Você está na página 1de 18



Please complete this revision package during the school holidays.

You are reminded to give your answers in clear presentation.

There will be a test (30 min) on the first Chemistry lecture lesson.
The topics that will be covered in the test are found in this revision package.
(1) Mole Concept and Chemical Calculations
(2) Redox Reactions and Calculations
(3) Atomic Structure
(4) Physical Periodicity
(5) Chemical Bonding
National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Chemistry Revision Package

Mole concept
Section A: Multiple Choice Questions

1 Which of the following contains 1 mol of the stated particles?

A Chlorine molecules in 35.5g of chlorine gas

B Electrons in 1g of hydrogen gas
C Hydrogen ions in 1dm3 of 1mol dm−3 aqueous sulfuric acid
D Oxygen atoms in 22.4dm3 of oxygen gas at s.t.p ( )

2 On heating, 0.02 mol of the element M reacts with 0.025 mol of oxygen gas.
What is the empirical formula of the oxide of M?

A M2 O
C M2O5
D M4O5 ( )

3 A mixture of 10cm3 of methane and 10cm3 of ethane was sparked with

excess of oxygen. After cooling to room temperature, the residual gas was
passed with aqueous potassium hydroxide. What volume of gas was
absorbed by the alkali?

A 15 cm3
B 20 cm3
C 30 cm3
D 35 cm3 ( )

4 When the salt (C2H5)4N+Cl− is treated with hydrogen chloride, a white ionic
solid X is formed. When X is dissolved in water, a 20.0cm3 sample of the
solution requires 24.00cm3 of 0.100mol dm–3 NaOH for neutralization.
Another 20.0cm3 of the solution requires 48.00cm3 of 0.100mol dm−3
AgNO3 for complete precipitation of chloride as AgCl.

What do these data show the formula of the anion in X to be?

A HC12−
B HC132−
C HC143−
D H2C13− ( )

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

5 The reaction of hydrogen sulfide with sulfur dioxide gives sulfur as one of
the product.
H2S(aq) S(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2e
SO2(aq) + 4H (aq) + 4e S(s) + 2H2O(l)

How many moles of hydrogen sulfide are needed to react with sulfur
dioxide to produce 1 mol of sulfur?
A mol
B mol
C mol
D 2 mol
( )
6 Chlorine gas is a serve irritant to the eyes and respiratory system. The
maximum save toleration level of chlorine gas in air is 0.005mg dm−3.
How many atoms of chlorine are present in 1dm3 of air at this toleration
A × 6 × 10 23
B × 2 × 6 × 10 23
0.005 1
C × × 6 × 10 23
71 1000
0.005 1
D × × 2 × 6 × 10 23
71 1000
( )
7 A sample of 10dm of polluted air is passed through limewater so that all
carbon dioxide present is precipitated as calcium carbonate. The mass of
calcium carbonate formed is 0.05g. What is the percentage, by volume, of
carbon dioxide in the air sample?
[Relative atomic masses: C, 12.0; O, 16.0; Ca, 40.1;
1 mol of gas under experimental conditions has a volume of 24 dm3]

A 0.03%
B 0.05%
C 0.12%
D 0.3% ( )

8 A sample of 2.00g of iron(III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3, is dissolved in water to

give 100cm3 of aqueous solution. What is the concentration of SO42− ions?
[Relative formula mass of Fe2(SO4)3 is 400]

A 5.00 × 10−3 mol dm−3

B 1.50 × 10−2 mol dm−3
C 5.00 × 10−2 mol dm−3
D 1.50 × 10−1 mol dm−3 ( )

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Section B: Structured Questions

1. The mineral phosphorite, Ca3(PO4)2 exits as phosphate rock in its impure form.
Elemental phosphorus can be prepared from phosphate rock using carbon in the
presence of sand, SiO2. The reduction of phosphorite also produces solid Y and
carbon monoxide.
(i) Y has the following composition by mass:
Ca: 34.2 % Si: 24.5% O: 41.3%
Calculate the empirical formula for the solid Y.
(ii) Write a balanced equation for the reaction.
(iii) A 30.0g sample of phosphate rock was subjected to the above reaction and
produced 5.30g of phosphorus.
Calculate the percentage purity of phosphorite in the rock sample.

2. When potassium chlorate(V), KClO3, is heated at its melting point, it

disproportionates to potassium chlorate(VII), KClO4, and potassium chloride.
Calculate the maximum number of moles of potassium chlorate(VII) which could be
produced from 0.1 mol of potassium chlorate(V).

3. To identify an oxide of nitrogen, 0.10 mol of the oxide is mixed with an excess of
hydrogen and passed over a catalyst at a suitable temperature.
N xO y xNH3 + yH2O
The water produced weighs 7.20g. The ammonia produced is neutralised by 200cm3
of 1.0 mol dm–3 HCl. Find the formula of the oxide of nitrogen.

4. The percentage by mass of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in compound T are 60.9%,
4.3% and 34.8% respectively.
(i) Determine the molecular formula of T given that it has a relative molecular
mass of 138.
(ii) 0.520g of T was sparked with excess 800cm3 of oxygen and the water vapour
produced was collected through condensation at room conditions.
(a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the complete combustion of T.
(b) What is the volume of water that can be collected?

5. Combustion of ethane results in the formation of a mixture of carbon dioxide and

carbon monoxide in the ratio of 98: 2, together with water vapour. Calculate the
volume of oxygen consumed when 4.0g of ethane is burnt at room conditions.

6. 10.0cm3 of an acid A of concentration 0.0690mol dm−3 reacted completely with

18.40cm3 of a 0.075mol dm−3 NaOH solution. What is the basicity of acid A?

*7. A 1.00g sample of a metal X (that is known to form X2+ ions) was added to
0.100dm3 of 0.500mol dm−3 sulfuric acid. After all the metal has reacted, the
remaining acid required 33.40cm3 of 0.500mol dm−3 sodium hydroxide solution for
neutralisation. Calculate the molar mass of the metal and identify the element.

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

*8. 4.30g of an impure sample of ammonium chloride was warmed with 100.0cm3 of
1.00mol dm−3 sodium hydroxide solution. The mixture was boiled until all the
ammonia was driven off. The excess sodium hydroxide in the mixture required
50.00cm3 of 0.250mol dm−3 sulfuric acid for neutralisation.
Calculate the percentage purity of the ammonium chloride sample.

*9. A household cleaner contains ammonia. A 25.37g sample of the cleaner was
dissolved in deionised water and made up to 250cm3 in a volumetric flask. A
25.0cm3 portion of this solution required 37.30cm3 of 0.360mol dm−3 sulfuric acid
for neutralisation.
What is the percentage by mass of ammonia in the cleaner?

10. What volume of carbon monoxide is produced from the reaction of 1.00kg of octane
and 1.00kg of oxygen? Assume that 1 mol of gas occupies a volume of 24dm3 at
room temperature and pressure.

11. Aluminium reacts with manganese(II) oxide to form aluminium oxide and
manganese metal. A mixture containing 110g of aluminium and 200g of manganese
oxide was heated in a reaction vessel.
Which reactant was in excess and how much excess reagent was left? What is the
total mass of the mixture at the end of the reaction?

12. An impure sample of Na2SO4 has a mass of 1.65 grams and is dissolved in water.
Addition of BaCl2 solution produced a precipitate of barium sulphate with mass 2.32
grams. What is the percentage of Na2SO4 in the impure sample?

13. Magnesium metal burns in oxygen gas forming magnesium oxide.

(i) What mass of oxygen reacts with 20.0g of magnesium metal?
(ii) What is the mass of magnesium oxide formed when 35.0g of magnesium
metal is burned in excess oxygen gas?

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Section A: Multiple Choice Questions

1 In which of the following substances does sulfur exhibit its highest

oxidation state?

A S8
C Na2S2O3
D Na2S4O6 ( )

2 In an experiment, 50cm3 of a 0.1mol dm−3 solution of a metallic salt reacted

exactly with 25cm3 of 0.1mol dm−3 aqueous sodium sulfite.
The half-equation for oxidation of sulfite ion shown below.
SO32− (aq) + H2O (l) → SO42− (aq) + 2H+ (aq) + 2e
Given that the original oxidation number of the metal in the salt was 3, what
would be the new oxidation number of the metal at the end of the reaction?

A 1
B 2
C 4
D 5 ( )

3 A sample of 10.0cm3 of 0.10mol dm−3 iron(II) sulfate solution is titrated

against 0.025mol dm−3 potassium manganate(VII) in neutral medium. It is
found that 10.0cm3 of the manganate(VII) solution is required to oxidize the
iron(II) to iron(III) ions to reach the end-point.
What is the oxidation number of the manganese at the end-point?

A +6
B +4
C +3
D +2 ( )

4 25.0cm3 0.200mol dm−3 of aqueous Fe3+ solution was found to react

completely with 25.0cm3 of 0.100mol dm−3 hydroxylamine, NH2OH.
Which of the following could be the nitrogen containing product in this
reaction where Fe3+ assumes the role of an oxidizing agent?

D HNO3 ( )

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Section B: Structured Questions

1. Determine the oxidation number for the underlined elements in each of the
following species.
(a) SO3 (f) HBrO
(b) (NH4)2SO4 (g) Na2S4O6
(c) As4 (h) K2O2
(d) Fe3O4 (i) CH4
(e) COCl2 (j) CH3OH

2. Which of the following equations represent a redox reaction? Identify the

oxidizing agent and reducing agent where applicable.
(a) 2Al(s) + 3Cl2(g) → 2AlCl3(s)
(b) 2Cu2+(aq) + 4I–(aq) → 2CuI(s) + I2(aq)
(c) C2H4(g) + H2(g) → C2H6(g)

3. Determine the oxidation number of the named element in the following

reactions. Identify the role of the element and type of reaction where applicable.
(a) Phosphorus in P2O5 + 3H2O → 2H3PO4
(b) Iodine in IO3− + 2I− + 6H+ + 6Cl− → 3ICl2− + 3H2O
(c) Chlorine in NaClO3 + 2HCl → ClO2 + ½Cl2 + NaCl + H2O
(d) Nitrogen in 2H+ + 2NO2− → NO + NO2 + H2O

4. Write balanced half equations and the overall equation for each of the following
reactions in acidic medium.
(a) S2O32− + I2 → I− + S4O62−
(b) Cr2O72− + Fe2+ → Cr3+ + Fe3+
(c) IO4− + I− → I2
(d) ClO3− + Cr3+ → ClO2 + Cr2O72−
(e) MnO4− + ClO− → Mn2+ + ClO4−
(f) FeC2O4 + Ce3+ → Ce2+ + Fe3+ + CO2
(g) C6H5CH3 + MnO42− → Mn2+ + C6H5COOH

5. Write balanced half equations and the overall equation for each of the following
reactions in alkaline medium.
(a) I2 + OH− → IO3− + I−
(b) I− + MnO4− → I2 + MnO2
(c) ClO− → Cl− + ClO3−
(d) ClO− + Mn(OH)2 → Cl− + MnO2
(e) NO3− + Al + OH− → NH3 + Al(OH)4−

6. Write a redox equation for each of the following reactions.

(a) When aqueous potassium iodide, KI, is added to acidified hydrogen
peroxide, H2O2, a brown solution of iodine is observed.

(b) When sodium sulfite, Na2SO3, is added to acidified potassium

dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7, the orange solution turns to green Cr3+ ions.

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

7. Sodium peroxide, Na2O2, is used in submarine for absorbing atmospheric

carbon dioxide and regenerating oxygen. The reaction produces sodium
carbonates as a by-product.
Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction.

8. A 1.58g piece of iron wire was dissolved in 250cm3 of sulfuric acid and was
converted into iron(II) ions. 25.0cm3 of this solution was titrated against
acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution of concentration 1.64 × 10−2mol
Given that 27.30 cm3 of dichromate(VI) solution were required for this titration,
calculate the percentage purity of the iron wire.

9 A solution of aqueous hydrogen peroxide is diluted 20 times and 25.0cm3 of

this solution required 21.32cm3 of 0.025mol dm−3 KMnO4 for complete reaction
in acidic condition.
What is the original concentration of aqueous hydrogen peroxide?

10. Iodate(V) ions react with iodide ions in the presence of acid to produce iodine:
IO3− + 5I− + 6H+ → 3 I2 + 3 H2O

1.01g of potassium iodate(V) were dissolved and made up to 250 cm3 solution.
To a 25.0 cm3 portion, an excess of potassium iodide and dilute sulfuric acid
was added. The solution was titrated with a solution of sodium thiosulfate, with
starch indicator added near the end-point. 29.80cm3 of thiosulfate solution was
required for complete reaction.
Calculate the concentration of the thiosulfate solution.

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Atomic structure
Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions

1. The 68Ge isotope of the Group IV element germanium is medically useful

because it undergoes a natural radioactive process to give gallium isotope,
Ga, which can be used to detect tumours. This transformation of
germanium occurs when an electron enters the nucleus, changing a proton
into a neutron.
Which statement about the composition of an atom of the gallium isotope
is correct?

A It has 37 neutrons.
B Its proton number is 32.
C It has a total of 32 electrons.
D It has 4 electrons in its outer shell. ( )

79 79
2. Which of the following concerning 34 Se and 35 Br is true?
79 79
A 34 Se is smaller than 35 Br.
79 79
B 34 Se has more neutrons per atom than 35 Br.
79 79
C 34 Se has more protons per atom than 35 Br.
79 79
D Both 34 Se and 35 Br contain the same number of electrons per atom. ( )

3. Which one of the following ions has more electrons than protons and
more protons than neutrons?
[H = 11 H ; D = 12 H ; He = 24 He ; O = 168O ]

A D−
B He+
D D3O+ ( )

4. Which atom has three unpaired electrons?

A Al
B Co
C Cr
( )
D Sc

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

5. The diagrams below show the electron arrangement in the outer shells of
five elements, P to T. All elements are from Period 3 of the Periodic table.

Element P Q R S T
Electronic ns2np4 ns2np5 ns2np1 ns2 ns2np3

Which of the following statements about the elements P to T is correct?

A P will form an ion with +2 charge.

B P and S form ions with similar electronic configuration.
C R, S are metals while P, Q and T are non-metals.
D S and Q will form an ionic compound with a formula of S2Q. ( )

6. What is the electronic configuration of the atom of the element which is

isoelectronic with H2S?

A 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

B 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
C 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
D 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 ( )

7. In which of the following pairs is the radius of the second atom greater
than that of the first atom?

A Na, Mg
B Sr, Ca
C P, N
D Cl, Br ( )

8. The valence electronic configuration of elements X and Y are s2p4 and s2p2
respectively. X and Y are likely to form a compound of formula

D X2Y3 ( )

9. What is the maximum number of atomic orbitals in the principal quantum

number n = 4?

A 4
B 8
C 9
D 16 ( )

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Section B: Structured Questions

1. The table below gives information about the atomic structures of six particles.
Protons 13 13 17 17 20 20
Neutrons 24 23 20 18 20 21
Electrons 13 10 17 18 18 20

(a) Which of the above particles are atoms? Explain your answer.
(b) Which of the above particles are ions?
(c) Identify species which are
(i) isotopic,
(ii) isotonic and
(iii) isoelectronic
Note: isotonic species have same number of neutrons but different number of

(d) Suggest and explain the relative size of the isoelectronic species.
(e) Derive the chemical formulae for the compounds formed between
(i) particles X and Y,
(ii) particle V and oxygen.

2. Magnesium has a relative atomic mass of 24.3.

(a) Explain what is meant by the above statement.
(b) Define, by means of an equation, the second ionisation energy of
(c) Give the electronic configuration of magnesium and draw the
corresponding schematic diagram.
(d) Draw the shapes of the orbitals that electrons in Mg2+ ion would occupy
in the ground state.
(e) Draw the dot-and-cross diagram for the compound formed between
magnesium and fluorine.

3. State the chemical formulae of the following compounds.

(a) Sodium sulfite
(b) Cacium nitrate
(c) Magnesium oxide
(d) Iron(III) oxide
(e) Ammonium phosphate

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

4. Beams of particles travelling at the same speed from different sources are
subjected to an electric field as shown in the diagram below. A beam of neutrons
has already been drawn.

(a) Sketch on the above diagram how beams of each of the following
particles are affected by the electric field:
(i) protons,
(ii) electrons,
2 +
(iii) 1H
Label each of the beams.

(b) Explain the underlying principle that results in the positions and shape of
each beam you have sketched in the above diagram.

Physical Periodicity
Summary of Physical Periodic Trends

Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: “constant”, “increases”, “decreases”
Section A: Multiple Choice Questions
1. The electronic configurations of atoms of elements G and H are 1s22s22p5
and 1s22s22p6 respectively. Compare the fifth and sixth ionization
energies of G and H.

5th I.E. 6th I.E.

D G>H G<H ( )

2. Which of the following statements best explains why the second

ionization energy of sodium is larger than the first ionization energy of
A Removing the second electron disrupts the stable octet structure of the
Na+ ion.
B The nuclear attraction per electron in Na+ is greater than Na atom.
C The sodium metal and its cation are isotopic.
D The second electron is removed from a paired 2p orbital and it
experiences repulsion from the other electrons in the same orbital.
( )
3. Which of the following ions has the smallest ionic radius?
A F−
B Na+
C Mg2+
D Al3+
( )
4. In which series are the species listed in order of increasing size?
A N< O< F
B Na < Mg < K
C Cr < Cr2+< Cr3+
D Cl <Cl− < S2−
( )
5. The first seven successive ionization energies (in kJ mol−1) for four
elements are given below. Which one could be that of a Group VII
A 580, 1800, 2700, 11600, 14800, 18400, 23300
B 1000, 2300, 3400, 4600, 7000, 8500, 27100
C 1140, 2100, 3500, 4800, 5800, 8500, 9900
D 420, 3100, 4400, 5900, 8000, 9600, 11400
( )
6. Consecutive elements X, Y, Z are in period 3 of the Periodic Table.
Element Y has the highest first ionization energy and the lowest melting
What could be the identities of X, Y and Z?
A sodium, magnesium, aluminium
B magnesium, aluminium, silicon
C aluminium, silicon, phosphorus
D silicon, phosphorus, sulfur
( )
National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

7. In which of the following pairs of atoms is the radius of the second atom
smaller than that of the first atom?
A Mg, Na
B P, Si
C N, P
D Br, Cl
( )
Section B: Structured Questions

1. (a) Outline 3 factors which influence the ionization energies of an atom.

(b) By taking all 3 factors into consideration, explain the following observations:
(i) The first ionization energy of phosphorus is greater than that of sulfur.
(ii) The first ionization energy of aluminium is lower than that of magnesium.

(c) (i) Define the terms electron affinity and electronegativity.

(ii) Describe how electronegativity of an element varies
(I) across a period,
(II) down a group.

2. (a) On the same graph, sketch the atomic and ionic radii of the following Period 3
elements. Describe and explain the shapes of the two graphs drawn.

Atom Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
atomic/nm 0.186 0.160 0.143 0.117 0.110 0.104 0.099
ionic/nm 0.095 0.065 0.050 0.041 0.212 0.184 0.181

(b) Predict the relative sizes of

(i) K+ ion with Cl− ion,
(ii) Si4− ion with P3− ion.

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Chemical Bonding
Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following molecules has the largest bond angle?

( )
2. Why is the boiling point of methane greater than that of neon?

A Methane is a compound while neon is a noble gas.

B A molecule of methane has more electrons than a molecule of neon.
C Molecules of methane have greater surface area of contact between
molecules than neon.
D The molecule of methane is polar, but that of neon is not. ( )

3. Why is the molecule of BCl3 planar, whereas the molecule of PH3 is


A The electron pairs in BCl3 are all bonds pairs while it is not true for
B The boron atom in BCl3 has six electrons in its valence shell, whereas
the phosphorus atom in PH3 has eight.
C The repulsion between B−Cl bonds in BCl3 is greater than that
between P−H bonds in PH3.
D The covalent radius phosphorus is greater than that of boron. ( )

4. Which one of the following substances contain(s) delocalized electrons?

I chromium
II graphite
III sodium chloride

A II only
B I and II
C II and III
D I, II and III ( )

5. Which of the following molecules is linear in shape?

A Cl2O
B C2H4
( )
6. Which one of the following sets of solid elements includes a giant
metallic lattice, a giant covalent lattice and a simple molecular structure?
A Na Mg C
B Mg Al S
C C Si S
D Al Si S ( )

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Section B: Structured Questions

1. Draw the dot-and-cross diagrams to show the electronic structure of each of the
following species and hence predict their shapes.
(a) SCl2
(b) PCl3
(c) ICl4−

2. Boron is a non-metallic element found in Group III of the periodic table.

(a) Boron burns in fluorine to form a gas, boron fluoride, BF3.
Draw a dot-and-cross diagram to show the bonding in this compound.

(b) Boron carbide is a compound formed between boron and carbon. If it has
a structure similar to diamond, suggest two physical properties you
would expect boron carbide to have.

3. State and explain the difference in electrical conductivity of the following pairs
(i) molten sodium chloride and solid sodium chloride
(ii) hydrogen chloride dissolved in water and hydrogen chloride in non-polar

4. Explain the following statements.

(a) Both carbon and silicon are Group IV elements. However, carbon dioxide
exists as a gas whereas silicon dioxide exists as a solid at room temperature and

(b) Graphite is used to make lubricants for engines.

(c) Graphite is the only non-metal that conducts electricity.

(d) In solid state, copper conducts electricity but sulfur and sodium chloride do

(e) Calcium sulfide has a higher melting point than potassium fluoride.

National Junior College SH1 H2 Chemistry 2010

Mole Concept (Section A)
1. B 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. D 7. C 8. D

Section B
1(i) CaSiO3
(ii) Ca3(PO4)2 + 5C + 3SiO2 → 2P + 3CaSiO3 + 5CO
(iii) 88.4%
2. 0.75 mol
3. N2O4
4. 93.3%
5. 18.0%
10. 706 dm3
11. Al; 49.2g; 310g
12. 85.7%
13(i) 13.2g
(ii) 58.0g

Redox (Section A)
1. B 2. B 3. C 4. B

Section B
1(a) +6 (b) −3 (c) 0 (d) + (e) +4 (f) +1 (g) +2.5 (h) −1 (i) +4 (j) −2

4(a) 2S2O32− + I2 → S4O62− + 2I−

(b) Cr2O72− + 6Fe2+ + 14H+ → 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O
(c) 4IO4− + 30I− + 32H+ → 17I2 + 16H2O
(d) 6ClO3− + 2Cr3+ + H2O → 6ClO2 + Cr2O72− + 8H+

5(a) 6I2 + 12OH− → 10I− + 2IO3− + 6H2O

(b) 6I− + 2MnO4− + 4H2O → 3I2 + 2MnO2 + 8OH−

8. 94.9%
9. 0.0267mol dm−3
10. 0.0950mol dm−3

Atomic Structure (Section A)

1. A 2.B 3.C 4. B 5. C 6. D 7. D 8. C 9. D

3(a) Na2SO3
(b) Ca(NO3)2
(c) MgO
(d) Fe2O3
(e) (NH4)3PO4

Physical Periodicity (Section A)

1. A 2. B 3. D 4. D 5. C 6. D 7. D

Chemical Bonding (Section A)

1. A 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. C 6.D


Interesses relacionados