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00_SAT PT3 A&E Cover 9/29/06 4:44 PM Page 2

SAT
®*

Practice Test 3
Answers & Explanations
For Classes Starting 11/17/06 and Later

*SAT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
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Section 1 (Writing—Essay) SAT


Practice Test 3
Grade 6 Essay 1

In my many years of school, I’ve learned that teachers have different ideas about education. Some
think that they need to cram your head with facts. Others poke and prod until students get their
brains in gear and begin to think. From this second kind of teacher, I have learned the real meaning of
education. It is learning to be able to form your own intelligent view of the world, based on both knowl-
edge and a clear, open mind.
I used to be nervous and afraid of school. I studied all the time, trying to get as many facts as
possible into my head. During class, I would break into a sweat in the rare moments that I didn’t know
an answer, just in case the teacher called on me for that question. Tests would upset my stomach.
But through all this work, I didn’t really learn much. I don’t remember all those names and dates
and capital cities I memorized. I also couldn’t tell you what my favorite books or poems or heroes were
from that time. My learning had no real meaning for me. I didn’t really stop and think about any of it,
or interpret the information in my own personal way. I just tried to remember pages and pages of iso-
lated facts.
Thanks to one great teacher, I no longer believe that this constitutes real learning. And I have an
idea what does. It all came clear many years ago in Mr Blumgarden’s history class.
We were talking about the Civil War and the abolition of slavery. I was well prepared, of course. I knew
all about the Battle of Antietam and the Battle of Bentonville, I could find the battlefields on a map
and tell you how many people had died. I raised my hand to give an answer and Mr. Blumgarden called
on me. After I had answered, he asked me another question. But this was an unusual question. He
asked me what I thought soldiers on both sides thought about what they were fighting for. After that
other people chimed in. And the class began to discuss the beliefs of both sides, the reasons they
went to war, and what might have happened if the other side had won. And I kept raising my hand, not
to show how much I knew but, for once, because I was really interested.
I changed a lot in the course of that year. It started in history class as I realized that history is
more than a string of names and dates. It’s a story about people and the choices they make, and it’s
a story that can help us learn to be smart about our lives in the present. I started to relax a bit in all
my classes and as I did, the others became more fun as well. We read Charles Dickens’ “Oliver Twist”
that year and I truly enjoyed it – it was funny and some of the characters reminded me of people I knew.
I was learning how to learn, how to involve myself in the subjects and come to my own conclusions.
It was that year that my mind opened and I began to truly become educated. Rather than trying to
fill my head with disconnected facts and other people’s ideas, I now collect knowledge that I can use to
form – or change – my opinions. And I plan to continue this my whole life, facing new situations with an
educated, open mind.

Grader’s Comments: This essay supports its opening thesis statement with detailed, well-
developed examples from the writer’s life. The organization shows excellent planning: each
paragraph explains a different aspect of the essay’s main idea. This idea is stated in the
section one

introduction and restated, in a new and original way, in the conclusion.


The vocabulary of this essay is descriptive and varied. The writer finds creative ways to
explain his point, for example describing history as “a story about people and the choices
they make.” The use of specific examples—the name of the teacher and the actual question
that he posed, for example—helps to engage the reader and support the stated opinion. The
writer uses Keywords that transition between ideas and orient the reader, such as “years
ago,” “rather than,” and “that year.”
This writer took care in proofreading, since the essay is relatively error-free.
01_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:45 PM Page 2

Grade 4 Essay
All my life people have been talking to me about education. But they never say what it means
exactly. Does being educated mean getting good grades? Does it mean passing standardized tests?
Does it mean graduating at fancy schools? Not to me. I think that the point of education is to help
you live a good life. That means learning history, english, math and other subjects so you can move in
section one

the world like a smart person.


It seems like people don’t know very much. Kids taking tickets at the movies have trouble counting
change. People can’t find Europe or Africa on a map. They don’t know about the Declaration of
Independence or the first Gulf War. People are not well educated.
I don’t say that education is only learning facts. But I am saying if you don’t have these facts,
there’s no education. A basic education is knowing the things that help you in your daily life. You can
read the newpaper and understand what’s going on because you know what happened before, in
history. You can look at weird abstract paintings in an art gallery and like them if you know about
art. You can talk to your friends about all kinds of topics and have some good ideas.
A basic education can also help you reach your dream. If you develop an interest to physics or
calculus, youll be nowhere if you haven’t studied any math, for example. If you like to write but haven’t
mastered grammar, you’re sunk. And if you want to go to law school but don’t know about American
History, youll be way behind the rest of the class. Even if you just want to get a normal job, the more
you know the better off you will be.
I made my definition of education from a few people I have met that really impressed me. I can
think of three people that I talked to a lot, in different situations, who I think were supremely
educated. These people had a lot in common. They could all talk for a long time about intelligent
subjects. They knew about history and politics and art. When I talk to them, I learned something. Two
of these people were also people that helped me with problems I was having at the time. I talked to
them about my problems and they gave me some advice that was good. I think their education
helped them to be smart in the world, and they could use some of the things they know to help me
with my problems.
These educated people helped me and were very interesting to be around. They were more able to
live how they wanted than other, less-educated people. The reason that they have this advantage is
because they started with their basic education, learning about all the subjects they teach you in
school. After that, a person can build on top of that or do what they want. But it all starts with
learning the basic facts.

Grader’s Comments: This essay sticks to the topic throughout and provides evidence
to support the stated opinion. The evidence presented consists of general ideas rather
than specific examples, however. Specific examples such as a description of how people
actually helped the writer in the second-to-last paragraph could have made this essay more
convincing. Likewise, the examples given in paragraph two to show that “people are not well
educated” would be more effective with descriptions of actual encounters, rather than
sweeping generalizations.
The essay shows good planning. The paragraphs each deal with a different idea and
they are ordered in a logical fashion. The essay presents a clear statement in the opening
paragraph and returns to that idea in the conclusion.
For the most part, the language used in this essay is effective in conveying the author’s
meaning. There are, however, several examples of misused idioms, such as “graduating at,”
“develop an interest to,” and “made my definition from.” With more careful proofreading, the
writer might have also caught mistakes such as “newpaper” and “youll.”
SAT
Practice Test 3
2
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Grade 2 Essay SAT


Practice Test 3
Education is to learn to have an open mind. To think for yourself. Not go around like a sheep
3
following others. You can get this education in school or like me you can get it other places.
My dad was in the military so we moved around a lot when I was a kid. Every year or two years we
would move to a new city a new state, or a new country even and that was very educating to me. I met
so many kinds of people with different ideas, I like to talk so I made all kinds of friends and would talk
for hours about their lives and what they thought about things. In school we learned a lot of stuff
that was helpful but talking to people like this really made me understand how two people can look at
the same thing in different ways. People have different customs, like in Europe they eat with their fork
in their left hand and their knife in their right and they make fun of people like Americans who have to
put the knife down and switch hands when they need to cut, and they also have different ideas and
that’s the interesting part.
For example, I lived in Germany and talked to a lot of people about how different it is there. I know
some people hate them because of World War Two but their country has a lot of good things like free
college and health insurance for everyone. Germans were much nicer than I thought they would be from
the movies and the way people talk about them. In America, people have different values in different
places, lots of people in Florida are laid back and like to have fun but further north on the east coast
they really work a lot.
Even some ideas about myself changed. Before, I thought of myself as a shy person who is a natural
athlete. But when we went to Spain, I made a lot of fun friends that were easy to be around, and I
didn’t feel shy anymore. But when I tried to play soccer with the Spanish kids, I didn’t feel like a
natural athlete because they were so good at it and I wasn’t, I had to really really try and then I could
play OK but not the best.
If I didn’t meet all these different people in my life I might think that there was really one way to
think and one way to be and one way to do things. I might have a closed mind. But traveling around
really helped me to have an open mind.

Grader’s Comments: This essay opens by addressing the topic and forming a clear
statement: education means an open mind. Some supporting evidence for this opening
statement is provided, but the essay veers off course and concludes with a tangential idea:
traveling helps produce an open mind.
The essay is fairly well organized at the start. The second and third paragraphs each raise
a point about education and open-mindedness. The second-to-last paragraph, however,
addresses a topic not directly connected to either the introduction or the conclusion.
Several of the sentences are hard to follow because they are overly long and contain
several different ideas separated by an “and” or just a comma. Breaking those ideas into
separate sentences would increase the clarity of this writing. The vocabulary is simple but
adequate. The spelling and diction are generally correct.
section one
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Section 2 (Math)
1. A Category: Equations
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Since the fraction equals 1, the numerator must equal the
denominator. This insight is key to the algebraic solution. Just as good is the
section two

strategic alternative: Backsolving.


Getting to the Answer:
3a3 – 2
 =1
3a3 + b
3a3 – 2 = 3a3 + b
b = –2

2. D Category: Ratios
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Translate carefully from English into math or Backsolve.
Getting to the Answer: The owner buys 15 boxes for $5 each and (25 – 15) = 10
boxes for $4 each: 15($5) + 10($4) = $75 + $40 = $115.

3. D Category: Angles
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: When a line intersects two parallel lines, it intersects each of the
parallel lines at the same angle. The value of x will equal the value of the angle
supplementary to 76.
Getting to the Answer:
180 – 76 = 104
x = 104

4. C Category: Exponents
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: If the square root of a is b, and b is an integer, then the square
root of a must be an integer. Look for a number that is the square of an integer.
Getting to the Answer: Only (C) is the square of an integer: 4  = 2. The square
roots of the other choices are not integers.

5. E Category: Complex Figures


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: The key to this question is that the radius of a circle is
perpendicular to a tangent line—a line that touches a curve at a point without
crossing over—at that point. Once you draw the crucial right angle in, just proceed
step by step until you have enough information to apply the Pythagorean Theorem
or (if you’ve been studying your Kaplan tips) your knowledge of Pythagorean Triplets.
Getting to the Answer:
A = πr 2
100π = πr 2
100 = r 2
10 = r

SAT
Practice Test 3
4
02_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:46 PM Page 5

With OB = 10 and BC = 24, apply the Pythagorean Theorem: SAT


Practice Test 3
c2 = a2 + b2
5
c2 = 100 + 676
c2 = 776
c = 26
You may have also noticed that this is a multiple of a 5 : 12 : 13 Pythagorean Triplet.

6. B Category: Logic
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: The question stem doesn’t give any information about the order
of the cars in the line; you know only that the first car is red. Draw a diagram to help
you solve the problem.
Getting to the Answer: If there are twice as many blue cars as red cars, then at
some point at least two blue cars must be next to each other. If the opposite were
true—that is, if there were never two blue cars next to each other—then the cars
would have to alternate red and blue down the entire line. But there are not enough
red cars to do so; therefore, at least two blue cars must be next to each other. To
see this more clearly, Pick Numbers for the number of blue and red cars and try to
arrange them in line so that no blue cars are ever next to each other. You’ll find that
you run out of red cars. Note that (C), (D), and (E) all have to do with the order of
the cars in the line—a consideration not mentioned in the question stem.

7. B Category: Triangles
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: In a triangle, the largest angle lies opposite the longest side, the
second largest angle lies opposite the second longest side, and the smallest angle
lies opposite the shortest side. Use the fact that the interior angles of a triangle sum
to 180° to find the third angle. Then you can compare the lengths of the sides
marked 7 – x and 7 – y.
Getting to the Answer: The third angle must be 180 – 95 – 45 = 40. The side
represented by 7 – y (opposite 40°) must be shorter than the side represented by
7 – x (opposite 45°). Therefore, y must be greater than x.

8. E Category: Number Properties


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Pick Numbers for m and n and then test the answer choices,
or use your knowledge of number properties, remembering that any even number
multiplied by another even number produces an even product.
Getting to the Answer: Say m = 2 and n = 4.
(A) mn = (2)(4) = 8 ⇒ even
(B) m3 + n = (2)3 + 4 = 12 ⇒ even
section two

(C) m2n3 = (2)2(4)3 = 256 ⇒ even


(D) 3mn = 3(2)(4) = 24 ⇒ even
(E) 3mn – 1 = 3(2)(4) – 1 = 24 – 1 = 23 ⇒ odd

9. B Category: Number Lines


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: The line segment between M and the midpoint of OP is simply
the sum of the lengths of the smaller segments between the endpoints in question.
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Getting to the Answer: The distance between M and O is equal to the length of
N
M  plus the length of 
NO: 9 + 2 = 11. The distance between O and the midpoint of
6

OP is the length of O
P
 divided by 2:  = 3. The total distance between M and the
midpoint of   is 11 + 3 = 14.
OP 2

10. B Category: Functions


section two

Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: When you see a symbol you don’t recognize, don’t worry! Funny
symbols are always defined in the problem. Just substitute the numbers you’re
given for x and y in the original definition.
Getting to the Answer:
x = 27, y = 46
27 – 46 –19 –19
 =  =  = –0.19
46 + 2(27) 46 + 54 100

11. E Category: Exponents


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Remember that the SAT rewards test takers who think creatively.
In this case, note how you’re rewarded with a quick, easy point if you see x 2 – y 2
and think, “That’s the same as (x + y)(x – y).”
Getting to the Answer:
x 2 – y 2 = (x + y)(x – y)
x
+y=6
)
(x + y 2 = 62
x + y = 36
x
–y=2
(x)– y 2 = 22
x–y=4
(x + y)(x – y) = (36)(4) = 144

12. C Category: Exponents


Difficulty: Medium
3
Strategic Advice: Plug q =  into the equation and solve for r. Most people find
4
negative exponents easier to work with when the exponents are written as fractions.
This is also a great question on which to Backsolve.
Getting to the Answer:
1 7
q –2 – 7r –2 = 2 – 
q r2
1 7 1 7 16 7
 –  =  –  =  –  =1
   
3 2 r 2 9 r 2 9 r2
 
4 16
16 7
 – 1 = 
9 r2
16 9 7 7
 –  =  = 
SAT 9 9 9 r2
Practice Test 3 9=r2
6 r = 3 or r = –3
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13. A Category: Equations SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: Medium
7
Strategic Advice: Here’s another example of how the SAT rewards students who
think creatively and cleverly about numbers: the numerator of the fraction is a
classic quadratic. When you see a2 – 2ab + b2, think (a – b)2, and vice versa. Pick
Numbers on this question, if doing so would be less time consuming. Note that the
presence of variables in the answer choices is a signal that you can do so.
Getting to the Answer:
a 2 – 2ab + b 2 (a – b) (a – b)
 =  = a – b
a–b a–b

14. B Category: Sequences


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: When a question stem defines a sequence of numbers, begin by
calculating the first few numbers in the sequence and then look for a pattern. The
SAT will never require you to make 44 separate calculations, so a pattern must
emerge.
Getting to the Answer:
6 {6}
6(–1) + 1 = –5 {6, –5}
–5(–1) + 1 = 6 {6, –5, 6}
6(–1) + 1 = –5 {6, –5, 6, –5}
We have a pattern! The sequence alternates between 6 and –5. Since the 2nd and
4th terms are –5, the 44th term—and all terms in even-numbered positions in the
sequence—will also be –5.

15. A Category: Ratios


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Set up a proportion and cross-multiply. The unit conversion given
in the question stem is a hint: make sure your units of measurement are consistent.
Getting to the Answer:
30 kilometers = 30 x 1,000 meters = 30,000 meters
23 kg x kg
 = 
20 m 30,000 m
23(30,000) = 20(x)
690,000 = 20(x)
34,500 = x

16. B Category: Linear Graphs


section two

Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Be on the lookout for 30–60–90 triangles. You’ll see one here if
you sketch the vertical line from (23 , 2) to the x-axis.
Getting to the Answer: The sides of a 30–60–90 triangle are in the ratio of
x : x3 : 2x.The horizontal and vertical sides are x3  and x, where x = 2. Since
the vertical side is shortest, angle x across from it is 30o.
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17. A Category: Inequalities


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: First solve the inequalities for a and b. Then figure out what the
range of a + b is. Doing so will enable you to eliminate all but one choice.
Getting to the Answer:
a+4<2 b – 2 < –3
section two

a < –2 b < –1
a + b < –2 + (–1). All of the choices except for (A) are less than –3.

18. C Category: Data Analysis


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: The biggest challenge here is to determine how the numbers in
the table can be used to calculate the value asked for in the question stem.
Because the numbers are simply the product of the two variables in the row and
column, and you are given y, you can set up equations to calculate the other three
variables, and then subtract.
Getting to the Answer: Start with an equation using y:
wy = 21
Substitute y = 3:
3w = 21 ⇒ w = 7
Now you can either use w = 7 or continue using y. Try the latter:
xy = 6
Substitute y = 3:
3x = 6 ⇒ x = 2
zy = 27
Substitute y = 3
3z = 27 ⇒ z = 9
w – x – y – z = 7 – 2 – 3 – 9 = –7

19. E Category: Number Properties


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Either Pick Numbers or use your knowledge of Number
Properties. The key insight here is that the cube of a negative number is negative.
Getting to the Answer: If y is negative, then y3 is also negative and –y3 is positive.
If y is positive, then y3 is also positive and –y3 is negative. Now look at the
statements:
I. n < 0 is possible, because –y3 could be negative.
II. n = –1 is also possible, because if y = 1 then n = –(1)3 = –1.
III. n > 8 is also possible, if y < –2. For example, if y = –3, then
n = –(–3)3 = –(–27) = 27.

20. B Category: Equations


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: You can determine from the question stem that exactly four
different hair colors exist in this population. If you add the given fractions and
subtract that number from 1, you will have the fraction of students with black hair.
1
From there, you can calculate how many students are in the class, and then take 
of that number to determine the number of students with blond hair. 4
SAT Getting to the Answer:
Practice Test 3
1 1 1 4 3 2 9
8  +  +  =  +  +  = 
3 4 6 12 12 12 12
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12 9 3 1 SAT
 –  =  =  = fraction of students with black hair Practice Test 3
12 12 12 4
1 9
You know that 6 students have black hair and that  of the total number of students
4
have black hair, so:
1
 (total # students) = 6
4
total # students = 24
Now keep in mind what the question asks for: the number of students with blond
1
hair. The number of students with blond hair is also  of the class, which is 6.
4
Note that you could have stopped after you found that the fraction of students with
1
black hair is , which is equal to the fraction of students with blond hair.
4

section two
03_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:52 PM Page 10

Section 3 (Experimental—Math)
1. C Category: Divisibility
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: (A) is a trap: –48 is more, not less, than –54.
section three

Getting to the Answer:


n < –54
(6)(–9) = –54
(6)(–10) = –60

2. C Category: Number Properties


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Questions about Number Properties should prompt you to Pick
Numbers. The alternative is to think conceptually about the way any positive integer
behaves.
Getting to the Answer: Say x = 1.
(A) (2)(1) = 2 Positive.
(B) 2 – 1 = 1 Positive.
(C) 1 – (2)(1) = –1 Negative.
(D) 1 + 2(1) = 3 Positive.
–1 1
(E)  =  Positive.
–2 2
Note that if you pick a number greater than 2 for x, (B) is also negative. You’d then
need to pick another number to distinguish (B) and (C). To manage this question
more conceptually, consider that a positive number times a positive number is
positive and that a negative number multiplied by a positive number is negative.
Since x is a positive integer, 2x is larger than x. Therefore, x – 2x < 0.

3. B Category: Geometric Visualization


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Draw lines through each figure to determine whether there
are exactly three lines that create symmetrical pieces of the figure.
Getting to the Answer: Only the equilateral triangle has exactly three lines
of symmetry:

As for the other shapes:


(A) A square has four lines of symmetry.
(C) A circle has an infinite number of lines of symmetry.
(D) An isosceles triangle has only one line of symmetry.
(E) A hexagon has six lines of symmetry.

SAT 4. B Category: Polygons


Practice Test 3 Difficulty: Medium
10
03_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:52 PM Page 11

Strategic Advice: WXYZ is a parallelogram, so opposite angles are equal and the SAT
Practice Test 3
sum of all four interior angles is 360°. You also know that the sum of the interior
11
angles of a triangle is 180°. Consider each answer choice, eliminating those that
must be true based on the information in the figure.
Getting to the Answer: In (A), because c and d are opposite to each other, they
must be equal. In (B), nothing in the figure indicates that a + b must equal 90.
Because in (C), W X and YZ are parallel, the angles formed between each of these
line segments and the transverse line are both equal to b°. This means that the
interior angles of the triangle on the left are a°, b°, and d°. The three angles sum to
180°, so a + b + d = 180. Similarly, in (D), the unmarked angle in the triangle on the
right must be a°. Therefore, a + b + c = 180. Finally, in (E), c + d + 2(a + b) is
simply the sum of all four angles in the parallelogram, which equals 360.

5. D Category: Probability
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: The probability is the ratio of the number of desired outcomes to
the number of possible outcomes. Here, there are 12 desired outcomes (color
photos) and 15 possible outcomes (total photos).
Getting to the Answer:
12 4
 = 
15 5

6. C Category: Equations
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: While you could solve the given equation for a in terms of b and
then substitute into the expression, you save time if you can find a shortcut. Try
simplifying the expression to see whether ab appears in it.
Getting to the Answer:
b 3a2b
a2 ×  × 3 =  = 3ab. You know that ab = 5, so 3ab = 3(5) = 15.
a a

7. A Category: Equations
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: First convert cups of butter into sticks of butter to find how many
sticks are used in one batch of brownies; then express the leftover in terms of b.
Picking Numbers also works nicely. For example, pick a number for b and figure out
how many sticks of butter would be used. Then subtract from 100 to find out how
many are left over. Plug in b to your answer choices to see which one works.
Getting to the Answer:
1
section three

1 stick =  cup
2
1 cup = 2 sticks
2 cups of butter = (2)(2) = 4 sticks
b batches of brownies use 4b of the 100 available sticks, so the number left over is
100 – 4b.

8. A Category: Angles
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Use the rules of parallel lines.
Getting to the Answer: At each intersection with line , vertical angles are equal
03_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:52 PM Page 12

and supplementary angles add up to 180˚. Since the two lines are parallel,
corresponding angles are the same. For example, b = f and a = e. Therefore, if you
know the measure of any one angle, you could determine the measures of all the
angles in the figure.

9. E Category: Sequences
section three

Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: The first thing to notice about this sequence is the pattern—it is
a geometric sequence, which means that every term after the first is equal to the
previous term times some constant. In this case, the ratio between the terms is 3:
every term (except the first) equals the previous term times 3. While it is possible
to calculate and write out the remaining terms of this sequence, it is very time-
consuming. You will be able to solve the problem much more quickly if you recall the
formula an = a1r (n – 1). In this formula, a1 is the first term, an is the nth term, and r is
the ratio between terms.
Getting to the Answer:
a1 = 3 and r = 3, so a9 = 3(39 – 1) = 3(38) = 39 = 19,683

10. B Category: Data Analysis


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: The number of miles each car travels per gallon of gas is equal
to the number of miles it travels per tank, divided by the number of gallons in each
tank. This is the same as the slope of the line connecting each point to the origin.
Sketch in the lines and see which one has the steepest slope. If you have trouble
telling which one is the steepest, calculate the miles per gallon of each car.
Getting to the Answer: The line with the steepest slope is the one connecting
300
point B to the origin. This car gets  = 30 miles per gallon.
10
11. D Category: Data Analysis
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: First, find the number of miles car C can drive on one tank of
gas and the number of gallons in a tank from the figure. The ratio between that
number of miles and that number of gallons is the same as the ratio between 1,000
miles and the number of gallons it takes to drive 1,000 miles. Set this ratio up as an
equation and solve for the number of gallons it takes to drive 1,000 miles.
Getting to the Answer: Car C can drive 260 miles on 16 gallons of gas. If you call
260 1,000
the number of gallons it takes to drive 1,000 miles x, then  = , so
16 x
(1,000)(16)
x =   61.5. This is nearly 62.
260
12. D Category: Functions
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: From the given equation, you know that [4 @ (5 # 3)] must equal
8. Use this fact to figure out which operations @ and # represent.
Getting to the Answer:
4[4 @ (5 # 3)] = 32
[4 @ (5 # 3)] = 8
SAT You know that 4@ is involved, which creates two possibilities: @ represents
Practice Test 3 addition, in which case 5 # 3 would have to equal 4; or @ represents multiplication,
12
03_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:52 PM Page 13

in which case 5 # 3 would have to equal 2. None of the four operations makes 5 # 3 SAT
Practice Test 3
equal 4, but if # is subtraction, then 5 # 3 = 2. It follows that @ represents
13
multiplication. Now substitute into the choices:
(A) 2 × 6 = 12 ≠ 8
(B) 4 – 4 = 0 ≠ 8
(C) 8 – 2 = 6 ≠ 8
(D) 2 × 4 = 8; this works.
(E) 13 × 5 = 65 ≠ 8

13. A Category: Exponents


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: While you could solve for x, then x -3, it is faster to simply write
the negative exponent as a fraction.
Getting to the Answer:
1 1
x–3 = 3
= 
x –8
Therefore x 3 = –8

14. A Category: Equations


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Translate words into math; then simplify the algebraic equation
that results. A fine alternative is to Pick Numbers for the larger number, the smaller
number, and x.
Getting to the Answer: Call the larger number a. Then the smaller number is a – 2.
Then:
a–2
 = x
a
a – 2 = ax
a – ax = 2
a(1 – x) = 2
2
a = 
1–x

15. C Category: Circles


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: First, find each circumference using the formula Circumference =
2πr ; then determine the ratio between the circumferences.
section three

Getting to the Answer:


Larger circle:
r=2
2πr = 2π(2) = 4π
Smaller circle:
3
r = 
2
 
3
2πr = 2π  = 3π
2
Ratio:
3π : 4π = 3 : 4
03_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:52 PM Page 14

16. C Category: Non-Linear Graphs


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: The graph of h(–x) is the graph of h(x) mirrored around the y-
axis—that is, flipped left-to-right. The easiest way to check what the value of h(–x)
is for any particular value of x is to plug –x into the function h(x) and look at the
section three

graph. Check each point in this way to find the one that lies on the graph.
Getting to the Answer: (A): x = –4, so –x = 4. Find the point on the graph of h(x)
with an x-value of 4 to find the value of h(–x) when x = –4. The point is not (4, 1), so
(A) is incorrect. (B): x = –2, –x = 2. Now h(2) = 0, so the point (–2, –4) is not on the
graph of h(–x). (C): x = –2, –x = 2. Again, h(2) = 0; the point (–2, 0) is on the graph
of h(–x), so (C) must be the answer.

17. A Category: Exponents


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Find the number of integers between 51 and 120. Then find the
numbers in that range that are the squares of integers, and subtract.
Getting to the Answer: There are 120 – 51 + 1 = 70 numbers between 51 and
120. Note that since 51 and 120 are both included in the range, you must add one
to the difference between them to find the number of numbers.
72 = 49 (smallest square below the range)
82 = 64
92 = 81
102 = 100
112 = 121 (largest square above the range)
There are 3 numbers that are the squares of integers within the given range, and
therefore 70 – 3 = 67 numbers that are not squares of integers within that range.

18. A Category: Angles


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Triangle ABC is composed of three angles: x, 180 – z, and
180 – y. (Because l and m are parallel, y is supplementary to angle ACB ). Using
the fact that the sum of the three angles is 180, solve for y + z.
Getting to the Answer:
x + 180 – y + 180 – z = 180
40 + 180 – y – z = 0
220 = y + z

19. E Category: Logic


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Before you start adding, think of what the sum of the consecutive
integers from –34 to 34 will be.
Getting to the Answer: The sum of the consecutive integers from –34 to 34 will be
0. (For example, –34 + 34 = 0, –33 + 33 = 0, etc.) The next number in the sequence
will be 35:
35 + 36 + 37 = 108
n = 37

SAT
Practice Test 3
14
03_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:52 PM Page 15

20. E Category: Quadratic Equations SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: High
15
Strategic Advice: When you see an algebra problem, such as this one, that looks
very complicated, first explore how it might be simplified, particularly how like terms
might cancel out. Doing so will save you time and energy on Test Day.
Getting to the Answer: Use your Knowledge of Quadratic Equations to simplify the
expression.
n 2 – p 2 = (n + p)(n – p) =
x y x y x y x y 2x 2y
y + 
x y x  y x y x   y  x 
 +  – 
  +  – 
 +  =  ( = 4

section three
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 16

Section 4 (Critical Reading)


1. B Category: Cause-and-Effect
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Early Sentence Completions may have a simple structure but
somewhat harder vocabulary.
section four

Getting to the Answer: Laura found a way out of a tough decision by doing both
things that she wants to do—law and medicine. A good prediction would be
combined.
(A) She never lost the interests, so there’s no need to reclaim them.
(B) Correct; “merged” certainly works as a synonym for combined.
(C) “Conveyed” just means that she told people about her interests, but she actually
took action.
(D) There’s no indication that her interests needed to be “defined.”
(E) This is the opposite of your prediction.

2. B Category: Definition
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Whenever the structure of a Sentence Completion is fairly
straightforward, be ready to put your vocabulary to the test.
Getting to the Answer: Rhona was unhappy with the professor’s remarks about
her presentation, so you need to find a word that conveys the idea of unhappiness,
or even anger.
(A) Rhona was upset, not confused.
(B) This works; “galled” conveys a sense of anger. If you weren’t sure of the
meaning of this word, the process of elimination would still lead you here.
(C) This is the opposite of your prediction.
(D) Again, the opposite of what you’re looking for.
(E) She seems upset, not “fascinated.”
disoriented: confused, especially regarding place, time, or personal identity

3. D Category: Definition
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Be aware of the charges of the words in the sentence and pick a
choice that is consistent with them.
Getting to the Answer: The charge here is clearly negative—“incompetent lawyer,”
“an insult to the standards of the justice system.” Look for negative words for both
blanks.
(A) “Victory” is far too positive.
(B) “Astute” is also positive.
(C) “Triumph” certainly doesn’t fit.
(D) Correct; only this answer offers the dual negative charges you need. Conversely,
if you weren’t sure of the meaning of one of these words, you could have
disqualified the other choices since, in each case, at least one word has a positive
or neutral charge.
(E) An “exacting” deposition wouldn’t be considered incompetent.
apathetic: uncaring, without interest
astute: clever, apt
SAT
Practice Test 3 debacle: a disaster
16
surreptitious: secret, stealthy
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 17

negligent: without attention SAT


Practice Test 3
travesty: an exaggerated or grotesque imitation
17
exacting: with extreme attention or precision

4. D Category: Contrast
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: A small word like “but” can dictate the meaning of a sentence.
Getting to the Answer: Poor Gordon wanted to eat healthy but couldn’t give up
candy.
(A) There’s no reason to “extol” candy as part of a healthy diet.
(B) If he’s aiming for a healthy diet, he shouldn’t be eating candy in the first place.
(C) On a healthy diet, he wouldn’t be eating candy at all, much less relishing it.
(D) This matches your prediction. Even a general sense of the meaning of the other
words should still bring you to this choice.
(E) This would mean that he’s saying bad things about the candy rather than
avoiding it.
extol: to praise highly
relish: to enjoy heartily
forgo: to give up
impugn: to attack as false or questionable

5. B Category: Contrast
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: You may be able to predict a relationship between the blanks,
even when you don’t know what the words will be.
Getting to the Answer: The words “At first…merely…became downright” indicate a
progression. You want two words that are related, with the second one more intense
than the first.
(A) This doesn’t show a progression.
(B) This fits well. His behavior started out a little confusing, then got very confusing.
(C) There’s no strong connection between these words.
(D) It sounds like it got less reasonable, not more so.
(E) These words are opposites.
perplexing: confusing
inexplicable: impossible to explain

6. B Category: Definition
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Use Keywords to help you identify a Definition sentence.
Getting to the Answer: Notice that the word “instead” indicates a contrast between
section four

narrating the story in sequence and telling it through a series of flashbacks.


Therefore, your second blank prediction should be something like tells, and your
first blank prediction should be something like rejects.
(A) This matches your prediction for the first blank, but not for the second.
(B) This works nicely.
(C), (D), and (E) do not reflect the contrast (indicated by the word “instead”)
between telling the story in sequence and telling it through flashbacks. Furthermore,
the second blank words in these choices do not make sense.
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 18

7. C Category: Definition
Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Be prepared for tough vocabulary on the last few sentences in
the section.
Getting to the Answer: This is a relatively easy sentence to paraphrase: there’s a
lack (a good prediction) of accurate depictions of African-American life in the
section four

movies.
(A) This doesn’t fit in the sentence; a “consensus” is an agreement among people,
not things.
(B) This is the opposite of what you’re looking for.
(C) Correct; “dearth” is a synonym for lack. If you weren’t sure of this, none of the
other words works for lack.
(D) This almost works but doesn’t fit with the word “accurate.” Why would the
director need to revise representations that are already accurate?
(E) There’s no indication the representation needs to be dispersed.
consensus: general agreement
spate: a sudden flood or rush
dearth: lack
dispersal: distribution

8. B Category: Cause-and-Effect
Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Later Sentence Completions can have some difficult vocabulary
for both blanks.
Getting to the Answer: You probably know that rain forests have many plants and
animals, so large amount is a good prediction for the first blank. You may not have
as strong a prediction for the second blank, but you know it must agree with this
first.
(A) A “symmetry” of plants and animals would imply a precise balance, so “contend”
doesn’t fit in the second blank.
(B) This works well.
(C) It doesn’t make much sense to say “such a dimension of plants and animals.”
(D) A “melee” wouldn’t imply that the rain forests “provide” life and activity.
(E) The forests themselves wouldn’t be battling anything.
symmetry: order; quality of being visually balanced
profusion: abundance
teem: to be full of; to swarm with
seethe: to churn or foam; to be in a state of turmoil
melee: hand-to-hand combat

Hunting
9. B Category: Inference
Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Some Inference questions require you to generalize from a
specific detail.
Getting to the Answer: The author says that his friend is simplistic in his views,
SAT since hunting does have some good points. The author is careful to point out,
Practice Test 3
however, that he doesn’t hunt himself, though he doesn’t say why. Look for a choice
18
that captures this mixed message.
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 19

(A) Opposite; this is the opinion that this author is arguing against. SAT
Practice Test 3
(B) This fits the balanced tone of the author’s views.
19
(C) Misused Detail; although the author does seem to be sensitive to environmental
factors, this doesn’t follow from his statement that he’s not a hunter.
(D) Opposite; it seems that the author doesn’t hunt at all.
(E) Extreme; there’s no indication that the author is “highly concerned.”

10. B Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: You’re looking for an answer that captures the point of this detail
but still fits with the meaning of the passage as a whole. Make sure to read the text
around the detail, not just the quoted material, in order to understand it in context.
Getting to the Answer: The author says that death by a predator is “often” the fate
of an animal in nature and that it is “similar” to “or worse” than being killed by a
hunter. Look for an answer that paraphrases these sentiments.
(A) Opposite; in fact, the author states that such things occur “often.”
(B) This matches the passage.
(C) Misused Detail; although “ecosystems” are mentioned later on, they have little to
do with the point being made here.
(D) Opposite; the author actually says that this could be a fate “worse” than that at
the hands of a hunter.
(E) Opposite; this is actually an argument by the author against what he considers
“simplistic assumptions.”

Scientist Stereotypes
11. A Category: Inference
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Watch out for choices like (B) and (C) that go too far. The correct
answer will follow very directly from the passage.
Getting to the Answer: The passage states that Tesla reveals the inadequacy
of the stereotype about scientists. The author thinks that the stereotype is
inadequate—in other words, it doesn’t describe all scientists.
(A) This fits. For some scientists, like Tesla, the stereotype is inappropriate.
(B) Extreme; this is tempting, but goes too far. There might be plenty of basis for the
stereotype. The author is simply stating that in some cases, it doesn’t fit.
(C) Out of Scope; although the author is arguing against the stereotype, there’s no
indication that it will have negative effects if it continues.
(D) Opposite; Tesla’s experiment is cited as an example of the inadequacy of the
section four

stereotype.
(E) Out of Scope; there’s no indication that the stereotype is becoming more or less
widespread.

12. B Category: Function


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Some wrong answer choices fit the passage but don’t answer
the question.
Getting to the Answer: The author’s point is that scientists aren’t always “‘square,’
soft-spoken, upstanding” members of society. To illustrate this point, the author cites
Nikolai Tesla’s experiment in which he almost destroyed the Brooklyn Bridge. This
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 20

served to “completely destroy the fallacy of the scientist as a conformist.”


(A) Misused Detail; the experiment did depend on sympathetic vibrations, but the
passage is not centered on this detail.
(B) This makes sense. The point of the passage is that Tesla is more “rebellious”
than the typical “mild-mannered and unobtrusive…conformist” that most scientists
are perceived to be.
section four

(C) Distortion; the author never implies that the bridge was inadequate. In fact, the
example was probably chosen to show the power that Tesla had to threaten such an
enormous, sturdy structure.
(D) Distortion; this is tempting because the author would likely agree with this
assertion, but the author cites Tesla because he was rebellious, not because he
was brilliant.
(E) Out of Scope; the author never mentions safety standards.

Norse Settlements in Greenland


13. A Category: Global
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: After reading a passage, you should be able to predict a general
purpose for the passage. Be careful not to make it overly specific.
Getting to the Answer: The author discusses the disappearance of a group of
Norse settlers and offers a number of explanations for this occurrence; he does not
seem to advocate any one explanation over another. Predict explain possible reasons.
(A) This matches your prediction. Notice that the test maker will often use more
abstract language, as here, than your prediction. Be flexible enough to recognize
that your specific prediction still fits this more general phrasing.
(B) Distortion; the author mentions one formerly prevailing theory that now wins
“little credence” (line 24), but “refuting” this theory is not the main purpose of the
passage.
(C) Distortion; the passage only makes passing reference to the possibility of such
“conflict.”
(D) Out of Scope; while the author offers a number of different “explanations,” he
never gets into the “motivations” of those supporting each view.
(E) Extreme; the author considers it “likely that this stubborn cultural inflexibility
prevented the Norse…from adapting to increasingly severe environmental and
economic conditions.” To say that the Norse people’s “extinction” was caused
“primarily” by “Cultural and sociologic factors” (line 69) is too strong. The author
considers these latter factors in the context of the “environmental and economic”
factors of paragraphs 3 and 4.

14. A Category: Function


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Consider the passage as a whole as you make a prediction for
Function questions.
Getting to the Answer: The passage as a whole explores reasons for the failure of
the Norse settlements. The first sentence tells, in a somewhat dramatic and
mysterious way, how this failure was first discovered, so this sentence introduces
SAT the topic of the passage.
Practice Test 3 (A) This matches your prediction perfectly.
20 (B) Out of Scope; nothing in the passage disproves Egede’s discovery.
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 21

(C) Opposite; the rest of the passage is devoted to explaining this mystery. SAT
Practice Test 3
(D) Distortion; many hypotheses are introduced later, but the first sentence is a fact,
21
not a hypothesis.
(E) Distortion; the event described in the first sentence isn’t used as evidence for
any conclusions later in the passage.

15. B Category: Inference


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Low difficulty questions may ask you to spot an opinion that the
author implies strongly but doesn’t directly endorse.
Getting to the Answer: The second paragraph explores the theory that the Norse
settlers died in wars with the Inuit tribes. This was once believed widely, but, due to
lack of evidence, “modern scholars give little credence to these theories.” The
author doesn’t think much of the theories.
(A) Out of Scope; nothing in the passage indicates that the theories were “elitist.”
(B) This works; if the author cites scholars who find little merit in such theories, he
likely believes them to be false, or “erroneous.”
(C) Opposite; the theories, once predominant, are now outdated.
(D) Extreme; although the author rejects the theories, he does explain why people
once believed them.
(E) Opposite; there is much evidence against the theories.

16. B Category: Vocab-in-Context


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Use your Sentence Completion skills to form a prediction for
Vocab-in-Context questions.
Getting to the Answer: In the nineteenth century, people thought that the Norse
had died out through war with the Inuits. The evidence for this was a report of
“strained relationships.” What kind of relationships would indicate that a war was
likely? Pretty bad ones.
(A) This is the opposite of your prediction.
(B) Correct; “tense” relations could certainly precede conflict.
(C) This is related to another meaning of “strained.”
(D) This isn’t forceful enough. A relationship that is simply “awkward” wouldn’t
indicate that war was likely.
(E) “Strained” can sometimes mean phony or “artificial,” but that doesn’t fit here.

17. D Category: Function


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Keep the author’s purpose in mind to help you avoid Out of
section four

Scope choices.
Getting to the Answer: The author is citing reasons that modern scholars don’t
believe that there was a war between Norse settlers and tribes. By stating that Inuit
oral history is extensive, the author strengthens his evidence, since you would
expect a thorough history to mention such a major event.
(A) Out of Scope; the author only mentions two areas of evidence in the second
paragraph, and no strong contrast is implied between them.
(B) Out of Scope; the author is focused on the Norse settlers, not explaining Inuit
culture.
(C) Distortion; although it seems true that Norse written histories aren’t particularly
“extensive,” the author isn’t comparing the two types of history here.
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 22

(D) Correct. This fits with the thrust of the surrounding text.
(E) Out of Scope; again, the author is not focused on exploring Inuit culture.

18. C Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: You often need to go forward or backward in the passage to
section four

understand ambiguous terminology.


Getting to the Answer: The passage states that “Advances in paleoclimatology, for
example, have increased the breadth and clarity of our picture of the region.” What
is paleoclimatology? The next sentence describes an analysis of ice samples, plant
material, and sea sediments that tells scientists about the history of Greenland’s
climate, so “our picture of the region” is our picture of the history of the region’s
climate.
(A) Misused Detail; historical documents are only mentioned in the previous
paragraph.
(B) Out of Scope; although this fits with the idea of a “picture of the region,”
photographs aren’t mentioned anywhere in the passage.
(C) This matches your prediction nicely. Understanding that the cited lines refer to
“climate” helps you to zero in on “climate” in this correct choice.
(D) Misused Detail; although the author does consider all of these perspectives in
the passage, the phrase “our picture of the region” occurs when the author is only
discussing an environmental perspective.
(E) Distortion; the author does consider the particular instance of increasingly cold
climate affecting the Norse settlers, but this choice is far too general to fit the
author’s intent.

19. A Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: This question requires you to put together details from different
parts of the passage.
Getting to the Answer: The author writes that “a particularly warm period for
Greenland…occurred between the years 800 and 1300.” The beginning of the
passage states that the colony was founded around the year 1000, right in the
middle of this warm period.
(A) This works. The “mild,” warm weather was uncharacteristic for the usually cold,
harsh climate.
(B) Opposite; it was hospitable, not “inhospitable.”
(C) Opposite; it was unusually pleasant.
(D) Distortion; it became “increasingly cold” later.
(E) Out of Scope; nothing indicates that the weather was “unpredictable.”

20. D Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Remember to choose answers based strictly on the passage.
Although (E) might make sense to a modern reader, nothing in the passage points
to this answer.
Getting to the Answer: In the fourth paragraph, you read that “inexpensive and
plentiful Asian and African elephant ivory flooded the European market.” The
SAT phrase “inexpensive and plentiful” is your clue that Europeans began buying these
Practice Test 3 cheaper types of ivory rather than the whale ivory from Greenland.
22 (A) Distortion; although the elephant ivory did become more popular, the passage
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 23

indicates that it was because this ivory was cheaper, not specifically because it SAT
Practice Test 3
came from elephants.
23
(B) Out of Scope; the passage never addresses the quality of the ivory.
(C) Misused Detail; changing shipping patterns are mentioned later in the
paragraph but didn’t affect the demand for ivory.
(D) This fits; Asia and Africa were “alternate, preferable sources of ivory.”
(E) Out of Scope; although today we might have these concerns, no one in the
fourteenth century seems to have been particularly concerned about the
environment.

21. B Category: Inference


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: For challenging questions like this one, you may need to reread
much of a paragraph to pick up on an inference.
Getting to the Answer: The Norse settlers were especially dependent on trade
with Europe because of “their need for the imported wood and iron that were in
short supply on the island.” They didn’t have enough of these materials and needed
to import them.
(A) Distortion; although the demand declined, nothing implies that the supply was in
danger.
(B) This fits; the colonists relied on imported wood and iron.
(C) Misused Detail; although this is mentioned in the next paragraph, it’s not
mentioned in connection with the shipping and trading patterns.
(D) Out of Scope; the author never refers to language barriers.
(E) Distortion; Asia and Africa are only mentioned as sources of ivory, not as the
origin of merchants.

22. C Category: Inference


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: This Inference question is about the argument made throughout
the paragraph.
Getting to the Answer: The last paragraph discusses cultural reasons for the
settlers’ decline. The author writes that the Norse colonists refused to adopt Inuit
technologies, even though these technologies were well suited to the environment.
Why didn’t the colonists pick up on this? The passage states that “The Norse
settlers…viewed themselves as fundamentally European and did not adopt Inuit
techniques.” Later, the author refers to “stubborn cultural inflexibility.” The settlers
stuck to their European ways.
(A) Out of Scope; the settlers stuck to their customs for cultural reasons, not
because of a practical evaluation of the Inuit strategies.
section four

(B) Opposite; the author seems to think that the settlers had plenty of opportunity to
learn from the Inuits.
(C) This works; while it doesn’t emphasize the stubbornness of the Europeans, it
still addresses their rejection of customs different from their own, which is the key
point.
(D) Out of Scope; nothing in the passage indicates that the Inuits were secretive.
(E) Opposite; the Inuits seem to have been particularly well adapted to the
environment.
04_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 24

23. D Category: Function


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: A strong prediction will help you to make the subtle distinctions
necessary to avoid tempting wrong answer choices.
Getting to the Answer: The author is making the point that the Norse settlers
didn’t take advantage of the excellent Inuit technology “such as the toggle harpoon,
section four

which made it possible to capture calorie-rich seal meat”; the harpoon and the meat
must be something good that the settlers didn’t take advantage of. It would be
tough to survive in the harsh climate of Greenland. To avoid starvation, the settlers
needed to get plenty of food, and the seal meat was a good source of these
calories.
(A) Out of Scope; the author is interested in explaining the decline of the Norse, not
the success of the Inuit.
(B) Opposite; calorie-rich meat is exactly what the settlers needed.
(C) Distortion; the phrase “calorie-rich” doesn’t convey that the harpoon was
especially ingenious.
(D) This matches well; the settlers needed food, and the seal meat would have
provided the nutrition they needed.
(E) Distortion; this is the ultimate point of the argument, but the specific phrase
“calorie-rich” describes the seal meat, not the Norse tastes.

24. C Category: Vocab-in-Context


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Avoid choices like (E) that fit the passage as a whole but don’t
capture the meaning of the word in question.
Getting to the Answer: It was hard to survive in Greenland, partially because the
weather got colder and the economy got less favorable. Here, “severe” conveys this
difficulty. In fact, difficult is a good prediction.
(A) It doesn’t make sense to accuse conditions of being “unfeeling.”
(B) This is related to a common meaning of “severe” that doesn’t fit here.
(C) This matches nicely. If you weren’t sure of the meaning of this word, none of the
others conveys the life-threatening nature of the settlers’ surroundings.
(D) Again, since the word is describing conditions and not people, “humorless”
doesn’t make sense.
(E) Although the conditions were “isolated,” this isn’t conveyed by the word “severe.”

SAT
Practice Test 3
24
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Section 5 (Writing) SAT


Practice Test 3
25
1. D Category: Run-ons and Fragments
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: transitions
Strategic Advice: This is a run-on sentence—two independent clauses connected
with a comma.
Getting to the Answer: You can make the second clause dependent by removing
“it was.” (D) makes that change.
(B) incorrectly adds the contrasting transition word “though.”
(C) incorrectly adds the causal words “and so.”
(E) leaves the meaning of the second clause incomplete.

2. A Category: Correct as Written


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: verb tenses, transitions, run-ons and fragments, idioms
Strategic Advice: This sentence is correct as written.
Getting to the Answer: The sentence is correct as written.
(B) erroneously uses the semicolon to join clauses already joined with the
conjunction “but.” It also puts both ideas in the same tense instead of maintaining
the sequence and uses the wrong preposition with “frightening.”
(D) and (E) lose the sequence of tenses and are both run-ons, requiring a
semicolon after “customers.”

3. B Category: Transitions
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: idioms, verb tenses
Strategic Advice: The word if needs to be followed by a consequence (e.g., if it
rains, then we get wet). This sentence should simply express contrast.
Getting to the Answer: A contrasting transition word is more appropriate. (B), (D),
and (E) all use “although,” but only (B) is entirely correct. It uses the singular verb
with the singular subject “vulnerability.”
(D) and (E) use the incorrect prepositions to follow “vulnerability.”
(C) uses the transition word “where,” which is not contrasting. In the SAT, “where”
will only be used to refer to location, so it isn’t logical here.

4. E Category: Passives
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: verb tenses, style problems
Strategic Advice: Always check underlined passives for an active version in the
answer choice.
section five

Getting to the Answer: The second clause uses the passive voice unnecessarily.
(E) corrects the error.
(B) doesn’t address the error.
(C) doesn’t parallel the structure established in the first part of the sentence.
(D) leaves the meaning of the second clause incomplete.

5. C Category: Modifiers
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: verb tenses, wordiness
Strategic Advice: An adverb (which usually ends in -ly ) is needed to describe a verb.
05_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 26

Getting to the Answer: The sentence is incorrect because the adjective “loud”
modifies the verb “playing.” Either the verb must be changed to a noun or the
adjective must be changed to an adverb.
(B) and (D) do not correct the error.
(E) is unnecessarily wordy.
section five

6. E Category: Wordiness
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: transitions, style problems
Strategic Advice: Not all long selections will contain Wordiness problems, but
always check for more concise versions among the answer choices.
Getting to the Answer: As written, this sentence is unnecessarily wordy. (E) makes
the same point more concisely.
(B) illogically relates the clauses and is still unnecessarily wordy.
(C) leaves the meaning of the second clause incomplete.
(D) creates a grammatically incorrect sentence.

7. B Category: Wordiness
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: run-ons and fragments, comparisons
Strategic Advice: When two things are being compared, the words connecting
them should show whether they are similar or contrasting.
Getting to the Answer: This sentence is wordier than it needs to be.
(C) doesn’t fix the problems.
(D) creates a run-on.
(E) doesn’t fix the problems.

8. D Category: Subject–Verb
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: passives, comparisons
Strategic Advice: Identify whether the subject is singular or plural.
Getting to the Answer: The “circle of oak trees” is a singular subject—one circle.
The subject never appears in a prepositional phrase like “of oak trees.” Therefore,
we must use the singular form of the verb “reminds.” In addition, the two items are a
list and should be in parallel form. (D) corrects both errors concisely.
(B) doesn’t correct either error.
(C) creates an inappropriate relationship between the two items listed.
(E) also creates an inappropriate relationship.

9. C Category: Pronouns
Difficulty: Low
Issues: verb tenses
Strategic Advice: Always make sure pronouns are consistent throughout the
sentence.
Getting to the Answer: The sentence starts out talking to “you,” but shifts to “one”
in the underlined portion. Since you can’t change the first reference, you’re looking
for an answer that replaces “one” with “you.” Note too that the correct answer is in
the past—since it refers to a past event, not a future one as in the original.
SAT (B) doesn’t correct the pronoun
Practice Test 3 (D) replaces the pronoun with “people,” which is incorrect with “you.”
26 (E) doesn’t correct the pronoun.
05_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 27

10. C Category: Pronouns SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: High
27
Issues: modifiers, comparisons
Strategic Advice: Don’t be so focused on one way to fix an error that you overlook
a different correction.
Getting to the Answer: The commission focused on two things, which should
therefore be in parallel form. In addition, the pronoun “they” is plural, but the
commission is singular. Only (C) corrects both problems concisely.
(B) changes the subject from the commission to “focus,” which can’t try to do
anything on its own.
(D) doesn’t correct the errors and is far too wordy.
(E) deletes the verb “focused” in favor of the modifier “focusing” making the
sentence a fragment.

11. D Category: Modifiers


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: pronouns, wordiness
Strategic Advice: Always identify what a modifying phrase is intended to refer to.
Getting to the Answer: The thing that worries “my mother” more than it worries the
speaker is the drive. Therefore, the phrase “upcoming cross-country drive” should
be placed as close as possible to that introductory phrase. The only choice that
does this is (D).
(B) doesn’t correct the modifier and is wordy and awkward.
(C) doesn’t correct the modifier and distorts the meaning.
(E) doesn’t correct the error and is wordy and awkward.

12. D Category: Comparisons


Difficulty: High
Issues: idioms, transitions, verb tenses, subject–verb
Strategic Advice: When only two items or persons are being compared, the
comparative form is used. The superlative is correct when comparing three or
more items.
Getting to the Answer: Since twins are, by definition, two people, the better
singing voice would be correct here.
(A) uses the right preposition and is an idiomatically correct phrase.
(B) correctly relates the two contrasting clauses in the sentence.
(C) is correct use of both the present tense and the singular form.

13. A Category: Idioms


Difficulty: Low
Issues: transitions, verb tenses, subject–verb
section five

Strategic Advice: Combining an implicitly negative word, such as “hardly,” with an


explicitly negative word, such as “isn’t,” creates a double negative. Unless the intent
of the sentence is for the negatives to cancel one another out, a double negative is
incorrect.
Getting to the Answer: In this sentence, context and logic tell you that the
availability of the software at no charge means there “isn’t” any reason not to try it.
So in this case, the double negative is incorrect; the error is in (A). Additionally,
“isn’t hardly” is never correct.
(B) correctly establishes the cause-and-effect relationship between the two thoughts
in the sentence.
05_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 28

(C) is appropriate use of the present tense.


(D) uses the right preposition.

14. E Category: Correct as Written


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: modifiers, verb tenses, idioms
section five

Strategic Advice: Expect some sentences in this section to be correct as written.


Getting to the Answer: (A) correctly uses the adverb “possibly” to modify the
unstated but understood verb “is.”
(B) is proper use of the superlative “most,” since the university would have more
than two athletes.
(C) is correct use of the present tense.
(D) is the proper preposition with “captain.”

15. E Category: Correct as Written


Difficulty: High
Issues: transitions, pronouns, verb tenses
Strategic Advice: Make sure you’re comfortable with the difference between
who and whom by Test Day.
Getting to the Answer: (A) correctly introduces a subordinate clause.
(B) and (C) show consistent usage of the past tense.
(D) is the correct pronoun to refer to the people attending productions.

16. B Category: Pronouns


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: modifiers
Strategic Advice: If you’re not sure which pronoun form is correct in a compound
subject, read it without the other noun; “Her returned to the courtroom” is clearly
incorrect.
Getting to the Answer: “Her” is the objective form of the pronoun; she would be
correct in this context.
(A) correctly uses the adjective “other” to modify a noun.
(C) correctly modifies the verb “returned” with an adverb.
(D) is appropriate use of the past tense for an act that is simultaneous with
“returned.”

17. B Category: Subject–Verb


Difficulty: High
Issues: transitions, verb tenses
Strategic Advice: In a sentence with multiple verbs, make sure each verb agrees
with its subject.
Getting to the Answer: The subject of the first clause of this sentence is
“number”—which is singular when preceded by “the” but plural when preceded by
“a”—so do not have would be correct here.
(A) logically combines the two contrasting clauses of the sentence.
(C) correct use of the present tense.
(D) is appropriate use of the future tense.

SAT
18. E Category: Correct as Written
Practice Test 3 Difficulty: High
28 Issues: idioms, modifiers
05_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 29

Strategic Advice: If you don’t spot an obvious error, go through each choice carefully. SAT
Practice Test 3
Getting to the Answer:
29
(A) correctly introduces the modifying clause.
(B) is appropriate use of the possessive.
(C) correctly uses the adjective “impressive” to modify the noun “record.”
(D) is the idiomatically correct form with the verb “managed.”

19. D Category: Modifiers


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: idioms, verb tenses
Strategic Advice: Make sure each modifier is the correct type for the word(s) it
modifies.
Getting to the Answer: Here, the adverb “substantially” is meant to modify the
noun “assistance.” Since adjectives are used to modify nouns, substantial would be
correct.
(A) is idiomatically correct usage in context.
(B) is an adverb correctly modifying the verb “hope.”
(C) is idiomatically correct with the verb “hope.”

20. E Category: Correct as Written


Difficulty: High
Issues: subject–verb, transitions, modifier, pronouns
Strategic Advice: Expect between five and eight Writing sentences to be correct
as written.
Getting to the Answer: There is no error in this sentence.
(A) agrees with its compound (and therefore plural) subject.
(B) appropriately relates the clauses.
(C) correctly uses an adverb to modify the verb phrase “can…affect.”
(D) uses the correct pronoun to refer to “car.”

21. D Category: Ambiguity


Difficulty: High
Issues: verb tenses, idioms
Strategic Advice: A pronoun must refer unambiguously to its antecedent.
Getting to the Answer: Here, “she” could mean either Marilyn or Claudia.
(A) is appropriately in the past tense.
(B) is idiomatically correct with “went.”
(C) is the appropriate preposition.

22. B Category: Subject–Verb


Difficulty: Medium
section five

Issues: modifiers, idioms, verb tenses


Strategic Advice: A verb must agree in number with its subject, which may not be
the noun closest to it in the sentence.
Getting to the Answer: The form “won” is right for the perfect tense of the verb win
but the subject of this sentence is the plural “all,” which requires the plural verb form
have. The error is in (B).
(A) uses the correct preposition.
(C) correctly starts the construction “not only...but also.”
(D) is the appropriate preposition.
05_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 30

23. A Category: Idioms


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: verb tenses
Strategic Advice: Sometimes, a word may be used that would be correct in
another context, but is incorrect in the sentence as written.
Getting to the Answer: The membership might “agree to” the resolution, but in this
section five

context they would have to agree with the members of the committee; the error is in
(A).
(B) uses the right preposition.
(C) is appropriately in the past tense.
(D) is the correct preposition with “passed.”

24. B Category: Modifiers


Difficulty: High
Issues: idioms, verb tenses
Strategic Advice: Some incorrect grammatical usages are common in everyday
speech; this is one of them.
Getting to the Answer: “Good” isn’t the correct adjective when what you mean is
“healthy”—well is.
(A) is correct idiomatic usage.
(C) is the appropriate verb tense in context.
(D) uses the correct preposition.

25. C Category: Verb Tenses


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: modifiers, idioms
Strategic Advice: “Next fall” is your context clue that this sentence requires the
future verb tense.
Getting to the Answer: “Would be” is incorrect for something that will take place in
the future; will be is correct here.
(A) correctly uses an adverb to modify the verb “sold.”
(B) uses the correct past tense verb and “to” is the appropriate preposition.
(D) uses the correct preposition.

26. E Category: Correct as Written


Difficulty: High
Issues: idioms, verb tenses
Getting to the Answer: The sentence is correct as written. Although the sentence
uses the passive voice, this is not technically an error. Plus, to change to the active,
you’d need to change both (C) and (D), which isn’t possible.
(A) uses the correct preposition with “purposes.”
(B) is appropriate use of the present tense and “to eliminate” is idiomatically correct
with “purposes.”
(C) is an appropriate tense.
(D) uses the proper preposition.

27. B Category: Subject–Verb


Difficulty: Medium
SAT Issues: modifiers, idioms
Practice Test 3 Strategic Advice: Whenever you see a long intervening phrase, check for
30 subject–verb agreement.
05_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 31

Getting to the Answer: The phrase “in contrast to numerous less common allergic SAT
Practice Test 3
reactions” might sound awkward, but it is grammatically correct. It does, however,
31
come between the subject and verb, which disguises the fact that they do not agree.
The subject “hay fever” is singular but the verb “are” is plural. (B) should be is.
(A) is idiomatically correct and correctly has the adverb “less” modifying the
adjective “common.”
(C) correctly uses an adjective to modify the noun “nuisance.”
(D) uses the correct preposition with “nuisance” in context.

28. E Category: Correct as Written


Difficulty: High
Issues: pronouns, subject–verb, modifiers, idioms
Strategic Advice: When there are two or more verbs in a sentence, make sure
each agrees with the appropriate noun.
Getting to the Answer: The sentence is correct as written.
(A) is idiomatically correct usage.
(B) is correctly in the present (since “lies” is present tense), and singular to agree
with “fault line.” If this is difficult for you to see, read the sentence without some of
the modifiers: “What is probably…the largest fault line…lies along…”
(C) correctly uses the superlative adverb “most heavily,” since there are more than
two fault lines in the world.
(D) is the correct preposition in context.

29. D Category: Pronouns


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: idioms, subject–verb
Strategic Advice: Make sure all pronouns have clear antecedents and agree with
them in gender and number.
Getting to the Answer: In (D), the pronoun “them” has no clear antecedent. The
only plural pronoun that precedes “them” is “readers,” but clearly the readers don’t
count on themselves to “give new insight.” The correct pronoun would refer to “fiction.”
(A) correctly uses “just as” to set up the comparison between the clauses with “so….”
(B) and (C) are correctly in the present tense and agree with their respective
subjects, “readers” and “others.”

30. A Category: Verb Tenses


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: pronouns
Strategic Advice: Verb tenses in a sentence should not change without a reason.
Getting to the Answer: For “have learned” to be correct, it must have preceded a
more recent past event. This isn’t so; the sentence uses a common idiomatic
section five

expression “[in order] to ___ you need to ___” in which both verbs are in the
present tense. So it should be present tense, as in (A).
(B) is unnecessary; “they” clearly refers to “most people abroad.”
(C) also makes an unnecessary change; either word is correct.
(D) is inappropriate; the logic of the sentence is that these adults currently find this
to be true; and even if you thought the idea could be in the past tense, there would
be no reason for the perfect tense.
(E) is an unnecessary change; the meaning is clearly stated and correct in the
original.
05_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 32

31. E Category: Run-ons and Fragments


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: style problems
Strategic Advice: The –ing form of a verb by itself can never be a sentence’s
predicate verb.
Getting to the Answer: Sentence 4 is a fragment; it has no verb. Only (E) corrects
section five

the error.
(B), (C), and (D) create grammatically incorrect sentences.

32. C Category: Transitions


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: pronouns, idioms, verb tenses
Strategic Advice: The relationship between the sentences needs to be clarified.
Getting to the Answer: Sentence 7 makes a statement and sentence 8 explains
why people should not adhere to the statement. (C) shows this relationship with the
contrasting transition word “although,” removes the plural noun “French [speakers]”
from the first clause (so “they” clearly refers to the English speakers), and uses
“who” in reference to people.
(A) incorrectly uses the causal transition word “since.”
(B) omits “for example,” which clarifies the relationship with sentence 5, and omits a
contrasting transition word.
(D) changes the meaning to say that English speakers visit France to speak English.
(E) omits the fact that this is happening in France.

33. B Category: Pronouns


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: none
Strategic Advice: Pronouns referring to the same person shouldn’t shift in the
sentence.
Getting to the Answer: Sentence 14 uses the pronoun “they” and then shifts to
“our.” Since the second part of the sentence (which you can’t change) uses “our,” the
first part must use we and us. (B) does this and doesn’t introduce any new errors.
(C) omits part of the meaning.
(D) uses “you,” which doesn’t agree with the second half of the sentence.
(E) omits the question.

34. A Category: Transitions


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: none
Strategic Advice: To insert a sentence, think about what ideas in the passage it
should agree or contrast with.
Getting to the Advice: This sentence expresses disagreement, so it must contrast
with the preceding sentence. The writer argues that native English speakers should
learn a second language, so she disagrees with sentence 1, and (A) is the correct
choice.
(B) There is nothing in the passage to suggest that the author disagrees with
sentence 3.
(C) and (E) are both statements that the author makes and therefore agrees with.
SAT (D) would interrupt the idea in sentences 7 and 8 that English speakers miss out by
Practice Test 3 only speaking English in France.
32
05_SAT CBPT3 W_A&E 9/29/06 4:50 PM Page 33

35. B Category: Reading Comprehension SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: Medium
33
Issues: none
Strategic Advice: You must understand the overall argument in order to determine
how it can be strengthened.
Getting to the Answer: The passage argues that native English speakers should
learn foreign languages and gives three specific reasons why. (B) would add
statistics to bolster the second reason—that not everyone speaks English.
(A) and (D) expand on details from the passage that do not affect the argument.
(C) is Out of Scope. The writer argues that native English speakers, not rich people,
are arrogant.
(E) would weaken the first specific reason why native English speakers should learn
other languages.

section five
06_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:51 PM Page 34

Section 6 (Math)
1. D Category: Inequalities
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Don’t let decimals that go to the thousandths place stump you!
Backsolve by picking an answer choice and testing whether it fits the requirements
section six

of the inequality. Be careful to note that the answer choices are not arranged in any
order—that’s highly unusual—so you should test each choice until you find the one
that works. When comparing decimals, remember to start with the digit on the left
and work your way to the right.
Getting to the Answer:
(A) 2.3 < 2.303; too big
(B) 2.3 < 2.899; too big
(C) 2.03 < 2.267; too small
(D) 2.267 < 2.289 < 2.303; just right

2. D Category: Polygons
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: On Test Day, expect to break up a polygon into more familiar
shapes that are easy to work with. In this particular case, the question breaks up
the figure for you. Use what you know about interior angles of a triangle and the
sum of all angles on a line in order to get to the answer.

40°
65° b° a° 80°
p° c° q°

Getting to the Answer:


a + 40 + 80 = 180
a + 120 = 180
a = 60
Because vertical angles are equal, p = 60. Likewise, q = 65, since its vertical
opposite also equals 65.
p + q = 60 + 65 = 125

3. B Category: Percents
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Percents questions such as this one are easy if you translate
accurately from English into math. Keep in mind that 130 percent of a number is
larger than the number itself.
Getting to the Answer:
part
 × 100 = percent
whole
91
 × 100 = 130
g
910
SAT  = 13
Practice Test 3
g
34 13g = 910
g = 70
06_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:51 PM Page 35

Now, find 70% of 50: SAT


Practice Test 3
part
 × 100 = percent 35
whole
x
 × 100 = 70
50
10x
 = 7
50
1
x = 7
5
x = 35

4. A Category: Exponents
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Picking Numbers is a great strategy on questions such as this.
The key to Picking Numbers is to choose numbers that are easy to work with; it’s
your goal to save time! Think of simple factors of 81, and then make them fit the
rules of the equation by factoring them.
Getting to the Answer:
92 = 81, but 9 > 2
92 = 9 × 9 = 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 34, and 3 < 4
4–3=1

5. C Category: Logic
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Draw a diagram.
Getting to the Answer:

Numbers greater Numbers less


than 25 than 35

In order to find what number goes in the overlapping portion of the diagram, subtract
the number of numbers that are in the list (as stated in the question stem) from the
sum of the number of numbers in each category. (17 + 22) – 30 = 39 – 30 = 9:

8 9 13
section six

Numbers greater Numbers less


than 25 than 35

There are 9 numbers that are both greater than 25 and less than 35.

6. D Category: Triangles
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Most questions on Test Day will have one or two words that
hold the key to getting to the answer. Here, the most important word is “equilateral.”
Because each of the smaller triangles has the same sides, each also has the same
06_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:51 PM Page 36

area. You can then treat this problem as a simpler fraction question, rather than one
about finding areas.
Getting to the Answer: 3 out of the 4 smaller triangles are shaded. The total area
3
of the shaded triangles is equal to  of the area of all of the triangles—which is the
3 4
area of triangle JKL:  × 36 = 27.
4
section six

7. D Category: Functions
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: The function r (t) is defined in the question stem. Replace t with
u, then set r (u) equal to –9 and solve for u. A quick, efficient alternative is to
Backsolve. How could you have known this? The presence of an equation in the
question stem and numbers as choices is a classic sign that you can use this
Kaplan strategy. Here’s the algebraic solution:
Getting to the Answer:
u2 – 6u = –9
2
u – 6u + 9 = 0
(u – 3)(u – 3) = 0
u=3

8. E Category: Complex Figures


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: The probability that a point in the larger circle will fall within the
smaller circle is equal to the ratio of the area of the smaller circle to the area of the
larger circle. The key to this problem is determining the relationship between the
radii of the two circles, which you can then use to find their relative areas.
Getting to the Answer: Pick Numbers. Say the smaller circle has a radius of 1.
Since the distance from the center of the larger circle to a point on its circumference
is the diameter of the smaller circle, the larger circle has a radius of 2. Therefore,
the area of the smaller circle is π (12) = π and the area of the larger circle is
π 1
π (22) = 4π. The ratio between them, and thus the probability, is  = .
4π 4
9. 6 Category: Equations
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Solve for (x – 5) in the first equation and then for x ; then
substitute into the expression.
Getting to the Answer:
3(x – 5) = 6
(x – 5) = 2
x=7
(x + 5) 7 + 5 12
 =  =  = 6
(x – 5) 7 – 5 2

10. 145 Category: Equations


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Translate English into math.
Getting to the Answer: Let n be the number:
SAT 3n
Practice Test 3
 = 87
5
36 3n = 435
n = 145
06_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:51 PM Page 37

11. 2000 Category: Data Analysis SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: Medium
37
Strategic Advice: Use the given numbers to complete the table.
Getting to the Answer: The Total row has 2 of the 3 numbers filled in, so start
there. 5,000 pieces of clothing – 2,750 sweaters = 2,250 total T-shirts. Now
calculate the number of striped T-shirts: 2,250 total T-shirts – 1,250 polka-dot
T-shirts = 1,000 striped T-shirts. You now have the number of striped T-shirts
and the number of striped sweaters, so simply add the two: 1,000 + 1,000 = 2,000.
Sweaters T-shirts Total
Striped 1,000 1,000 2,000
Polka-dotted 1,750 1,250 3,000
Total 2,750 2,250 5,000

95 100
12.  < a <  or 47.5 < a < 50
2 2
Category: Angles
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Before you calculate anything, look at the angles described in
the question stem. Because lines 3 and 4 are parallel, b = c, and because line 1
bisects angle c, a equals half of c.
Getting to the Answer:
b=c
1
a =  c
2
1
a =  b
2
95 < b < 100
95 100
 < a < 
2 2
Picking Numbers is also an option in this question. You’re given a range for b; since
c will be bisected, pick an even number. If b = 96, then c corresponds to it and is
also 96 degrees. Each of c’s bisected angles would then equal 48 degrees and
would be congruent to angle a, making a also 48 degrees.

13. 57/2 or 28.5


Category: Equations
section six

Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Sometimes the information most valuable in solving a question
is given only at the end of the question stem. This is such a case: once the values
of x and y are provided at the end of the question stem, you need only substitute
and simplify.
Getting to the Answer:
4(3) + 3(3)(5) = 2z
12 + 45 = 2z
57 = 2z
z = 28.5
06_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:51 PM Page 38

14. 1530 Category: Percents


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Part of the challenge of this question is the complexity of the
situation it describes. Take the data bit by bit. There are three types of people who
ran the mile: those who finished in fewer than 6 minutes, those who finished in 6
minutes or more, and those who didn’t finish. First, calculate the total number of
section six

people who ran the mile; then subtract those who finished in under 6 minutes and
those who didn’t finish.
Getting to the Answer:
0.80(3,000) = 2,400 ran the mile.
0.30(2,400) = 720 finished the mile in under 6 minutes.
2,400 – 150 = 2,250 finished the mile.
2,250 – 720 = 1,530 finished the mile in 6 minutes or more.

15. 300 Category: Equations


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: The algebra isn’t the hard part here; the challenge is turning the
words into an algebra question in the first place. Keep moving, but make sure you
proceed carefully and that your translation makes sense. Once you’ve finished,
double-check your answer to be sure it’s what the question asks for—you don’t want
to inadvertently grid the number of $2 sandwiches when you need the total number.
s
Getting to the Answer: Let s represent the number of $2 sandwiches sold; then 
is the number of $4 sandwiches. 2
s
$800 = $2 × s + $4 × 
4s 2
800 = 2s + 
2
800 = 2s + 2s = 4s
200 = s
The shop sold 200 of the $2 sandwiches and 100 of the $4 sandwiches, for a total
of 300 sandwiches.

16. 6 Category: Coordinate Planes


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: No figure? No problem—draw your own. It’s much easier to solve
a problem like this when you can see it laid out in front of you.
Getting to the Answer:
y

y=3
x
3

Remember that the line you draw from the center of a circle to a point of tangency
will be a radius of the circle. If the center of the circle is at (12, 9) and it touches the
SAT
Practice Test 3 line at the point (12, 3), the length of the radius must be 6 units.
38
06_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:51 PM Page 39

17. 2 Category: Quadratic Equations SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: Medium
39
Strategic Advice: Don’t get caught up in too much algebra here—the solution is
simpler than it looks. There’s no need to solve for a or b—just plug in (a2 + b2) = 10
and solve for (a – b).
Getting to the Answer:
3(a – b)(10) = 60
30(a – b) = 60
a–b=2

18. 45 Category: Permutations and Combinations


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Find the number of pairs of students that can be formed from the
students in each class; then multiply these two numbers together to find the total
number of possible committees. (You may find it helpful to make a chart of the
possible combinations so that you do not count any twice.)
Getting to the Answer: The history class has 6 students. Call them A, B, C, D, E,
and F. Five possible pairs involve student A (AB, AC, AD, AE, and AF). Four
possible pairs involve student B but not student A (BC, BD, BE, and BF). Three
pairs involve C but not B or A (CD, CE, CF). Two pairs involve D but not A, B, or C
(DE and DF). One pair includes E but not A, B, C, or D (EF). The total number of
pairs that can be formed from the history class is therefore 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 15.
The sociology class has 3 students. Call them X, Y, and Z. The possible pairs are
XY, XZ, and YZ—a total of 3 pairs. 15 × 3 = 45 possible groups of students.

section six
07_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 40

Section 7 (Critical Reading)


1. C Category: Definition
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Low difficulty Sentence Completions will sometimes rely on your
section seven

knowledge of vocabulary rather than on your ability to analyze the structure of the
sentence.
Getting to the Answer: The phrase “came and went at regular intervals” provides
a definition of the blank.
(A) This is the opposite of your prediction.
(B) An “incidental” spell wouldn’t incapacitate her.
(C) This matches your prediction. If you weren’t sure, the “period” in “periodic”
should have alerted you to its incorporation of the aspect of time.
(D) This has nothing to do with regular intervals.
(E) Tough word, but unrelated to regular intervals.
spontaneous: happening without apparent external cause
incidental: of minor importance
periodic: occurring at regular intervals
unmediated: without guidance or accompaniment
endemic: particular to a specific group or place

2. E Category: Definition
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Some Sentence Completions contain a definition for the word in
the blank, but the definition may not always be the one you are most familiar with.
Getting to the Answer: The phrase “see beyond the facts and speculate about the
general principles that underlie them” is the definition of the blank. Look for
something about seeing beyond the facts.
(A) There’s no reason that “materialists” should be particularly good at finding
general principles.
(B) Again, there’s no connection to finding underlying principles.
(C) You may think that this defines scientists, but it’s not information that you can
glean from the sentence.
(D) There’s no connection between being a consultant and finding underlying
principles.
(E) This makes sense. “Theorists” are people who speculate about general principles.
materialists: people who are concerned with the material world; often, greedy people
dogmatists: arrogantly assertive people
prodigy: someone who is unusually gifted, especially at a young age

3. A Category: Contrast
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: With wordy Sentence Completions, concentrate on the overall
idea and the words around the blanks.
Getting to the Answer: There’s a contrast between how the students greeted the
announcement of the dean’s appointment and the working relationship that
developed over time. It’s clear from the word “hostile” that the students were not
happy about the appointment. The word “but” provides the contrast, and you can
SAT
Practice Test 3 predict that the working relationship was positive.
40
(A) Correct; only this choice offers the strong-negative/strong-positive combination
that you need.
07_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 41

(B) There’s no evidence that the relationship was “controversial.” SAT


Practice Test 3
(C) “Serenity” is the opposite of your prediction for the first blank.
41
(D) It makes no sense to say that there were hostile demonstrations and “pomp.”
(E) “Banality,” while negative, doesn’t fit with the idea of hostile demonstrations.
discord: strife, lack of agreement
harmonious: cordial and in agreement
beleaguered: harassed
pomp: elaborate, formal ceremony, often vain or ostentatious
banality: quality of lacking originality and being dreary

4. B Category: Contrast
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Sentences with easily identifiable structures, like Contrast and
Definition, can hinge on vocabulary.
Getting to the Answer: There’s a clear contrast between the state of Ashley’s
room and the amount of time she spends trying to neaten it, so look for words that
set up such a contrast.
(A) It would be no surprise if she spent “an enormous” amount of time straightening
up her “orderly” room.
(B) This works well. It’s surprising that her room is so messy, since she spends a lot
of time on it.
(C) A room can’t be “distracted.”
(D) There’s no reason to consider her cleaning time “unfortunate.”
(E) There’s no contrast between a “chaotic” room and “negligible” cleaning time.
disheveled: untidy
inordinate: excessive
negligible: insignificant

5. B Category: Contrast
Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Late Sentence Completions often have very difficult vocabulary,
so even if you understand the kind of word you’re looking for, you’ll need to pick it
out from among five very tough words.
Getting to the Answer: A good paraphrase of this sentence is: City officials were
once thought to be above reproach, guiltless (or to use the word in the sentence,
“inviolable”), but the discovery of their dishonesty proved that this was incorrect.
You know you need a word that means honest, guiltless, blameless.
(A) This isn’t related to corruption.
(B) Perfect. A knowledge of word roots can help here, since both sacro- and sancto-
section seven

mean sacred.
(C) This is the opposite of what you’re looking for.
(D) Again, an opposite choice.
(E) It doesn’t make sense to speak of the “verisimilitude” of a group of people.
perspicuity: clearness and lucidity
sacrosanctity: quality of being sacred or moral
turpitude: depravity, immorality
duplicity: deceptiveness or dishonesty
verisimilitude: the quality of appearing to be real
07_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 10/18/06 1:38 PM Page 42

Political Commercials Paired Passages


6. C Category: Global
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: By reading actively, you’ve already asked yourself about the
section seven

author’s purpose before you even get to this question.


Getting to the Answer: The author of Passage 1 claims that the political
advertisement constitutes “the most direct and effective way” to present key issues
to voters. Look for a choice that emphasizes this point.
(A) Opposite; the commercials help voters understand political jargon.
(B) Out of Scope; the author focuses on the political advertisement and never refers
to other methods.
(C) Perfect; the passage says that such commercials play “a crucial part in the
political process.”
(D) Extreme; the phrase “every voter” is too extreme for the passage.
(E) Extreme; the author does say that political commercials greatly influence the
outcome of elections, but never argues that this is “always” the case.

7. C Category: Function
Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Consider the overall tone of the passage.
Getting to the Answer: The author is implying that we shouldn’t think of
government as a product that we buy because of advertising, like meals and cars.
(A) Opposite; the author’s point is that they are invalid comparisons to the realities
of government.
(B) Misused Detail; the electorate’s unwillingness to examine government is
mentioned later and is not illustrated by these examples.
(C) Perfect; this matches the thrust of your prediction and its emphasis on
government as a “consumer product.”
(D) Distortion; the author says that political commercials blunt the power of voters.
(E) Distortion; political ads might distract voters from important issues, but this can’t
be said about meals and cars.

8. E Category: Inference
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Look for areas in Passage 2 that deal with the same issues as
the quote from Passage 1.
Getting to the Answer: Author 1 feels that political commercials make the “rules
and rhetoric” of government easier to understand. Author 2, however, feels that
commercials take away from the process of the “disciplined—and often
inconvenient—examination of government” that’s so important. In other words,
Author 2 thinks that people should work harder to understand the “rules and
rhetoric” of government.
(A) Opposite; Author 2 thinks that the examination of government by all people is
important.
(B) Distortion; the author is concerned with criticizing, not improving, the typical
political advertisement.
(C) Distortion; the “preoccupation with superficialities” is evident in political
SAT commercials, not in the real process of government.
Practice Test 3 (D) Distortion; Author 2 argues that government should be examined by the public,
42 not that the public needs to participate in it.
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(E) Perfect; the second author, while deploring the commercials, is most concerned SAT
Practice Test 3
with encouraging the examination and greater understanding of government.
43
9. C Category: Global
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: This Global question tests your knowledge of the overall purpose
of both authors.
Getting to the Answer: Even though they disagree on its merits, both authors talk
about the great significance of the political commercial. Predict an answer that
demonstrates this significance without making a judgment.
(A) Distortion; Author 2 never says that the commercials are the “most effective”
way to motivate voters.
(B) Opposite; both authors agree that advertisements greatly affect the political
climate.
(C) Correct; while the authors take different sides on the question of how good or
bad these commercials are, they would certainly agree that such commercials play
a key role.
(D) Misused Detail; this applies to Passage 2 but not Passage 1.
(E) Out of Scope; neither author deals with the communication of voters’ needs, as
both are more concerned with the messages being transmitted to voters.

Fossils
10. B Category: Function
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: You often need to understand the passage as a whole to answer
a question about a very specific part of the passage.
Getting to the Answer: Later in the passage, the author writes that fossils “act as
a vital source of information about animals, insects, and plants from long ago,” so
they are “windows into the past” because they provide information about the past.
(A) Extreme; fossils are a means to understand the past, but nothing in the passage
indicates that they are the “primary means.”
(B) This matches your prediction nicely. We can look through such “windows” to
learn more about the history of our world.
(C) Misused Detail; this is the focus of the third paragraph, not the first.
(D) Distortion; although the author does mention the “informed observer,” the
phrase “windows into the past” doesn’t convey this by itself.
(E) Out of Scope; the author never refers to the windows again in the passage.
section seven

11. D Category: Detail


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Beware of details that are true but not relevant to the question
at hand.
Getting to the Answer: After making this statement, the author states that
limestone can be formed when lime settles to the bottom of the ocean or when the
shells of sea creatures collect. It’s complex because it can be created in a variety of
ways.
(A) Opposite; the author says that limestone and sandstone are formed in water.
(B) Misused Detail; the author describes a very elaborate process when discussing
shale footprints, not limestone.
07_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 44

(C) Misused Detail; the author does state that some forms are of more interest to
paleontologists than others, but this isn’t what makes it a complex category.
(D) Correct; this matches your prediction nearly exactly, showing the value of
predicting before you peek.
(E) Extreme; only some forms of limestone are created in this way.
section seven

12. C Category: Function


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: If you read the passage actively, you will have already thought
about the purpose of each paragraph.
Getting to the Answer: The author goes to great lengths to describe the process
required to create a footprint fossil. In fact, the entire paragraph is devoted to this
process.
(A) Out of Scope; in the previous paragraph, the author also describes how
limestone fossils are formed.
(B) Misused Detail; this is a detail that contributes to the larger purpose of the
paragraph.
(C) This matches quite well. The other choices stray too far from the idea of the
“fossilized footprint.”
(D) Out of Scope; the author never states that shale footprint fossils are more useful
than limestone fossils.
(E) Misused Detail; water does play an important role in the creation of fossils, but
this is referenced throughout the passage, not here specifically.

13. E Category: Detail


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: You often need to backtrack a sentence or two.
Getting to the Answer: The phrase “many such fragile offerings” tells you that you
need to back up a sentence to find out what “such offerings” refers to. There, you
find a description of a footprint turning into a fossil.
(A) Out of Scope; this is the subject of the second paragraph, not the third.
(B) Misused Detail; leaves are only mentioned because they can ruin a footprint.
(C) Extreme; the author isn’t referring to all water-made rocks, but rather fossilized
footprints.
(D) Misused Detail; insects aren’t mentioned until the fourth paragraph.
(E) Perfect; Detail questions with short answer choices are perfect opportunities for
predicting answers and saving time for more difficult questions.

14. A Category: Function


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Don’t get stuck on a single sentence. Consider the purpose of
the paragraph and the passage as a whole.
Getting to the Answer: Move on to the next sentence, where you read that places
without sedimentary rock “serve to remind us of the gift of the water-made rock.”
Places without sedimentary rock show you how great sedimentary rock is.
(A) Correct; “the value of the water-made rock” matches nicely with your prediction.
(B) Opposite; paleontologists do not need to be discouraged from exploring
metamorphic rock, since it doesn’t contain any fossils.
SAT (C) Out of Scope; the author never says that the conditions for fossil creation are
Practice Test 3 rare. In fact, the passage states that water-made rock is quite plentiful.
44
07_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 45

(D) Opposite; nothing in the passage indicates that scientists aren’t already SAT
Practice Test 3
exploring sedimentary rock.
45
(E) Out of Scope; the tone is pro-fossil but generally too neutral to say that the
author is “lamenting” anything.

15. E Category: Inference


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Summarize the main idea of the passage, even when you can’t
make a specific prediction.
Getting to the Answer: It’s tough to make a specific prediction before looking at the
answer choices, but you do know that the author thinks that fossils are great.
(A) Out of Scope; the author never talks about preserving the fossil record.
(B) Distortion; the author talks about how fascinating fossils are but never indicates
that this is an ideal hobby.
(C) Out of Scope; the author never states that one type of fossil is more useful than
another.
(D) Misused Detail; the author does use the phrase “informed observer” but never
indicates that there is a small number of these observers.
(E) This makes sense. Fossils are important because they provide “windows into the
past” and a “vital source of information about animals, insects, and plants from long
ago.”

Ivy League Army Brat


16. C Category: Global
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: On Global questions, remember to predict an answer before
moving on to the answer choices.
Getting to the Answer: Try to make a brief summary of the structure of this
personal narrative. What progression does the passage make? The author begins
by stating his feelings of isolation (“I was convinced that I was different”). The next
several paragraphs depict the events that led him to overcome his misconceptions
and accept the fact that no one is “normal” in the way that he originally envisioned
that concept.
(A) Opposite; the passage is not laid out “retrospectively.” The author details the
path to his lesson chronologically.
(B) Out of Scope; the author makes no effort to find any “common threads.”
(C) This fits your prediction. Remember that you must get the elements of the
passage’s structure in the correct order, as this choice does. Compare this to the
section seven

components of (B). They make some sense on their own, but their order of
appearance is incorrect.
(D) Out of Scope; the author makes no “recommendations” or “qualifications.”
(E) Out of Scope; while the author’s self-image does seem to be a “problem,” he
gives no “list of options” for resolving it.

17. E Category: Inference


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Challenging tone questions require you to make very subtle
distinctions. Read all of the choices carefully before you choose an answer.
07_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 46

Getting to the Answer: The passage begins with the author describing the feeling
that he was different from everyone else. At the end of the passage, he learns that
everyone is different and that the idea of “normal” doesn’t make much sense. Look
for a choice that captures this idea.
(A) Opposite; his ideas were wrong and initially kept him from meeting other
section seven

people.
(B) Extreme; you might say that his ideas were “unrealistic,” but the tone of the
passage is too light to be called “sad.”
(C) Distortion; although he was wrong, there’s nothing to indicate that he was
particularly “cynical.”
(D) Opposite; he was wrong, not “perceptive.”
(E) This works. It was “naive” to assume that everyone else at the school was just
alike, and the author seems to be gently mocking his younger self.

18. A Category: Function


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Don’t bend over backwards to make a choice like (C) work. The
correct answer will follow directly from the passage, as (A) does here.
Getting to the Answer: The first paragraph mentions all of the ways in which the
author felt he was different from the other students. He says that “even my luggage
looked different,” since the other students had “matching leather sets and steamer
trunks.”
(A) Correct; this captures the idea of difference from your prediction.
(B) Distortion; the other students had also just arrived.
(C) Misused Detail; the passage as a whole could be said to be gently mocking his
younger attitudes, but that’s not the purpose of the duffle bag example.
(D) Opposite; the author later meets a girl and makes new friends.
(E) Distortion; if anything, the author is mocking his own self-pity as a young man,
not asking the reader to pity him.

19. D Category: Inference


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: As you read, watch out for metaphors since they will often be the
subjects of questions.
Getting to the Answer: This is an intricate metaphor, but there are some clues in
the passage to help you out. The sentence in question reads “Burnished to a high
sheen like a lucky buckeye in my pocket, I kept it always at hand.” What does “it”
refer to? Back up a sentence to see that it’s “my most cherished possession, this
sense of secret otherness.” The writer felt that this sense of being different was very
important. “Burnish” means to rub something until it shines, so the writer is saying
that he thought often about being different in the same way that you might rub a
good luck charm in your pocket.
(A) Opposite; in the next paragraph, the author states that none of the other
students noticed him.
(B) Opposite; he treasured his otherness.
(C) Distortion; the author thought that this was true at first but later learned that it
wasn’t.
(D) This works; “relied heavily’ matches the author’s statement that his otherness
SAT was his “most cherished possession.”
Practice Test 3 (E) Distortion; although the author compares his sense of being different to a good
46 luck charm, there’s no sense that it actually brought him luck.
07_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 47

20. C Category: Detail SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: Medium
47
Strategic Advice: Detail questions sometimes test your ability to connect the dots
to understand the author’s point.
Getting to the Answer: After saying that it seems ridiculous, the author writes
about the other students that: “Like me, they were experiencing that ultimate period
of self-absorption: the beginning of freshman year.” They were too self-absorbed to
pay attention to the author.
(A) Opposite; the author mistakenly thinks this at the time.
(B) Extreme; he was simply ignored for a while and then befriended by Amanda.
This is far too mild to say that he was “cruelly shunned.”
(C) Correct; this matches the author’s realization that he was not alone in his self-
absorption.
(D) Distortion; although this is true, it’s not the reason that his attitudes “seem
ridiculous now.”
(E) Distortion; although Amanda and her friends also turned out to have unusual
backgrounds, the author doesn’t think that this is “embarrassing.”

21. A Category: Vocab-in-Context


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Remember that Vocab-in-Context questions often focus on
secondary meanings of more familiar words.
Getting to the Answer: The author apparently notices Amanda over a period of
time, “before class.” She sits among a group of other girls (“a constellation of such
creatures”). As a “central fixture,” she appears always to be in that spot of
prominence.
(A) This fits your prediction well. She is a fixed, unchanging part of her group.
(B) This choice relies on another meaning of “fixture.” Also, you would not refer to a
“gorgeous” girl as a “position.”
(C) This choice relies on a similar meaning of “fixture” to that in (B), to be “fixed”
in place.
(D) Someone who can “fix” things is usually considered skilled, but that is not the
meaning of “fixture” in this context.
(E) A plumbing “fixture” acts as a conduit (another meaning of which is “go-between”)
for water, but that is not the meaning of “fixture” used in the passage.

22. D Category: Inference


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: While the answer to an Inference question will not be directly
found in the passage, it will not be far from what is said.
section seven

Getting to the Answer: The professor put Amanda and the author in a study pair,
an assignment the author refers to as “a perverse punishment of Amanda.”
Considering that he has earlier termed himself “a nobody” afraid of being “exposed
and ridiculed,” the author must feel that Amanda would not want to have anything to
do with such a “nobody.”
(A) Distortion; if the professor actually did intend the assignment as a “punishment,”
the author has made it clear that the one to suffer would be Amanda.
(B) Opposite; the author was falling in love with Amanda.
(C) Misused Detail; Amanda began “criticizing their professor” after he had assigned
the teams, and there is no indication that the professor knew of her comments.
07_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:49 PM Page 48

(D) This fits your prediction, as well as the general idea that the author was
unworthy of Amanda.
(E) Out of Scope; the author gives no indication of his opinion of “the works of
Maimonides.”
section seven

23. B Category: Function


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: A strong prediction will help you to avoid tempting Distortions
like (A).
Getting to the Answer: The author is surprised that Amanda’s background isn’t
what he had predicted. For example, he is surprised that Amanda’s mother, like his
own, is not American. He realizes this when he hears that she has Czech uncles,
so he repeats this to show his surprise.
(A) Distortion; their backgrounds are somewhat similar, but the repetition as a
question shows surprise, not emphasis.
(B) Correct; the emphasis on the author’s “surprise” matches neatly with your
prediction.
(C) Out of Scope; the author never implies that Amanda might not be telling the
truth.
(D) Out of Scope; there’s no indication that Amanda has been hiding these facts.
(E) Distortion; although Amanda seems very friendly, there’s no indication that the
author is particularly eager to impress her.

24. A Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Don’t let familiar vocabulary deceive you. Use context to figure
out the author’s point.
Getting to the Answer: The author says that he felt “bereft of [his] otherness as
protector or as burden.” (“Bereft” means without or lacking.) As he describes in the
second paragraph, he had previously used the sense that he was different to
protect him from interactions with other students. Once he learns that all of the
students are different, his “otherness” doesn’t mean as much. He can no longer use
it as a protection, so he feels “exposed.”
(A) Correct; since he “could no longer rely” on a sense of “otherness,” this matches
with your prediction that he cannot use this as “protection.”
(B) Out of Scope; there’s no evidence that Amanda’s friends were scrutinizing him.
(C) Misused Detail; in the last paragraph, the author never refers to his fondness
for Amanda.
(D) Distortion; although he was somewhat confused, there’s no reason to think he
was disappointed. (He’s just gotten a new girlfriend, after all.)
(E) Distortion; he felt exposure because of the way he viewed himself, not because
of the way he viewed Amanda’s friends.

SAT
Practice Test 3
48
08_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:46 PM Page 49

SAT
Section 8 (Math) Practice Test 3
49
1. D Category: Ratios
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Set up a proportion and cross-multiply.
Getting to the Answer:
16 x
 = 
640 400
6,400 = 640x
x = 10

2. A Category: Sets
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: The intersection of two sets consists of all the elements that
are common to both sets. Be sure to read the question carefully; there are many
different questions that could be asked about these sets.
Getting to the Answer: Set A consists of the numbers 11, 13, 17, and 19. Only
two of these are also in Set B.

3. E Category: Linear Graphs


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Remember that parallel lines share the same slope. In the
standard form of the equation of a line, y = mx + b, m is the slope and b is the
y-intercept. Which of the answer choices has the same slope as the line in the
question stem?
Getting to the Answer: Only (E) has the same slope, 7, as the line in the question
stem, so it is parallel to that line.

4. C Category: Number Lines


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Draw the number line described in the question stem and test
the validity of each Roman numeral. Eliminate as you go.
Getting to the Answer:

W X Z Y

Statement I is false. Eliminate (B) and (E). II is true. Eliminate (A) and (D). The
answer must be (C).
section eight

5. A Category: Equations
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Pick Numbers, or translate carefully from English into math to
answer algebraically.
Getting to the Answer: In w weeks, the car’s value decreases by 25w dollars.
The value of the car is then 2,500 – 25w.
08_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:46 PM Page 50

6. D Category: Percents
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: You are given the number of losses and the percentage of
wins/ties. Pick a variable for the total number of meets; then set up an equation
using the given information, and solve for the total number of meets.
section eight

Getting to the Answer: Let t = total number of meets.


0.60t = number of wins and ties
0.60t + 16 = t
16 = 0.4t
16
t =  = 40
4
Backsolving is also a quick and easy way to answer this question.
(C) (0.60)(36) + 16 = 36
21.6 + 16 = 36
37.6 =/ 36
(D) (0.60)(40) + 16 = 40
24 + 16 = 40
40 = 40
(D) is correct.

7. A Category: Exponents
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: If (ab)2 = 36, then ab = ±6. Jot down all possible pairs of a and
b, keeping in mind that a > b, and a and b are both positive integers.
Getting to the Answer:
ab = ±6
(a, b)
(6, 1)
(3, 2)

8. A Category: Non-Linear Graphs


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: The function h(x + 3) will appear to be the function h(x) shifted
3 places to the left. Its maximum and minimum values will be the same as the
maximum and minimum values of h(x). Only an upward or downward shift would
change the maximum and minimum values of a function.
Getting to the Answer: The highest point on the graph of h(x) is (–1, 2), so the
maximum value of h(x) and h(x + 3) is 2.

9. D Category: Geometric Visualization


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Visualize the spinner as a familiar object, such as a clock, that’s
also round and has 60 numbers on it. On a clock, 15 and 45 are at exactly opposite
points. This spinner will have the same property—the numbers on opposite ends of
the spinner are 30 spaces away from each other.
Getting to the Answer:
55 – 30 = 25

SAT
Practice Test 3
50
08_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:46 PM Page 51

10. C Category: Geometric Visualization SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: High
51
Strategic Advice: This is a little trickier than it seems. If you were able to get
through the last question fairly easily, it might seem that there are three correct
answer choices. Remember the concept of “one of these things is not like the
others.” On late questions, that means that your odd man out is most likely the
correct answer choice. In order to get the answer, you will need to find the range
of possibilities and then figure out the impossibilities within the range.
Getting to the Answer: To get the smallest sum possible, the spinner would have
to land on the smallest number: 1. Its opposite is 31, for a sum of 32. Eliminate (A).
The largest sum would use the largest number: 60. Its opposite is 30, for a sum of
90. Eliminate (E). From the remaining choices, you have two odd numbers and one
even number. You will always get an even sum when working with this spinner (odd
+ odd = even, and even + even = even).

11. E Category: Ratios


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Based on each individual fraction, determine which variable is
greater than or less than its pair and compare from there. Note that l ≠ n, even
though both denominators are 4. You have to take each relationship individually and
then compare those relationships.
Getting to the Answer:
k 9
 = , therefore k > l because 9 > 4. Eliminate (A) and (B).
l 4
l 6
 = , therefore l < m because 6 < 7. Eliminate (D).
m 7
m 8
 = , therefore m > n because 8 > 4. Eliminate (C).
n 4
You now know that l < k, l < m, and n < m. Only (E) fits these three criteria.

12. E Category: Functions


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: If you can’t quite figure out how to set up this problem, try
plugging different values of x into f(x). What kinds of numbers give you lower
values?
Getting to the Answer: If x ≤ 0, f(x) must be greater than or equal to
⎪0 – 6⎪ + 6 = 6 + 6 = 12. If x > 0, f(x) must be greater than ⎪0 + 6⎪ + 6 = 6 + 6 = 12.
The smallest possible value of f(x) is 12.
section eight

13. A Category: Coordinate Planes


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: Eyeballing the figure will show you that only lines l and p have
positive slopes, so immediately eliminate (B), (C), and (D). Use the information you
have about the circles to find two points that line l passes through; then use these
points to find its slope, which either will or will not be 1.
Getting to the Answer: If the centers of the circles lie at (2, 2) and (–2, –2), and
both lie on line l, then:
∆y (2 – –2) 4
 =  =  = 1
∆x (2 – –2) 4
Line l has a slope of 1.
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14. E Category: Complex Figures


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: The first step is to combine the information in the two polygons
into one, since they are congruent and therefore identical. Then you can divide the
polygon into two parts, a rectangle and a triangle, find the area of each, and add
section eight

them together.
Getting to the Answer: Combine information and divide into two parts:
A 4 B

3 3
4
E 60° 60° C
4 60° 4
D
Area of rectangle:
4(3) = 12
Area of triangle:
C
To find the height, draw a line from D to the midpoint of E  . This will divide the
equilateral triangle into two 30–60–90 right triangles, each with a hypotenuse of 4
and a short leg of 2. The height will be 23 . Therefore, the area of the equilateral
1
triangle is (4)(23) = 43 .
2
Total area of polygon:
12 + 43 

15. E Category: Permutations and Combinations


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: List all of the possible outcomes in the set; then arrange them in
order from least to greatest, and count the number of pairs.
Getting to the Answer:

3 333
3
4 334
3
3 343
4
4 344

3 433
3
4 4 434

3 443
SAT 4
Practice Test 3
4 444
52
There are four consecutive pairs.
08_SAT CBPT3 M_A&E 9/29/06 4:46 PM Page 53

16. B Category: Functions SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: High
53
Strategic Advice: Don’t fall for the trap! Just because 2n – n2 looks like 2a – 4
doesn’t mean that a = 2. This last question of the section is tricky, so move briskly
but carefully through the algebra required to solve.
Getting to the Answer:
♦ 2a ♦ = ♦ 2a–4 ♦
2(2a) – (2a)2 = 2(2a – 4) – (2a – 4)2
4a – 4a2 = 4a – 8 – (4a2 – 16a + 16)
4a – 4a2 = 20a – 24 – 4a2
24 = 16a
24 3
a==
16 2

section eight
09_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:48 PM Page 54

Section 9 (Critical Reading)


1. C Category: Contrast
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: In Sentence Completions, contrasts are sometimes indicated not
by Keywords like although, but by the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
section nine

Getting to the Answer: In this sentence, Christine de Pisan is being compared to


most other medieval women. They were not permitted outside the home. She, on
the other hand, became known in the greater world for her poetry. Look for a word
that means well-known for the first blank, and a word that’s consistent with that for
the second blank.
(A) “Famous” is a good choice for the first blank, but “dismissal” is the opposite of
what works for the second blank.
(B) Right away you can see that “unknown” is the direct opposite of your
prediction—well-known—for the first blank.
(C) Both choices fit your predictions, which call for positively charged words. No
other choice offers two words with positive charges.
(D) An “epic” poet is a poet who writes long works. The sentence doesn’t provide
clues as to the type of poetry Christine de Pisan wrote, so this isn’t a good choice.
(E) A “prolific” poet is one who produces a lot of poetry. Since the sentence doesn’t
give you enough information about Christine de Pisan to know if this is true of her,
you can rule this one out.
acclaimed: famous
renown: fame
ignominy: dishonor
infamy: fame stemming from evil character or deeds

2. C Category: Contrast
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Make sure you recognize classic Keywords like Although.
Getting to the Answer: “Although” suggests a contrast with “conservative.” Also
look closer at the blank. The phrase “using techniques previously unseen” defines
the blank, which must represent an adjective like new or revolutionary.
(A) This is the opposite of your prediction.
(B) This word does not necessarily suggest anything new; something can be
figurative and still be based on conservative ideas.
(C) This works; “experimental” fits well with your predictions of new or revolutionary.
(D) No indication is given that van Gogh produced the paintings in a hurried
manner.
(E) Not all new ideas are permanent; many pass out of fashion very quickly.
outmoded: out of fashion; obsolete
figurative: metaphorical; symbolic
cursory: characterized by haste; superficial

3. B Category: Cause-and-Effect
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: With two blanks so close together, finding Keywords is even
more important to making a good prediction.
SAT
Practice Test 3 Getting to the Answer: The discovery of penicillin was a positive event, so the
54
blanks should have some kind of positive charge. Predict that Fleming’s happy
accident helped the cause or growth of antibiotics.
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(A) “Ignored” is the opposite of the prediction. SAT


Practice Test 3
(B) This works well. Only this choice offers two positively charged words.
55
(C) Again, the first word is opposite to your prediction.
(D) The first blank works, but the second has the wrong charge.
(E) “Betrayed” has the wrong charge. Also, don’t be fooled by fancy-sounding words
like “methodology.” While a methodology for developing such drugs likely exists, it
doesn’t make sense to refer to a methodology of antibiotics.
retarded: delayed; impeded
supremacy: power to dominate or defeat
methodology: a set of working practices and procedures; the study of same

4. C Category: Definition
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: In two-blank sentence completions, start with the blank that
appears to have more Keywords around it.
Getting to the Answer: Start with the second blank. The word “until” points out that
the invention has not yet been “patented.” An inventor would be careful not to reveal
too much about a design in this situation. If the inventor intends to patent the
redesign, he must feel good about his invention, so the word in the first blank must
have a positive charge, like sure.
(A) The first word has the wrong charge, and “commend” doesn’t fit in the context of
the second blank.
(B) “Apprehensive” is the opposite of your prediction for the first blank.
(C) Perfect; this has the positive charge you need for the first blank, while the
second blank makes sense relative to an idea about to be “patented.”
(D) The first blank works, but an inventor would not be expected to “decry,” or
openly condemn, his invention.
(E) An engineer would not normally be “cynical” about his own work, and if he were,
he would not then seek a patent for it. “Celebrate” is too extreme to work in the
second blank.
substantiate: support with proof or evidence

5. A Category: Definition
Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Sometimes a Sentence Completion that appears to be a
Contrast is actually a Definition.
Getting to the Answer: In this sentence, it seems on the surface as if there is a
contrast between “criticism” and something that is opposite to it, for example, not as
a criticism but as praise. However, as you read the choices, you’ll see that there is
no clear opposite to “criticism.” In fact, this sentence is asking you for the definition
section nine

of something that will give the senator “further clarification.”


(A) This works. A “query” is intended to provide information.
(B) This doesn’t necessarily relate to asking for information.
(C) A “credo” won’t provide clarification.
(D) A “confession” won’t provide clarification either.
(E) Since this means almost the same thing as “criticism,” it doesn’t work here.
query: a question
credo: strongly held belief or system of beliefs
condemnation: expression of strong disapproval
09_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 10/18/06 1:39 PM Page 56

6. B Category: Contrast
Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: With more challenging vocabulary, identifying Word Charge
becomes even more important.
Getting to the Answer: Put the Keywords to work. “Rather than” implies a contrast
to “constructive” criticism, something like destructive or harsh.
section nine

(A) Even if you don’t know that “innocuous” means harmless, you may have enough
sense of its meaning to see that it lacks a negative charge.
(B) This works. “Caustic” certainly has a negative charge.
(C) “Rave,” as in rave review, is the opposite of your prediction.
(D) “Gaudy,” while not necessarily positive, doesn’t match the meaning of your
prediction.
(E) A “contrite” remark would make Andre’s sister feel better, not cry.
caustic: sarcastic; corrosive
gaudy: showy in a tasteless way
contrite: regretful; penitent

Translating Micinski Paired Passages


7. D Category: Global
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Use Global questions to help you clarify your understanding of
the author’s overall purpose.
Getting to the Answer: The author of Passage 1 thinks that Micinski is great, and
someone should translate his work into English. Other than that, it’s tough to make
much of a prediction here, so dive into the answer choices.
(A) Opposite; the author states that it’s challenging but worthwhile.
(B) Distortion; the author says that a good translation of Micinski would be a great
contribution to American theater, but this doesn’t mean that it wouldn’t also be a
great contribution to the theater of other countries.
(C) Distortion; the author says in the first paragraph that Polish history is a great
source of inspiration for America, but this doesn’t mean that the tradition of Polish
theater is “more illustrious.”
(D) The author would definitely agree with this.
(E) Distortion; the author states that not enough people have translated Micinski,
but this is because his work is difficult to translate, not because it’s “underestimated.”

8. C Category: Vocab-in-Context
Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: A quick prediction will let you move through Vocab-in-Context
questions with ease.
Getting to the Answer: The author is stating that, relatively speaking, Micinski is
unknown. Compared to others, he is not very famous.
(A) This is a common meaning of “relative,” as when you call your aunt or uncle a
relative. This doesn’t fit here, however.
(B) Again, this is a common meaning of “relative” that doesn’t fit the passage.
(C) This makes sense. A “comparative unknown” is someone who is unknown
SAT compared to other people.
Practice Test 3
(D) There’s no connection between “talented” and “relative.”
56 (E) The author believes that Micinski is an unknown, so the word “supposed”
doesn’t fit.
09_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:48 PM Page 57

9. A Category: Inference SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: High
57
Strategic Advice: Challenging questions require you to understand subtle
arguments and examples. When you run across these in a passage, make sure you
understand what’s happening.
Getting to the Answer: This reference appears after the statement that Micinski is
unknown in the West; his works have hardly been translated, even though they’ve
been around a long time. The author then goes on to talk about how hard it is to
translate the plays. The author is saying that the stuff hasn’t been translated, even
though it’s been around a long time, because it’s hard to translate.
(A) Correct; “difficulty of translation” matches well with your prediction.
(B) Out of Scope; the author doesn’t compare the length of the history of American
theater to that of Polish theater.
(C) Distortion; the age helps to illustrate the difficulty of translating the works, not
their quality.
(D) Opposite; the author thinks that Micinski’s work would be quite relevant.
(E) Distortion; the work is rarely performed in America because it hasn’t been
translated very often, not because it’s old.

10. E Category: Detail


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: Don’t go for the first statement that the author would agree with;
make sure that the choice directly answers the question.
Getting to the Answer: Author 1 thinks that someone should translate Micinski
and says this translator must be “intrepid,” or fearless. He also says that Micinski
himself was “once Poland’s bravest playwright,” so the idea that “translators must
take as their model Micinski’s boldness in both life and work” can be paraphrased
as translators should take chances just as Micinski did.
(A) Misused Detail; this is too narrow, since the author is speaking of the entire
process of translating, not just its political aspects.
(B) Extreme; the author is only speaking of Micinski’s translators, not the group
as a whole.
(C) Distortion; the author would agree with this, but it doesn’t capture the meaning
of the sentence in question, which focuses on the translators.
(D) Distortion; although the author would agree with this paraphrase, it doesn’t
convey that the translators must be bold.
(E) Correct; “broke rules” and “do the same” match very well with your prediction.

11. E Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
section nine

Strategic Advice: Don’t be put off by the rare question that uses an unusual
format—the reasoning you use to answer the question will be just the same.
Getting to the Answer: The “near equivalents” and the “parallel political event”
both refer to using an event from one country to substitute for a historical detail in a
play. Author 1 thinks that it’s a good idea, while Author 2 thinks that it is misleading.
(A) Opposite; Author 1 has a positive attitude towards these substitutions, but
contempt has a negative charge.
(B) Opposite; again, “disregard” has a negative tone that doesn’t fit Author 1.
(C) Extreme; Author 2 thinks that these substitutions are misleading, but the overall
tone of the passage is too formal to say that he “mocks” these solutions.
09_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:48 PM Page 58

(D) Opposite; even if you don’t know the meaning of “ambivalence,” you know that
Author 2 doesn’t “endorse” the substitutions.
(E) Correct; while (C) also offers the positive/negative combination you need,
“disdain” is more in keeping with the tone of Author 2 than (C)’s “mockery.”
scorn: a show of disdain
section nine

mockery: the act of making fun of something


ambivalence: uncertainty or indecisiveness
disdain: contemptuous rejection
advocacy: the act of supporting or arguing in favor of something

12. D Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Often, the answer to a question lies directly before or after the
cited lines.
Getting to the Answer: After the statement in question, the author writes that “the
script for a play is not a work to be appreciated on its own, but rather a map used to
create such a work.” In other words, most people don’t actually read the script, but
rather view a performance of the play based on the script. The translator has to
translate the dialogue very carefully, since that’s all that the audience will get.
(A) Misused Detail; this is the opinion of Author 1, not Author 2.
(B) Distortion; the author notes that emotions must be conveyed through dialogue,
but never states that it is particularly difficult to do so.
(C) Misused Detail; this comes up later in the discussion of Micinski’s work in
particular. In the first paragraph, the author is only speaking of translating plays in
general.
(D) This works. Notice that this choice was not worded as precisely as your
prediction, but the script as “a means to create” certainly fits with your idea overall.
(E) Out of Scope; the author doesn’t speak of a lack of control.

13. C Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: It’s often helpful to consider the purpose of the paragraph as a
whole.
Getting to the Answer: In the second paragraph, the author says that Micinski’s
work is not suitable for translation because subtleties of language “add meaning
and depth to his plays.” You can translate the words that people are saying (the
what), but it won’t mean as much out of the context of the original Polish (the how).
(A) Out of Scope; the passage never gets into the specifics of the plays, such as
the emotions of the characters or the plays’ events.
(B) Out of Scope; the author never discusses the conditions under which Micinski
wrote.
(C) Correct; “ideas” certainly qualify as what, while “context” represents how.
(D) Misused Detail; the author doesn’t discuss historical events until later in the
passage.
(E) Out of Scope; the author doesn’t get into the specifics of the conditions in the
plays.

14. A Category: Inference


SAT Difficulty: High
Practice Test 3 Strategic Advice: When an Inference question asks you about the reaction of one
58 author to another, you should be able to find specific portions of the passage to
back up your answer.
09_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:48 PM Page 59

Getting to the Answer: Author 2 praises Micinski’s use of “every nuance of the SAT
Practice Test 3
Polish language” and that a translation will lose this aspect and so lose “much of
59
the value” of the work. Author 1 speaks to just this point in the last paragraph of
Passage 1: “This case demands an intrepid soul focused on the essence of
Miciski’s work rather than superficialities of language…. the essential meanings in
his work can be conveyed in any language, regardless of surface differences.”
Author 1 disagrees that much of the value lies in the language.
(A) Correct; this captures nicely the element of disagreement from your prediction.
(B) Misused Detail; this applies to historical events, not subtleties of language.
(C) Out of Scope; both authors agree that Micinski’s work uses complex language,
but neither author compares Polish to other languages.
(D) Distortion; this is tempting, but Author 1 never states where particular value lies
in Micinski’s work. He certainly doesn’t single out historical or cultural details as
especially important.
(E) Opposite; Author 1 praises Micinski quite highly.

15. C Category: Function


Difficulty: High
Strategic Advice: The function of a detail is often quite specific; beware of
sweeping, broad choices.
Getting to the Answer: The author writes that there is no accurate way to translate
a historical reference in a play, unlike in a novel or essay, where the translator can
include a footnote. Mentioning the novel and essay serves to show that the solution
employed in some other forms of literature won’t work in plays.
(A) Opposite; the author is pointing out that this “solution” won’t work.
(B) Out of Scope; the author is wholly focused on plays and isn’t discussing the
importance of novels and plays.
(C) This makes sense. The difficulty is unique to plays.
(D) Distortion; in the passage as a whole, the author is arguing against the wisdom
of translating Micinski, but the reference to novels and essays serves a much more
limited purpose.
(E) Out of Scope; the author is discussing the difficulty of translating a play, not
praising the solutions used to translate novels and essays.

16. D Category: Detail


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: When you run across an unusual or striking expression in a
passage, you can expect to find a question about it.
Getting to the Answer: The author describes three solutions when translating a
historical event in a play, and then dismisses the solutions one by one. He says that
section nine

the “second [solution] burdens.” What’s the second solution? Back up to find out
that it’s including a note in the program for audiences to read. Why does this
“burden”? Because it puts the burden on the audience to search out the
information, rather than somehow putting it in the play.
(A) Misused Detail; the second solution isn’t to leave the event unexplained—that’s
the first. It’s to explain it in the program.
(B) Out of Scope; it might be a burden, but the author doesn’t say that the audience
isn’t willing to do it.
(C) Misused Detail; this refers to the third solution, not the second one.
(D) This works; to put “inappropriate demands” on the audience certainly sounds
like a burden.
(E) Out of Scope; the author thinks it’s a burden but never actually says that it’s
unlikely to work.
09_SAT CBPT3 C_A&E 9/29/06 4:48 PM Page 60

17. C Category: Inference


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: Inference questions require you to be very specific about
arguments. Avoid anything that doesn’t directly and necessarily affect the
argument in question.
Getting to the Answer: Since you don’t know which conclusion the question is
section nine

asking about, it’s tough to come up with much of a prediction here. You do know
that Author 2 thinks that it’s difficult or impossible to translate Micinski because of
his language and historical references.
(A) Out of Scope; this doesn’t contradict the idea that Micinski is difficult or
impossible to translate.
(B) Distortion; it could well be that plenty of people are willing to do it, even if it’s a
bad idea.
(C) This would certainly weaken the author’s argument, since he says that
translations are likely to distort or leave out important elements of Micinski’s work.
(D) Out of Scope; this doesn’t affect the author’s assertion that Micinski is hard to
translate.
(E) Out of Scope; the fact that some people don’t go to see them doesn’t mean
that they should or shouldn’t be translated into English.

18. D Category: Global


Difficulty: Low
Strategic Advice: For questions about agreement between the authors, watch
out for answer choices that only apply to one of the authors.
Getting to the Answer: The authors disagree about a lot, so it shouldn’t be too
tough to spot what they agree on. They both say that Micinski is tough to translate
(although they disagree about the wisdom of attempting such a translation).
(A) Distortion; Author 2 doesn’t seem to think it’s a good idea at all and doesn’t
say that this depends on the skill of the translator.
(B) Misused Detail; Author 1 only discusses theater.
(C) Misused detail; Author 2 never discusses foreign influences on American
theater.
(D) This works. Both authors say that the language, and the historical and cultural
specifics, are hard to translate.
(E) Opposite; Author 1 argues directly against this.

19. B Category: Inference


Difficulty: Medium
Strategic Advice: When you don’t have a specific recommendation, it’s often
helpful to decide if you’re looking for choices with a positive or negative charge.
Getting to the Answer: The “recommendations” in Passage 1 are for someone
to boldly translate Micinski’s work. Author 2 says that this work “serves as an
excellent example of theater that is not truly suitable for performance in English.”
Look for a negative characterization.
(A) Distortion; Author 2 would agree that it’s “impractical,” but this has nothing to
do with “the artistic climate in modern American theater.”
(B) This fits. At the end of the first paragraph of Passage 2, the author writes that
“A profound understanding and appreciation of both languages is necessary…not
SAT only to translate effectively, but even to determine which works are truly suitable
Practice Test 3 for translation.” Someone who disagrees with Author 2 might do so because they
60 lack the proper understanding of Polish.
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(C) Out of Scope; Author 2 never criticizes “the theatergoing public.” SAT
Practice Test 3
(D) Distortion; the author doesn’t think it’s “admirable,” but rather a bad idea.
61
(E) Misused Detail; it’s Author 1 who argues for the importance of “a very bold
translator,” not Author 2.

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Section 10 (Writing)
1. D Category: Run-ons and Fragments
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: transitions
Strategic Advice: If a sentence contains two clauses that can stand alone, they
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must be connected either with a semicolon or with a comma and an appropriate


conjunction.
Getting to the Answer: This sentence consists of two independent clauses joined
by a comma, so it’s a run-on. To correct it, you can make one clause subordinate,
use a semicolon, or use a conjunction. (D) does this correctly.
(B) and (C) don’t fix the error and use the wrong transition words—the second
clause supports the first.
(E) also uses an inappropriate, contrasting transition word.

2. A Category: Correct as Written


Difficulty: High
Issues: style problems, wordiness, subject–verb
Strategic Advice: Expect between five and eight sentences in your Writing
sections to be correct as written.
Getting to the Answer: The sentence is correct as written.
(B) doesn’t make sense when read in context.
(C) turns the second part of the sentence into an independent clause and leaves
the first half a stranded fragment.
(D) is unnecessarily wordy.
(E) uses a plural verb “are” with the singular subject “The best way.”

3. C Category: Run-ons and Fragments


Difficulty: High
Issues: wordiness
Strategic Advice: In order to be complete, a sentence must express a complete
thought.
Getting to the Answer: While this sentence is grammatically complete (the subject
is “we” and the predicate verb is “realized”), it is not logically complete, since we
don’t know what happened as a result of “all outside sound blocked by the dense
rock walls.” (C) completes the logic of the sentence.
(B) does not address the error.
(D) and (E) change the meaning of the sentence; the walls were blocking the
sound, not the other way around. Additionally, (E) is overly wordy.

4. D Category: Pronouns
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: style problems
Strategic Advice: Who and whom are only correct when referring to people.
Getting to the Answer: Since Tessa’s phone conversations were not people,
“that” would be the correct pronoun to refer to them. (C), (D), and (E) all make
this correction, but (C) changes the meaning of the sentence, and (E) creates a
grammatically incorrect sentence.
SAT “Whom,” in (B), is in the wrong case, as well as being incorrect to refer to phone
Practice Test 3 conversations.
62
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5. C Category: Comparisons SAT


Practice Test 3
Difficulty: Medium
63
Issues: wordiness, idioms
Strategic Advice: When a comparative or superlative is underlined, check to see
how many items are being compared.
Getting to the Answer: Since On the Waterfront had more than two cast members,
“most” is correct in this context. (C), (D), and (E) all correct the Comparisons error,
but (D) is unnecessarily wordy, and (E) is idiomatically incorrect in context.
(B) does not address the error.

6. C Category: Verb Tenses


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: pronouns
Strategic Advice: Be sure that each verb tense is the appropriate choice in the
context of the sentence.
Getting to the Answer: Since the Renaissance is long over, this sentence requires
the simple past tense, (C).
(B) uses the incorrect pronoun “which” to refer to people.
(D) and (E) change the meaning of the sentence.

7. B Category: Idioms
Difficulty: Low
Issues: parallelism
Strategic Advice: Remember that neither…nor and either…or work in pairs.
Getting to the Answer: In this sentence you have “neither…or.” (B) and (D)
start with “neither” so check to see which completes the pair. (B) correctly pairs
“neither of…nor of” and maintains the meaning of the sentence.
(C) uses “either…or” to change the meaning of the sentence.
(D) correctly pairs “neither…nor,” but it adds wordiness and breaks the parallel
construction.
(E) gives you “either…or,” distorting the meaning of the sentence, and it loses the
parallel structure.

8. D Category: Parallelism
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: verb tenses
Strategic Advice: All like elements of a sentence should be in the same form.
Getting to the Answer: In this sentence you have a series that should be
parallel—the chaos of war, the anxiety of the people, and “the irrational behavior.”
Since “the…of” is repeated in the first two, it must be repeated in the third. Look for
that parallel structure among the choices.
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(B) corrects the parallelism, but adds the incorrect present tense verb is.
(C) doesn’t correct the error. It also changes the meaning of the sentence.
(E) uses an incorrect verb tense.

9. E Category: Parallelism
Difficulty: Medium
Issues: idioms
Strategic Advice: Comparative structures, such as as much…as, require that the
items compared be parallel in structure.
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Getting to the Answer: The items compared here are not parallel in form.
(E) corrects the error.
(B) and (C) do not address the error.
(D) fails to properly complete the idiom “as much…as.”

10. B Category: Idioms


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Difficulty: Low
Issues: none
Strategic Advice: Idioms may be correctly constructed but incorrect in context.
Getting to the Answer: Although you might receives “samples from” the
department store, in this context, “samples of” would be correct. (B) makes the
change.
Someone might hire you to distribute “samples for” them, but this usage in (C) is
incorrect in context.
(D) and (E) do not address the error.

11. D Category: Wordiness


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: idioms, run-ons and fragments, parallelism
Strategic Advice: Although the shortest answer will not always be correct, in this
case it is.
Getting to the Answer: (D) improves the sentence by concisely making the
relationship between the two parts clearer.
(B) is not idiomatically correct English.
(C) is a run-on sentence.
(E) makes the second clause dependent, which is incorrect with the conjunction and.

12. C Category: Parallelism


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: none
Strategic Advice: Items in a series, list, or compound must be parallel in form.
Getting to the Answer: Here, the object of the first preposition “by” is the
compound “planning…traveling…and by booking.” (C) makes the three verb forms
parallel.
(B), (D), and (E) do not address the error.

13. D Category: Modifiers


Difficulty: Medium
Issues: wordiness
Strategic Advice: The correct answer choice may not address the error in the way
you expect it to.
Getting to the Answer: Here, the adjective “casual” is used to modify the verb
phrase “had…been…acquainted.” Don’t fall for trap answer (B), however. (B) does
change the adjective to its adverb form “casually,” but it also changes the verb form
“acquainted” to the noun “acquaintances,” making the adverb incorrect. (D) changes
the verb form to a noun, making the adjective the correct modifier in context.
(C) and (E) are unnecessarily wordy.

SAT
14. A Category: Correct as Written
Practice Test 3 Difficulty: High
64 Issues: parallelism, wordiness, reading comprehension
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Strategic Advice: The shortest answer is often the correct answer, as long as it is SAT
Practice Test 3
grammatically correct.
65
Getting to the Answer: The sentence looks all right as it is, but check the other
choices to be sure.
(B) is unnecessarily wordy.
(C) and (D) are awkwardly structured.
(E) is idiomatic incorrect in context—it should be as good rather than “so good.”

section ten
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