1l

(2! 3) is used to actuate relay P2-5 of the magnetron frequency change mechanism. Another group of the contacts (5t 6) breaks the circuit which delivers a start pulse to

unit ~K-3, because of which the receiver becomes cut off.

When operating, relay P2-5 performs self-locking through contacts 1 and 2 and through group KIT2-1. The interlocking circuit remains effective until the magnetron frequency change mechanism performs a certain angle. After the mechanism has performed the complete angle required for the frequency change, this group of contacts removes

a voltage of ... 27 V from relay P2-5. to switch the motor into the dynamic braking condition.

In addition to the above-mentioned contact groups~ the magnetron frequency change mechanism has two more groups o~ contacts K112-2 which Bwitch off the transmitter and stop the klystron electromechanical search during the change of the magnetron frequency, and also a group of contacts (KIT2-3) which dictate the direction for the n22-2 klystron electromechanical search.

The directional-search contact group (KIT2-3) consists of two normally open and two normally closed contacts. Depending on the direction in which the magnetron frequency is changed during switching to a new frequency of the program, either one or the other group of contacts functions, breaking or closing the circuit which switches on electromechanical search relay P22-2.

As a result, the search is oriented in the proper direction prior to the switchingon of the transmitter (i.e.~ at the time when the transmitter is tuned to the new frequency of the program).

In the mode of manual frequency control without switching on the high voltage,

the voltage of +27 V is suppliedt:hrough contacts :3 and 5 of relay P7-1 to relay P22-4. Relay P22-4 operates, and the control grid. of tube JT.27-7 of the servo-amplifier gets connected through contacts 5 and 11 to follow-up potentiometer R23-1 to which a negativo voltage is supplied through contacts 2 and 9 of relay P22-4. The error signal taken from potentiometer R23-1 sets the klystron to the middle point of search and holds it there.

In the mode of manual frequency contral, contacts 7 end 12 of relay P22-4 switch the klystron repeller from the output of the automatic frequency control circuit to resistor R7-11 FREQUENCY (qacTOTA) which sets the required frequency of the klystron within the generation range.

In the mode of manual frequency change, when knob FREQUENCY CHANGE (K6-2 on unit ~-6) is depressed, capacitor C5-1 is connected to divider R5-1, R6-4, which has just been formed up, and starts being charged. The charge current flows through the coil of relay P5-11. The relay operates and the change of the magnetron frequency is effected in the same way as in the automatic mode.

In the AFC SEARCH (IlOIt!CK mq) mode, resistor R22-14 is grounded through switch B7-7. In this case, the negative voltage of -300 V on the control g~id of tube n26-7 decreases, the tube starts conducting and causes relay P22-1 to operate. The relay contacts connect the control winding of the klystron frequency change motor to the frequency search circuit. The AFC SEARCH mode is required for monitoring the operation

of the search circuit \,lithout switching on the high voltage.

33

'~a ~eceiv~ng channel is designed for converting the signals reflected f~m the ta.."'gst and rae e:'v9"ed by the antenna into the intermediate-frequency pulses t for amplif'ytne; and c,m·;rertin.g them into target video pulses.

B" Pl£. TN TEG£!NIC.\L CHARACTERISTICS

(II; 1·:.2'.~' l,;bl;p:L.:!. t'cde ,~.t tlie tm:protectad. output ot unit 2.llK-.3 is 14 to 26 V.

I»~ TJ:i."; nqi!!B lev;el at the W'lprotacted output of unit 2JtK-3 (with the AGe operat~·,:~S) 1"1 10 _t.;? V,

(a) ~.'!b.,; 3.ltWl:'.t':de of the lock-on range pulses is not less than 55 V.

iU.\j ch;:m:(l.~".l :,s compoaed rD!~

(cd ,~ac.io··f;l.~eq'l<mcy head (ill unit 2,ltK-22);

(b) int~rmed.ia'~""'··f~eq ... ency preamplifier (IFPA, assembly 24II6.I1: in unit 2nK-22);

) ::;m-l'lliz inte:i'mediate-frequency amplifier (IFA-30) with a detector at its outl)l.lt (mita embJ.y ::...n:6 in unit 2.ll,K- ;:5) ;

(d) video aID.pli.fier wit;h cathode followers (assembly 6n3.ll. in unit 2.llK-3); C~) the rec(~ptiou keyer and lock-on range pulse generator (assembly BrI311 in

uni';; 2lJ.K"'"3);

(f) ll'.-:il:!c e.t'};~rrn.a:dc gain cozrt;rol circuit (assembly 9n3.ll. .in unit 2.nK-3); (g) 1:Yl.l188 &u:l::ull.k'ltic gain control circu.it (assembly 19II8 in unit 2.1tK-3'); (h) ,,·'.)te~i.'0J:iC'"' :pulce shap:i.:ag circuit (in unit 2JtX-3);

(:~) jalij1ll.~.lW:: J:'cCQzdbg circuit (assembly 18IT311 in unit 2ltK-3).

Tli.····) iT[}'l:~"'~~::J;;71 0:');.<02 i:n:cerac'i:;ion of the receiving channel components are explained b:T 'i;;h,'l :h;rn(;';~.Cl!.r·~,}. d.:1.agraG.I and the ·time relationship diagram (Pig. 12). The converaion "if '"he .c~i!::,D~<?,~r,{]n&.1lc~;y pi.'.lses refl·S!cted from targets into the intermediate-frequency l):l:tr;j~~·a ig ",ff~'ct;ed ,dththe af.d .. )1: the ;t'adio-frec,.uenc," aead , The intermediai;e-frequenc;;, rn;d.I:!('l3 E.LK'f:) Bu~r:}j,;?od .fro!.!! titw :radio·-frequeucy head to the balanced input or the ;i.1lt.En·m!~d1ate,"·fJ.:·ecveri.c;y p:~'eSl!lpli.fier (assembly 24n6JO. The balanced circuit of the :i.t!.ter)Jl~{liate-f·req1J.enc:r :9reampli.fler input makes it possible to decrease the local v8(',iUEtM' noise ;·:.tthe IFPA. input· and to improve thereby the sensitivity of the J.~e('eivei· :LD. cO:.il.Jj.ax·:i.f:lo:o. td.th ths ordinaI7 circuit. Besides t to exclude the passage or t,b..: t:i:'au iJ, wi. t-r, oc. I)l;.lse~ the IFPA is cut ofr by the start pulse arriving from unit 2A2.

III the ef'.:'.:"brBt:LQrl mod.e, :c·elay P22-5 (in lmit 2,nK-22) operates, breaking the

c i.z-cu .. :i.t '1;hat L3c;1:'..vec·s :;he start pulse to the I.Fl?A, and the transmitted pulse needed (o;..:,~ {;ali.b:'.'~:i;;:UJD. J,lR,S3es into the receiving channe l ,

:/X:'Oln t1\e 1J!1?A output ~ the mter':o1ediate-!requellcy pulses are supplied through cOP'·i3.1 t~able 61 ·;'0 the input of the intermediate-frequency alIIplifier (assembly ins), I~j .· . .:d3ambly 1D6" -':;;'.e iL.t!~:rmed:i.ate~trequency pulses are amplified, converted into. 1T~,deC! PUJ.;;;iO:B .,' . i;j.'lr} then supplied to the input of the video amplif'ier (assembly ffi3l1.). Frm:i) i.b..;; rnltp'lt of assembly 6n3.tJ: ~ the target video pulses are supplied to the range Dxd.t (2}J,.E:·~1I) '~O be appli.ed. there to the jamming recording circuit (assembly 18IIJ.il), t.(I t:bkl n,}.L8!3 k"GC c i t·(;1.~i t (aBsembly 9II3,n.), to one ot the inputs of the coincidence d"~~eui.t (<l.si'H'llll.bly 5IT3 J),) ;::.u.a to "(;he dela;y cnanne), (assembly 4I13lt, ,u3 3-3, assemblies

t

-
r'\ Pulses ofmdsfer h
blockin~ ~ ~ I'
osc/Ha 'Or t.(i, ~ t
ft- .
fZiii
Sweep ir'Y!Crln,y- ... - -" ,
.-- ~ 1\
~ \ pulses
2 1..0 2Q..,Ns t
SYIl cl ram ~ir!f pulses
~ A
j
3 l~ J t
T/ - SfO'rf pubes
IJ"01-20V Ij , _1==-0.5...,s J
4- J + -
'" 1?O-lS ,",3 V' v
~ cate pulses
5 _,
l-{cepfiO/7 65"~fIts
--.
~ nAey/~ ~ ~
puIs'S
6 1-0-1 ~ .t:./2.J1s ~
-
Ntrfure oTnt1ile.,!~
7 f- ilii ~ 1IIIIIJIIIIIIl r:ft1;r:r IJiI ~ II 11111 III )mIlLJIIIIIIIII~

1'( l.OCK-OIl
IP~ _j 1 range pulses ....
I
o - I/J'-~ t
f""< ~s I(p:cpfion
-~~~ ~ ~~ r-
se« 'fi-qn7 U
.9 i-"' '-- A6C circuit _
• unlf'eCfet{ pukes of'fu'YI!f tv
r~~ , roqp ,rejector
10 f-1I11k_)r~lm~mh~ III1U~1 : mUll _)IIIlrL.JUnllL-~
- , ;..,
- ~ ~ Targetpuncs
~ from range _l T: a 7,j1fJ'
I selector J' ""*-
11 I\~'

Profecfed pulse OT ~ 'a~ L
tU1-el fp tiufomafic ~ ,·~s
Ioc. -ao devices _1m
_ 1_2.s.rS
(1
Profe~fed pulseoT f17r;!el
~~
to incl;~alion Ch(1hhe/ I~
J ~
f TI

T2

t

t t

t

t

t

t

FIG. 12. DIAGRAM OF TIME RELATIONSHIP IN RECEIVING CHANNEL

36

._j

.i

]

The intermediate-frequency amplifier (assembly lU6) is constantly cut off the control grids of the first four stages,b;y a negative voltage of. 8 to 12 V taken from the anode of reception keyer n8-1 (assembly eIT3n). The IrA-30 is made conductive for the time of noise passage and for the time of rflception by the keyer p\1lse~: b;y the first pulse of a lO-ps duration - for the passage of the noise necessar,r for operation of the noise AGO circuit, by the second pulse of a 65 i5-ps duration - for the time of reception (see Fig. 12 for the diagram of time relationship)~ To make the !FA-30 conductive for the time of passage of the noise pulse, a negative

pulse from the master blocking oscillator (assembly 308) is applied to the input of the keyer (assembly 8n3~). To make the IFA-30 conductive for the time of reception b.1 the radar~ applied to the input of the kayer are the negative gate pulB~a from the gate pulse multivibrator circuit (assembly 208) which is started by the start pulse dellQ'ed by variable delq line .ria 3-7. This deley is needed for suppressing the transmitted pulse which has passed through the IFPA.

~or reducing the renge of variation of the locked-on target signal amplitude at the output of the receiving channel, prOVision is made for selected-target pulse automatic gain control which influences the grids of the first four tubes of assembly ln6.

The selected-target pulse is supplied from the range selector through coaxial cable 64 to the selected-target pulse cathode f~llower (assembly 408). The selectedtarget pulse is widened in assembly 4CB &ad supplied to the pulse AGO circuit (assembly 19n8)~ The control tube of the AGC circuit (~l9-4) is commutated through its control grid by the lock-on range pulse which is shaped by the lock-on range pulse generator.

With the arrive.l of the target pulses whose amplitude exceeds 20 V (the threshold of the AGe circuit operation), the pulse AGO circuit generates a negative voltage proportional to the signal amplitude~ This voltage is applied to the grids of the first four stages of the intermediate-frequency amplifier (assembly IIT6) where it maintains the amplitude of the selected-target pulse at not more than 26 V in case power of the input signals increases by 50 dB with respect to the threshold of the

AGO circuit operation.

When switch MGC - AGe (PP7 - AP.1)of unit 2nK-7 is in the MGC pOSition, the IFA-30 amplification is controlled manually wi:th the aid of the manual gain control circuit (assembly 9rr~.1l)~ In this caae , the selected-target pulse cathode follower (assembly 4C8.) is cut off by the negative voltage supplied :from unit 2JlK-?, and the pulse A.Ge circuit does not operate. The control grid of the manual gain control tube (A9~4 in assembly 9IT3n) is supplied with a voltage picked off potentiometer R7-l2. In this case, picked off the anode load. of JI9-4 :\ s a negative voltage which is applied to the control grids of the first four etagss of the IFA-30 (assembly lUG).

The reception keyer (assembly 8!I:5n) ~ the pulse AGO circuit (assembly 19R5) and the manual gain control circuit (assembly 9Il3n) use a common load. The maintenance ot a certain level of n~ise.at the output of the receiving channel is effected a.r the noise AGO circuit (assembly 9ll3n) which stabilizes the amplification factor of the intermediate-frequency preamplif'ying stages. Applied to one ot the inputs of the noise AGO circuit is the noise from the output ot the video amplifier (assembly 603l), and applied to its other input are the positive pulses of tbe blockirig olcillator ..

If the noise pulse coincides with the blocking.oscillator pulse, the output ot. the circuit produces a negative voltage proportional to the amplitude of the noi88 at the output of the video a.mplifier (assamb17 6Il3l0 .. This negative controlling voltage of the noise AGO eircuit is supplied to the IFPA (assembly 24II6.1t of unit 2JlK-22) to maintain the noise level at the receiving ohannel output at 10 ±2 V. Operation of

the no18e .1GC ctz:cuit depend. on. a noiae pulae or a duration or not le •• then 10 Jl8, which lead. the start pulse b,- 20 ±4 J1St thereb;y preven.ting the target pul.898 from getting uto the region or the noise pulse.

lor check inS the serviceabilit7 of the radar with the aid of ita monitoring 878- tem~ unit 2JlK-' is provided with a monitoring pulse shaping circuit.

If relay P5-12 in unit 2lK-5 operates (the monitoring mode), a start pulse from unit 212 ,and a reference voltage from unit 2lK-IO are applied to the test pulse shap~ circuit. This circuit shapes two negative test pulses modulated by frequency tsc and supplied to video amplifier 6lI~ and through the protection circuit to the autolIIatic lock-on devices and to the indication channel.

A change o~ the magnetron ~requency is effected when the jamming recording circuit (assembly lan,~) located in unit alK-3 ia brou~t into operation b7 the deliberate noise uterferenee supplied to its input froll assemb17 6II3Jt (unit 2l1K~3). In this case, relay P5-11 in unit 2l1K-5 tunctiotta and breaks the circuit which delivers the Btart pulse to unit 2l1K-3, cutting off the IFA-30 tor the time of reception.

In order to prevent the automatic lock-on devices and the jamming recording circuit from being operated by the pulses re~lected from the ground these pulses are

, gated b;r the lock-on range pulses. The lock-on range pulses Bre shaped by the lock-on range pulse generator located in assembly 8n3Jl ot unit 2l1K-3 and started by the start , pulse.

The duration of the loell:..-on range pulse can be adjusted within the limits fi'om

6 - 12 JUI to not le8s than 45 )18 b7 means o~ potentiometer LOCK-OB BANGE (ltllbH. 3AXB.) installed in unit 2JlK-6.

37

VIII. INDICATION AND IDENTIFICATION CHANNEL A. PURPOSE

The indication and identification ch~el is designed for determining the position of the target with respect to the aircraft flight axis in the. antenna scanned area, for displaying the process of directing the antenna to the selected target with the aid of the antenna-positioning mark, as well as for determining the national identity of the target with tbe aid of identification set CP30-2.

The indication channel provides:

(a) determination of the target space position:

- in the scanning mode, the target range is determined within distances from 0 to 10 km; the direction to the target with respect to the scanning axiS. and the angle between the scanning axis and the direction to the target are determined with the aid of zone marks;

- in the tracking mode, the target range is determined within the same distances as in the scanning mode; the azimuth and the tilt of the locked-on target are determined with the aid of the antenna head position. mark;

(b) disp1~ of the identification s~gna1s from set CP30-2; (c) determination ot the target lock-on range;

(d) indication of the locked-on target,

(e) generation of the hostile target pulses and of the +230-V voltage (when a hostile target is locked on) to be sent to the automatic antenna-positioning unit (2,llK-29);

(t) displ87 ot the process of directing the antenna to the selected target in the mode ot manual antenna positioning with the aid of the antenna-positioning mark.

The appearance of the indicator screen in the scanning lIlOde and in the target. lock-on and tracking mode is shown in Figs 5 and 8.

B. MAIN TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS

(a) The range resolution is not worse than 250 m.

(b) The permissible error in determination of range should not exceed 450 m at distances from 400 to 4500 m and 10 per cent of the range at distances from 4500

to 10,000 m.

(c) The error in determination of the azimuth and tilt of the locked-o~ target

does not exceed z:;O at angles Up to:t35° and 15 per cent at angles greater than 35~.

Cd) The duration of the zone marks is as tallows: - tor zone I - no mark available;

- tor zone U - 4}ls (600 m);

- tor zone III - 10 Jls (1500 II).

C. CHANNEL COMPOSITION

Housed. in unit 2,I1K-13 are the following components:

(8) the circuit for shaping the range sweep voltage, brightening and synchronizing pulses;

(b) the circuit for generating the ho~tile target signals in scanning and the +230-V voltage in locking on the hostile target;

(e) the zone mark shaping circuit;

(d) the identification mart shaping circuit;

38

39

(e) the locked-on target mark shaping circuit; (f) the lock-o~ range mark shaping circuit;

(g) the Ilixer o~ signals and marks.

Housed in unit 2JlK-4 are the following components: (a) the cathode-ray tube (»4-1) with deflection yoke;

(b) the video amplifier-limiter o~ signals and marks (.n4-2). Housed in unit 2JlK-l are the following components:

(a) zone mark cOllllDUtator Bl-6; .,

(b) rotary trans~ormer BTI-; which serves ~or producing a radial-circular sweep, (0) antenna head position potentiometric picko~rs Rl-l;, Rl-14;

Cd) locked-on target mark and lock-on range mark commutator Bl-7.

Housed in unit 2.llK-6 is switch B6-; mTERROGATION (OIIFOC).

Roused in connection box ~K-5 are the following components:

(a) rel~ P5-15 for coupling the' supply to the potentiometric picko~fs ot ~-lA the antenna is directed manually;

(b) relay P5-14 ~or switching the de~lection coils from the stator windings o~ sweep rotar,ytransformer to the potentiometric picko~~s of Ta-lA when the antenna directed manually;

(0) relay P5-8 for coupling the antenna potentiometric pickotfs to the deflection when the antenna head position is displayed;

Cd) relay P5-24 for feeding the +2;Q-V voltage to the automatic fire control of unit 2.llK-29 when locking on in range.

D. DESCRIPlION OF FUNCTIONAL »UGRAH

Range-Sweep. Brightening-Pulse

and Synchronizing-Pulse Shaping Circuit

The sweep triggering pulse arriving from unit 2nX-; (assembly 4CB) triggers the driven multivibrator (»13-1) through the buffer stage (1/2 of 11;-2).

The positive pulse of the multivibrator is supplied through the phase-inverter (113-6) to the trapezoidal-voltage generator (1/2 of 113-2) to start it. The generates a trapezoidal pulse. which is supplied to the two-stage amplifier ot Jll;-3 and .113-4) and. ~rom the output ot the latter the pulse, in the positive

arity ,\ is applied to the circuit o~ sawtooth current generator 113-5. Connected the anode circuit of the current generator is the primary winding of matching rmer Tpl;-3.

The secondar.r winding of the transformer is connected across the winding of the rotary transformer rotor mechanical~ coupled with the 2nK-l reflector rotation with a gear ratio ot 1 : 1.

The stator windings of rotar,y trans.f'ormer BTl-3 are connected through the noraalclosed contacts ot reI81'S P5-l4 and 1'5-8 in connection bor 2l1K-5 to the vertical horizontal coils (14-4) of the deflection yoke of indioator ~K-4.

As the antenna reflector rotates, range-sweep sawtooth currents flow through the coils. These currents are modulated in amplitude b~ sinusoidal and cosinuenvelopes at the ~requency of the antenna reflector rotation. In this case, the sweep line rotates round the centre of the indicator screen in synchronism with antenna reflector rotation.

For stabilizing the range sweep, the circuit uses a deep voltage feedback. The ,,~u. ... a""A voltage is picked off potentiometer Rl3-5; SWEEP .AMPLITUDE (umJl. PA3B.) and through the cathode follower (1/2 of Jl1;-8) to the circuit of the amplifier stage· (1/2 o~ U3-3) ..

Since the range-sweep voltage is applied across the detlection coils through

the rotar,r transformer, its direct voltage (current) component disappears. Therefore, the a.eep line rotates not round its beginning but round the point corresponding to the passage ot the sweep current through the zero value. In order to bring the beginning at radiation b7 the transmitter and that of C-R tube brightening into coincidence with this point, they should be del~ed with reSpect to the beginning of the aweep tor a certain time which is determined by the recurrence trequency and the duration or the sweep_ The delay and the shaping of the s;ynchronizing pulses and the brightening pulses are effected as follo"a.

!he positive pulse of the range sweep multivibrator (113-1) is supplied through the pbase-inverter stage (nI3-6) to the sawtooth voltage generator (1/2 at 113-7), fro. whicb the sawtooth voltage is applied to the comparison stage (1/2 of JII3-7). The comparison stage sh~e8 a negative brightening pulse del~ed with respect to the sweeP starting pulse. The value at the brightening-pulse delay with respect to the beginning Of the sweep is set b7 means of adjusting knob SWEEP ZEBO,(BYJIb PA3B.) and is e,pproximatel;r equal to 20 pa.

!he brightening pulse is amplitied by the amplifier (1/2 of JI13-8) and supplied, in the positive polarity, through the cathode tollower (1/2 of JI13-9) to the grid of the cathode-rlQ" tube, (Jl4-l in unit 2!K-4) to brighten the tube for the time of the sweep forward motion, starting from the instant when the sweep passes through the centre at the screen. In order that the value of the brightening p~lse del~ with respect to the sweep triggering pulse will change automatically with the change ot the repetition frequenc7, the sawtooth voltage generator is supplied fro. the integrator (.113-26) whose direct output voltage varies with variation ot the sweep on-off tue ratio. ~e variation ot the integrator direct voltage ~sult8 in a ch&nge .ot the sawtooth voltage steepness, which causes a change ot the brightening pulse delq •.

J'or shaping fJ1l1chronizing pulses (tran8aitter triggering pulses), use is made ot the tront edge ot the brightening pulse which is supplied through a differentiating network (013-19, Rl3-46) tor triggering the s;ynchronizing pulse generator (1/2 ot 113-9 and 1/2 of 113-10). !he generator shapes positive synchronizing pUlses which are supplied through the cathode tollower (1/2 of 11,-10) to unit 2A2 to trigger the sub.odulator S70chronizing pulse amplifier.

Besides, picked off the synchronizing pulse generator through the cathode tollower (1/2 of 113-18) and the contacts of relq Pl,-2 is the pulse to trigger set CP30-2.

Zone liFt Shaping Circuit

Indication of the target 8llgU1ar position in the mode of scanning is etfected with the aid of ZODe marks which are located behind the target lIarks and are ot the Shape ot narrow dashes_ ~e entire scanned area is divided into three zones (Fig. 1~). When the target passes through the first zone, there is ItO mark behind the target Il8.l'k. The duration ot the second-zoDe mark is 4 ps (600 m), and that ot the third-zone mark is 10}ls (1500 11.). Shaping of the sene marks is eUected in the following wq.

Packets ot target pulses from the output ot receiving unit ~X:-3 (u8emb17 200) are supplied to unit 2JlK-13 to be applied to the etorage circuit through the minima end ms.:rlmum limiter. The storage circuit (1/2 o~ Jll3-14) utilizes each packet o-r target pulses (the number of pulses in a packet varies from 8 to 2;) to shape a wide positive pulse whose duration is equal to that of the packet. Through the amplitier ( 1/2 ot Jll3-l4), this pulse triggers the sawtooth voltage generato~ (1/2 ot' .1113-15) whose sawtooth pulse is applied to the grid ot the normall~ cut-otf tube, (1/2 of 113-15) of the comparison stage. Picked otf the comparison stage is a negative pulse

40

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which is shifted with respect to the first pulse of the packet by 3 to 5 pulses. This pulse is differentiated and~ now in the form of a negative-polarity l~s duration gate pruse9 is applied to the comparison circuit (1/2 of JIl3-16). Applied to the same ci~uit are the target pulses which are picked off the divider located in the lockedon target signal suppression stage. Vnile the gate pulse is effective, the target video pulses pass from the coincidence circuit through the amplifier (1/2 of H13-12) for triggering the multivihrator (1/2 of JI13-12 and n13-13) which generates zone mark pulses del~ed with respect to the first pulse of the packet by 3 to 5 pu16es~ The duration of the zone marks is determined by the value of the positive voltage on the first anode of the multivihrator. This voltage is picked oft: zone mark commutator Bl-6 located in unit ~K-l and mechanically coupled with the mechanism of reflector deflection. When. the antenna illuminates the first zone, the chassis potential is applied to the lD.ultivibrator anod e , 'With no marks being produced ..

In the second zone , the eomnmtated voltage is equal to +120 V, the duration of ';;he marks 'being 4 paw In the third zone, the commu-1;ated voltage amounts to 300 the duration of the marks to 10 ps.

From the second anode of the !IIllltivibrator, the marks ar~ supplied to the signal and mark mixer (Jl13-l9) where they are m.ued with the target and identification marks arriving from the identification pulse shaping circuit, and with the lock-on range pulses. From the mixer, the signals and marks come to the input of the video limiter (JI4-2) located in. unit 2JtK-4- where they are limited in the maximum, amplified and then sent in the negative polarity to the cathode of the cathode-ray tube

to modulate the electron beam in br~_ghtne6s.

Circuit for Shaping Locked-On Target Mark and Lock-On Rge l'lark

In e ase of a:agular Lock-on , all the targets 'Iri.thin the aree, scanned by the

~~~ displayed on the indicator screen in the form of solid rings. The locked-on mark is represented by a ring broken by three unbrightened arcs (Fig~ 14)~ This mark i8 shaped in the following way. Yhen the tar.get is locked on ill i:'BIlge, lock-on indication pulses coinciding in time with the locked-on target pulses are supplied from unit 2Jl.K-,ll to the cQlIlmUtating stage (1/2 of Jl.l3-18) through delay line J1313-3. Frcm the output of th~ co~tating stage, the lock-on indication pulses are supplied to the locked-on target suppression circuit (~13-17). Also supplied to this circuit ~e the taxget pulses from. unit 2Jl.K-3. In this case, the locked-on tat·get signals are auppr-es-. sed by the lock-on indication pulses and do not pasa to the mixer. The commutating stage is cut off by the voltage of -150 V three times for the period of one revolution of commutator Bl-7 mechanically co~p.led with the reflector rotation axle, with the lock-on indication pulses being not ap_plied tro the suppresBion circuit~ and the 10 on target signals passing to the mixer.

The loek-on range mark makes it l)vasible to determine the range of locking targets with the aid of the indicator Gereen. For triggering the circ~itt Use is made of the trailing edge of the lock-on range pulse shaped in unit 2J{K-3 (assembly BI!3!O. Th:L~ pulse is applied to the differentiating stage (1/2 0.£ .lil3-n) to trigger~ by .cans ot its .trailing edge, the blocking oscillator (1/2 of ~13-1l) at such m~ments when the ground potential is applied to the differentiating stage with the aid of commutator Bl-7. The commutator ring used ror this purpose has a conductive section of 300° i> there!cre the loelt-on range pulse mark is represented by a ringw-ith an uabrightened 5ection ot 60°.

42

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The lock-on range mark pulses are then supplied to the signal and .ark mixer (Jllrl9).

Identification Mark Shaping Circuit

The identification marks located behind 'the target marks and differing from them by a greater duration (about 2ps) are used for determini~ the national identity of the targetw For this'purpose, radar rrpc~3 is coupled with set CP30-2.

Control of the identification circuit is effected with the aid of switch INTERROGATION (OITPOC) B6-3 located'in the 2nK-6 control panel. When switch B6-3 is set to position ON (BKJII)lI.), +Z1 V is applied to relay P13-2 located in unit 2JtK-13.

The relay operates, and the CP30-2 set starting pulses, leading the transmitted pulses by 0.6 JUs, are fed from the synchronizing pulse gen'erator (1/2 of JI13-l0) through the cathode follower (1/2 of JIl3-l8) and the contacts of relay P13-2 for starting the identification set. The identification signals with a duration of

2.5 !o.5JUs are supplied through the contacts of relay P13-2 to the identification mark shaping circuit in which they are amplified by the two-stage amplifier (1/2 of J13-24 and 1/2 of ~13-23) supplied to the coincidence stage (~13-22). Applied to the same circuit are the target pulses (in the function of key pulses) which are delayed 3.5ps in the receiving chanuel (in delay line ll3)-6 of unit 2lK-3).

The identification pulses are delayed by 5.25 ±O.75ps with respect to the radio frequency target pulse at the input of the receiver. In order that the target pulses may coincide in time with the middle of the identification pulses, the target pulses supplied to the coincidence stage are delayed additionally by 2.5 to 4.7.JUs in delay lines JIal;-1 and JI313~2, depending upon the position of the slider of variable delay line JI313-2.

The use of the variable delay line is dictated by the necessity to compensate possible deviations of the rated parameters of the d.31ay lines in units 2ltK-~ and 2Ji.K-13 and possible o.eviations of the identification pulse delay with respect to the, target pulses (5~25 ~0.75Jus). The moment the target pulses coincide with the cation pulses a negative pulse is picked off the coineidence stage. It is differentiated av~ integrated by the network of ~13-10, 013-72, R13-169, Rl3-17l, and is applied to the output stage (JI13-=23) to be ampli.fied end then supplied in the positive polarity to the m:i:-rer (.1I13-19).

Since 'che target pulses K('e applied to th;f,; mixer without delay, the identification marks are observed en the indicator screen behind the target marks.

'-'hen the targets are located i3,t great distances, the amplitude of the target pulses msy be insufficient for operatioll of the coincidence circuit. In this case, switch B6-3 is to be set to position 111NG,Ef/. RANGE (nOB:.I!Il. JUJIbH.), and instead. of the target pulses the chassis potential is upplibu to the coincidence stage. The identification signals therewith pass through the coincidence stage without being selected by the target pulses.

Circuit for Generating Hostile Target Pulses_

and Voltage of +230 V in Locking On r.ostile Tar~.:tfL..

\olhen the radar operates in the mode of automatic positioning of' the antenna, only hostile target pulses should be sent to the automatic antenna-positioning which excludes the possibility ot directing the antenna to friendly aircraft.

Therefore, the target signals are supplied to the automatic antenna-positioning unit through the hostile target signal generating cireuit~ the operation of which is described belOVe

44

The target signals from the output of :t:,ec~ii'fJ:(' ,?Jl;K-;;;, (assembly 2C8) come through B:1 line J13 13-1 and the phase mve2't8r (1/2 of l!13-21) to the input of the friendly suppression stage (n13-20). Applied to the other input of this stage are the ification pulses from the identification pulse amplifier (1/2 of !13-23). If

are friendly target pulses in the channel, they are suppressed by the identifi-

ion pulses. The hostile target pulses are supplied through the cathode follower

of l!13-21) to automatic antenna-positioning unit 2nK-29 where they are applied to idence circuits !29-4 and ~29-20.

When the target is locked on, the hostile target pulses start arriving at the

of the +230-V generating circuit (!13=25) continuously rather than in packets. the grid circuit of the detector (1/2 of ~13-25)~ the pulses are rectified to Bet a control voltage. which is applied to the electronic relay (1/2 of A13-25, Pl3-4). relay operates and its contacts connect the circuit '/]Ihich supplies +230 V to the

1I1lT.,nm~lt:ic fire control d.evice of uni.t 2JtK-29 (l!29-2lf..) through the winding of relay

The antenna-positioning mark is obse:tved on the indicator screen in the form. of luminous dot and serves for directing the antenLi3.head '1;0 the target in the mode of antrenna posit;ioni-!:1@;o

Used as antenna-·positioning 1llaX'k pickoffs az-e the. potentiometers of the TII-lA 1 panel, which are linked with the azimuth and tilt axles of the handle.

Since there is selsJi1 coupling betrJeen Tl1-1A and the antenna head ~ the coo rd is genez-at ed by the pot~":nel;iomet:ric pickoff's , .. ill represent the coordinates of ection of the antenna head from its position in scanning.

In the mode of manual antenna p08itioni.J:lg~, the 'Voltage of +27 ij is applied to the

ings of P5~·].L~ and P5·15. I'he relays " The conbacns of relay P5-15 feed

of the ail.'cra;;c.t; mains to ·the rrTI-U, potentiometric pickoffs "lhile rel,3,.y

jon depend i.ng onth'3 value and dir(~cti(ln of the def"lect'ion of the TIT-Ill. control 1 end ha;uoles in azil1!u'~h aT.e. tilt. ~~hG Lwi:U:'i:d;t.:.1.' screen therewith stops disple,ying

radiaJ"~'Gi:i:'eula;r' S',/e6p ,,;hLen is ft;YJ: an GD.teru;;.a"'pGsitioning mark in the

e of a Lumdzioue 0.01':0 Thi.:s :mark :Ls to be b:c()ught fro ill the centre of the screen in C, x, (C;"'? ti~ t:t.(; zone; in ~;::tch the target Ls aitua1;ed.. 'Fne

indicate:.:' is divided three dashed circular linea into the three zones:

II t and Zone III.

the target im locked on i.n range, ';ll.9 circuit supplying the +27'~V voltage the manual a:n:t;en:o.e-poBitioning mode is dis.::ounec'r,ed .l'):'OlU relays P5-14 and P5-15. relays get de-energized and the :indicator scz-e en steps displaying the antennationing mark and stl9..rts displaying tb.e radiD~-c:lrcul~I sweep.

The ant enna head position 'l1u:U"k is cb sez-ved on t:t.e indicator screen in the form of luminous dot and serves fer ind:i.cating the enti"!1l.YI.a head position in azimuth and tilt the mode of target tracking" L, $.9 for indica:c5.ng the position of the locked-Oil with respect to the aircrat:'t flight a:l!:il!;~ as ,;,,,;11 as :lor monitoring the shi.tt zones with knob INDICATION ON (BKIl .• ¥il-UUru:.) depz-eaaed (Fig. 14).

Sweep frij'gering pulses

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J(~ ~'O-9raphs oFvolforgesinfhe sweep br{fhlenirJg anil synchronizin_q pulse .shuping circa if

Puc/re-/s ortu'J'ef pulses in scanning

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t5~25. '$ . t= {.liftS in zone.!!

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E, F - graphs of vol: urges in fhe zone marx shaping eireuil lock-on rorn!le pulses

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J, J', f( - gTuphs shOWing fhe fime relaiion.sliip 6efween the loch-on inaiccrfion, fr:rr,jef andidenfl:f'lcafion pulses

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FIG. 15. DIAGRAM OF TIME RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PULSES IN UNIT 2,llK·13

47

For determining the numerical value of the antenna head azimuth and tilt, use is made of potentiometric pickoffs Rl-13 and Rl-I~ which are coupled with the axles of the antenna head rotation in azimuth and tilt. When knob INDICATION ON of unit 2AK-4, is depressed, the voltage of +27 V is applied to potentiometric pickoffs Rl-13 and Rl-14 located on the antenna and relay P5-8.

As a result, potentiometric pickoffs Rl-l3 and Rl-l4 get connected to deflection coils 1.4-4_ through the contacts of relay P5-8. The indicator screen starts displaying a mark in the form of a luminous dot whose azimuth and tilt coordinates_ correspond to the sntenna head position.