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By dealing with the project on ‘Shoe Production’, we got
the detail idea of Production Management in an organisation.
We mention thanks to those who agreed to contribute for
our project. We also mention thanks to the Book Authors,
without their support this project was not possible. We recognize
the support received from our Project Guide Prof. Rukesh and
the library staff of K. J. Somaiya College of Arts & Commerce.


Sr. no. Table of Content Page no.

1 Introduction on Shoes 4
2 Product Design 8
3 Process Design 13
4 Production Process 14
5 Method of Shoe Construction 18
6 Material Management 21
7 Machine & Equipment 26
8 Plant Maintenance 29
9 Example for Shoe Production 31
10 Cost Sheet 33
11 Market Value for Shoe Company 34
12 Bibliography 35

Shoe Introduction
Shoe is covering for the foot. Shoes have a sole, and most shoes also have a
heel. The upper part of most shoes extends on higher than the ankle. Boots are
footwear that reach beyond the ankle. People wear shoes in the order to protect
their feet from the environment, Sharp objects, and uncomfortable surfaces.
Fashion often determines shoes styles. The desire be fashionable has led to
unusual styles. For example, many European men of the 1300s wore shoes called
crackowes, which had an extremely long toe. Some crackowes had a toe so long
that it had to be fastened to the knee with a chain to prevent the wearer from
tripping. From the 1300s to the 1700s, some European women wore shoes with sole
so thick that that walking was impossible without support. Shoes once worn in
Japan were connected to stilts as high as 6 inches (15 centimeters).
Most shoes are made of leather. Other shoe materials include canvas, velvet
and such synthetic substances as plastics. Materials and styles very somewhat,
depending on climate, custom, and other factors. For example, many farmers in the
Netherlands wear heavy wooden shoes to protect their feet from the damp ground.
Many Japanese wear shoes outside their home but prefer soft slippers at home.

Kinds of shoes. There are four main kinds of shoes.

Casual and dress shoes,
Sport shoes,
Work shoes and,
Corrective shoes.

Casual shoes and dress shoes are made for most everyday occasions. Most
casual shoes are low-heeled styles, such as the loafer, moccasin, oxford, and pump.
Oxfords feature a lacing over a tongue. Loafers, moccasins, and pumps are slip-on
shoes. Most slip-on shoes have no lace or tongue.

Most dress shoes, or evening shoes, for women are based on the pump or
sandal style and have high or medium heels. Materials used for these shoes include

brocade, satin, silk, tapestry, and velvet. Some men’s dress shoes are made of
patent leather (leather with a glossy finish).

Sport shoes are designed to enhance the performance of athletes and to

provide comfort and durability. They have different features for various sports.
Basketball shoes and tennis shoes have rubber soles also prevent the shoes have
metal or synthetic-rubber spikes that enable the wearer to start and stop quickly.
Football shoes have synthetic-rubber cleats for the same purpose.

Beginning in the 1960s, more and more people, especially in the united
states, become interested in personal fitness. As a result, shoe manufacturers began
to produce highly specialized athletic shoes for such activities as running, walking,
and aerobic exercise. In addition, cross- training shoes are designed to be
appropriates for play of more than one sport. Many people wear athletic shoes for
casual dress as well as for sports and other exercise.

Work shoes are worn for safety and comfort in many kinds of jobs. Workers
in some industries wear shoes with a steel toecap for protection against injury.
Other workers wear footwear designed to prevent burns, to prevent slipping, or to
protect the wearer from electrical shock. Most mail carriers, nurses, restaurant
worker, and other who must stand or walk for long long periods wear shoes that
have a cushioned sole.

Corrective shoes are designed to provide relief from such foot conditions as
bunions and corns. They also are used for hammertoes (toes bent in the form of a
claw) and other disorders. Some corrective shoes are ready-made products that have
built-in-corrections for minor foot problems. For example, one style features a
special heel that supports the arch, the curved part of the sole of the foot. Other
corrective shoes are specially made for one person, some according to a physician’s
prescription. A person can also have special shoes made to fit the exact shape of the
feet-including any corns or other bulges. Such shoes reduce the pressure against
these areas.

The shoe industry in the United States produces about 250 million pairs of
shoes annually. Americans buy more than 850 million pairs of shoes imported from
Brazil, China, Indonesia, Taiwan, and other countries yearly.

Shoes manufacturing requires dozens of operations, many of which are

highly skilled. Fist a shoe designer, who generally works for a shoe manufacturer,
makes sketches of ideas and decides what colors and materials will be used. The
manufacture produces samples of the shoes, and sales representatives show the

samples to buyers from shoe and department stores. The buyers then order shoes
from the manufacturer.
At the shoe factory, workers prepare patterns for each component of each
size shoe to be manufactured. Using patterns, a worker then cuts sections that will
from the upper of the shoe. The section of the upper are then joined together by
stitching or cementing. Next, the upper is pulled over a last (a plastic from in the
approximate sharp of a foot) on a fasting machine. A worker then attraches the sole
to the upper by stitching, cementing, or molding. Finally, the heel is attached and
various finishing operations are carried out.

Shoes and health

Shoes that have been poorly fitted can cause such problems as backaches,
sore muscles, fatigue, and poor posture. Shoes that are too tight may result in corns,
hammertoes, and ingrown toenails. People can avoid such problems by taking
special care when buying shoes, especially children’s shoes. Most children outgrow
their shoes within a few months.

Shoes should have a space of 1\2 to 3\4 inch(13 and 19 millimeters) between
the tip pf big toe and the shoe. Most people have one foot larger then the other, and
so both feet should be fitted. A person should walk around casual dress shoes are
made for most everyday occasions. The shoes upper parts are usually soft and
flexible for comfort while walking. The hard, stiff soles provide durability.

Sport shoes are designed to enhance athletic performance. They usually have
thick padding to cushion impact and a patterned wearing surface that provides good

While trying on new shoes to ensure a comfortable fit. Some people wear
certain fashionable shoes even though these shoes are uncomfortable and can hurt
the feet. For example, high heel can cramp the toes by pushing the feel forward.
Pointed shoes also crowd the toes. Shoes with hard, thick soles can prevent flexible
movement. Hot feet can result from shoes that do not breathe (allow foot moisture
to escape). Some synthetic materials do not breathe as well as leathers.

No one knows when people first began to wear shoes. The first foot
coverings worn in cold regions were probably baglike wrappings made of animal
fur. The first known footwear used in warm surroundings consisted of sandals made
of plant fibers or leather. The ancient Egyptians wore such sandals as early as 3700
b.c, and the ancient Greeks and Romans also wore sandals. In china, people wore
wooden-soled shoes and cloth shoes thousands of years ago.

Some shoes of the past

Throughout history, people have worn shoes not only for protection but also
for decoration and to indicate social status. Shoe styles have gone in and out of
fashion, just as they do today. For example, the fashion in women’s shoes changed
to rounded toes in the 1500s low heels by the late 1500s and high heels in the

The Indians of north America made moccasins of animal skins. The

Europeans who settled in the new world wore sturdy leather shoes most of the time,
but some colonists also wore moccasins.

Until the mid-1800, despite the many changes in shoe styles, shoemaking
itself involved chiefly the use of simple hand tools. Most people wore homemade
shoes or bought shoes from a shoemaker who lived nearby or traveled from house.
Improved sewing machines were developed in the 1800s and shoemaking became a
factory operation. These machines had special devices to stitch shoes part that
previously had required or stitching by hand.

In 1882, Jan Ernst matzeliger, a worker in a Massachusetts shoe factory,

invented the shoe- lasting machine. This and other new shoemaking machines led
to the mass production of shoes by 1900. the mass production of footwear brought a
great reduction in the price of these productions. Today, many shoe-manufacturing
operation are automated. For example, shoes may be designed on a computer. In
addition, components may be cut by a laser and stitched by computer-controlled
stitches. Such improvements enable manufactures to respond to style changes
quickly and with reduced costs.

The anatomy of a shoe can be divided in an upper and lower (or bottom part).
Sections of the upper include Vamp, Quarter, Toecap, Throat, Insole board, and
Throatline. The sections of the lower shoe consist of an Outsole, Shank and Heel.

The Upper of the Shoe

All parts or sections of the shoe above the sole that are stitched or otherwise
joined together to become a unit then attached to the insole and outsole. The upper
of the shoe consists of the vamp or front of the shoe, the quarter i.e. the sides and
back of the shoe, and the linings. Uppers are made in a variety of different
materials, both natural and synthetic. Leather became the obvious cover of choice
because it allowed air to pass through to and from the skin pores thereby providing
an opportunity to keep the feet, cool. The plastic properties of animal skins further
help mould the shoe to the foot beneath. The ability for leather to crease over flexor
surfaces facilitates the function of the foot. Ironically synthetics used as uppers
display elastic properties, which mean the shoe upper never quite adjusts to the
foot, shape in the same way as natural leather. Synthetics are cheaper to mass-
produce and are now found in most mass produced footwear. Synthetic uppers are
more waterproof. Woven fabric such as cotton corduroy can be used as uppers.
Classified as breathable fabrics these help aeration.

The vamp covers the dorsum of the foot (includes the tongue piece) and
superior aspects over the toes. This section i.e. the toe puff is reinforced which
serves to give the shoe its shape as well as protect the toes. The vamp is often made
of more than one piece, creating a decorative pattern. There are various types of
vamps suited to different styles of shoes.

The complete upper part of the shoe behind the vamp line covering the sides
and backpart. The top edge of the sides and back of the quarter describes the topline
of the shoe. In athletic shoes the topline is often padded and referred to as a collar.
The medial and lateral sections join in a seam at the posterior end of the shoe. In
Oxford style lacing shoes, the eyelet section is formed by the superior part of the
quarter (while the underlying tongue is part of the vamp). In the Gibson style the
lacing segment forms part of the vamp. The heel section of the quarter is frequently
reinforced with a stiffener. This helps support the rearfoot. In boots the quarter is
often referred to as 'top'. In the Bal method, the front edges of both quarters are
stitched together and covered with the back edge of the vamp. In the Blucher
method the quarter panels are placed on top of the vamp, and the front edges are not
sewn together. In comparison with the Bal method, the Blucher method permits the
fitting of a larger foot girth by broadening the throat of the shoe. A convalescent
shoe (open to toe) is a variation on the Blucher method in which the lacing extends
to the front edge of the vamp. In athletic shoes the vamp and quarter panels are
often one continuous piece of nylon or leather with additional leather pieces added
to reinforce critical areas of the shoe. Reinforcement added to the region of the
medial longitudinal arch are termed the saddle if it is added to the outside of the
shoe or the arch bandage if it is added to the inside of the shoe.

The counter is a component of the quarter that stabilizes the hind foot in the
shoe and retains the shape of the posterior portion of the shoe. Counters are usually
made from fiber board or heat moulded plastic. Foxing is an additional piece of
leather that covers the counter externally. Sometimes a counter will extend medially
to support the heel and prevent prolonged pronation.


Many shoes incorporate a toecap into the upper of the shoe. Toecaps are
either stitched over into a decorative features referred to as toe tips. The toe box
refers to the roofed area over and around the part of the shoe that covers the toes.
The function of the toe box is to retain the shape of the forefoot and allow room for
the toes. The height and width of the toe box is dictated by shape of the last used to
construct the shoe. Certain types of non-athletic and athletic footgear will offer
extra depth in the toe box.

The central part of the vamp just proximal to the toe box. The throat is formed by
the seam joining the vamp to the quarter i.e. throat line. The position of the throat
line depends on the construction of the shoe, for example a shorter vamp and longer
quarters define a lower throat line. This gives a wider lower opening for the foot to
enter the shoe. The throat is defined by the connection of the rear edge of the vamp
and the front part of the quarter. The location of the throat will vary with the design
of the shoe. Because the vamp and quarter panels are often one piece in the athletic
shoe, the throat is at the eye stay. This refers to the point where the lacing is
attached to the vamp. The throat of the shoe dictates the maximum girth permitted
by the shoe.

Insole board
In quality shoes the quarters and vamps are lined to enhance comfort and
durability. Linings may consist of various materials i.e. leathers, fabrics, and
manmade synthetics. The lining on the insole segment is called 'the sock' and may
be full-length, three-quarter or just the heel section. Many linings are made of
synthetic material and are usually confined to the quarters and the insock.

Insole (inner sole)
A layer of material shaped to the bottom of the last and sandwiched between
the outsole (or midsole) and the sole of the foot inside the shoe. The insole covers
the join between the upper and the sole in most methods of construction and
provides attachment for the upper, toe box linings and welting. This provides a
platform upon which the foot can operate and separates the upper from the lower.
The insole board is necessary in shoes that are constructed using cemented or
Goodyear welt techniques because it is the attachment for upper and lower
components. The majority of insole boards are made of cellulose and are treated
with additives to inhibit bacterial growth. Athletic shoe wear will often have a sock
liner, a piece of material placed over the top of the insole board (glued in position
or removable.

This is the outer most sole of the shoe, which is directly exposed to abrasion and
wear. Traditionally made from a variety of materials, the outsole is constructed in
different thickness and degrees of flexibility. Ideal soling materials must be
waterproof, durable and possess a coefficient of friction high enough to prevent

slipping. Leather has poor gripping capabilities and synthetic polymers are much
preferred. There are also an infinite variety of surface designs. Extra grip properties
can be incorporated in the form of a distinctive sole pattern with well-defined
ridges. Alternatively they can be moulded with cavities to reduce the weight of the
sole. These cavities need to be covered with a rigid insole or can be filled with light
foam to produce a more flexible sole. In some cases two or more materials of
different densities can be incorporated into the sole to give a hard wearing outer
surface and a softer, more flexible midsole for greater comfort. Synthetic soling
materials will off the physical property of dampening down impact levels (shock

The shank bridges between the heel breast and the ball tred. The shankpiece or
shank spring can be made from wood, metal, fibreglass or plastic and consists of a
piece approximately 10cm long and 1.5 cm wide. The shank spring lies within the
bridge or waist of the shoe, i.e. between heel and ball corresponding to the medial
and lateral arches. The shankpiece reinforces the waist of the shoe and prevents it
from collapsing or distorting in wear. The contour of the shank is determined by
heel height. Shoes with low heels or wedged soles do not require a shank because
the torque between the rear and forefoot does not distort the shoe.

The heel is the raised component under the rear of the shoe. Heels consist of a
variety of shapes, heights, and materials and are made of a series of raised
platforms or a hollowed section. The part of the heel next to sole is usually shaped
to fit the heel, this is called the heel seat or heel base. The heel breast describes
front face of the heel. The ground contact section is called the top piece. Heels raise
the rear of the shoe above the ground. A shoe without a heel or midsole wedge may
be completely flat. When the heel section sits lower than the forefoot the style is
called a 'negative heel'.

The strip of material which joins the upper to the sole. Most shoes will be bonded
by Goodyear-welted construction. Some shoes use an imitation welt stitched around
the top flat edge of the sole for decorative purposes, but it is not a functional part of
the shoe.

1. Production Order
2. Die Cut
3. Manual Preparation
4. Stitching
5. Sole Assembly
6. Toe Lasting
7. Heel lasting
8. Auto Scribing
9. Trim & Edge
10. Sole Attachment
11. Cleaning
12. Packing
13. Assembly

The Production process consists of eight steps. A more detail description of
the process follows hereafter
The molding process takes the leather and sole and gives it their form. The
soles are created from various layers of material; hence in the molding stage,
various layers are molded to form a single sole. There are different ways in which
the molding machines can do this and each machine is configured to do so in one
particular way. There are a total of 10 moulding machines present on the
production floor. Their names are Moulder-001 to Moulder-010 and their machine
numbers and setup and operating costs can be found in the table Machine Master of
the production database.

After the moulding process the molded leather and soles go to the cutter
section. The cutting machines cut the leather and sole into its desired forms. There
are different ways in which the cutting machines can do this and each machine is
configured to do so in one particular way. There are a total of 10 cutting machines
present on the production floor. Their names are Cutter-001 to Cutter-010 and their
machine numbers and setup and operating costs can be found in the table Machine
Master of the production database.

After the cutting process, the leather and soles need to get punched into
certain shapes to be able to fit them together properly. This is done in punching
machines. There are different ways in which the punching machines can do this
and each machine is configured to do so in one particular way. There are a total of
10 punching machines present on the production floor. Their names are Puncher-
001 to Puncher-010 and their machine numbers and setup and operating costs can
be found in the table Machine Master of the production database.


After the punching process, the leather and soles are glued together. This is
done in gluing machines. There are different ways in which the gluing machines
can do this and each machine is configured to do so in one particular way. There
are a total of 10 gluing machines present on the production floor. Their names are
Glue-001 to Glue-010 and their machine numbers and setup and operating costs
can be found in the table Machine Master of the production database.

To get an even better fit between the sole and the leather, after they are
glued together they are sewed together as well. This is done in sewing machines.
There are different ways in which the sewing machines can do this and each
machine is configured to do so in one particular way. There are a total of 10
sewing machines present on the production floor. Their names are Sew-001 to
Sew-010 and their machine numbers and setup and operating costs can be found in
the table Machine_Master of the production database.

The shoe's labels are imprinted and attached to the shoes in the imprint
process. There are different ways in which the imprint machines can do this and
each machine is configured to do so in one particular way. There are 10 imprint
machines on the production floor. Their names are Imprint-001 to Imprint-010 and
their machine numbers and setup and operating costs can be found in the table
Machine Master of the production database.

The shoe's laces and attachments are attached to the shoes by Attachment
machines. There are different ways in which the accessory machines can do this
and each machine is configured to do so in one particular way. There are a total of
10 machines. Their names are Accessory-01 to Accessory-10 and their machine
numbers and setup and operating costs can be found in the table Machine Master of
the production database.

Before the shoes can be shipped to the distribution centers and to the
customers, they are packed in shoe boxes. This is done in two packaging machines,
Package-01 and Package-02 and their machine numbers and setup and operating
costs can be found in the table Machine Master.

Production Routing
The sequence of the production process is for each shoe the same. Every
shoe goes to the molding section first, then to the cutter section, puncher section,
glue section, sew section, imprint section, imprint section, accessory section and
finally to the package section. However, as there are different machine types in
each section, every shoe has a different path. Which machine each shoe goes to in
each section is defined in the Assign tables of the production database (Mould
Assign, Cut Assign, etc.). These tables contain the 557 shoe numbers, the machine
number indicating which machine it goes to in that particular section and the
average duration of that production step for that particular shoe type.
A summary of the information in the Assign tables can be found in the
Routings Master table. This table contains all the shoe numbers, and for production
process sequence (1 to 7), the machine number each shoe is supposed to go to and
its average duration. In the next figure the plant layout can be seen.
From this figure it can be seen that the first step in the production process is
the molder section. The molder section takes leather and soles from the local stock
and converts them in their proper forms. This 'product' then goes to the next
production step for further refurbishment. As you can see, in between each
production step there is a temporary stock. This stock is needed to account for
unexpected breakdowns and other production problems and minimizes the chances
of having serious production losses. The transportation of the 'partial product' to
the temporary stocks is done by a conveyor belt. These conveyor belts pass through
the center of each production section and take the 'partial products' from the
machine to the temporary stock. This process is more or less the same for each
section. However, the location of local raw materials stock is different for each
section, as can be seen in the figure.
You can imagine that it is impossible to produce 557 different shoes at the
same time. This would mean that each machine (and its operator) would produce
approximately 50 different shoes on a daily basis. In reality this isn't the case. At
the WARP shoe company the 557 different shoes are produced by means of a
batch-process. This means that shoes are produced by 100 types at the time. Each
batch process lasts for 3 days. This means that for 3 days WARP will produce 100
types, the next 3 days another 100 types, etc.

The Processing Data

The average processing times for each production process as indicated in the
previous section are based on the Processing Data table of the production database.
This table contains 2,005,200 records of processing times for the 557 shoes
handled by the 72 machines on the production floor. The processing times are

expressed in seconds.

Product Demand, Sales Price and Raw Materials Policy

The demand for each of the 557 shoes for the last 6 years can be found in the
table Product Demand of the production database. Based on these figures estimates
can be made about future monthly demand.
In order to be able to produce the needed amount of shoes, an adequate raw
materials policy is needed. The actual policy can be summarized by stating that
once every 45 days certain raw materials are being ordered in the quantities as
stated in the table Order Quantities of the production database. Each time an order
is being placed; WARP has to pay CDN 100,000. The monthly holding cost for the
raw materials is 10 percent of its cost price. At this moment in time no volume
discounts are applicable.
The sales prices of each of the shoes are summarized in table Sales_Prices of
the production database. Besides direct production costs (raw materials purchase
and holding costs and machine operating costs) the overhead costs (for offices,
administration, labor and other purposes) are 16 percent of the direct production

Warehouses and Distribution Centers

Whenever the shoes are finished and put in their respective boxes, they are
taken to 9 different warehouses. The names, capacities (expressed in pairs of
shoes), distances (in kilometers) from the production plant to these warehouses and
monthly operating costs can be found in the table Warehouse Master of the
production database. From these warehouses the shoes must be taken to the
distribution centers. The distances (in kilometers) from the 9 warehouses to the
distribution centers and route numbers can be found in table Warehouse Distance.

There are many ways to attach the sole to the upper but commercially only a
few methods are preferred. Shoes were traditionally made by moulding leather to a
wooden last. Modern technology has introduced many new materials and
mechanised much of the manufacture. Remarkable as it may seem the manufacture
of shoes remains fairly labour intensive. No matter the type of construction the first
stage in construction is to attach the insole to the undersurface of the last. Two
main operations follow. Lasting describes the upper sections are shaped to the last
and insole. Followed by Bottoming, where the sole is attached to the upper. The
process of bottoming will determine price, quality and performance of the shoe.

Alternative names include: 'Stuck on construction’ and the 'Compo Process'.

For lightweight and flexible footwear the outsole is stuck to the upper by an
adhesive. Bonwelt is a variation with its distinguishing feature being a strip of
welting attached by stitching or cementing to the top edge of the insole. The shoe is
then flat lasted. This is not a true welt construction wherein the welt is attached to
the rib of the insole.

Goodyear Welt

For high quality dress and town shoes the top section (or welt) is chain
stitched to the upper and insole rib at the point where it curves under the last. This
is supplemented by a lockstitch outseam bonding the welt and outsole. The outsole
is then sewn to the welt around the edge. Goodyear Welt creates heavier less
flexible footwear.


Alternative names include: Veldt or veldschoen

A cheaper method used to produce lightweight flexible soles for children's

shoes and some casual footwear describes the upper turned out (flanged) at the
edge of the last. This is then stitched to the runner. In some countries it is known as
'veldt' and 'veldtschoen.'


Thought to be the oldest shoe construction this consists of a single layer

section, which forms the insole, vamp and quarters. The piece is moulded upwards
from the Under surface of the last. An apron is then stitched to the gathered edges
of the vamp and the sole is stitched to the base of the shoe. This method is used for
flexible fashion footwear. The imitation moccasin has a visual appearance of a
moccasin but does not have the wrap around construction of the genuine moccasin.

Molded Methods

The lasted upper is placed in a mould and the sole formed around it by
injecting liquid synthetic soling material (PVC, urethane). Alternatively, the sole
may be vulcanised by converting uncured rubber into a stable compound by heat
and pressure. When the materials in the moulds cool the sole-upper bonding is
complete. These methods combine the upper permanently into the sole and such
shoes cannot therefore be repaired easily. Moulded methods can be used to make
most types of footwear.

Force Lasting
Alternative names include: The Strobel-stitched method (or sew in sock)

Force lasting has evolved from sport shoes but is increasingly used in other
footwear. The Strobel-stitched method (or sew in sock) describes one of many force
lasting techniques. The upper is sewn directly to a sock by means of an overlooking
machine (Strobel stitcher) The upper is then pulled (force lasted) onto a last or
moulding foot. Unit soles with raised walls or moulded soles are attached to
completely cover the seam. This technique is sometimes known as the Californian
process or slip lasting.

Materials Used

Shoes are made from the best materials we are able to source.

The uppers are a high-tech synthetic microfibre material which is breathable and
very durable. The material is also water-resistant, lightweight, supple and easy to
maintain. In most circumstances its performance is superior to leather. Microfibre
material is made from a blend of polyamide fibres & polyurethane.

For most of our shoe styles we line the inside of the shoe with hard wearing woven
fabrics which are designed to draw moisture away from the skin.

Out-soles (i.e. the part that touches the ground) are generally rubber or rubber
resin. We use the most durable grades of these materials that we can source. Many
of our men’s shoes & unisex boots have Vibram brand soles, probably the worlds
most well know high quality out-soles.

In-soles (the part that your feet rest on) are made from high grade cellulose shoe
board, bonded to soft, shock absorbent, non-compressible Poron foot beds. Poron
is the best (& most expensive) cushioning material we know of. Most of our flat
soled shoes & boots also have a micro-cell rubber mid-board.


Animal skin that has been chemically modified to produce a strong, flexible
material that resists decay. Almost all the world output of leather is produced from
cattle hides and calfskins, goatskins and kidskins, and sheepskins and lambskins.
Other hides and skins used include those of the horse, pig, kangaroo, deer, reptile,
seal, and walrus.

Leather is used for a wide range of products. The variety of skins and the
way they are processed can produce leather as soft as cloth or as hard as a shoe
sole. Cattle hides, the major raw material for leather production, range from being
lightweight and supple to tough and strong. Tough hides are used in the production
of the durable leather required for soles of shoes, machine belting, engine gaskets,
and harnesses. Calfskin is lighter and finer grained, and is used for making fine
leather suitable for such articles as shoe uppers. Sheepskin is soft and supple; it
yields the type of leather suitable for gloves, jackets, and other apparel. Since
ancient times, human beings have used animal skins and learned to make leather.
The process of using chemicals to turn skins into leather is called tanning.


The raw materials used by the leather industry originate largely as by-
products of the meat-packing industry. Before entering the tanning process, the raw
skins are "cured" by salting or drying them promptly after being removed from the
slaughtered animal. The more common methods used in curing require the use of
salt (sodium chloride) in one of two ways: wet-salting or brine-curing. In wet-
salting, the skins are liberally salted and piled on top of one another until they form
a pack. They are left in the pack for about 30 days to allow the salt to thoroughly
penetrate the skin. Brine-curing is a much quicker method. In agitated brine-curing,
the method most commonly used, skins are placed in large vats called raceways
that contain a disinfectant and brine maintained close to full salt saturation. After
about 16 hours in the raceway, the skins are completely penetrated by the salt.


The cured skins are soaked in pure water to eliminate salt, blood, and dirt, and also
to replace moisture lost in the curing process. After the skins have soaked for a
period varying from two hours to seven days, the flesh is removed mechanically
from the inner surface. To loosen the hair, the skins are then immersed for one to
nine days in a solution of lime and water containing a small amount of sodium
sulfide. Following this operation the hair is easily removed by a dehairing machine,
and the distinctive pattern known as the grain can be distinguished on the outer
surface of the skin. To ensure clear, clean surfaces, any remaining flesh and hair is
scraped off, usually by hand with a dull knife, by a process called scudding.


The next operation involves deliming the skins by soaking them in a weak solution
of acid, which reduces the swelling caused by the lime. Simultaneously, most types
of skins are treated with a "bating" material consisting of enzymes to give a
smoother grain and render the skin soft and flexible. The amount of bating varies
greatly, from none at all for sole leather to a concentrated treatment for leather to
be used in kidskin gloves. After the deliming and bating operations, the stock can
be tanned.

Each type of skin may be treated by several tanning processes. The process
is chosen according to the use for which the leather is intended. The two principal
tanning processes are mineral, or chrome, tanning, and vegetable tanning. Chrome
tanning often can be completed in a single day, whereas vegetable tanning requires
many weeks or months. Vegetable tanning results in a firmer leather with greater
water and stretch resistance. Chrome tanning shrinks the stock and produces a
longer-wearing leather with greater resistance to heat. The processes are sometimes
combined to derive some of the advantages of each.


In this process the tanning agent, which renders the skin immune to decay and
prevents shrinkage, is a substance known as tannin. Tannin is extracted from the
bark, wood, fruit, and leaves of trees. Chestnut wood, oak bark, and hemlock bark
are the major domestic sources of the tannin used by the United States leather
industry. Foreign sources, which provide more than 80 percent of the tannin
supply, include the wood of the quebracho tree of South America, mangrove bark
from the island of Borneo, wattle bark from South Africa, and myrobalan fruit
from India.

In vegetable tanning the hides are suspended from rocking frames in a series of
vats containing increasingly stronger tannin solutions, called liquors. After several
weeks the hides are transferred to a "layaway" section, which consists of larger
vats containing still stronger liquors. Each week more tannin is added to the liquor,
until the hides have absorbed enough tannin to complete the process. The last
stages of the process may be Flexible vegetable-tanned leathers to be used for
belting, luggage, upholstery, or harnesses are less heavily tanned than the leather
intended for shoe soles.

The mineral tanning process is known as chrome tanning because the tanning agent
used most frequently is a salt compound of chromium. accelerated by the use of
warm liquors. Flexible vegetable-tanned leathers to be used for belting, luggage,
upholstery, or harnesses are less heavily tanned than the leather intended for shoe

The mineral tanning process is known as chrome tanning because the tanning agent
used most frequently is a salt compound of chromium. Chrome-tanned leathers,
which stretch more than vegetable-tanned leathers, are suitable for handbags, shoe
uppers, gloves, and garments.

To prepare the stock for chrome tanning, the bated skins are pickled in a
solution of salt and acid. The skins are then immersed in a basic chromium-sulfate
solution within a large revolving drum that tumbles the skins. This type of liquor
penetrates the skins so rapidly that tannage is accomplished in less than a day. The
chrome process originally involved the use of two different liquors, both solutions
of compounds of chromium, and required substantially more time. Known as the
two-bath process, it is still used for some varieties of leather. Aluminum or
zirconium compounds may be used in place of chromium in the production of
white leather. Alum, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, and synthetic tannins
(Syntans) are also used to impart special characteristics.

In the production of combination-tanned leather, the skin is first chrome-

tanned and then retained with vegetable tannins. The modified applications of both
processes produce leather with some of the advantages of each type.


After tanning, all types of leather undergo various operations that differ
according to the use of the desired product. Vegetable-tanned leather for shoe soles
is first bleached a lighter color. Next, it is infused with such materials as epsom
salts, oils, and glucose, and then lubricated with hot emulsions of soap, greases,
and sometimes wax. Finally, the stock is run through rolling machines to give the
leather a desired degree of firmness and a high gloss. Chrome-tanned leather
intended for shoe uppers is split and shaved to the desired uniform thickness. It is
then placed in a rotating drum for the dyeing process, which usually involves the
use of several types of coloring materials to achieve color fastness and durability.
Before or after dyeing, the leather is rolled in a "fat liquor," which contains
emulsified oils and greases. More than 100 leather colors exist, ranging from
traditional tans and browns to such exotic shades as fuchsia and turquoise.

After dyeing and fat-liquoring, the stock is stretched for drying. Workers
paste the stock on frames made of glass or ceramics or "toggle" it on perforated
metal frames. The frames are then conveyed through drying tunnels with controlled
heat and humidity.

Heavy leathers are finished by coating the grain surface with a finishing
compound, and finally by brushing it under a revolving, brush-covered cylinder.
The grain surface of light leathers is buffed, or sandpapered, to correct
imperfections in the skin. Buffing the flesh side of leather raises the nap and
produces the popular leather known as suede. For smooth finishes, most light
leather is seasoned, or treated with a mixture of such materials as waxes, shellac or
emulsified synthetic resins, dyes, and pigments. Pigments are used sparingly to
avoid a painted look. Glazing gives the grain a highly polished surface. Several
coats of thick, oily varnish are required to give patent leather its characteristic high

Today, many artificial substances are produced and sold as "leather goods." These
modern synthetics include such plastics as polyvinyl chloride and nonwoven fibers
impregnated with binders. These materials lack leather's porous quality, pliable
nature, and resilience. However, the artificial materials cost less to produce than
leather and have come to command a large share of the leather market, particularly
in shoe soles.

Boot and shoe making machines come in complete structure, which blends
beautifully in shoe shops thus adding to the beauty of the shop. It is ideally used in
shoes making factory & modern shoes repairing shops.

There are multi-functions in one machine and comes with salient features like
polishing, waxing, trimming and also can be made available with special designs
pressing moulding, noiseless operation, low rate of failure and with many other
features suiting different shoe purposes. It is labor saving, highly accurate and
efficient machine that is capable of making all types of boot and shoes with ease.

There is manual as well as automatic shoe making machine. It also comes with
dual operations like shoe and boot making and also repairing shoe operation.


Automatic Heel Upper-Binding Machine

Model Number: HY-727A
1) Production: 2500pairs/8hr
2) Power: 2HP
3) Hydraulic: 142L
4) Electro heat: 400W
Inner packing: Dimensions: 1200 x 760 x 1420mm
Outer packing: Dimensions: 1270 x 820 x 1680mm


Auto Upper Molding Machine

Model Number: HY-619A
1) Production: 2000pairs/8hr
2) Voltage: 220V / 50Hz
3) Weight: 400kg
4) Electro heat: 1.2KW
5) Air pressure: 0.6Mpa
Inner packing: Dimensions: 740 x 770 x 1650mm
Outer packing: Dimensions: 740 x 770 x 1650mm

Computerized Hydraulic Automatic Toe Machine

Model Number: HY-737C
1) Production: 2500pairs/8hrs
2) Power: 2HP
3) Hydraulic: 142L
4) Electro heat: 1kW
Inner packing: Dimensions: 1810 x 1000 x 1950mm
Outer packing: Dimensions: 1920 x 1030 x 2120mm

Automatic Upper Molding Machine

Model Number: HY-618B

1) Production: 2000pairs/8hr
2) Air pressure: 0.6Mpa
3) Electro heat: 0.2KW
4) Weight: 400kg
5) Voltage: 220V / 50Hz
Inner packing: Dimensions: 740 x 770 x 1650mm
Outer packing: Dimensions: 740 x 770 x 1650mm

Plant Maintenance Services is a collection of processes that evaluate,

develop, and sustain world-class maintenance. Whether we work along side you, or
you select our proven and complete turn-key system, we can evaluate, develop, and
sustain proactive and preventive maintenance at your plant. The following

implementation steps are designed to offer a comprehensive maintenance solution
for your facility:

 Step 1: Maintenance Evaluation Process

 Examine maintenance organization, processes and practices

 Review maintenance files / records / history

 Interview plant personnel in management, maintenance and operations

 Formulate preliminary findings and recommendations.

 Prepare written report on findings and recommendations.

 Conduct an on-site review of the evaluation report and action plan.

Discuss cost / benefit analysis along with activities, timeline, and
appropriate resources.

 Step 2: Master Planning

⇒ Effectively charts a course for maintenance improvement using a
custom approach.

⇒ Supports your facility’s short-range operating plan and long-
range goals.

⇒ Addresses the gap between the activities of the organization and

the capabilities of the maintenance organization to support those

⇒ The master plan covers organizational, system, selection, and

work order scheduling are reviewed. material, facility, equipment, and
procedural shortfalls. Milestone measurement meetings are held
monthly, quarterly, or annually.

⇒ During the planning process key factors such as inventory

management, change management, reliability programs, CMMS

 Step 3: Maintenance Improvement Program (MIP)

o Program Definition – in this phase a strategy

is developed that sets the direction and vision for successful

o Program Development – during program

development written objectives, goals, and targets are established for
maintenance. They are supportive of the maintenance master plan and
the company long range plan.

o Program Implementation – execution of the

detailed master plan that includes tasks, timelines, resources, and
milestones. Regular reviews of the implementation are conducted to
measure progress.

1. The shoes produce by the company is sold at cheaper rate.

2. The raw material used in the production is of medium quality.

3. 30000 pairs should be produce in one month
4. Only 80 worker work in this project
5. From 80 worker 40 worker are skilled worker & 40 are unskilled worker
6. Skilled worker are charged Rs.150 per day & unskilled worker is charged
Rs.100 per day
7. Only 40 sewing machine will use for this production
8. The output of per sewing machine is 25 pairs per day
9. Other charges will be taken on the assumption basis

Example for the cost of raw materials

6000m leather will be required for production of shoes. Leather used in the
production of shoes is medium quality, the total cost of leather is Rs30,00000.

30,000 sole will be required for producing shoes. The total cost of sole is
Rs15, 00,000.

1000 bottle of paste required for production of shoes the total cost for paste is
Rs. 85,000/-

Rs 3000/- will be spend on thread

Shoe Polish:-
Rs3000/- will spend on the purchase of polish for shoe

Labour cost:-
40 skilled worker will worker work on this project company ,so the monthly
salary of all the skilled workers will be 1,80,000, and for the unskilled the cost of
the salary will be 1,20,000. So the total salary cost for the company will be 300000

Decoration Material
The cost for the decoration material will be Rs. 50,000 it includes Stickers,
welcrow etc.

Transport cost:-

The transport cost for the production of shoes will be 1,00,000

Other cost:-

The total cost for the production of shoes will be Rs50,000

Particulars Amount Amount
Direct material cost 46,41,000
(+) Direct wages 50,000
PRIME COST 46,91,000
(+) Labour cost 3,00,000
(+) Transport cost 1,00,000
(+) PROFIT 1500,000
(the company decided to charge Rs,50 as a
profit for per pair of shoes
SALE 65,91,000

From the above cost sheet we can observe that the:-

PRIME COST:- 46,91,000

COST OF SALE:- 50,91,000

So the price per pair of shoes is Rs.169.7,but company decide to charge Rs50
as profit on the per pair of shoes, so the total profit on the total production is
Rs.15,00,000, So the total cost for production of shoes is Rs.65,91,000

Company wise trends in sales
(Rupees in Crores)

2002-2003 2003-2004
Bata India 603.64 617.42
Liberty 63.64 185.87
Mirza tanners 129.59 153.38
Lakhani footwear 100.11 119.96
Avanti leathers 0.73 0.96
Lakhani footwear 8.43 8.43
Relaxo rubber 18.37 18.37
Relaxo footwear 71.49 107.65

Market Share (%)

2002-2003 2003-2004
Bata India 11.52 11.51
Liberty Shoes 1.21 3.46
Mirza Shoes 2.47 2.86
Lakhani India 1.91 2.24
Avanti Leather 0.01 0.02
Lakhani Footwear 0.16 0.16
Relaxo Rubber 0.35 0.34
Relaxo Footwear 1.36 2.01

This Project is referred from following out sources

Theoretical Aspects:-
Books name:-
 World Encyclopedia

Web site:-
 www.google.com
 www.yahoo.com


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