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Made by: Adil Hussain Khan 9997 Owais Nathani 10218 Danish Mujtaba 10115 Course: Organizational Behaviour Submitted To: Sir Humayu Zafar Chaudry Date: 09th December 2010
The study of Organizational Behavior is one of the important criteria in the corporate sector. Organizational Behavior is a key of success for an organization. By this report we will be able to know to reduce the stress level of the employees working in an organization. By this way the productivity of the employee increases.
Now a day the corporate sector is booming in a high speed that the people have to work for prolonged hours to maintain the standard of living and achieve their basic needs. So is the condition in the hospitals, colleges, BPO’s and lots of other places. In spit of having the modern technologies and facilities, people are feeling themselves to be work loaded and stressed. Stress arises because of many reasons which are discussed in the following project. The project report also contain techniques how to reduce the stress and overcome such problems.
Stress arises because of unfulfilled wants, lack of job satisfaction etc. before starting the topic of stress; let’s first understand what actually stress is.
To make this report we got the help from our parents who have given full support to carry out this work. They are the one who motivated and helped us for the completion of this project report.
Further, we would like to thank to our teacher Sir. Humayu Zafar Chaudry who has given full support and co operated with us to complete this report. Then we would like to thank our class mates who have supported us. I am also thankful to Dr. Munawer Hussain (Lecturer DAW Medical College) who provided us the relevant information for our report.
For more detailed study the types of the stress is also defined.Executive Summery This project gives us a detailed idea of what is stress and also the definition of stress is been defined. o Stress management o Workplace stress o Reducing of stress. By looking at the starting of the project you will find: o Introduction and Definition of stress o Stress in biological terms o What is stress? o Coping with stress at work place. 4 .
INDEX No Concept of stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Content Page no 6 6 11 12 16 18 21 25 Introduction to stress Stress in Biological terms What is stress Coping with stress at workplace Stress Management Workplace stress Reduce your stress Conclusion Bibliography 30 32 5 .
CONCEPT OF STRESS (1) INTRODUCTION TO STRESS A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred years.1. and ideas have moved on. What complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what stress is. Since then. A definition should therefore be obvious…except that it is not. The stress of exhilarating. During this time. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person 6 .” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. while that of failure. there seems to have been something approaching open warfare between competing theories and definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations. a great deal of further research has been conducted. creative successful work is beneficial. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing". with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects. Definition: Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. humiliation or infection is detrimental. as it is something we have all experienced. others are still being researched and debated. His view in 1956 was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it.
the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. physiological or psychological stress.” In short. persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder o o Eustress. Yield stress. The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning Workplace stress. stress caused by employment 7 . The types of stress are as follows Mechanical Stress (physics). the average amount of force exerted per unit area. some types include: o Chronic stress.perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. although we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to unexpected events. the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction. This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools. it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events. Biological Stress (biological). Compressive stress.
also called engineering or nominal stress. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822.Stress (physics). Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. the average amount of force exerted per unit area. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum. Chronic stress is potentially damaging. Chronic Stress Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. stress is expressed as Where Is the average stress. Symptoms of chronic stress can be: upset stomach headache backache insomnia anxiety depression anger 8 . It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces. as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. and Is the force acting over the area . In general.
in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency. There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress. the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS. leads to shortening. and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. compressive stress applied to bars. then this material is under compression. stress management. some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries. healthy diet. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease. etc. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency. columns. etc). and relaxing hobbies. relaxation techniques. 9 . Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. Compressive stress: Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. cast iron. According to the properties of the material. When a material is subjected to compressive stress. Usually. which can be a factor in continued chronic stress. glass. including exercise. failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals. adequate rest.In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder.
However in geotechnical engineering.such as columns or truss bars -. usually with negative values to indicate the compaction.In long. slender structural elements -. compressive stress is represented with positive values.an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area). 10 .
The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. It also became a euphemism. can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional. and "stressor" to the perceived threat. "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism. Eustress. It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. just "stressed out". muscular tension. and exhaustion. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Common stress symptoms include irritability. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. 11 . inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions. as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense. whether actual or imagined.(2) Stress in Biological terms: Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism. In Selye's terminology. for example. short-term resistance as a coping mechanism.
and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. For example. as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. On the other hand. Not all stress is bad. In our fast paced world.(3) what is Stress? Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us. can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. Hence. can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the two forces. Hence. or perhaps seek professional help. as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage. or emotional frictions. it is impossible to live without stress. There is both positive and negative stress. also known as eustress. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. for example. headaches. whether you are a student or a working adult. it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The presence of a deadline. headaches and an inability to focus. The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions. whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia. It is important to keep this in mind. leading to emotional and physical pressure. irritability and in extreme cases. it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. Physical 12 . positive stress. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs. heart palpitations.
there are various stressors. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat. we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress. whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress.symptoms take the form of heart palpitations. Good stress v/s Bad stress: Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative. namely eustress. Lastly. breathlessness. In our everyday lives. such as an economic downturn. stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable. 13 . distress. or giving a speech. Thus. Common lifestyle stressors include performance. and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems. threat. and bereavement stressors. This could be during performance appraisals. Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. excessive sweating and stomachaches. hyper stress and hypo stress. and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more. to name a few. lunch with the boss. or from an accident. hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress. and what is bad. Here’s how we differentiate between them. or a prized possession. bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one. In order to do so. There are 4 main categories of stress.
Hyper stress This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived. Examples include highly stressful jobs. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with eustress. or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions. but does not last for long. resulting in a higher heart rate. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles. and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break. allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. On the other hand. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. Distress We are familiar with this word.Eustress: this is a positive form of stress. Hypo stress Lastly. which require longer working hours than the individual can handle. Acute stress is intense. hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels 14 . you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues. the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. chronic stress persists over a long period of time. and know that it is a negative form of stress.
it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. Both can be equally taxing on the body. depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. Distress is the most commonly-referred to type of stress. usually related to desirable events in person's life. and are cumulative in nature. having negative implications. If the job scope is boring and repetitive.constantly bored and unmotivated. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress. hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. whereas eustress is a positive form of stress. 15 .
occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing. This is important. More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work. However. as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. not all companies have such measures in place. Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. Undoubtedly. it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace. too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency. Hence. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees. 16 . tipping the scales from positive to negative. and use it to help you work better. the stresses faced at work have also increased. Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times. Step 1: Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress. and this has led to greater occupational stress. and some have not gotten it quite right. the problem will only snowball. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency. hence the term “Monday Blues”. leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain. translating into greater productivity. Many people dread going to work.(4) Coping with Stress at Work place With the rapid advancement of technology. If left unacknowledged.
This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. or that are likely stressors. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions. External stressors refer to things beyond your control. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. Often. These stressors can be external and internal. 17 .You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions. remove yourself from it. such as the environment or your colleagues at work. and if you are constantly worried. you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. If it is an internal stressor. Whilst it is not always possible to eradicate them. you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed. This can be through different methods. These are not instantaneous solutions. we can change the way that we cope with it. we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down. Step 3: Coping with Stress In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress. identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions. such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations. If you experience any of these reactions. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. irritability or the need to escape. Alternatively. or the onset of headaches. The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. such as taking time off. Step 2: Identify the Cause You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress.
cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. 18 . be it our anxiety. today.(5) Stress Management Stress management is the need of the hour. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. are fairly manageable and treatable. They may also affect our immune. life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes. sleeplessness. tension. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. if not escapable. Unfortunately. Stress. either quick or constant. Like "stress reactions". and restore the energy level. Moreover. anxiety attacks. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. The knotted nerves. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. can induce risky body-mind disorders. which are inter-linked with stress. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis.
The emotions we experience directly affect our immune system. Laughter: Adopting a humorous view towards life's situations can take the edge off everyday stressors. we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. which are converted to cortical 19 . It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally. But. dizzy spells. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. Being able to laugh stress away is the smartest way to ward off its effects. During stress. The positive emotions can create neurochemical changes that buffer the immunosuppressive effects of stress. For instance. adventurous sports or having a baby.Recognizing a stressor: It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. we tend to respond positively under stress. when we encounter them voluntarily. We cope better with stressful situation. tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation. promotion or layoff. Many times. when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge. more often than not. stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will. A sense of humor also allows us to perceive and appreciate the incongruities of life and provides moments of delight. the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids. Not being too serious or in a constant alert mode helps maintain the equanimity of mind and promote clear thinking. In cases of relocation. we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats.
cortical. associated with stress response).in the blood stream. • It increases muscle flexion. • Reduces stress hormones (studies shows. increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors. dopac. • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—body's natural painkillers. What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects? • Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. Dr. • Produces a general sense of well-being. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments. disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells. These have an immunosuppressive effect. • It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. and growth hormone. relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body. 20 . • Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical levels. • Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. laughter induces reduction of at least four of neuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine.
Workers who report experiencing 21 . About one-third of workers report high levels of stress. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives. anxiety. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago.(6) Workplace Stress Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities.. it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e. concentration and memory problems). Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. substance abuse).g. and cognitive impairment (e. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations.g..g. aggression. these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. maladaptive behaviors (e. resources. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations. In turn. depression. including psychological disorders (e. or needs of the worker. tension. Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems. fatigue.g..). such as cardiovascular disease. etc. dissatisfaction.. Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health.
stress at work also show excessive health care utilization. were conducted in Member States of the European Union in 1990. an increase of more than $1. According to one school of thought. Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity. Additionally. However. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000.700 per person annually. periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses. including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress. In a 1998 study of 46. no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. The increment rose to nearly 150%. Personal interview surveys of working conditions. In 1990. the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one-fourth of their working time was 48%. Similarly. 1995. health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. and 2000. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress. and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. Causes of Workplace Stress Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990. scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words. what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else.000 workers. A substantial 22 . increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored.
and psychological disorders. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. especially for women. Design jobs to provide meaning. there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women. By one estimate. and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples. friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. and disturbed relationships with family. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress. evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease. upset stomach and headache. and opportunities for workers to use their skills.percentage of Americans work very long hours. Nonetheless. Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. stimulation. Signs of Workplace Stress Mood and sleep disturbances. Prevention A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful approach for preventing stress at work. musculoskeletal disorders. an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men. more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. particularly couples with young children. 23 . Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades. According to the Department of Labor.
Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital. and (3) establishment of employee assistance programs. In one study.g. Program activities included (1) employee and management education on job stress. (e. there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. 24 . (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress. Discrimination inside the workplace. In a second study. In contrast. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. nationality and language ) St. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers.
in the hurly-burly of a new. Job analysis: . While this may seem obvious. or expect failure. you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. The alternative is to work more intelligently. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do. Each of these can lead to intense stress. fast-moving. Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook. By understanding the priorities in your job. doubt your abilities. Negative thinking damages confidence. by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. To do an excellent job. that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. you need to fully understand what is expected of you. and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. Rational & positive thinking: You are thinking negatively when you fear the future.We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. put yourself down. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. and what constitutes success within it. We can choose to ignore this. and keep your workload under control. criticize yourself for errors. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. 25 .(7) Reduce your stress 1. 2. high-pressure role. The risks here are that we become exhausted.
When you analyze your diary at the end of the period. with their significance having barely been noticed. Instead. you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. do their damage and flit back out again. Tackle these as a priority using the techniques below. Do not suppress any thoughts. as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of. just let them run their course while you watch them. Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware of what is going through your head. negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness. Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your Stress Diary. Then let them go. Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts. or Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal. Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a major presentation: Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it.Unfortunately. Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong. we do not challenge them properly. Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance. Since we barely realize that they were there. 26 . and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur.
the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts we identified earlier: Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned. then you should be satisfied. Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening. Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect. then fair people are likely to respond well. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable.Rational Thinking The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. so that these can be sorted out before the performance. you've done as much as you can to give a good performance. prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these. What evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it? Looking at the examples. and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you? Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well. and you do the best you can. 27 . then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement. the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them. Look at every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally. If people are not fair. If you perform as well as you reasonably can.
doesn't mean that they will ALWAYS be so for you in the future. However. Just because you're finding these new responsibilities stressful now.Tip: Don't make the mistake of generalizing a single incident. think how you would challenge these thoughts. make sure you take the long view about incidents that you're finding stressful. positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. you should already be feeling more positive. 28 . which everyone has to go through at some stage. Similarly. but that doesn't mean you're bad at your job. Where there is some substance. Tip: If you find it difficult to look at your negative thoughts objectively. The final step is to prepare rational. and don't just reflect a lack of experience. OK. you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. By basing your affirmations on the clear. rational assessments of facts that you made using Rational Thinking. When you challenge negative thoughts rationally. Look at the list of negative thoughts and imagine the negative thoughts were written by someone you were giving objective advice to. imagine that you are your best friend or a respected coach or mentor. you made a mistake at work. Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking By now. you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have done to your self-confidence. take appropriate action. Then. It can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it. make sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals.
As well as allowing you to structure useful affirmations. Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive thinking. Continuing the examples above." Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies. are expressed in the present tense and have strong emotional content." Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance. write these affirmations down on your worksheet so that you can use them when you need them. This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. 29 . part of Positive Thinking is to look at opportunities that the situation might offer to you. and you may open up new career opportunities." If appropriate. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way." Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. You will acquire new skills.Tip: Your affirmations will be strongest if they are specific. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance. In the examples above. I am going to perform well and enjoy the event. positive affirmations might be: Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. you will be seen as someone who can handle difficult challenges. successfully overcoming the situations causing the original negative thinking will open up opportunities. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events.
Distress is the most commonly-referred to type of stress. life seems to find new ways of 30 . Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context. demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. Stress management is the need of the hour. it also has a positive value. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it. the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer gives in “clutch” situations. whereas eustress is a positive form of stress. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. But it is different in the case of bank employees. Consider for example. having negative implications.Conclusion Stress is a dynamic condition in witch an individual is confronted with an opportunity. This is a complicated definition. Similarly. Both can be equally taxing on the body. usually related to desirable events in person's life. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain. and are cumulative in nature. The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. The bank employees are the people who also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employees remain stressed and tensed. The employees who have the simple table work also have to face the problem of stress. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the problem of employee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feel stressed.
To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. They may also affect our immune. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. which are inter-linked with stress. output etc. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. anxiety attacks. and restore the energy level. be it our anxiety. so a sample of 14 to 15 employees are selected from all the three banks for the research of stress among them. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. Unfortunately. Moreover. are fairly manageable and treatable. BIBILIOGRAPHY 31 . The knotted nerves.stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. Stress. mindbody exhaustion or our erring attitudes. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. either quick or constant. today. sleeplessness. This research is to carry out the study that how much stressed the employees of the banks are and how do their stress affect their work life. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. 3. if not escapable. tension. Like "stress reactions". can induce risky body-mind disorders. social life.
Robbins” o Burn Out tool – Questionnaire o Self analysis of questionnaire 32 .o www.mindtool.com o Organizational Behavior “Stephen P.
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