Stress Management

(Project Report)

Made by: Adil Hussain Khan 9997 Owais Nathani 10218 Danish Mujtaba 10115 Course: Organizational Behaviour Submitted To: Sir Humayu Zafar Chaudry Date: 09th December 2010

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Preface
The study of Organizational Behavior is one of the important criteria in the corporate sector. Organizational Behavior is a key of success for an organization. By this report we will be able to know to reduce the stress level of the employees working in an organization. By this way the productivity of the employee increases.

Now a day the corporate sector is booming in a high speed that the people have to work for prolonged hours to maintain the standard of living and achieve their basic needs. So is the condition in the hospitals, colleges, BPO’s and lots of other places. In spit of having the modern technologies and facilities, people are feeling themselves to be work loaded and stressed. Stress arises because of many reasons which are discussed in the following project. The project report also contain techniques how to reduce the stress and overcome such problems.

Stress arises because of unfulfilled wants, lack of job satisfaction etc. before starting the topic of stress; let’s first understand what actually stress is.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

To make this report we got the help from our parents who have given full support to carry out this work. They are the one who motivated and helped us for the completion of this project report.

Further, we would like to thank to our teacher Sir. Humayu Zafar Chaudry who has given full support and co operated with us to complete this report. Then we would like to thank our class mates who have supported us. I am also thankful to Dr. Munawer Hussain (Lecturer DAW Medical College) who provided us the relevant information for our report.

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For more detailed study the types of the stress is also defined.Executive Summery This project gives us a detailed idea of what is stress and also the definition of stress is been defined. 4 . o Stress management o Workplace stress o Reducing of stress. By looking at the starting of the project you will find: o Introduction and Definition of stress o Stress in biological terms o What is stress? o Coping with stress at work place.

INDEX No Concept of stress 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Content Page no 6 6 11 12 16 18 21 25 Introduction to stress Stress in Biological terms What is stress Coping with stress at workplace Stress Management Workplace stress Reduce your stress Conclusion Bibliography 30 32 5 .

CONCEPT OF STRESS (1) INTRODUCTION TO STRESS A lot of research has been conducted into stress over the last hundred years. while that of failure. there seems to have been something approaching open warfare between competing theories and definitions: Views have been passionately held and aggressively defended. creative successful work is beneficial.1. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing".” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations. humiliation or infection is detrimental. a great deal of further research has been conducted. A definition should therefore be obvious…except that it is not. The stress of exhilarating. Some of the theories behind it are now settled and accepted. During this time. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person 6 . others are still being researched and debated. His view in 1956 was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. Since then. Definition: Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. and ideas have moved on. What complicates this is that intuitively we all feel that we know what stress is. as it is something we have all experienced. with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects.

Compressive stress. Biological  Stress (biological). some types include: o Chronic stress. although we also recognize that there is an intertwined instinctive stress response to unexpected events. positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning Workplace stress. it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events. physiological or psychological stress. persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder o o Eustress. the average amount of force exerted per unit area. The types of stress are as follows Mechanical    Stress (physics). stress caused by employment 7 . The stress response inside us is therefore part instinct and part to do with the way we think. the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction.perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. This is the main definition used by this section of Mind Tools. Yield stress. the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically.” In short.

as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces. Chronic Stress Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently. Chronic stress is potentially damaging. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum. It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces. Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. Symptoms of chronic stress can be:        upset stomach headache backache insomnia anxiety depression anger 8 . stress is expressed as Where Is the average stress. also called engineering or nominal stress. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. the average amount of force exerted per unit area. and Is the force acting over the area .Stress (physics). In general.

glass. including exercise. etc. the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS. and relaxing hobbies. According to the properties of the material. relaxation techniques. When a material is subjected to compressive stress. Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. stress management. adequate rest. Usually. columns. which can be a factor in continued chronic stress. Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. Compressive stress: Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals. cast iron. in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency.In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder. 9 . leads to shortening. There are a variety of methods to control chronic stress. then this material is under compression. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency. and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease. etc). some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. healthy diet. compressive stress applied to bars.

an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength.In long. 10 . usually with negative values to indicate the compaction. However in geotechnical engineering.such as columns or truss bars -. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area). compressive stress is represented with positive values. slender structural elements -.

just "stressed out". In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. for example. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Eustress.(2) Stress in Biological terms: Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism. such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. and exhaustion. a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional. whether actual or imagined. 11 . inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions. and "stressor" to the perceived threat. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. muscular tension. "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism. short-term resistance as a coping mechanism. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production. In Selye's terminology. It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense. Common stress symptoms include irritability. It also became a euphemism.

headaches and an inability to focus. whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force. it is impossible to live without stress. For example. It is important to keep this in mind. depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the two forces. It is also your first step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. Physical 12 . The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions. headaches. can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. or perhaps seek professional help. irritability and in extreme cases. On the other hand. for example. it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. whether you are a student or a working adult. or emotional frictions. In our fast paced world. can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. There is both positive and negative stress. it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives.(3) what is Stress? Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us. heart palpitations. leading to emotional and physical pressure. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically. and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. also known as eustress. Hence. as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. positive stress. Hence. Not all stress is bad. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break. negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia. as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage. The presence of a deadline.

bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one. we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress. stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable. there are various stressors. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress. 13 . or from an accident. breathlessness. threat. and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more. and what is bad. to name a few. In order to do so. and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress. hyper stress and hypo stress. with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. Common lifestyle stressors include performance. Lastly. such as an economic downturn. There are 4 main categories of stress. or a prized possession. and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. Good stress v/s Bad stress: Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative. and bereavement stressors. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat. This could be during performance appraisals. hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress. whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. In our everyday lives. Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. namely eustress. Thus. or giving a speech. distress. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems.symptoms take the form of heart palpitations. Here’s how we differentiate between them. lunch with the boss. excessive sweating and stomachaches.

Hyper stress This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. Examples include highly stressful jobs. or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions. but does not last for long. you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues. which prepares your mind and body for the imminent challenges that it has perceived. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break. the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. Acute stress is intense. and know that it is a negative form of stress. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with eustress. and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm.Eustress: this is a positive form of stress. allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. resulting in a higher heart rate. chronic stress persists over a long period of time. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress. On the other hand. Distress We are familiar with this word. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes. hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels 14 . Hypo stress Lastly. which require longer working hours than the individual can handle.

and are cumulative in nature. hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us. Both can be equally taxing on the body. Distress is the most commonly-referred to type of stress. depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it. 15 . The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. whereas eustress is a positive form of stress. it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. usually related to desirable events in person's life. having negative implications.constantly bored and unmotivated. If the job scope is boring and repetitive.

translating into greater productivity. the stresses faced at work have also increased. leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain.(4) Coping with Stress at Work place With the rapid advancement of technology. occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. This is important. as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. Many people dread going to work. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace. More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work. and this has led to greater occupational stress. tipping the scales from positive to negative. Step 1: Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress. Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. 16 . and some have not gotten it quite right. Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. Undoubtedly. it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace. Hence. and use it to help you work better. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times. If left unacknowledged. However. too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency. hence the term “Monday Blues”. leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency. not all companies have such measures in place. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees. the problem will only snowball. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs.

you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. If it is an internal stressor. such as the environment or your colleagues at work. or that are likely stressors. and if you are constantly worried.You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions. Step 2: Identify the Cause You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. 17 . If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down. Step 3: Coping with Stress In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress. we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. These stressors can be external and internal. If you experience any of these reactions. Alternatively. Often. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions. or the onset of headaches. Whilst it is not always possible to eradicate them. such as taking time off. This can be through different methods. remove yourself from it. stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed. we can change the way that we cope with it. you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. irritability or the need to escape. such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations. These are not instantaneous solutions. The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions. External stressors refer to things beyond your control.

and restore the energy level. tension. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. Stress. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. Unfortunately. Like "stress reactions". be it our anxiety. sleeplessness. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. 18 . As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. can induce risky body-mind disorders. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. if not escapable.(5) Stress Management Stress management is the need of the hour. Moreover. The knotted nerves. either quick or constant. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. today. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. which are inter-linked with stress. They may also affect our immune. mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. are fairly manageable and treatable. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. anxiety attacks. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions.

It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. which are converted to cortical 19 . we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. we tend to respond positively under stress. more often than not. Being able to laugh stress away is the smartest way to ward off its effects. when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge. This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids. In cases of relocation.Recognizing a stressor: It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation. The emotions we experience directly affect our immune system. tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. Many times. stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will. adventurous sports or having a baby. During stress. Not being too serious or in a constant alert mode helps maintain the equanimity of mind and promote clear thinking. The positive emotions can create neurochemical changes that buffer the immunosuppressive effects of stress. even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally. A sense of humor also allows us to perceive and appreciate the incongruities of life and provides moments of delight. dizzy spells. We cope better with stressful situation. Laughter: Adopting a humorous view towards life's situations can take the edge off everyday stressors. when we encounter them voluntarily. But. For instance. promotion or layoff.

disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells. • Reduces stress hormones (studies shows. dopac. • Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. cortical. 20 . • Produces a general sense of well-being. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments.in the blood stream. Dr. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. • It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical levels. laughter induces reduction of at least four of neuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine. • It increases muscle flexion. These have an immunosuppressive effect. What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects? • Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body. associated with stress response). • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—body's natural painkillers. and growth hormone. increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. • Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors.

g. In turn. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations.. anxiety. Workers who report experiencing 21 . About one-third of workers report high levels of stress. fatigue. Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems.g. or needs of the worker. including psychological disorders (e. etc.(6) Workplace Stress Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities.g. tension. concentration and memory problems). depression. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions. post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health. and cognitive impairment (e.). dissatisfaction.g. maladaptive behaviors (e. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago.... it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. substance abuse). resources. such as cardiovascular disease. Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. aggression. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives. Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations.

increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. Similarly.000 workers. were conducted in Member States of the European Union in 1990. increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000.stress at work also show excessive health care utilization. what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. and 2000. 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990. According to one school of thought. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored. 1995. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses.700 per person annually. scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words. Causes of Workplace Stress Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. However. including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress. Personal interview surveys of working conditions. health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. In a 1998 study of 46. The increment rose to nearly 150%. Additionally. In 1990. for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. an increase of more than $1. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding job conditions. the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one-fourth of their working time was 48%. A substantial 22 . Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity.

percentage of Americans work very long hours. and opportunities for workers to use their skills. stimulation.   Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. Prevention A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful approach for preventing stress at work. musculoskeletal disorders. evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease. there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women. friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples. These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades. According to the Department of Labor. especially for women. more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. and disturbed relationships with family. Design jobs to provide meaning. Nonetheless. Signs of Workplace Stress Mood and sleep disturbances. 23 . upset stomach and headache. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress   Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. By one estimate. and psychological disorders. particularly couples with young children. an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress.

Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. (e. (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress. In a second study. and (3) establishment of employee assistance programs.   Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers. In one study. there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects.g.  Discrimination inside the workplace. nationality and language ) St. 24 . In contrast. the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital. Program activities included (1) employee and management education on job stress.

Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do. high-pressure role. Each of these can lead to intense stress. Rational & positive thinking: You are thinking negatively when you fear the future. put yourself down. and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. doubt your abilities. you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. you need to fully understand what is expected of you.We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. To do an excellent job. fast-moving. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do. Negative thinking damages confidence. or expect failure. Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. The alternative is to work more intelligently.(7) Reduce your stress 1. by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. By understanding the priorities in your job. and what constitutes success within it. We can choose to ignore this. 25 . While this may seem obvious. that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. The risks here are that we become exhausted. Job analysis: . and keep your workload under control. 2. criticize yourself for errors. it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook. in the hurly-burly of a new.

which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware of what is going through your head. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period. and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur. negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness. Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts. Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a major presentation:  Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it. do their damage and flit back out again. Do not suppress any thoughts. Then let them go. or Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal. Instead. 26 .   Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance. Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your Stress Diary.  Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you. just let them run their course while you watch them. Tackle these as a priority using the techniques below.Unfortunately. with their significance having barely been noticed. we do not challenge them properly. as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of. you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. Since we barely realize that they were there.

27 . then you should be satisfied. If people are not fair. and you do the best you can. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable.Rational Thinking The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts we identified earlier:  Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned.  Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect. the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them. so that these can be sorted out before the performance. then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement.  Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening. If you perform as well as you reasonably can. you've done as much as you can to give a good performance. prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these. What evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it? Looking at the examples. and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you?  Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well. Look at every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally. then fair people are likely to respond well.

Similarly. Tip: If you find it difficult to look at your negative thoughts objectively. Just because you're finding these new responsibilities stressful now. Then. you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. take appropriate action.Tip: Don't make the mistake of generalizing a single incident. It can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it. The final step is to prepare rational. you should already be feeling more positive. When you challenge negative thoughts rationally. which everyone has to go through at some stage. but that doesn't mean you're bad at your job. positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. and don't just reflect a lack of experience. However. imagine that you are your best friend or a respected coach or mentor. make sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals. By basing your affirmations on the clear. Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking By now. OK. think how you would challenge these thoughts. rational assessments of facts that you made using Rational Thinking. 28 . you made a mistake at work. make sure you take the long view about incidents that you're finding stressful. you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have done to your self-confidence. Look at the list of negative thoughts and imagine the negative thoughts were written by someone you were giving objective advice to. doesn't mean that they will ALWAYS be so for you in the future. Where there is some substance.

Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive thinking. As well as allowing you to structure useful affirmations. part of Positive Thinking is to look at opportunities that the situation might offer to you. Continuing the examples above. You will acquire new skills. I am going to perform well and enjoy the event."  Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance."  Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies. successfully overcoming the situations causing the original negative thinking will open up opportunities.Tip: Your affirmations will be strongest if they are specific. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way."  Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events. you will be seen as someone who can handle difficult challenges. are expressed in the present tense and have strong emotional content. and you may open up new career opportunities." If appropriate. In the examples above. positive affirmations might be:  Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance. This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. write these affirmations down on your worksheet so that you can use them when you need them. 29 .

many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job. Both can be equally taxing on the body. whereas eustress is a positive form of stress. The employees who have the simple table work also have to face the problem of stress. life seems to find new ways of 30 . usually related to desirable events in person's life. But it is different in the case of bank employees. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain. The types of stress are named as eustress and distress. Stress management is the need of the hour. Distress is the most commonly-referred to type of stress. and are cumulative in nature. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum.Conclusion Stress is a dynamic condition in witch an individual is confronted with an opportunity. The bank employees are the people who also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employees remain stressed and tensed. having negative implications. Consider for example. This is a complicated definition. the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer gives in “clutch” situations. it also has a positive value. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context. Similarly. depending on a person's way of adapting to a change that has caused it. demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Due to recession the banking sector is also facing the problem of employee cut-offs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feel stressed.

This research is to carry out the study that how much stressed the employees of the banks are and how do their stress affect their work life. be it our anxiety. The knotted nerves. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those.stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. social life. sleeplessness. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. and restore the energy level. either quick or constant. anxiety attacks. Like "stress reactions". are fairly manageable and treatable. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. Moreover. BIBILIOGRAPHY 31 . As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. which are inter-linked with stress. can induce risky body-mind disorders. They may also affect our immune. today. if not escapable. Unfortunately. mindbody exhaustion or our erring attitudes. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. Stress. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. tension. 3. output etc. so a sample of 14 to 15 employees are selected from all the three banks for the research of stress among them. tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells.

Robbins” o Burn Out tool – Questionnaire o Self analysis of questionnaire 32 .mindtool.o www.com o Organizational Behavior “Stephen P.

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