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THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE TUG USE IN PORT A Practical Guide 2nd edition by Captain Henk Hensen FNI N.cham, 387.166 H526 2.ed. 2003, ‘Autor: Hensen, Henk, ‘Titulo: Tug use in port: a practical guide. AUER, >=" Ex! TUG USE IN PORT - 2nd edition by Captain Henk Hensen FNI Ist edition published by The Nautical Institute 1997 2nd edition 2003 Published by The Nautical Institute 202 Lambeth Road, London, SE1 7LQ, England ‘Telephone: +44 (0)20 7928 1351 Fax: +44 (0}20 7401 2817 Publications e-mail: pubs@nautinst-org ‘Worldwide web site: http://www.nautinst org, ‘This edition Copyright © The Nautical Institute 2003, Sponsored by the Port of Rotterdam Authority Cover picture The Hellespont Metropolis arriving in Rotterdam on her maiden voyage October 2002 with Fairplay tugs in attendance. Courtesy of Port of Rotterdam; Ben Wind Fotografie, the Netherlands All rights reserved: No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except for the quotation of brief passages in reviews. Although great care has been taken with the writing and production of this volume, neither The Nautical Institate nor the author can accept any responsibility for errors, omissions or their consequences. ‘This book has been prepared to address the subject of tug use in port. This should not, however, be taken to ‘mean that this document deals comprehensively with all ofthe concerns which will need to be addressed or even, where a particular matter is addressed, that this document sets out the only definitive view forall situations, ‘The opinions expressed are those of the author only. Captain Henk Hensen was born in 1935, is a Master Mariner and was a Port of Rotterdam pilot for 23 years. During his years as a pilot he was stationed at the Pilot Office for five years. During that time he started simulator courses for harbour pilots and tug captains and partici- pated in many port studies, including simulator research. He started a database for casualties in the Port of Rotterdam and analysed them with the object of improving safety. Following his retirement he started his own consultancy, Nautical Safety Consultancy, and works as marine consultant on the nautical aspects of port studies, tug advice and simulator training, All photographs and diagrams acknowledged ‘Typeset by J A Hepworth 1 Ropers Court, Lavenham, Suffolk, CO10 9PU, England Printed in England by Modern Colour Solutions 2 Bullsbridge Industrial Estate, Hayes Road, Southall, Middlesex, UB2 5NB, England ISBN 1 870077 393 CONTENTS Acknowledgements Foreword. Author’s Preface .. ‘Tug Use in Port ~ The Overview... Glossary of Terms . List of figures .. Chapter 1 Tug design factors 2 Types of harbour tug... 3. Assisting methods 4 — Tug capabilities and limitations 5 Bollard pull required. Interaction and tug safety .. 7 Escort tugs . 134 .. 163 10 ‘Tug developments References. 174 Appendices 1 Port authorities & towing companies which provided information..... 178 2 Safety of tugs while towing... 3 Rules for escort vessels.. .. 182 Index .. ~- 187 TUG USE IN PORT i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ast edition The author would like to express his appreciation to the Rotterdam Municipal Port Management for their generous support, which made it possible to write this book. Without the expertise and support of many individuals and companies this book could not have been completed to the standard which has been achieved. The author is sincerely grateful for their contributions. Although it is hardly possible to name them all, a small list of the persons and companies that have been so kind in providing information or sharing their insights would include: ‘The Rotterdam towing companies, and in particular Smit Harbour Towage Company; Damen Shipyards, Gorinchem, ‘The Netherlands; Mr. Joh. de Jong MSc, Marine Simulator Centre the Netherlands; Mr. David L. Potter, Marlow Ropes, UK; The Glosten Associates, USA; Captain Larri Johnson, Marine Superintendent Foss Maritime, Seattle, USA; US Coast Guard; and Thomas Reed Publications, UK. Furthermore the author is greatly indebted to the following persons:— Mr. W. Hoebée MSc, and his staff, and Captain W. Verbaan of the Rotterdam Port Authority, Mr. TE. Tomasson MSc, of MarineSafety International Rotterdam, for their generous and continuous support. Captain Evgeny Sarmanetoy, former St. Petersburg pilot, for his excellent contribution regarding manoeuvring in ice and Captain N, Golovenko, Rotterdam, for the Russian ~ English translation of this article. Captain Victor J. Schisler, Long Beach ~ pilot, USA and Captain Nigel Allen, Southampton ~ pilot for their professional contribution on escorting. Those ofall the port authorities and towing companies that completed the questionnaire and provided information regarding tugs and tug assistance in their ports. The response to the questionnaires, which were sent by the Port Authority of Rotterdam to a hundred ports around the world, was much higher than might be expected and the information provided by those ports that completed the questionnaires was invaluable. The names of these persons and the port authorities and towing companies are listed in Appendix 1. Finally, the author is sincerely grateful to Captain Herbert van Donselaar MSc, for sharing his keen professional insight during the process of writing this book. 2nd edition Tn 2002 the book was revised. Again many were helpful and contributed by providing information, sharing their insights and always willing to answer questions. The author is grateful for the contributions of: Mrs, Heike Hoppe of IMO, London, United Kingdom; Mr, Joop Jansen and Erik Lenders, Damen Shipyard, the Netherlands; Mr. Randy S. Longerich, Puget Sound Rope, USA; Mr. Paul P, Smeets, DSM High Performance Fibers, the Netherlands; Mr. David L. Gray, Glosten Associates, USA, Mr. Robert Allan, Robert Allan Ltd, USA; Mr. Jon M. Jakobsen, Statoil Mongstad, Norway; Mr. Erling Kvalvik, Norsk Hydro Produksjon a.s, Norway; Mr. Jimmy Brantner, Marine Towing of Tampa, USA; Mr. Richard Decker and Mr. John Collins, Seabulk Towing, ‘USA; Mr. Markus van der Laan, IMC Group, the Netherlands; Mr. Dave Foggie, The Maritime and Coast Guard Agency, UK, while several others could be added. Furthermore, the author is greatly indebted to the following persons: Mr. Jaap C. Lems, Director Rotterdam Port Authority and Harbourmaster of the Port of Rotterdam, for his great support; Captain Roger Ward, Tag Master and formerly Marine Manager with Howard Smith Towage, Melbourne, Australia,for the valuable discussions and information exchange on practical aspects of harbour towage during several years; Captain Gregory Brooks, Tag Master/Instructor, USA; Captain Victor J. Schisler, Long Beach pilot, USA; Capt Arthur Naismith, Voith Training Master; Captain Nigel Allan, Southampton pilot, UK; LT Keith Ropella, Chief Vessel Traffic, MSO Valdez, Alaska, USA and Mr. Henrik Hammarberg, Det Norske Veritas, Norway, for their professional contributions on escorting, escort procedures, and / or regulations. Finally, the Rotterdam Municipal Port Management generously supported also this revised edition of the book, for which the author would like to express his sincere appreciation. Without the help ofall those mentioned it would have been impossible to revise the book in the way it has been done. ii THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE FOREWORD ty; Executive Director of the Port of Rotterdam Mr. P. Struijs ‘Tug Use in Port, which includes escort tngs, is a valuable addition to nautical literature. Twenty years ago few would have believed that it could be possible to build in so much power and manoeuvrability into the hull form of today’s tugs. With conventional designs it was impossible to achieve this capability, but now towage companies which do not embrace this new technology are likely to find the competition overwhelming. Itis against this background, and I trained as a naval architect, that I welcome this book. It sets out to demonstrate the characteristics ofthe old and new and in doing so the reader can come to appreciate how to transfer and adapt towing practices to optimise the use of all tugs in a mixed fleet Whilst naval architects and marine engineers have concentrated on fuel economy per ton mile in deep sea vessels they remain unwieldy in confined waters. Similarly the car carrier and container ship, although generally higher powered than the bulk carriers, have special limitations imposed by windage. Happily whilst the deep sea vessel has become larger and relatively less manoeuvrable tugs have ‘grown in capability and so play an essential role in port economics. Indeed a port which cannot provide effective tug support becomes unviable and it is important that the towing industry recognises this. So Captain Hensen an experienced pilot from my port has provided an essential service in demonstrating how tugs can be used to best effect. The Port of Rotterdam is pleased to have played its part as a major sponsor to this publication. This book examines towage techniques and the reader will be constantly reminded that shiphandling with tugs is all about competent teamwork. On board the ship are the master, pilot and crew, on board the tugs are the tug masters and crew and they have to work together, To be effective all need a good knowledge of this professional area of activity particularly as ships are often attended by a mixed variety of tugs. The foindation of how best to control operations is laid out in this very practical guide. ‘The other chapters on tow ropes, training, bollard pull and escort work, all linked by a common thread of safe working methods makes this an ideal book for study. I believe it will favourably influence the way tugs are designed and used. This is the hallmark by which this book will be recognised and'I have no hesitation in recommending this well illustrated text to towage companies, ports, tug masters, pilots and sea staf alike. Everybody will benefit from its practical guidance, TUG USE IN PORT iil AUTHOR'S PREFACE ‘When ships are assisted by tugs, experience, teamwork, communication and above all insight into the capabilities and limitations of ships and attending tugs are essential for safe and efficient shiphandling. This applies to the tug captain and his crew as well as the shipmaster and pilot, particularly nowadays as older conventional tugs are increasingly being replaced by modern types with larger engine powers and increased capabilities. Reputable shipyards build good tugs, and designers can predict how well their tugs will perform. However, they do not handle ships themselves and have not experienced the tug assistance required: not in a river, channel or port approach nor in a confined harbour basin, not during a storm or in strong currents nor in the middle of a foggy night. Not even during nice, calm weather. These are the situations and conditions in which pilots and tug captains have to handle ships. So itis essential that they know what can be expected from a tug in any specific circumstance. Only when these professionals axe fully aware of the capabilities and limitations of the various types of tugs in general and of an individual tug, including the effects on an assisted ship, are they able to utilise tugs in the safest and most effective way and in harmony with a ship’s manoeuvring devices. Good insight into the operational performance of different types of tugs while assisting vessels is also of major importance for tugboat companies. It allows them to determine what type of tug will provide optimum service for the port, with respect to the local situation, environmental conditions and ships calling at the port. ‘The increasing use of simulation for research and training purposes requires an in-depth knowledge of tg capabilities and limitations, in addition to the data required for creating a tug simulator model. Only then can results be achieved that are safely applicable to daily practice and which form a contribution to safe shiphandling. ‘There is a trend towards ever more powerful tugs and more manoeuvrable modern vessels. This is leading to a reduction in the number of tugs used to assist those ships, so the role of harbour tugs becomes even more crucial than before ‘There are many reasons, therefore, why a book on tug assistance could be useful. The aim of this book is to improve the practical knowledge of harbour tugs and their different types, and to give a better insight into the capabilities and limitations of these tugs while rendering assistance. ‘Not all aspects of shiphandling with tugs are addressed in detail within this book. This work should be seen as a basic guide to the reader, whilst at the same time encouraging further increase of knowledge. The references mentioned at the end may prove useful. ‘The book is specifically written with the needs of maritime professionals involved in the day-to-day practice and training of shiphandling with tugs in mind, particularly pilots, tug captains and training instructors. Itshould also be of value to towing companies, shipmasters and mates of seagoing vessels and all other persons or organisations involved, one way or another, with tugs and shiphandling. In the second edition several subjects have been reviewed or extended, based on experience and knowledge gained during the last five years. Items that were found to be missing have been included, ship's fittings for use with tugs have been addressed more specifically, the escort chapter has been extended, new developments in the tug world have been included, and several references used for the book have been added for those who want to read more about certain subjects. ‘The tug world is a fast changing world, although basic principles for tags and tug operations do not change that much. Its the author's earnest hope that this book will contribute to improved knowledge of harbour tugs and lead to increasing safety in tug and shiphandling operations in ports and port approaches around the world. ‘The author. iv THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE TUG USE IN PORT THE OVERVIEW ‘The contents ofthis book are outlined below. + A.general review is presented first of factors which affect operational requirements for a harbour tug, such as the different tasks for which they are used, the particulars of a port, the environmental conditions and ships calling at the port. + Various types of harbour tug are discussed in a general way, addressing the diversity of design, propulsion, steering and manoeuvring capabilities. + After reviewing assisting methods in use worldwide, tug types are considered in more detail, including the performance of different types of tug resulting from the location of propulsion devices, towing point and lateral centre of pressure. Tug capabilities, limitations and effectiveness with respect to different assisting methods and ‘operating positions relative to a ship are discussed. + The number of tugs required to handle a vessel safely is frequently a topic for discussion between pilots and shipmasters. This important subject is discussed taking into account the effects of wind, current, shallow water and confined waters. The number of tugs and total bollard pull used in several ports around the world is mentioned. + Much attention is given to dangerous operational situations for tugs, such as interaction and girting, and to ‘environmental conditions such as fog. + Towing equipment is dealt with, particularly in relation to safe and efficient shiphandling, + Escorting and escort tugs, being a subject of specific interest nowadays, is dealt with separately. + Proper training for a tug captain and crew is essential in order that they handle the tug safely and efficiently. The same applies to the pilot and/or master for shiphandling with tugs. Training is therefore an important subject in the book, including simulator training and research. All subjects are, as far as possible, related to situations encountered in practice. ‘Pts: Sap ential Li, Canada Reverse-tactor tgs ‘Sespan Hazek’ and ‘Season Falcon’ (Lo.a. 25:Sm, eam 9-1m, bp ahead 39 tons, bp aster 37-5 ton) ready to make fast at the fread and port quarters with «boo line TUG USE IN PORT v Assisting methods Breasted/alongside towing : Push-pull ‘Towing on a line Box keel GLOSSARY OF TERMS ‘The term used to describe the way in which harbour tugs assist seagoing vessels. ‘A tug securely leshed alongside a ship, usually with a minimum of three lines: head line, spring line and stern line. Also called ‘on the hip’ or ‘hipped up’. ‘A tug made fast so that it can pull as well as push at a ship’s side. Depending on the type of tug, its location and the assistance required, it can be secured with one, two or three lines. A tug assisting a ship while towing on a line as is in common use in many European ports. An enclosed keel structure extending from the aft skeg (if fitted) to a point close to the forefoot ofa tug. A box keel is sometimes installed on ASD escort tugs to provide abetter course stability on astern and additional lift forces, resulting in higher towing forces, when operating as stern tug in the indirect towing mode. In addition, a box keel gives additional strength to the tug’s hull and provides a better distribution of dock forces when in dry-dock. Course stability and directional stability: Course stable ship Course unstable ship Cross lines/gate lines Dead ship Density of air as used Density of sea water asused Escort tugs Escorting tug F(p)SO Free sailing Girting : Gob rope / gog line Course stability is also called dynamic stability, stability of route or dynamic stability of route (see References: Hydrodynamics in Ship Design, Vol. 1. H-E. Saunders). It is that property of a ship (which includes tugs) that, when disturbed, damps out ‘extraneous motions set up by the disturbance and to reduce them progressively to zero. Course stability should not be confused with directional stability, which is, strictly speaking, the ability of a ship to follow a certain direction, e.g. by means of an automatic steering system. A ship closely following a selected heading has directional stability but may be course unstable (see below), which results in frequent rudder (or thruster) actions to hold the ship on its course, With a constant position of the steering systems (rudders, thrusters, etc), a ship is defined to be course stable if, after experiencing a brief disturbance, it will resume the original manoeuvre without any use of the means of steering. Course stability ‘on a straight course, with the rudder in the equilibrium position, is mostly only considered. A turn initiated by a brief disturbance of a course stable ship will thus not continue. However, after the disturbance has vanished, the actual course of the ship will generally be altered. A course stable ship needs relatively large rudder angles for course changing. A course stable ship has good yaw checking ability. A ship is called course unstable, if, after it is disturbed, it will immediately start to turn. Course changing, with relatively high rates of turn, can be achieved with relatively small rudder angles. A course unstable ship therefore generally has poor yaw checking ability. Separate lines from either side of the tow to the opposite quarter of the tug or the opposite side of the tug’s H-towing bitt. A ship which cannot use her own propulsion. 1.28 kg/m? 1025 kg/m’ ‘Tugs specifically built for escorting at high speeds. Any type of tug escorting a ship underway. Floating (Production) Storage and Offloading Unit. AA tug sailing independently. Risk of capsizing, especially with conventional tugs, due to high athwartships tow line forces. Also known as girding, girthing or tripping. Arope or steel wire used on conventional tugs to shift the towing point. vi THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE HMPE MBL MG Messenger Norman pins Nozzle OcIMF PIANC Pendant/pennant Propulsion: Azimuth propellers cpp FPP vs PRT Significant wave height Snag resistance SPM Sponson Stemming Stretcher Towing point Towline ‘Tripping High-modulus polyethylene fibre under the trade names ‘Spectra’ and ‘Dyneema’ used for high performance ropes. Kinking or twisting of a strand in a rope which makes it unfit for use. International Maritime Organization, Length between perpendiculars Length overall. Length at the waterline. Minimum Breaking Load (of a'rope) Initial Metacentrie Height. A light rope attached to the tow line in order to heave the tow line on board a ship. Short iron bars fitted in the gunwales of the transom to prevent the tow line from slipping over the side gunwales. Sometimes called ‘King Pins’. A tube around the propeller to increase propeller performance. The nozzle can be fixed or steerable. Oil Companies International Marine Forum, Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses ‘A separate part at the final part of a tow line which is most liable to wear on board an assisted ship, at ship's fairleads, etc. The pendant can be of diferent construction, to the tow line, 360° steerable propellers, which can deliver thrust in any direction. Also called: ‘Z-pellers’,‘Rexpellers’, ‘Duckpellers’ (azimuth propellers in nozzles). Controllable pitch propeller(s). Fixed pitch propeller(s ‘Voith Schneider propulsion: propulsion system with vertical propeller blades, also called cycloidal propulsion system, Prevention and Response Tag. ‘The approximate wave height as seen by an experienced observer when estimating the height visually. Resistance of a rope to single yarns being pulled out of the rope when it slides along a surface, such as over a deck or through a fairlead. A snag is a loop of a yarn. Single Point Moorings. A strongly flared section in the side of a tug, commencing at or just below the waterline, which results in substantial increase in deck area and reserve buoyancy without increasing the beam at the waterline. ‘A tug coming under the bow of a ship at speed. ‘That part of a tow line, between the original tow line and pennant, which absorbs the dynamic forces in the tow line. Also called a spring and often made of nylon, polyester or a polyestes/polypropylene combination Point of application of the tow line force. Its the point from where the tow line goes in a straight line towards the ship. A flexible hawser used for towing purposes. ‘A tug towing on a line swinging around and coming alongside a ship's hull due to ‘excessive speed by the ship in relation to a tug’s capabilities and towing angle. The expression ‘tripping’ is also used for girting, TUG USE IN PORT ‘Tug/engine power: BHP SHP BP MCR Ton ‘Tug simulation: Interactive tug Vector tugs UHMW polyethylene (UHMW PE) VS-tug Brake Horse Power: power delivered by the engine. Shaft Horse Power: power delivered to the propeller shaft (approximately 97% of BHE). Bollard Pull, which in this book is expressed in the practical units of tons, equal to 1000 kgf (= 9.80665 KN), Maximum Continuous Rating (of tug engine) ‘The practical unit used in this book for force, e.g, for bollard pull, equal to 1000 kg force, and for ‘weight’, equal to 1000 kg. ‘A tug simulated on a bridge manoeuvring simulator, able to interact with other bridge manoeuvring simulators, which are simulating other tugs and/or the assisted ship. ‘Tugs simulated by just a force vector. Ultra High Molecular Weight polyethylene. ‘Material used for dock fendering and for fenders of tug boats at places where a low friction coefficient is required. A tug with VS propulsion. ‘THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE LIST OF FIGURES Figure Title Page 11 Portof Antwerp. Zandvlietsluizen. Tags should be able to assist ships through the locks and bridges... dl 12 Pabpull tg operat in the Pot of Ona. Larg masoenring aes ner th enh a 13. MIT. Capitolberthing at Jety 4 at Sullom Voe Oil Terminal. 3 14 Tug assisting in open sea close to port entrance 3 15 Incolder areas tugs should be able to operate in ice conditions 4 1.6 Car carier passing Calandbridge in the post of Rotterdam. The stem tug isan azimuth tactor tig 4 17. Ass aca (53 os ball pul of ha ROTUG toving company toving snc ig am 1.8 Conventional twin serew tugs of 27 tons bollard pull towing on a line 6 1.9 Harbour tugs — faetors influencing choice Z 2.1. Main types of harbour tug... : 8 22 Pusher tug Lam Ting on ~10 2.3 Plan of the navigation bridge deck end view ofthe wheelhouse of a modem Hong Kong pusher tug n 24 hp fender arrangement for tg puting under eel condone mor fing patos veel 2 2.5 Bow fender made of reinforced truck ty205 eamsnsnn 2.6 Tyres used in addition to vertical bow fendering 2.7 Conventional twin screw tug — type Stan Tug 2909 . 2.8 Two generally used nozzle types 19A and 37 vomsnn 2.9 Steering nozzles, one with a moveable flap the other with a fixed fin 2.10 Construction ofa steerable nozzle with moveable flap. au 2.11 Fixed nozle with a moveable flap rudder. 212 Schilling rudder conn 2.32 Shutter rudder sytem with fed no 2.14 Towmaster rudder system of tag Hazam .. 2.15 Twin serew tug moving sideways to stubosrd, also called flanking » 2.16 Some assisting methods with conventional t03 0. 2.17 Combi-tug Peivonlla J. Gosdkoop of Wijermuller Harbour Towaged Amsterdam 2.18 Free sailing manoeuvres with a combi-tug 219 Some ssitng meio wit combi... 2.20 Veith tractor tug 2.21 Propeller blades of a VS tug... 2.22 Principle of Voith propulsion .. 2.23 Propeller control of VS tugs wx nnsnsn 2.24 AVS tugsailing shead and astern non 2.25 Some assisting methods with atractor tug. 2.26 Azimuth tractor tag Fainplay Peo 2.27 Iniegrated Schottel nozales with open protective frame: 2.28 Joystick for combined control of both thrusters. 2.29 Thruster control unit for combined control of thrust and thrust direction 2.30 Manceuvring diagram for reverse-tractor tug 2.31 Reversetractor or pusher tag Lam Tong. 2,32 Thrusters of Cates" reverse-tractor tgs. 2.33 Assisting methods with a reverse-ractor ug .. 2.34 ASD-tugtype 3110 2.35. Free sling manoeuvring capabildes of an ASD-ug and reverse tractor tug 2.36 Some assisting methods with an ASD tug, 2.37 Relationship between brake horse power and bollard pull fr eiffeent propulsion systems aa 2.38 Ranges in relationship between brake horsepower and bollard pull for different tug type wovsnsnsosnnnnn nn 30 2.39 Example of thrust vector diagrams .... 2.40 Anassisting method as used in some USA ports 3.1 ‘Tags alongside at approach and push-pall while mooring/unmooring 34 32 Conventonal USA tg rece with ding, gpingand ser ines - 235 3.3 Alongside towing (USA) occ 35 3.4 Forward tug secured alongside. rues S 3.5 Alongside towing in Cape Town for a den hip ‘up to 100 metes in length... 3.6 Rndder or steering tug 3.7 Conventional tug working stem to stem wit 3.8 Conventional twin screw tag Byperang mow 3.9 Atapproach, forward tug alongside end stem tag on 3.10 Towing on aline atthe approach and while mooring. TUG USE IN PORT ix Figure Title Page 3 32 313 34 3.15 3.16 37 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 324 3.25 41 42 43 44 45 468 47 48 49 4.10 4 412 413, 44 45 416 4a7 418 419 420 421 422 4.23 424 425 ‘Ship is passing a narrow bridge and 2 conventional tug forward is assisting with two crossed tow lines, ‘Towing on a lin atthe approach nd push-pull while mooring... - ‘Combination of different essisting methods .. Ship approaches the berth nearly parallel to the dock... “Tug easstance in ice during approach to the berth and wile mooring. ‘Tug sweeping ice away from between ship and doCk so... Mooring in ice when some 30 meres fes berth is availabe infront ofthe bow postion Combination of tug and bow thruster while mooring Good results wien approaching the berth aster and mooring starboard sie alongride ‘Tug assistance when mooring in ie with ships and powerful engines Ship approaching the berth astem “Two tugs stem to stem clearing ice between ship and berth while other tags hep he ship position Ship of medium size departing venom ‘Unmooring bow fist. ‘Channel through the ice prepaved by ice breakers or ong gs Location ofthe pivot point fora ship at speed... Location ofthe pivot point in a ship with zero speed . Forces created on assisting tug, moving ahead... Forces created on assisting tg, moving astern. ‘Tug working on a gob rope Direct and indirect towing methods su ‘VS tug operating in the indirect towing mode Heeling forces working on a conventional tag when towing on a line ‘The effect ofa radial hook ‘The effect ofa radial hook... w Basic difference between tug types = ‘Comparison between trator type tags and conventional sags when towing on alin with a ship having headway enue 53 ‘When port helm is applied and the tug pulls to starboard to counteract the port swing Comparison of performance of tug types when pushing or pulling. Pushing force created by hydrodynamic force on a tug's hall ‘Efiect of dynamic forces i the tow line. in Performance and behaviour of a 40 metre conventional Ug we. ‘Performance and behaviour of 130 metre ASD-tug for pushing s..ncnon Performance graphs for four and six knots speed : Feormance gap for ight not peed Different tug positions ‘Two conventional tgs assisting ‘VS tg Redridyof Adieu wage, Southanpton, UR Bollard pull required to compensate for beara wind Wind height velocity ratio wn Bollard pall required in a crose-current Effect of underkeel clearance on current force. Bollard pull required for beam waves... (Open berth construction for bulk carrer. ‘lugs propar wa iting ship's ul redaingtevingefecivens . Diierent towing positions ‘Coanda’ effect. cn ‘Total bollard pullin tons and average number oniainer and general cargo vessel “oul bollard pullin tone and everage number of tage for taher and blk cass (based on length over) “Total bollad pullin tons and average number of tugs for tankers and balk carriers .. (based on deadweight). Effect of following water when passing through a channel with a deep loaded ship . Schematic flow — ‘dy owl by an cberver i astaionary tag seg ashi approaching Pressure pattem and relative flow field around s bulk came. Interaction effects on a tg when proceeding along a ship. fect of flow pattern around a ship on tug performance... ‘A: Tug is waiting for the approaching ship to come closer to pass the tow line Girting and tipping, x THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE Figure 69 6.10 6.1L eal 912 913, oe 9.16 97 Title Page Due to excessive speed a tug ata ship's side may capsize ifthe ster line cannot be released Doe tow powered tp ae ong bem wind conainer hip itag ADS.tug ‘Sanit Mame Radial towing hook with ral track osm ssa o a 94 ‘Radial towing hook of conventional twin screw tug Sena, Dominican Republic... stan 8 “After deck of a conventional twin serew tug with a towing winch with radial system cain 95 ‘AGticnl faead/oving point netsh sen of ombig Het PCy cree ‘Two different gob rope sySteM8 enn i - 95 Conventional single screw tug Adelaar. 96 Alter deck of ASD-tug Maasbank. 96 Standard hook and a dise-hook with spring shock absorbers and diferent quick release systems 97 Single drum towing winch of azimuth tractor tug Texlbank Waterfall winch on board RT Spit nen The friction drums ofa traction Windh cone Split dram winch of the ASD-tag Melon. Double winch forward on the reverse tractor tug John Steel wire construction ens ‘Typical minimum breaking strengths ‘Fibre rope components and constructions ‘Table giving comparative weights and minimum breaking loads of eight strand rope fire ‘bres. ‘Table showing some characteristics of different fibre types ‘hg earton te te anos spacn subd depen onan Teng ‘The effect of diferent tow line lengths . ‘Tag operating broadside... Static force ina a towkine ‘Two conventional win screw tugs, Smit lerland and Smit Denerarken VS tug Matces.. Reverse tractor tug Charis Hf Cates 7 as (Quick release hock used on ferries of North Sea Ferries for scons ‘tow line when a fegierequired. ue Automatic hook up system, Aarts Autohook ir 3 ‘Typical emergency towing arrangement. ug One of the emergency towing systems in three phases of deployment ns ‘Simulator layout with five bridge manoeuvring simulators, a VTS simulator and instruction rooms 16 Desktop computer program Tag: Master, developed by The Glosten Associates, Seatle, USA Bridge layout of a full mission bridge simulator. ‘Simulation track plot ofa loaded tanker entering a port rom the sea. ‘Simulated ship and assisting tug passing a bridge .. ‘Schematic diagram ofan interactive tg operations simulator Field of view required for interactive tage... [Relationship between direction of view and control handles for an interactive tg with ‘Heeling angle is an important factor in tug limitations, Twin screw tug Smit Siberié ‘Model and model tank tes for escort tugs to obtain hydrodynamic data, optimise 1g deen ‘Model and model tank test for escort tugs to evaluate performance wn 134 135 ‘Major oil spills from tankers and their canses: No. of incidents & volume, World 197689 ‘Typical effect of frequency reducing measure. Direction of forces applied by assisting harbour tugs. 137 Photographs taken during escort tials in Prince William Sound, lata, Angut/Spteber 1998. vw 139 Temioclog eating to det and inde toving mabods 40 ‘The reverse-tractor tg Lynn Marie s 140 Maximum direct braking forces azimuth drive. ut ‘Approximation of steering forces of a 36 tons t ML Definition sketch of forces on a tug and a ship... ML Importance of proper locations of centre of pressure and towing point Me Aquamaster escort tug concept ~ The Towliner with towing ach non sw M3 Steering forces required based on 15° rudder angle.. us Rudder forces in tons for different loaded tankers, speeds and rudder angles. us ‘Tag Lindsey Foss applying steering forces in the indirect mode. Ba) Pols ofa fll scale trial with the loaded 125,000 dwt tanker Are Juneau and the purpose built escort ag Lid it MP VS escort tug Bess with modified tractor tug design. 48 ‘Specially designed tanker stern fitings on the former ARCO tankers, now Polar tankers M9 TUG USE IN PORT xi Figure 918 919 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 101 102 103 104 105 10.6 107 108 109 1010 10.1 1012 1013 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.7 10.18 1019 Title Page ‘The Foss Transom Link. ‘Two escort tugs of towing company Fos Maritime keeping een with a ship Large VS escort tug Garth Fass z Asseleetion of eseort{ing) tgs at different j pent. Situation 2002 153 154 ae 2 155 VS escort tug Ajax ne 156 Powerfal ASD escort tug Hawk 157 Can the escort ug prevent a grounding? “160 Nove new taco tg design wi seth of he orga sues : 164 Taiwanese reverse tractor tig NO 3 TOYA un 164 ‘The optimum harbour tug concept 164 ROTOR escort tug concept “164 ‘The Rotor escort tug RT Magic. 165 Modified ROTOR tug concept with aft thruster located more af, behind the a towing point 165 ‘Typical assist modes with a ROTOR tug, SDM New Re of Sahl Towing (USA) Side view of SDM Mark IL... Bow view of SDM. Assit modes SDMs : Characteistes of Design ‘A and Design B ofthe carousel tg Combitug Mulia 12 Modified combi-tug Maltratug 12 during fll scale rials ‘Towing forces based on model tests. Carrousel tug outer port design.. z c Damen ASD tig 2 wth an open doting seg, casatng asa closed seg iorward. ae cen 170 (Compact tugs. Common assist modes . a. Example of a compact tug Cafe Pas... xii THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE Phos: St oat Thre diferent tg types towing ona line, The tags fort side forward and starboard side aft are VS tugs of 35 tons Bollard pul. The tug starboard side forward és atin sera conventional tug of 37°5 tons bollard pull andthe port tug aft is an ASD-tug of 62 tons board pull. When the tanker hast beth starboard side alongside the jet, the ASD-tug and the VS tug port side forward can, when near the Berth, easly change 0a pushing position or push-pull without releasing the tecaline TUG USE IN PORT xiii Chapter ONE TUG DESIGN FACTORS 11 Differences in tug design and assisting methods “Meo oF ASSISTANCE PROVIDED BY TUGS in ports and port approaches around the world differ due to local conditions and specific situations and have often grown, from long standing customs and traditions. These differences in assistance methods and practices are often reflected in the requirements for the tugs and hence in the development of a range of tug types. ‘Over the past few years rapid development has been observed amongst harbour tugs. New types have been designed with high manoeuvrability and considerably increased engine power. Modern steering devices, new towing appliances and new materials for towlines, to name afew, have been fitted. These developments affect methods of tug assistance and the number of tugs used. Following the Exxon Valdee disaster, the requirement to escort tankers in certain port approaches has resulted in the development of specially built escort tugs. Asaresult ofthe improved manoeuvring capabilities of modern ships on the one hand and the improved towing performance of modem tugs on the other hand, the number of tugs required for assistance in port areas is decreasing. Due to economic factors shipping ‘companies are facing, captains and pilots are often under pressure to use the minimum number of tugs. This reduction in the number of assisting tugs per ship places the individual tug in a more crucial role. It requires a high level of operational safety and reliability from the tug and a high level of suitability for the job to be carried out, In order to keep a port's tug services up to date and to ensure safe, smooth shiphandling it is essential to keep abreast of developments in harbour towage and shipping, to have the most suitable tugs available and to have well trained crews for the specific situation in the port. This is all the more important when the investment required for new tugsis so very high. It may bbe necessary to reconsider the traditional approach. Itrequires extensive research and knowledge of tugs before an answer to the question “which type of tug or which working method is the best for a certain port” can be given. It requires a profound knowledge of the different tug types, their capabilities and limitations, and ‘ good insight into the local situation. ‘The capabilites and limitations of different tug types are dealt with in the following paragraphs. ‘The operational requirements thatharbour tugs must conform to with respect to ship assistance are mainly determined by the following factors:— + The kind of port or harbour and approaches, foreseeable future developments and the existing ‘geographical environmental conditions, + The type of ships calling at the port. + The services required in and around the port and, if relevant, at offshore locations, eg. SPMs, F(P|SOs or oil rigs © id Pht: Port f Antwerp / Gri Gens FPgure 1.1 Port of Antwerp. Zandsituizen. Tis shoud be abe to asst ships through the locks and Bridges. TUG USE IN PORT 4 Ports under development Inmany ports, developments take place such as new berths or harbour basins end new ports are still being designed. At an early stage itis desirable that tugboat companies and pilots should participate in design studies for these new ports, harbour basins, terminals, ete. In this way tugboat companies and pilots can give advice based on their experience of shiphandling with the available harbour tugs. Moreover, tug companies can take account ofthese new developments when ordering new tugs which are suitable for the new situation. Regular consultation between port authorities, port designers, tagboat companies and pilots will favourably affect the accessibility of ports and harbours. In container ports, especially where space is limited, the requirement for large land space to stack containers ‘may not correspond with the minimum manoeuvring area required for ships and tugs. Specific requirements for tug assistance may be necessary, such as the type of tug, engine power, towing equipment and assisting method. Port approaches Port approaches are under the influence of the open sea and can be wide or narrow, with sandy or rocky banks, winding or straight entrances. Depending on the local situation, tmgs may be used in the port approaches and should be capable of working in more open sea conditions with waves and/or swell. Following the Exxon Valdez disaster there is a growing tendency to require an escort for oil and gas tankers in port approaches. Tugs used for escorting must comply with very specific requirements Pt: Athr Figure 14 Tag asstng in open sea close o port entrance 12.2 Environmental conditions Geographical environmental conditions are very important from a tugboat company’s point of view. The majority of older ports are situated in river estuaries and are particularly subject to the influence of tides or seasonal effects. Fairways and rivers are constantly subject to changes. Differences in water depth, bridge passages and lock entries may require the adoption of, time windows. The accessibility of these ports, therefore, can be rather complicated. Tags have to handle ships | safely and efficiently. Especially in | these ports, therefore, the requirements to which a tug must conform may change continuously from the entrance or approach up to the berth and the final mooring. In some ports this problem is solved by using different types of tugs for the various parts of the route. As already mentioned, ports close to the sea may be influenced by waves and swell, leading to additional requirements for tugs. ‘The same applies to tugs that have to operate at offshore locations or in ports in colder areas where ice may be encountered. Limited ‘water depths in port areas where harbour tugs have to operate will give rise to special requirements with regard to a tug’s maximum draft Plo: Shlend nds Coe Figure 13 ML ‘Capitol’ berthing at Jetty 4 at Sullem Voe Oil Terminal TUG USE INPORT 3 ‘Pte ROTUG / Fs Riand Reb Nageerks Figure 1.7 Aginuth ractr tugs (53 tomes board pull) ofthe KOTUG towing company txcing an oil i. Depending om the prt, harbour tgs sould aso be ale thal ofbone equipment, Barges, floating canes and 50 on ‘These activities also demand a specific type and size of mg, as well as specific manoeuvrability, equipment and towing methods, as is the case with tugs that have to operate, for example, at SPMs, F(P)SOs or at oil rigs. 12.5 Assisting method in use ‘The method of assistance used by tugs will depend on: Port, jetty, terminal layout and/or offshore installation. ‘Types of ship. Environmental conditions. ‘Navigational complexity of river, channels and port approach. * Whether bridges and locks have to be passed. + Often on tradition. The type of tug used is largely dependent on the assisting method. Tugs have to meet, as far as possible, the requirements related to the assisting method, The assisting method may also depend on the availability of ‘mooring boats. When no mooring boats are available a ship has to be brought up very close to the berth or even alongside to be able to pass the mooring lines. In these circumstances tugs should be able to push at the ship's side 12.6 Available experience Pilots and tug captains are accustomed to the assisting ‘methods used in the port and to the types of tugs in the port. They have built up their experience with these ‘tugs and with the tug’s crews. They know the advantages and the shortcomings of their tugs and are thus able to anticipate, Changing over to a new system or to a new type of tug may be associated with difficulties, will take time and should be weighed carefully. Training and instruction will be needed, especially when the type of tug and the way it operates is totally different from the existing system. A well planned changeover to the new system will be necessary. All this should be taken into account when considering the introduction of a new tug type or assisting method. 12.7 Safety requirements ‘Tag assistance always includes risks for the tug and her crew, These risks can be minimised by good training and by a well designed and equipped tug. The type of tug also influences the level of safety. Depending on the type of port, the environmental conditions, the ships assisted, the assisting methods and the port regulations, the safety requirements may differ by port. On the other hand tug owners should require, regardless of the port, situation, the highest level of safety, which could dictate a certain type of tug and tug equipment. 128 Summary ‘No portis the same. Many factors influence the choice of type of tug, such as local customs, environmental ‘TUG USE IN PORT 5 15 Conclusion kis clear that no ports the same with respect to tug requirements. Port layouts differ, as do the types of ship frequenting the port, the environmental conditions, local traditions and consequently the types of tug and the assisting methods. When a new tug is needed a simple answer to the question “which type of tug and/or which towing method is most suitable for the port” cannot easily be given. Too many factors play a role. It takes reliable research, weighing all the advantages and disadvantages, against each other, in order to establish the requirements for the most suitable tug for the port. Most important is Factors influencing harbour tug choice not only what forces have to be considered but how, when and under what conditions and circumstances, such as ship's speed, confinement, environmental conditions and underkee! clearance. This is the way more and more modern ports and/or tg companies work nowadays. The outcome may be a tractor type with azimuth propellers or Voith-propulsion or even a conventional type of tug. Escorting of tankers will set additional requirements. On the other hand tug owners want to operate as few different types of tug as possible and prefer that the available types are put into action as frequently as possible. Harbour tugs should, therefore, be as versatile as possible. Other Passage’ | Environmental | types of | Service | Assisting | Existing | Available | Safety | Financial Bor Conditions” | Ship" | required | Methods ‘Tage _| Experience | of Tugs _| Aspects saitpeons | wet — | Geom | onder | towng | cooventena| ng Tog Bodget caxgo | ‘nsallaéons| ona ‘sngle ope ope River Waves ps line sew | experience hg | Berges Bow Pree Ctaonet wind | Container Pushpall | Conventional | Asiaing | Sisto weasle | Hosting ‘sin | methods | sogultions | Operating Wauerdeph | Current emner | Alongside | screw | experience cots Cex ‘ening Casiieation Locks Briges ee casiers | Dodkyards Tractor regulations Excoring | sige VS esis in Tos Rox | Excorting avronmeatal opens ships Tisctor conditions ag Jeti in ‘Tasker! Asie protected VLCC ‘eter ASD ngs Gu Harbour basins tankers Reverse wescor Terminals Balk a River berths SDMs Fenies (Ship Docking Mooring buoys Modules) Passenger Mooring boats ships Figure 19 Harbour tugs ~ factors influencing choice TUG USE IN PORT 7 TYPE OF TUG [Renae Rn gee =anaenTEy| Propulsion forward | Propulsion aft | Tractor tugs | Conventional |__| type ASD-type * Voith (Multi tug) Schneider CoEeeeriaacePraPEcereees aS Reverse-tractor | a Azimuth type propellers Combi * LI type * Tugs that can operate as a conventional tug and as a reverse (tractor.) tag Note: + The ROTOR tug discussed in par. 10.1.1 is in fact a tractor tug with a dynamic skeg, being a third thruster. + The SDM (Ship Docking Module) discussed in the same paragraph does not belong to any of the categories mentioned above Figure 2.1. Main types of harbour tug 8 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE Chapter TWO TYPES OF HARBOUR TUG 2.1. Classification of harbour tug types ‘TUG TYPES ARE NAMED AFTER THEIR MAIN CHARACTERISTICS, ice. the type of propulsion, propulsion manufacturer, location of propulsion or steering system. Names include conventional tugs, Voith-Schneider tugs, Z-peller ings, Kort nozzle tugs and tractor tugs, amongst others. There is no uniform naming system in use and this can be confusing. For example, when talking about a Z-peller tug, what is meant? Is this a tug with azimuth propellers forward or with azimuth propellers aft? The difference does not seem so great, but considering tug performance while rendering assistance, itis. After all, that is what tugs are used for — to render assistance. As will be seen later, itis better to classify tags according to their location of propulsion and towing point. It makes things easi to understand. Naming tugs this way there are only two main classifications, which can be grouped as follows: a) Tugs with their propulsion aft and towing point near midships. These are basically conventional types of tug. ‘This category includes all normal conventional types such as single screw and twin screw tugs. b) Tugs with their towing point aft and propulsion forward of midships. These are tractor tugs. In this category are: + Tractor tugs with Voith propulsion. + Tractor tugs with azimuth propellers ‘There are intermediate types of tug that can be classified either as conventional or tractor tugs, depending on the way they operate. These are: + Reverse-tractor or pusher tugs — tugs with azirauth propellers aft and towing point forward, built to operate mainly over the tug’s bow, as can be seen for example in Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan. ‘Tractor tugs normally work with their towing point — the tug’s stern ~ towards the ship and their propellers —near the tug’s bow —away from the ship. Reverse-tractor tugs operate in-the same way regarding the towing point and the propellers, consequently the tg itself lies in the reverse direction + Azimuth Stern Drive (ASD) tugs. These are multi- purpose tugs with azimuth propellers aft which are ‘built to operate over the tug's bow as a reverse-tractor ‘ug as well as over thie tug’s stern like a conventional tug. Most ASD-tngs have a towing winch forward and one on the after deck while some have simply a towing hook instead of a towing winch aft. Because an ASD-tug can operate as a reverse-tractor tug, itis often mentioned together with reverse-tractor tugs Although the term ASD-tug is frequently used, itis not such a good name, because reverse tractor tugs also have azimuth propulsion under the stern. Mult: tug isa betier name. Modified older tugs with 2 360° steerable bow thruster {combi-tugs) and equipped with an additional towing. point at the after end of the tng. These tugs can operate as a normal conventional tag or like a tractor ‘ug when using their aftermost towing point. So the following types of tug can be seen, all belonging to one or both of the above groups: + Conventional tugs. + Tractor tugs with azimuth propellers or Voith propulsion. + ASD-tugs. + Reversestractor mgs. + Combi-tugs. The table in figure 2.1 gives an overview of the -|\ When moving astern the | (SS rudder is more effective | ss than normal rudders. With a Schilling =Monovee rudder, turing on the spot =r is almost possible while Sikling udder speed is dropping very fast, ‘Two Schilling rudders, called Schilling VecTwin, can bbe used behind a propeller and make the vessel very manoeuvrable. Each rudder has a separate steering gear. The rudders can be turned by joystick a maximum of 105° outboard and 40° inboard. A maximum side thrust of 70% of ahead thrust can be achieved. Depending on the two rudder angles, itallows the degree of thrust from a conventionally mounted propeller to be controlled and the thrust direction vectored through 360°. Thus the need to reverse the shaft direction or propeller pitch is eliminated. Flanking rudders: Flanking rudders are installed in front of the tug’s propeller and both single screw and twin screw tugs may be so fitted, Flanking rudders are often installed in conjunction with other rudder systems, such as a single radder behind the propeller or a Towmaster rudder system and are especially used in conjunction with fixed nozzles. In general there are two flanking rudders situated before the propeller nozzle. The flanking rudders are operated by separate controls and enhance steering performance when moving astern or when towing astern on a tovwline from the tug’s bow. When going ahead they are kept amidships. ‘Figure 2.13 Shits rudder system witha fied nezle nd te flaking rudders Toemaster ‘The Towmaster rudder system is a shutter rudder type used in conjunction with fixed nozzles. It consists of several rudders mounted behind and sometimes also ahead (flanking radders) of each nozzle. Behind the nozzle are normally three and ahead of the nozzle two rudders. Rudder angles are possible up to 60°. The ‘Towmaster system provides good thrust and steering characteristics ahead and astern at the expense of increased complexity. Astern thrust can be more than 70% of ahead thrust. Even recently built tugs are still equipped with this system, such as tugs of the Kuwait Oil Company, the tug A/-Hawiah of the Saudi Arabian Oil Co., tug Pegasus of the Mobil Refinery, Port Stanvac, Australia and the tug Neeltje P and her sister tugs of ‘Terminales Maracaibo, Venezuela. The Michigan Vane Wheel used on some tugs in the USA is a comparable system, with several high aspect ratio rudders, e.g. three, behinda fixed nozzle; the same applies to the Nautican High Aspect Ratio Triple Rudder system. Pa Damen Shyer, Th Nerane Figure 2.14 Towmaster rudder stem of tug Hazom’ I.0.a. 36m, beam Tim, Bp 70 tons ahead and 50 tons aston Other systems Besides the rudder systems mentioned above, many other systems exist, such as different types of fishtail rudders and the previously mentioned triple screw tug Scott T: Allen with her three rudders, of which the centre rudder can be operated independently from the outboard rudders. Bow thruster Conventional harbour tugs are sometimes equipped with a tunnel bow thruster. The effectiveness ofa tunnel thruster is not high when the tug has speed ahead. With only two knots speed the effectiveness of the bow thruster may already be reduced by 50%. Seagoing harbour tugs operating in port areas as well as at sea for offshore work often have a bow thruster, which enables them to keep position better near oil platforms. Conventional tugs may be equipped with a (retractable) 360° steerable bow thruster. These bow thrusters are much moré effective and can operate in any direction. Tugs with this kind of bow thruster are the previously mentioned combi-tugs. 2.3.3. Manoeuvring conventional tugs Single screw tugs ‘Three aspects are important in manoeuvring normal single screw conventional tug: + The aft location of the rudder and propulsion, + The transverse effect of the propeller when turning for astern. + The low astern power. When ahead thrust is applied with port or starboard hhelm, the tug’s stern moves in a direction opposite to the intended direction of tum dine to the aft location of the propeller and rudder. This contrasts with tractor tugs where the steering forces are applied in the direction of tum. This is a subject further dealt with in Chapter 6 ‘when discussing interaction effects between tug and ship. ‘Turning on the spot, or nearly on the spot, is only possible with the previously mentioned high lift rudders, No sideways movement of a single screw tugis possible, not even with high lift rudders, though sideways movement is possible with high lift rudders in conjunction with a bow thruster: The transverse effect or ‘paddle wheel effect’ is caused by the propeller wash hitting the stern at right angles when the propeller is turning for astern. Nearly all single screw tugs have a right handed propeller, which, means a clockwise turning propeller going ahead in case of a fixed pitch propeller and an anti-clockwise turning propeller in case of controllable pitch propeller. When the propeller is set for astern, propeller wash hits the tug’s stem on the starboard side and the stern moves to port ~ consequently the bow turns to starboard. The more sternway the tug has the more effective the rudder is and it may even be possible to bring the tug onto a straight course by applying rudder. The paddle wheel effect together with the low astern power results in poor performance going astern in single screw tags. ‘When moving astern a tug’s stern can be controlled when the tug is equipped with a steering nozzle or with ‘Towmaster or flanking rudders. Steering nozzles or flanking rudders can be set for the direction the stern has to move, Tivin screw tugs ‘Twin (or triple) screw tugs are much more ‘manoeuvrable than single screw tugs. They can turn on the spot without making headway and can easily manoeuvre straight astern. Turning can be done by reversing one propeller and setting the other for ahead while applying helm in the intended direction. Propellers of twin screw tugs, whether controllable or fixed pitch, are often inward turning except on tugs designed to operate in ice conditions. The advantage of in-turning propellers is higher propeller efficiency. A disadvantage with fixed pitch propellers is the larger TUG USE IN PORT 17 turning diameter, because the starboard propeller is left handed and the port one is right handed. When using the propellers as a couple, the transverse effect of the screws opposes the turn. Figure 2.15. in screw tug moving sideways to starboard, ‘als called flanking, ly setting the prt engine on ahead and starboard engin on astern while applying pot el. Inthe case of n-turning fied pitch propel he ranswse thrust of the inne propeller ill enlarge the side thrust to sterbeard With inward turning fixed pitch propellers a tug can move sideways (see figure 2.15), so-called ‘flanking’. ‘When the tug has to move sideways to starboard, one ‘would think of setting the starboard propeller to ahead and the port propeller to astern. This works only when the tug is equipped with a bow thruster. However, without a bow thruster this propeller setting does not move the whole tug sideways, but only the stern to starboard. By setting the propellers in the opposite way, with the starboard propeller astern, the port propeller ahead and the rudder to port, the tug will move sideways to starboard without gathering headway, depending on trim, wind and current influence. The transverse effect of the inner propeller wall enhance the side thrust. 2.34 Conventional tugs in shiphandling Conventional tugs are used for all methods of tug assistance but are not equally suitable for all methods. ‘When assisting a vessel under speed a conventional tug is effective when towing on a line but as a stern tug, ‘owing to the location of the towing point, it has severe limitations. When the ship has more than approximately three knots headway the afer tug can only assist at one side of the ship and cannot shift to the other side nor is it able to control the speed of the assisted ship. The towing point being near midships implies a risk of girting, ‘When towing on a line, conventional tugs are not suitable to changing over, while the towline is still fastened, to pushing at the ship's side. This might be desirable, for instance, on arrival ata berth, For a quick change-over from pulling to pushing and vice versa while the towline is still fastened the conventional tg would 18 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE have to push with the stern, The manoeuvre itself is already difficult unless the tug is equipped with a bow thruster or if it is a twin screw tug. However, when pushing with the stern the tug’s propellers are so close tothe ship’s hull that the interrupted water flow towards the propellers will result in low propeller efficiency. In addition, the stern fendering of conventional tugs are normally not designed for pushing with the stern. In such a situation itis better to release the tug from the bow or stern in order to be able to push at the ship's side. For tug operations at the ship’s side a normal conventional tug ean push but itis not the most efficient cone for pulling on a tug’s bow line, due to the limited astern power. Specific rudder configurations, such as, the Towmaster system for example, will increase astern thrust. Normal single screw conventional tugs can neither pull at right angles because of the transverse effect ofthe propeller, nor can a single screw tug pull at right angles with a cross current or strong cross winds. ‘The same kind of problem arises when the assisted ship is moving ahead or astern while the tugs are pulling. It will then be impossible to stay pulling at right angle ‘Additional measures should then be taken, such as a line from the stern of the tug to the ship to keep the tug in the best pulling direction. A bow thruster does not. improve the situation as the conventional tug operates, while pulling with the tug’s bow headed towards the ship's hull. Steering nozzles, Towmaster and flanking rudders make it easier to keep the tug at right angles when pulling. Twin screw conventional tugs can make use of their propellers to keep the tug at right angles, although this will be at the expense of loss of effectiveness. 7 ’ Figure 2.16 Some assisting methods with conventional tugs ‘The capabilites and limitations of conventional tugs in lation to other tug types are discussed in Chapter 4. Some assisting methods with conventional tugs are shown in figure 2.16. Figure 2.17 Corbi-tug Peronlia J. Goedkoop of Wigallr Harbour Tonge Amsterda. Lo. 28:5, beam 65m. Main engine 900 Bhp. One pp in fined nocle and tin radars. Retractable 36 steerable bow thruster of 420bkp, type Aguamaser UL 316/2600. Bollard pul of main engine 15t. Bollard pull main engin + brid thruster 201. Maximum sped ahead 119 knots, astern 102 knots sohen using both main engine and bow thruster. The tg is eipped swith a special faired atthe stem anda towing winch Line shows the ow lina in its norma” pastion and 2 the tow line passing ‘through the fired Figure 2.18 Free sailing manoewores with a combi-tag 2.4 Combi-Tugs 241 Designing and manoeuvring combi-tugs As discussed above, the manoeuvrability of single screw conventional tugs can be improved by the use of high lift rudders. However, the disedvantage of many single screw tugs without steerable nozzles, Towmaster system and/or flanking rudders, is that moving straight astern is hardly possible and no single screw tug can move sideways unless fitted with a tunnel bow thruster {in combination with high lift rudders. The astern power of single screw tugs is also low, unless the tugiis equipped with a special rudder and/or propeller arrangement which increases propeller efficiency. By installing a conventional single screw tug with a 360° steerable bow thruster, also called azimuth bow thruster, these disadvantages can be overcome. Tugs equipped with such a bow thruster are the so-called combi-tugs. The first combi-tugs appeared in the early 1960s. A tug equipped with this type of bow thruster can, with the aid of the main propulsion and the bow thruster, turn on the spot, sail straight astern at a fair speed and move sideways as well (see figure 2.18). ‘Setting this type of bow thruster in the same direction asthe propulsion also gives additional bollard pull ahead and astern and inereases maximum speed. In most cases this type of bow thruster is equipped with a nozzle and can be of retractable or fixed type. An azimuth bow thruster with a nozzle propeller below the keel, in contrast to a tunnel bow thruster, achieves high efficiency in any direction even when the tugis moving quickly. This provides an additional increase in the tug’s manoeuvrability As an example, an azimuth bow thruster of 400 hp can increase the top speed of a tug of 27 metres length and engine power of 1500 bhp by halfa knot. With just the bow thruster working a speed of about five knots can be achieved. The towing force of the tugiis increased by five tonnes if the main propulsion and the bow ‘thruster work in the same direction. This is alin addition to better manoeuvrability. For older tugs this is a satisfactory and inexpensive way of improving manoeuvrability and bollard pull. As examples of converted tugs, at Amsterdam, The Netherlands, some older tugs have been converted to combi-tugs and at San Pedro, California, USA, the tug ‘San Pedro (now Pacific Combs} has been converted into a combi-tug with a similar conversion to the tug Point Gilbert and Flying Phantom of Cory Towage (now ‘Wijsmuller Marine) in the UK. The San Pedro has been ‘equipped with a 600 bhp bow thruster, which has increased the tug’s bollard pull by 40%, from 25 to 35 tons and has improved the manoeuvring capabilities. Moran Towing Company, USA, revitalised its fleet of single screw tugs by installing retractable azimuth bow thrusters and a large fairlead aft. New tugs are also equipped with azimuth bow thrusters, all of them of the retractable type. If the azimuth bow thruster is not in use it causes extra resistance. This is one of the reasons for making the bow thruster retractable. In shallow waters a retractable type is necessary. Care is required in using the azimuth bow thruster when underkeel clearance is small and it should be retracted in good time. A good working alarm system when the water depth is not sufficient for safe working of the bow thruster is strongly recommended. TUG USE INPORT 19 2.4.2 Combi-tugs in shiphandling Combi-tugs can tow on a line forward as well as aft. As a forward tug the combi-tug operates like a conventional tug, but has the advantage of increased ‘maximum speed, manoeuvrability and bollard pull Also, the risk of ginting is reduced and response time is Jess due to the higher manoeuvrability. As a stern tug combi-tugs can’ operate as @ conventional tug at low speeds and can easily work over the tug’s stern at higher speeds because of the azimuth ‘bow thruster: However, since conventional tugs have their towing point approximately 0-45 x LWL from aft, sworking over the tug’s stern needs an additional towing point near the stern to prevent girting, especially when the assisted ship has a higher speed. On conventional tugs the towing point can be moved aft by a gob rope, and on some tugs by a gob rope from a gob rope winch. The gob rope is then led from the winch through an eyelet or swivel fairlead at the tug’s stern, At the free end of the wire is a large shackle which can be put around the towline. By heaving on the gob rope winch the towing point can thus be brought as far as possible aft ‘This system is further explained in paragraph 72. A {gob rope arrangement normally needs two persons on deck. With the reduced numbers in tug’s crews @ handier Figure 2.19: Some assisting methods with a combi-tug 20 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE and safer system was developed by the former Goedkoop Harbour Towage Company of The Netherlands (now Wijsmuller Harbour Towage Amsterdam). A strong fairlead has been attached to the deck close to the tug’s stern. This fairlead can he opened at one side so that the towline can easily be put in or taken out. With this additional towing point at the tugs after end the combi-tug can operate similarly toa tractor- tug, that is with the stern towards the assisted ship, ‘To show the capabilities of a combi-tug consider an arriving ship. The combi-tug makes fast aft and approaches stern first to the stern of the ship to pass the towline (see figure 2.19 position 1). The ship to be assisted may still have rather a high speed, e.g, about seven to eight knots. As soon as the towline has been secured and the aft towing pointis in use by means of a gob rope or fairlead, the combi-tug can control the vessel's speed (position 5) or assist in steering (positions 2 and 3). To reduce ship’s speed, the tug’s propulsion and the bow thruster will be set in the same direction to increase the tug’s pulling force. Assisting steering is achieved by the tug sheering out to port or starboard with the main propulsion going astern and the bow thruster working sideways. In positions 2 and 3 the incoming water flow creates lift forces on the tug and consequently a force in the towline. When the ship's speed reduces, the effect of the tug in position 2 and 3 will become less due to the reduced lift forces. The gob rope is then released or the towline taken out of the fairlead. The original towing point is then in use again and the tug can operate again as a normal conventional tug (position 4). In circumstances where there are strong cross winds and/or currents, and much effort is required from the tug to compensate for those forces, the tug is more effective when it proceeds with the assisted ship as a normal conventional tug (position 4) and thus can use its full ahead power. When required, the bow thruster can be used to increase bollard pull. The lift forces on the tug caused by the water flow increase the force in the towline. If so required the tug can, even when the assisted ship has forward speed, shift to a position behind the ship's stern by using the gob rope or faitlead, bow thruster and main propulsion (position 4—> 5). This can be done faster compared to a normal conventional tug. Conversely, moving from a position abaft the stern to a position moving with the assisted ship is, because ofthe bow thruster, possible at a somewhat higher speed. than with a normal conventional tug, It has been made clear that the advantages of a combi-tug are greatest when the tug operates as a stern tugon a line. For that reason this type of tug often assists during quite long passages as a stern tug for speed and steering control. The combi-tug can also be used at the ship's side, such as for push-pull operations. ‘When operating at the ship's side, a combi-tug has many of the disadvantages of a normal conventional tug. The combi-tug can either push with the bow or with the stern. When pushing with the bow while the ship has some speed, the bow thruster can be helpful to keep the tug’s bow in position and prevent sliding along the ship's hull. The bow thruster will also give an additional transverse pushing force (see figure 2.19). ‘When pushing with the stern, the effectiveness of the tug is reduced due to the restricted water flow towards the propeller and itis more difficult to bring or hold the ‘ug at right angles to the ship's hull when the ship has some speed, due to the low power of the bow thruster. In particular, when working over the tug’s bow, pulling effectiveness at speed is low. 2.5 Tractor-tugs with cycloidal propellers 251 Design ‘Tractor tugs have their propulsion under the forebody. Those with a vertical blade system, or cycloidal propulsion system, are the so-called Voith- ‘Schneider or Voith tugs (VS tugs). The first vertical axis propeller, similar to the Voith Schneider propulsion system, was developed in the early 1920s by Professor Kirsten of the Aeronautical Engineering Faculty at the Figure 2.20 Voth eratr tug Nite: A send towing pint ony fled on 0 smal umber of VS tags and t ica farther in Chaps 4 ond 9 1 With Selmer ‘propa University of Washington in Seattle, USA. Tags with Voith Schneider propulsion system appeared in the 1920s and 1930s. In the 1950s Wolfgang Bear of the ‘Voith Company designed a shiphandling tug with the cycloidal propulsion under the tug’s forebody and the towing gear on the aft deck. Many limitations of conventional tugs were overcome by the introduction of this totally new concept, which was called a Voith Water Tractor. ‘The cycloidal propulsion system is, in fact, a kind of controllable pitch propeller (see the side-view of Voith tractor tug, figure 2.20). The engine works at constant pm and magnitude of thrast and the thrust direction is regulated from the wheelhouse. Different engine rpm settings can be selected. Full engine rpm is required when fall towing or pushing power is required or at high free sailing speeds. In other situations lower rpm settings can be used. The VS propulsion system for tugs consists of two units with vertical propeller blades whose pitch and thrust direction can be regulated uniformly through 360° without delay. The protection plate (2) protects the propeller blades and works like a nozale, ‘thus increasing propeller efficiency. During docking the tug stands on these protection plates and on the skeg (4). ‘The large skeg is typical for tractor tugs and in particular for VS tractor tugs, It gives course stability and brings the centre of hydrodynamic pressure further aft, which is advantageous to both safety and towing performance when towing on a line, especially towing performance when oper- ating as an after tug at higher speeds, ‘The towing winch (6) is located aft of miidships, Itmay also be just towing hook ‘The towing point, a large fairlead or towing staple (7), through which the towing line TUG USE IN PORT 21 passes, lies far aft and usually exactly above the middle of the skeg. The hull is relatively wide and flat to provide sufficient space for the two propulsion units. VS tugs have heavy duty fendering (5), especially at the stern, because when pushing, the tugs push with the stern. Most modern tugs have small wheelhouses | che with optimal visibility. The same applies to modern VS-tugs, like the one shown in figure 2.20. The small and optimum wheelhouse (9) often has one central manoeuvring panel for propeller control. ‘The principle of a cycloidal VS propeller is O°T pinmwant onto anen shown in figure 2.22. Links leading to the steering centre N are fitted to the vertical propeller blades. The steering centre N can be moved out of the centre © by two hydraulic | cylinders. One hydraulic cylinder works in the longitudinal direction and the other one in the transverse direction. The propeller blades create a thrust in a direction depending on the location of the steering centre N. In sketch I there is no thrust; the propellers are ‘idling’. In sketch 2 the steering centre is moved by one hydraulic, cylinder to port. This offset location of the steering centre N results in forward thrust. In sketch 3 the steering point N is moved by the two hydraulic cylinders to port and forward, which gives thrust in the indicated direction S. So, the thrust can be regulated for any direction by moving N. The nominal direction of thrust is perpendicular to the line O-N and the magnitude of thrust is proportional to the distance O-N. In tugs, there are always two VS propeller units, which are installed side by side. The maximum draft, including the propulsion units, of a VS tug is relatively larger than that of conventional tugs, due to the weight of the propulsion units, the propeller location and dimensions. The location of the propulsion units is approximately 0:25 — x LWL from FM, Wath Gb, Gormany Figure 2.22 Principle of 0-30 Voith propulsion 22 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE FNC Teak Gail, Gaming Figure 2.23 Propeller control of VS te forward. The towing point lies 0-1 — 0-2 x LWL from afi, although this may differ by tug depending on ‘operational requirements. 2.5.2 Propeller control ‘The direction and magnitude of propeller thrust is remotely controlled from the wheelhouse. The remote control may be mechanically operated by push-pull rod gear. This is a very reliable system for tugs and best when the distance between wheelhouse and propeller is short. With long distances between the bridge/ wheelhouse and propeller and when several manoeuvring stands are installed other remote control systems are recommended. Hydraulic, pneumatic, electric and even computerised remote controls, even with joystick control, are alternative solutions. How propeller thrust is regulated can be seen in figure 2.23 ‘Transverse thrust is controlled by the wheel and Jongitadinal thrusts controlled by pitch levers. So thrust setting is ¢ combination of transverse and longitudinal thrust. Transverse direction has priority. When fall transverse thrust is used (wheel hard to port orstarboard) no longitudinal thrust will be available, even when the pitch levers are set in pitch position. Itcan be seen that the full 100% thrust cannot be applied in any direction The two units of a VS tug can be controlled independently or together for longitudinal thrust but only controlled together for transverse thrust. 2.5.3 Manoeuvring VS tractor-tngs are highly manoeuvrable, can turn on the spot, deliver a high amount of thrust in any direction and sail straight astern at high speed. Astern thrust is nearly equal to ahead thrust. Many of the disadvantages of conventional ~ especially single screw ~ tugs, such as low astern power, no or low side thrust and in some situations transverse effect of the propeller, do not apply to VS tugs. Because itis possible to apply side thrust tractor tugs are also safer when making fast near the ship’s bow and interaction forces can be better compensated Sailing ahead as well as astern is easily achieved by use of the wheel, as shown in figure 2.24. Turning on the spot can be done by setting the wheel hard to port FM. With GmbH, Cemasy Figure 2.24 A VS tug sailing ahead and astern or starboard. A VS tug can be moved sideways e.g, to port. The port pitch lever is set for ahead and the starboard for astern, while turning the wheel to port. The turning moment of the propellers is eliminated by the action of the wheel and the tug moves sideways. Propeller effectiveness is less on astern therefore ahead pitch should be set somewhat lower than astern pitch. VS tug propulsion produces little wash, which is invaluable when skimming oil and, for example, when working with fall thrust close to deep loaded lighters as can be the case in narrow harbour basins. ‘The full bow of tractor-tugs and the flat and wide hull bottoms which are necessary to create sufficient room for the propulsion units adversely affect their sea keeping behaviour. According to the experience of some VS tug captains, so do the bottom plates of the VS propulsion units in rough sea conditions. A number of VS-tugs, particularly those used for escorting, are designed such that they better meet the demands of operating ‘skeg-first. This, however, does not alter the basic principles of the tractor tug, 2.5.4 VS tugs in shiphandling VS tugs are used for towing on a line and for operations like push-pull (see figure 2.5). For towing and pushing operations the maximum longitudinal pitch is limited (to approximately pitch 8 for towing/pulling and pitch 9 for pushing) to avoid overloading the engine In push-pull operations the disadvantages of conventional tugs of having low astern power and/or not being able to pull at right angles to the ship do not apply to VS tngs. As already mentioned, VS tugs have nearly equal power astern and ahead and can apply thrust in any direction. ‘While towing on a line a VS tug forward or aft can change to pushing without releasing the towline, which is very handy while approaching the berth (see figure 2.25, situation 3). The forward tug can change to a Figure 2.25 Some assisting methods with a tractor tug pushing position at a ship's speed up to approximately two knots. A towing winch is always useful with this kind of operation in order to control the length of the towline and to enhance safety. ‘VS tugs can also make fast directly to a ship's side as push-pull tugs (see figure 2.25, situation 4) approaching the ship either stern or bow first. Ship’s speed should then not be more than about five knots. Although VS tugs are not the most effective type of tug as.a forward tug towing on a line for a ship under speed, due to performance restrictions imposed by the location of the towing point, they are very suitable as after tug for course and speed control. Course control can then be carried cout with ships having headway and, contrary to what is possible with conventional tugs, to starboard as well as to port. TUG USE IN PORT 23 Course control is carried out at higher speeds by the indirect method (see figure 2.25, situation 2), making use of the hydrodynamic forces on the tug’s hull, or at lower speeds by the direct method (see figure 2.25, situation 1), Forces in the indirect method can be far higher than the tug’s bollard pull. When braking forces are required, pitch levers should be adjusted to ship's speed to avoid overloading the engine and a minimum of wheel should be used. The different manoeuvres that can be carried out with a VS tug are shown in the ‘manoeuvring manual of J.M. Voith GmbH. 2.6 Tractor tugs with azimuth propellers 261 Design ‘Tractor tugs with azimuth propellers have two 360° steerable thrusters under the forebody. There are several manufacturers of azimuth thrusters, including Aquamaster, Schottel, KaMeWa, Niigata, Kawasaki, Ulstein and Brunvoll. Some of the European manufacturers mentioned have merged. Different names are used for azimuth thrusters, such as Z-pellers, Rexpellers and Duckpellers, amongst others, Although, the thruster systems are generally similar, each manufacturing company has its own specific design. ‘The first azimuth propellers were introduced into service in the 1960s. The first tug fitted with azimuth propellers was the German harbour tug Jamus (1967). ‘Azimuth propellers can be fixed pitch, e.g. mostly with Niigata, or controllable pitch. Fixed pitch propeller revolutions can be regulated by a speed modulating Figure 2.27 Inegraed Schl naz with ope protcive frames, ceasing a tugs maximum kraft by approximately 0-3 without afting the t's performance clutch, which enables the propeller speed to be controlled in a stepless manner from zero up to maximum. This more or less eliminates the need for controllable pitch propellers and is much less expensive. Azimuth propellers are fitted in nozzles to increase propeller efficiency, (for nozzle types, see par. 2.3.2) In the event of grounding, propeller protection is provided either by protection or docking plates. Docking plates are fitted underneath or in front of the propeller and give only limited protection for the propellers. Protection plates serve also when docking. As thrusters underneath a tug increase its draft, a new type of nozzle for tractor-tugs has been developed by Schottel, namely the Integrated Schottel Nozzle (ISN). The ISN is integrated in a disk which rotates through 360°. In addition, open protection plates have been developed which are easy to manufacture and install. This combined system of integrated nozzles and open protection plates decreases the draftby 0-5, does rot affect the propulsion and bollard pull data more than anormal docking plate and gives optimal propeller protection in the event of grounding, ‘The basic design of the tug itself does not differ much from VS tractor tugs. The displacement of a VS tug is more than that of a comparable azimuth tractor tug of the same engine power, due to the higher weight of the VS propulsion systems and to the requirements for more stiffening due to the wider hull openings for the VS units. An azimuth tractor tug of the same dimensions and engine power will therefore have less hull draft ‘Towing point location is generally similar to that in VS tugs. The skeg is sometimes ‘smaller and the location of the towing point is often less strictly related to the location of the skeg as with VS tractor tugs. The towing point lies approximately 0-1 x LWL from aft and the propellers are fitted at 0:30 ~ 0.35 x Figure 2.26 Azimuth actor tug Fairplay V-L.0.2. 26-7m, beam 8-8m, bp 29. In font ofthe thrusters is the daking plate 24 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE LWL from forward. A smaller distance is found, 0-25 x LWL for instance, on some Italian tractor-tugs at Genoa, Italy. Thrusters ‘Slat Te Nahas | ot: rk ian The Neblends Figure 2.28 Joystick for combined control ofboth thrusters. The Figure 2.29 Thruster control unt for combined contol of trast and Aivection of ug’ movement is indicated around the joystick. Speed ‘thrust divection. The wnis ara azailable for fed pitch and ‘contol scaried out by separate levers controllable pitch propellers Dee Sao SoS DER) ‘gt aging Cx Ld, ep Figure 230 Manoouorig diagram for revers-tractor tug. When the tug has a Uni-leer ype mancauaring panel, the Unilever is wed in ‘combination withthe dual sped conrol handles. When the tug has the standard type maneewaring panel, smanceuoring is done bythe steering whad, the dual ahead astern handles and dual sped contol handles A amparable sien, Aquadso’ of Aquamastr/KaMeWa s ntalled in ASD-tug of Asta Taceage, UR TUG USE INPORT 25 placed further forward increase a tug's effectiveness while assisting. The thrusters deliver practically the same amount. of thrust in any direction, though astern thrust might be about 5% less. When the thrusters interact, as when producing side thrust, total thrust efficiency will be less. ‘Thrusters should then be set ata small angle to each other. 2.62. Propeller control ‘Thrusters can be controlled by a single device for each thruster separately in respect of the amount of thrust (propeller pitch for epp or propeller revolutions for fpp) and thrust direction or controlled together by a joystick. Alternatively, by a control system consisting oftwo steering levers (ahead-astern handles), a steering wheel to give angle adjustment to both thrusters and two speed control levers. For the latter two methods see the manoeuvring diagram (figure 2.30) of Niigata for joystick, steering wheel and control handle positions and the resulting tug movements for a tug with azinmuth thrusters at the stern, ‘When combined thruster control is by joystick (also called a Uni-lever, Combi-lever, master pilot, or similar names), the thrusters are automatically set for the most suitable direction in order to manoeuvre the tug as indicated at the joystick control. Some azimuth thruster types have joystick control for the direction of tug’s movement while the amount of thrust has to be regulated separately. Others have combined control of thrust force and direction, ‘Tugs with combined joystick control can also control cach thruster separately, but on some tugs this may be too complicated due to the number of handles to be ‘operated. Combined joystick control of both units is limited to pre-programmed tug manoeuvres, so separate control of the thrusters has some advantages owing to the large number of possibilities, especially when ship handling manoeuvres are complicated. It should then be possible that thrust and direction for each thruster can be regulated in a simple and logical way. Azimuth thrusters with controllable pitch propellers have the advantage that pitch can quickly be reversed for astern thrust. However, when full power astern is required thrusters should be turned for astern. 2.6.3 Manoeuvring ‘The manoeuvring characteristics of azimuth tractor ‘tugs are more or less comparable to those of VS tractor- tugs. They are also safe working tugs and highly manoeuvrable, can turn on the spot, move sideways and have nearly the same bollard pall ahead as astern. Because of the relatively shallower draft, sometimes another skeg design and almost 100% thrust in any direction, the manoeuvring characteristics of these tugs may be somewhat different compared to VS tugs. 28 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE 2.64 Azimuth tractor tugs in ship handling The assisting capabilities of azimuth tractor tugs are comparable to those of VS tractor tugs. They are suitable either for operating at the ship's side or for towing on a line (see figure 2.25). Azimuth tractor tugs fitted with a smaller skeg and/or a towing point not located at the correct position are less effective asa stern tug compared to the VS tractor tugs, when operating in the indirect towing method at higher speeds. On the other hand, because of their lower underwater resistance ~ mainly ue to the relatively shallower draft — and the ability to provide nearly 100% thrust in any direction, azimuth tractor tugs will be more effective at speed when direct, towing as a ster tug and as a forward tug when towing on a line, again depending on a proper location of the ‘owing point. The influence of the location of the towing point on the performance of tractor tugs is further discussed in Chapter 4. 2.7 Reverse-tractor tugs 271 Design Reverse-tractor tugs, also called pusher tugs, are tugs with two azimuth propellers under the stern. They are more or less specifically designed for the assisting method used, for instance, in a large number of West Pacific ports — assisting over the tug’s bow. These tugs have a large towing winch forward and only smaller ‘towing equipment aft e.g. a towing hook. The towing point aft often lies too far aft to be effective if these tugs were to tow on a line at speed like a conventional tug. Sometimes the towing point lies nearly above the thrusters aft. Azimuth propeller systems in use are Japanese or European made and can be fitted with fixed or controllable pitch propellers in nozzles. In the case of fixed pitch propellers, revolutions can be regulated by aspeed modulating clutch, which controls the propeller speed in a stepless manner from zero. Because the thrusters are fitted under the stern the maximum draft of reverse-tractor tugs is less than that of comparable real tractor tugs. Hull draft is less than the hull draft of, similar VS tractor tug, for reasons already explained when discussing azimuth tractor tugs. ‘The propulsion units are located approximately 0-1 x WL from aft. The pushing point and forward towing point is at the forward part of the bow. Wheelhouse construction is completely adjusted to the assisting method. The manoeuvring station is designed in such a way that the tug captain has an unobstructed view of the forepart ofthe tug, the towline and the assisted ship while seated behind the manoeuvring panel and the assorted instrumentation and control handles around him. tractor tugs do the same but are then heading in the reverse direction. That's why these tugs are called reverse-tractor tugs. What has been mentioned about azimuth tractor tugs with respect to manoeuvring also applies to a large extent to reverse-tractor tugs. They can be used for towing on a line or for assisting at the ship’s side as shown in figure 2.33. They can easily change, when towing over the tug’s bow, to a pushing position at the Th Fog King Sete Tage Co.Ltd Figure 2.31 Revese-tractor or pusher tug Lam Tong’ L0.0. 26-10, beam 8.5m, bp 434 6.1. Ca © Sus iid, Canade Figure 2.52 Thrasters of Cates! roere-tracior tugs 2.72 Propeller control, manoeuvring capabilities and shiphandling Propeller control with reverse tractor tugs is the same as with azimuth tractor tugs. Because of the two azimuth thrusters and the forward lying towing point reverse tractor tugs are highly manoeuvrable and safe working tugs. They can turn on the spot and move sideways, (Gee fig. 2.35) The astern power of these tugs is generally about 10% less than ahead power, due to the shape of the after hull. The name reverse-tractor tug implies that the tugs operate similarly to tractor tugs but in the opposite way. Tractor tugs always operate with the towing point towards the assisted ship and the propulsion units away from the assisted ship. Reverse- Figure 2.33. Asisting methods with a recerse-tractor tng ship’s side or for push-pull while berthing. A towing ‘winch is usefal to enable the towing line always to be a suitable length or to pick up any slack in the line. When operating at the ships side these tugs are very effective at speed. Although this type of tug is also used for towing on aline, asa forward tug itwill not be effective in steering ships having headway. The tug has to move astern and its towing point lies at the forwardmost end of the tug, ‘giving a similar decrease in steering efficiency when speed increases as with a tractor tug As a stern tug, reverse-tractor tugs are very suitable for steering and speed control for ships at speed, whether making use of the indirect or direct method. In the indirect method reverse-tractor tugs are in general somewhat less effective in steering compared to a similar VS tug in the same situation, but in the direct method reverse-tractor tugs might be some more effective because of the lesser draft. The effectiveness of tugs is dealt with in more detail in Chapter 4. 2.8 Azimuth Stern Drive (ASD) tugs 2.8.1 Design Conventional tugs have certain advantages and so do reverse-tractor tngs. ASD-tugs are nearly the same as reverse-tractor tugs but are desigried in such a way that they can operate like a reverse-tractor tug as well as @ conventional tug, thus combining the advantages TUG USE IN PORT 27 REET N SEE ‘Sipprd Dene, Te Miheands Figure 234 ASD-tug ype 3170. La. 30-7m, beam 10m, bp depending on installed engine power 37-57 tons (ahead) [Note:: Undercater body design ofthis ASD-tug type hasbeen optimised during recent years, which includes a large sheg extending from. approximately 0.3 x water length fom aft til the forefoot, with the desest part af of both types. ASD-tugs have a towing winch forward and a towing winch or towing hook aft. The aft towing point is at a suitable location for towing on a line, viz. (0:35 — 0-4 x LWL from the stern. Like reverse-tractor tugs, they have two azimuth propellers fitted under the stern at roughly the same location, about 0-1 x LWL from the stern. ‘The azimuth thrusters of ASD-tugs are made by the same manufacturers as the azimuth thrusters of tractor tugs. In addition, Holland Roer Propeller (HRP) can be mentioned. Their maximum draft is less than that of comparable tractor tugs, as mentioned when discussing reverse-tractor tugs. They may be equipped with a tunnel bow thruster, especially when used for offshore operations, Tunnel bow thrusters are not very effective when a tug has speed ahead, but are very useful for position keeping. Interest in this type of tug is still growing because of their manoeuvrability and multi- purpose capabilities. The latest development is installing an azimuth bow thruster. This has been the case with the 4000 hp ASD-tug Z-Tive of towing company Tagz International LLC (USA). A retractable azimuth bow thruster of approximately 1000 hp was installed, so 28 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE increasing the tug’s manoeuvrability, its position keeping. abilities, maximum bollard pull ahead and astern and ‘maximum achievable sideways thrust 282 Propeller control, manoeuvring capabilities and ship handling Propeller control is the same as with azimuth tractor tugs. The manoeuvring capabilities of free sailing ASD- tugs and reverse-tractor tugs are shown in figure 2.35. ‘These tugs can deliver thrust in any direction, though ‘maximum stern thrust is some 5 to 10% less than on ahead. Conventional tugs are effective as forward tugs towing on aline, while reverse-tractor tugs are effective aft and are also very suitable for push-pull operations. ASD-tugs are very effective and suitable for all kinds of shiphandling, owing to their ability to assist like both a reverse-tractor tug and a conventional tug. When towing forward on a line like a conventional tug (see figure 2.36, 1) the ASD-tug is very effective, although the risk of girting exists. The risk is minimised when the tug is, equipped with a reliable quick release system. Asa stern tug on a line an ASD-tug works over the ‘bow (situation 1 and 2). This is effective for speed control and course control to both sides. Effectiveness when assisting in indirect mode (situation 2) is generally somewhat less when compared to VS tractor tugs, but ASD-tugs may be somewhat more effective when direct pulling (situation 1), because of their relatively shallower draft | Figur 2.35 Freesailing mancewsring capabilities ASD-tug and sexes trator ug a — Figure 3.13 Corabinaton of diferent asiting methods. Reserse- tractor tugs or ASD-tus alongside and on a line aft conoentional tug fraward. A good configuration for seering and, in particular, when only a short stopping distance is azailable, Nearer the berth one ofthe tugs alongside has to shft theater side to push 3.22 Relationship between type of tug and assisting method As can be seen, there is a relationship between type of tug and assisting method used. An essential factor is whether a tug should be suitable to operate at a ship's side, tow on a line, or both. For the attentive reader it will also be clear that the most suitable tugs are not always available or used. In the ports of Japan, Taiwan and Hong Kong there is one assisting method and mainly one type of tug." The TUG USE IN PORT 37 reverse-tractor tug with its omnidirectional propulsion at the stern is well suited to operate the assisting method in use — on a line at a ship’s stern and alongside at the forward shoulder. ASD-tugs are, however, also used for this inethod. It is anticipated that for these ports the reverse-tractor tugisthe type that will usually be ordered in the future. There is often a steady development towards a particular tug type. For instance, twenty years ago there ‘were still several VS tugs in the Port of Yokohama. This type has now almost totally been replaced by the reverse-tractor type. In Europe towing on a line is general practice, originally just with conventional tugs but now for many years with VS tractor tugs too. Due to the limitations of ‘conventional tugs, various tug types with omni- directional propulsion are increasingly being used, resulting in a change to more flexible assisting methods. ‘This is the case in many other ports where originally mainly conventional tugs were used, In the USA tugs operate at ship's side most of the time, and for many years the conventional tug was practically the only type to be found. The limited ‘manoeuvrability and low astern power of these tugs is partly compensated for by the use of extra towlines, installation of high engine power, specific propeller/ rudder configurations and/or specific assisting methods. In many ports of the USA and Canada there is tendency towards the use of more flexible tug types — tractor tugs as well as reverse-tractor or ASD-tugs. As in many ports elsewhere, conventional tugs will nevertheless continue to be builtin the future, In Australian, New Zealand and South African ports tugs mainly operate ata ship’s side. The majority of the tug fleet already consists of those with omnidirectional propulsion and new buildings will mainly comprise this type. The increasing variation in tug types offers an opportunity to select the most suitable tug for a port, taking into account port particulars, existing assisting ‘methods and futare developments in port and shipping. (Gee also section 4.3.4: Towing on a line compared with operating at a ship’s side). 3.3 Tug assistance in ice 3.3.1 Introduction During winter months, shipping traffic to and from several ports in the world is impeded by ice. Ports are Kept open as long as possible by icebreakers so that ships can be berthed. When ice is not too thick, ships themselves may be able to break it. In other cases an icebreaker, if available, or tugs otherwise, are required 38. THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE to do so, But all an icebreaker and tugs can do before a ship's arsval isto break the ice. They cannot completely remove ice from a berth, so certain procedures have to be followed for berthing and unberthing. Depending on a ship's size, strength and engine power, berth location and ice conditions, ships may berth or unberth with or without tug assistance. How tugs can be used during berthing and unberthing in ice is considered in this section. Further information about types of ice and pilotage in ice can be found in books mentioned in the references, Mooringiin icy conditionsis usually time consuming. Each port has its own method of assistance in ice conditions. The methods discussed here are based on experience in one of the larger Baltic ports, where shipping is impeded by ice for several months each year. Methods in other ice ports may not differ greatly. 3.3.2 Types of ship for manoeuvring in ice As mentioned before, ships may berth or unberth in ice with or without tug assistance, It depends on the size of ships, strength and engine power, berth location and ice conditions. Regardless of a ship's size, strength. and engine power, not al vessels can pass independently through ice owing to their construction and/or loading condition. A vessel operating in ice should be so ballasted and trimmed that the propeller and rudder are completely submerged. If this cannot be done and the propeller blades are exposed above the water or are just under the surface, the risk of damage due to propellers striking the ice is greatly increased. Such vessels and other vessels which may damage their propellers or rudders when they have sternway and/or when a ship's engine is working astern and light draft vessels with bronze propellers which cannot be ballasted. or trimmed sufficiently require tug assistance. With respect to berthing procedures ships can be divided into two main groups: + Ships that can work with their engines on Dead Slow on a spring line, without the danger of parting: e.g. small vessels and ships with controllable pitch propellers. + Ships with large engines, high starting power and high propeller thrust at minimum propeller revolutions, not able to work at Dead Slow without parting the spring line, even when a double line is used. 3.33. Preparation before berthing or unberthing Before mooring, « berth should be prepared by an icebreaker or by tugs when ice is too thick for the ship itself. Ice should be broken near the berth and an approach route towards the berth should be made. Prior to departure ice should be broken around a ship and a departure route should be made. 3.34 Tugs and tug assistance ‘The way ships are handled by tugs in ice conditions depends largely on the type of tg. Tugs need to be adapted to work ince conditions. Those with light draft and propellers fitted in nozzles have very limited capabilities, because when they are moving aster the nozzles immediately fill with ice. Even with tug engines on ahead ice can fill the nozzles. When this happens the tug should immediately be stopped and the nozzles cleared by repeatedly reversing propeller thrust. That is why this type of tug, and other tugs having problems ince, should not tow on a line. The assisted vessel might not react fast enough and/or not be able to stop immediately to avoid danger of collision or worse. For these tugs in particular, but also in general, towing on a line in ice conditions is not without risk, as explained later, Towing on a lines only acceptable when a ship is moving at a very controlled low speed on a straight course or when taking easy bends in a channel or river and during berthing or unberthing operations. Assistance in ice conditions during arrival and departure is then carried out mainly by pushing and includes breaking the ice and sweeping away the ice from between ship and berth. Without the help of tugs itis almost impossible, in most cases, to remove ice from between a ship and berth. While preparing a berth location, tugs often work very close to the dockside. Some objects may stick out or overhang, so tug sides should be clear of overhanging fenders, etc. Tags should, of course, always be very careful when working between a ship and the dockside. With respect to tug towing wires or ropes, they should retain their strength in low temperatures but should never be allowed into icy water because it will then be very hard to handle them, The most reliable tugs in ice conditions are normal ice strengthened conventional tugs with open propellers. ‘Twin screw tugs are preferable because of their better manoeuvring properties. Propellers and rudders may have ice protection and nozzles may be fitted with protection bars orice knives fore and aft of the nozzle. Although nozzle construction itself may be adapted to ice conditions, in particular shallow draft tugs with nozzles ere very limited in their performance when operating in ice, due to the fact that nozzles are often blocked with ice. This does not mean however that this type of tug is worthless in those conditions. They can create an effective surface stream for moving ice in situations as explained later. Deep draft tugs are more reliable during towing operations. Based on experience gained in some of the larger ice ports, the following tug types are not very suitable for service in ice conditions: + VS tugs. + Tags with propellers in nozzles. In addition, ful scale trials were carried out in 1984 in Finland with two ice-going tugs, one fitted with an open propeller and the other with a steerable nozzle, to investigate their performance in ice conditions. During twenty hour test the nozzle ofthe latter tug was blocked twelve times and the tug had to be stopped each time. “Having said that, some tugs with azimuth propellers in nozzles that have to operate in ice conditions have been built recently e.g. for Finnish and Danish owners. Performance in ice of tugs with azimuth thrusters in nozzles can be improved by a proper design such as adequate clearance between the null and the thrusters and by short reaction times for pitch changes or for turning the thrusters adequately to get the ice out as, quickly as possible when they are blocked. 3.44 Berthing in ice A berth should be approached at a small angle. As soon as the forward spring is secured the engine should be set to Dead Slow Ahead. Propeller revolutions or propeller pitch should be increased gradually, just avoiding breaking the spring, It is best to double the spring and the rudder should be used to swing the stern of a vessel in and out and away from the dockside, The water flow caused by the propeller will force ice out from between the ship and the dockside and wash it away astern of the ship. The engine should be kept running until the propeller wash has swept away all loose ice. The ship can then be berthed. In this way, provided it is weak ice, it can be removed completely from between the ship and berth. In the case of dense and thick ice the assistance of tugs is required. Tn some cases berth location could be such that a berth can be approached parallel to the dock (see figure 3.14) In this case ice may be pushed away by the bow. If there is unbroken ice on the starboard side it will push the ship towards the berth and prevent her swinging out. Care should be taken to avoid any ice getting between ship and dock. It may be necessary to Figure 3.16 Ship approaches the berth nary paral the dock. et 15 pushed acy bythe bow Te ship i reed tard the eth by tndrokn ice onthe starbard side TUG USE IN PORT 39 move the ship forward and astern a few times to move the ice outor to press the ice together between ship and dock. This can only be done in the case of young and weak ice. Sometimes, approaching parallel to the dock may not be possible due to the presence of large pans of ice or dente, thick ice directly in the ship's track. Other methods should then be adopted such as the use of tugs. Several procedures for the use of tugs in ice during an approach towards a berth while berthing or unberthing are now considered. In general, while approaching aberth in ice, the bow of the vessel should be kept as close as possible to the berth with the assistance of a tug pushing at the bow {see figure 3.15 A, B). The ice between the bow and the dock will tend to push the bow aside. After the forward spring has been secured the tug can break the ice outside the ship and then wash the ice away from between the ship and the dock (see figure 3.15 C, D). The ship itself can swing its stern in and out by rudder action and use of the engine, as explained. Figure 3.15: Tg assistance in ice during approach to the bath ‘and while mooring ‘Sweeping ice away from round the bow area can also be done effectively by a tug just ahead of the ship (cee figure 3.16). With ts stern directed towards the ship's bow, the tug can sweep ice away by putting its engines ahead. In this case the ship should not pass any head lines, which would prevent the tug working in this way. Since ice at the bow is usually squeezed between bow and dock, getting it outis very difficult. Good results can be achieved when there are 20-30 metres of free berth ahead of ship's planned position. The ship should approach its berth ahead of the planned position (position | of figure 3.17). Breaking ice at the outer side of the ship and sweeping ice away from between the ship and dock are then carried out. The ship can then be brought alongside and moved astern while the tug is constantly pushing the bow towards the dock. 40 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE Figure 3.17 Mooring in ice when some 30m fie berth is ‘available in front of the bow position ‘Figure 3.18 Combination of tug and bow thruster while mooring Abow thruster can also be very effective in sweeping ice away (see figure 3.18). A ship should approach the berth at an angle. After the forward springs and head lines are ashore, the stern is taken as far as possible out by rudder and ship's engine. The bow thruster should then be set to take the bow offin order to create a water, flow between ship and dock. The bow should be held to the dockside by the ship’s ropes and by the pushing ‘tug. The water flow of the bow thruster will sweep ice away from between the ship and dock. Another method by which good results are obtained is moving the ship astern towards the berth to moor “with its starboard side alongside (see figure 3.19). After approaching the berth ata small angle and securing the back spring, the engine should be set for astern. The propeller stream is normally very strong and will move the ice between the ship and dock quickly in the direction of the bow. The bow should be swung in and. out by tug or bow thruster. This method is used and suitable for larger vessels, as propeller thrust astern is lower than on ahead and consequently the tension in the spring lme(s) will be less. Figure 3.19. Good results when approaching the berth asiern ‘and mooring starboard side alongride These berthing procedures whereby a ship uses engine and spring lines is not suitable for ships with large engines and high starting power and/or high power ‘on Dead Slow. All operations in ice with these ships are normally carried out by tugs. After approaching the berth at a small angle, a spring line and head line are made fast forward (see figure 3.20). One stern tug on a Iineis used to take the stern from the berth and a second tug is used for pushing the stern towards the berth. This tug will also clear the ice. Propeller wash is not used. Berthing will, in general, take a long time. Figure 3.20 Tig assitance wien meorng in ice with shigs and powerfl engines In some cases, when possible,itis better to approach the berth astern with a stern tug towing on a line (see figure 3.21). By giving short ‘kicks ahead’ on the ship's engine to stop the vessel, ice will be pushed away from the dock in the direction of ship’s movement. Figure 3.21 Ship approaching the berth ater. One aft tg secured, Occasional bursts ahead on the engine Blow away the ice With large ships, good results in removing ice from between ship and berth are sometimes obtained with two tugs working stem to stem. These two tugs, moving together forward and astern between the ship and berth, sweep ice away. The safety of these tugs is ensured by an additional three tugs keeping the ship in position as shown in figure 3.22, Obviously, a large number oftugs is required in this case. Figure 3.22 Tivo tugs stem to stem clearing ice Betwsen ship and burt while other tgs hep the ship in position 3.45 Unberthing in ice Before unberthing, tugs should break ice around the ship and in areas of about 20-40 metres distance from the bow and stern. Some vessels can be taken off the berth by the stern with the assistance of a stern tug towing on a line (eee figure 3.23). At the bow the ice between bow and dock will prevent the ship from coming too close to the berth. In addition, the stern tug will drift the ice between the ship and dock, which again prevents the ship from coming too close to the dock when moving astern, Sometimes it may be necessary to unberth the ship bow first (see figure 3.24). A second tug may then be needed to break ice near the stern and to prevent the stem from coming too close to the berth. Sometimes even the assistance of a third tug may be required to crush ice at the outer side of the ship. TUG USE IN PORT 41 Figure 3.23 Ship of medium sige departing. Before departure tags ‘have broken ice around her fn areas some 20-40 fom bow and stern Figure 3.24 Unmcoring boo ft. A stam tg i eure when ce earth stra neds tbe broken aud whe the stert ay tuck the orth chen the bo is pled of Sometras atid ug is required to Irak ce alongside the ves ‘When a departing ship has to be swung around after being unberthed this should be carried out in a prepared area or channel in the ice. This area or channel should be prepared by large tugs or icebreakers prior to 42. THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE = Bae 2 EK Ca RTE REE Figure 3.25. Channel trough the ee roped by ce reer strong tugs. ship moving astern through the ies safest. When the stern git stopped ino y ie te ship can immediatly estopped by propeller departure. Tags handling the ship can assist the ship in swinging and break ice when necessary. 3.4.6 Safety of tugs in ice ‘Tags are at great risk when towing on a line through a channel in ice. As previously mentioned, when a tug has to stop due to nozzle blockage with ice, the ship should also be stopped immediately. The tug may also enter dense ice and consequently lose speed very ‘quickly. The assisted ship, therefore, should always use engines with utmost care, Even then the safety of the ‘tug is still at risk. It is for these reasons that the safest method of towing on a line is moving a ship astern (sce figure 3.25). The engine should at all times be ready to go ahead. When necessary, the ship can be stopped immediately. Further practical and useful inforniation regarding. navigating and manoeuvring in ice can be found in ‘Marine Towing in Ice-covered Waters’ by Peter E. Dunderdale and in ‘Ice Seamanship’ by George Q. Parnell (see References). Chapter FOUR TUG CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS 4.1 Introduction Now THAT VARIOUS ASSISTING METHODS and types of tug. have been introduced to the reader the more practical subject ~ effective shiphandling with tugs —is addressed. When a ship is stopped in the water, meaning she hhas no speed through the water, the effect of, let us say, a 30 tons bp tug is the same irrespective of type, assuming that the tg operates in the most effective way. Differences in tug performance mainly become apparent when a ship has speed through the water. The emphasis, in this chapter, therefore, is on tug performance while assisting ships under way. When considering effective shiphandling with tugs there are, apart from the essential issue of bollard pull, two very important aspects to be considered: + Correct tug positioning, + The right type of tug. Different tug operating positions are considered in relation (o their effect on a ship. The performance of different tug types are discussed, taking into account both the various assisting methods and the different tug positions relative to the ship. With respect to type of tug, specific aspects of various tug types are necessarily discussed in a fairly general way, since there are somany variations in design within each type. Reviewing them all individually goes far beyond the scope of his book. 4.2 Basie principles and definitions For a good understanding of tug performance and shiphandling with tugs some basic principles and definitions are first considered. These include the pivot point, towing point, pushing point and lateral centre of pressure, direct and indirect towing and tug stability. 42.1 Pivot point The pivot point is an imaginary floating point, situated somewhere in the vertical plane through stem and stern, around which a vessel turns wifen forced into directional change. The form of the submerged body, rudder size and type, trim, underkeel clearance and direction of movement all afféct the position of the pivot point ofa vessel. The exact location of the pivot point is therefore not stationary but variable. For effective tug assistance the location of the pivot point of the vessel to be assisted is very important, It affects the choice of operating positions for the assisting tugs. When a ship is dead in the water and forward thrust is applied with port or starboard rudder, the pivot point lies far forward. As soon as a ship gathers speed the pivot point moves aft. Once a ship is in a steady turn with rudder hard over the pivot point settles in a position approximately one third of the ship's length from the bow (see figure 4.14). Figure 41 Location ofthe pio point fr ashi at sad Stun A: Ship turning with starboard rudd. Th it point ls ‘eten boxe ond midis Situation BA tipi oar. Alton the pot poi es “othr a, the fe forcard i leo becus of te oposing Ideas force aio ented rar. When starboard adders ‘ai pple he pivot point moves rr frard Situation C°A tui pushing oft. The lateral tac forard donee tothe song. The pst pnt i fr rar, prtaary suhen starboard rr is cl aid Fora good understanding, figure 4.1 requires a little explanation. In this figure three ships are shown with different forces working on the ships. A force applied to a ship, for instance a tug force or a rudder force, gives a transverse force and a turning moment, resulting in a lateral velocity and a rate of turn. The arrow V is the direction ship's centre of gravity (G) may move as a result of the lateral velocity caused by the rudder force or tug force, and the forward velocity of the ship. The lateral movement of the ship is opposed by the hydrodynamic forces centred forward on the ship having headway, which also creates a turning moment. This turning moment opposes (situation B) or assists (situation C) the turning moments created by the tugs. The location of the pivot point (PP) results from the motion of the ship caused by the various forces mentioned working on the ship. TUG USE INPORT 43 Beamy full bodied ships have a smaller turning diameter and a further aft pivot point than slender ships, When a ship is down by the head tuning diameter is also less and the pivot point lies further aft than when onan even keel. ‘Turning diameter is independent of ship’s speed as long as engine propeller revolutions or propeller pitch match a ship’s speed but is dependent on rudder angle applied. When in shallow water, such as in most port areas, turning diameter increases considerably, due to the larger hydrodynamic forces opposing the turn, A ship moving astern has its pivot point somewhere between stern and midships when taming, e.g. by use of abow thruster. The exact position of the pivot point, therefore, is different for each individual ship and ship condition. ‘The pivot point also changes position when, in addition to rudder force, other forces such as bow thruster or push/ull forces from an external origin, such as tugs, are applied. When, in order to assista ship under speed and in a turn, a tug starts pushing at the bow in the direction of the tur, the pivot point moves aft. This is because the ship tends to turn around a point which lies farther aft than when only rudder force is applied Although the lever arm of tug force would be rather long the effect is not very pronounced, so there is another aspect to be considered. As explained earlier, a tug pushing forward tries to move the bow to starboard, say. This creates an opposing hydrodynamic force, also centred forward [see figure 4.1B). The hydrodynamic moment counteracts the turning moment exercised by the tug. The effect of the pushing tug is very small. This is also one of the reasons why the effect of a bow thruster is small on a ship making slow to Freure 4.2 Location of the pivot point in a ship with ze speed Situation A: Tags of egual power pushing paling forward and aft The pivot points amid, The tps towing ona line Rane a Unger leser and sa larger ofect Situation B: Forward tug pushing; the pivot point is far af When an afer tug i pushing, the oot pint lis fer forward 44 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE moderate speed ahead. In addition, the tug’s underwater resistance counteracts the turn. It should however be noticed that the effect of the forward tug differs with ship’s hull form, draft and trim, For conventional ship forms, on even keel in deep or shallow water, the opposing hydrodynamic force is indeed centred forward, as mentioned in ‘Performance and effectiveness of omni-directional stern drive tugs’ (see References). When, for instance, taking a tanker in ballast and trimmed by the stern, the opposing hydrodynamic force is centred much more af, resulting ina much larger effect of the pushing tug forward. When a tug starts pushing a ship underway at a position aft, the pivot point shifts forward. The pushing force has a long lever arm and the lateral resistance forward then contributes to the swing (see figure 4.1C). tis evident that the further forward and/or aft of the pivot point that tug forces are exerted on a ship, the Tonger the lever arm and hence the more effective the assistance will be. A ship dead in the water (see figure 4.2) with one tug pushing (or pulling) forward and one with the same bollard pull, pushing (or pulling) af, pivots around its midships when on even keel. For the same size of vessel and same conditions, rate of turn depends on the tug’s bollard pull and on the lever arms between tugs. The Tonger the lever arm the larger the turning effect of the tugs. When a tug pushes at the bow or stern of a ship that is stopped in the water, the ship turns around a point located approximately a ship’s width from the stem or bow respectively (see figure 4.2B). Other forces of external origin that affect the position of the pivot point are wind and current. In port areas, wind and current may vary in speed and direction depending on location. Relative wind and current directions may also vary during a transit to or from a Derth due to changes in a ship’s heading. For instance, when entering a harbour basin from a river the current gradually decreases but also changes in relative direction. As a result, the influence of wind and current on a ship fluctuate. Depending on the angle of attack and point of application, wind and current may decrease or increase the rate of turn, moving the pivot point farther forward or aft, or may have only a sideways effect. 4.2.2 Towing point, pushing point and lateral centre of pressure. Direct towing and indirect towing. Skegs ‘The relative positions of the centres of three different resultant forces are mainly responsible for a tug’s performance, These are centre of thrust, the tow or pushing point and the lateral centre of pressure of the incoming water flow. In particular, the mutual relationships between towing or pushing point, centre of thrust and centre of pressure affect not only the effectiveness but also the safety of a tug The towing point For tugs towing on aline, the towing hook or towing winch is not necessarily the towing point. The towing point is that point from where the line goes in a straight line from the tug towards the ship. For tugs pushing ata ship’s side the contact point or pushing point is of importance. Before discussing the capabilities and limitations of different tug types the towing and pushing point in relation to the location of propulsion and centre of pressure are considered. The lateral centre of pressure ‘The lateral centre of pressure is a non stationary ‘point. Its location depends on the underwater hull form including appendages such as rudder and propellers, on the trim of the tug and the angle of attack of the incoming water flow. The influence of rudder and propellers on the location ofthe centre of pressure seems to be rather high. ‘Tractor tugs and especially VS tugs have alarge skeg aft, resulting in an aft lying location of the centre of pressure. Incoming water flow exerts a force on the tug. The point of application of this force is the lateral centre of pressure. The direction and magnitude of the force depends on the underwater lateral plane and shape, the angle of attack, the under keel clearance and on the speed squared. Speed, therefore, is a dominant factor. The exact location of the lateral centre of pressure and the magnitude and direction of the resultant force created by the incoming water flow for different angles of attack and speeds can best be determined in a towing tank. The locations of the centre of pressure mentioned Figure 4.3, Forces created on assisting tug, moving ahead 1 Rant yin ed png Cat ect poms towers Be Clean of opin tate 1 Eten a rope ert ge later are merely an indication and are based on observations and information e.g. from Voith. When water flow towards a tug comes from abeam, caused either by crosswise movement of a tug through the water or by a current at right angles, the centre of pressure generally lies behind midships in a position about 0-3 to 0-4 x LWL from aft. For conventional tugs it is probably more often in the vicinity of 0:3 x LWL from aft and for tractor tugs closer to 0-4 x LWL from aft. Reverse-tractor tugs and ASD-tugsmay have a more forward lying centre of pressure, depending on the hull design. When a tug turns with its bow into the direction of ‘water flow, the centre of pressure moves forward. The smaller the angle between incoming water flow and tug’s heading the more forward the centre of pressure lies. For conventional and tractor tugs the centre of pressure does not generally move forward of amidships (0-5 x LWL). Reverse-tractor tugs and ASD-tugs may experience a position of centre of pressure forward of midships with a forward incoming water flow. When a ‘ugis turning with the stern into the water flow the centre of pressure moves aft and with an acute angle of incoming water flow will lie far aft. Figure 4.3 shows a tug moving ahead, towing on a line, assisting a ship under speed. The resultant force created by incoming water flow is force F, assumed to be centred approximately near amidships. Force F can be resolved into lift force L and drag force D, comparable with the lift and drag forces on rudders or aeroplane wings. Lift force L gives an additional force onthe towline and drag force D has to be overcome by the tug’s thrust, Towing point T lies a little behind the centre of pressure. The force in the towline in ‘combination with force L creates a counterclockwise ‘turning moment. Consider two locations of propulsion — position Ps for stern driven tugs, a conventional tug for example, and position Pt for tractor tugs. The smaller the distance between T and C the smaller is the turning moment. Thus less steering. power, by either rudder deflection or omnidirectional propellers, is needed to counteract that turning moment. Consequently, more engine power is available for towing. If propulsion is located aft at Ps, starboard rudder is needed, giving a little more drag but also an additional force in the towline. If propulsion is located forward (Pt) then sideways steering po is needed, but in the opposite direction. This consequently decreases the tovline force. With increasing speed, force F increases and consequently lift force L. The higher the speed the more steering effort is needed. ‘Therefore, the higher the speed the larger the TUG USE IN PORT 45 tug would increase its effectiveness as a forward tug. However, this would have consequences for its effectiveness as stern tug when operating in the indirect mode whereby use is made of, the hydrodynamic forces on the tug’s hull. ‘Therefore a compromise has often to be found for the location of the towing point and also for the underwater profile of a tug. In figure 4.4 the tug is moving astern through the water. The centre of pressure lies much further aft e.g. at location C for conventional tugs as well as for tractor tugs. ‘Tractor tugs are considered first. The towing point Tis very dangerous, not only because of the large heeling moment caused by the Figure 44 Forces created on asistng tug; moving astern difference in towline forces between a conventional and tractor tug. As a forward tng the tractor tug is more effective if itis possible to operate stern first. Towline forces also create list. Considering the direction of steering forces it is evident that with the propulsion located in position Ps the sideways steering forces increase the tug’s list, while with propulsion located in Pt steering forces counteract the list caused by the towline force. When an ASD-tug is operating like a conventional tug its high steering forces result in larger heeling forces. This is also due to the fact that the centre of pressure of this tug type lies generally somewhat further forward, resulting in a larger turning moment to overcome. The larger heeling moment is more or less compensated for by the large beam of this tug type. Although the towline position discussed here is the most effective for both conventional and tractor tugs ‘when operating as a forward tug on a line, the towing point on tractor tugs is located further aft for safety reasons and for better performance as stern tug. This is explained later. The consequence of the further aft towing point on a tractor tug is an even less effective tug as forward tug. More sideways steering power is needed to counteract the larger anticlockwise turning ‘moment, resulting in a further decrease in towline force. By giving more engine power in order to achieve the same towline force as a conventional tug would exert, the tug comes more in line with the towline, resulting in higher turning moment and drag force to be overcome. At higher speeds drag force may become so large thata tug is unable to react sufficiently to the force and swings around. ‘The consequence is that when working forward a conventional tug is more effective when towing on a line than a tractor tug. The better the omnidirectional thrust performance of a tractor tug the more effective it, will be. Reducing the underwater resistance of a tractor 46 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE hydrodynamic force on the tug’s hull, but also because large crosswise steering forces (at Pt) have to be exerted by the tug in order to ‘compensate for the turning moment created by the incoming water flow, giving additional forces in the towline and additional heeling forces. At higher speeds and/or too large angles of attack of incoming water flow the resulting heeling forces may cause capsizing of the tug. The large vertical distance between the propulsion units and towing point also contributes to the high heeling moment, Therefore although towline forces are hhigh for tractor tugs it is much safer to locate the towing. point aft at a small distance abaft C, the centre of pressure for smaller angles of attack. (In VS tractor tugs the towing point lies generally just above the middle of the skeg;) The tug then comes in line with the towline when its engines are stopped and very little steering power is needed to keep the tug in the most effective position when the indirect towing method is applied. Neither do conventional tugs operate as shown in figure 4.4 because with higher speeds it is almost, impossible to steer the tug safely and is therefore very dangerous. Ifthe angle of attack increases, the increase in towline forces might cause the tug to capsize. At very low speeds conventional tugs often operate broadside, for instance as a forward tug steering a ship which is ‘moving astern or as a stern tug steering a ship moving ahead. Especially on single screw tugs, this can only be done with a gob rope or by passing the towline through a fairlead situated aft, as is the case on some combi- tugs. The gob rope system is dealt with in more detail in Chapter 7, Using a gob rope the towing point can be shifted to a position somewhere between the after end of the tug and the towing itt or winch. By shifting the towing point from T1 to T2 (see figure 4.5), the tug can stay broadside on and steer the ship by moving ahead or astern using the tug’s engine. By shifting the towing point to a position at the stern of the tug, the tug can be pulled astern by a vessel without the danger of capsizing, The tug can then use its engine to control the ship’s speed. Twin screw tugs often use the propellers instead ofa gob rope to keep the tug in the position as indicated in figure 4. = ‘Figure 4.5 Tag working ona gob ope Ship has evry iw seed ahead. Tg ca ster th veel by going ahead or ator on the engin. Conentional tin ere tugs don ava need a gob ops they can create a coupe by the propellers to stay broadside Direct and indirect towing method The direct and indirect towing methods are explained in figure 4.8 (overleaf). P is the location of the propulsion, C of the centre of pressure and T is the towing point. The direct towing method is carried out by an after ‘ug on a line at low ship speeds. The tug pulls in the required direction, either to give steering assistance and/ or to control the ship's speed. Tractor tugs assist with their stern directed towards the stern of the assisted ship and ASD/reverse-tractor types of tug assist with their bow towards the stern, Whether tractor tugs or ASD/ reverse-tractor tugs are more effective in steering control depends on the relation between the distance P-T and C'T, the tugs engine power and thrust performance in the pulling direction, but also on the tug’s underwater plane. The smaller the distance CT in relation to PT the better the tug’s performance in the direct towing mode. The indirect towing method is applied by an after tug at speeds higher than five to six knots. With the indirect towing method, the tug makes use of the hydrodynamic forces created by incoming water flow ‘on the tug’s skeg and/or underwater body. The aft lying towing point of the tractor tug, and consequently the small distance between towing point (T) and centre of pressure (C), implies that only alittle crosswise steering power of a tug is needed to keep the tug in the most effective position to exert the highest steering forces to the assisted ship. ‘The ASD-tug/reverse-tractor tug has a larger distance between the towing point (I) and centre of pressure (C). Consequently, more crosswise power is needed to keep the tug in the most effective position, thus decreasing towline force. In the indirect towing mode tugs can give high initial steering forces to a ship underway at speed, as can be seen in some performance diagrams in section 4.3.2. As soon as a ship starts turning she gets a drift angle and speed of ship's stern, being at the outside of the turn, increases initially, so tug's speed has to increase, resulting in even higher steering forces. The indirect towing method is further dealt with in Chapter 9 — Escorting. From this brief explanation of direct and indirect towing itis apparent that the locations of the centre of pressure and towing point are very critical. A more forward lying towing point in a tractor tug results in higher towline forces, but the safety of operations and Pa Stn tnt Ct iar 4.6 Seve fered onthe afer en ofa’ deck forthe ib ope Phas: dah Figure 4.7 The large fairead isthe aft lying towing point on a VS tractor tug TUG USE IN PORT 47 Se ve bulbous bow, can be found on a number of ASD- tugs, which also brings the centre of pressure more forward. ip’s side, the larger the distance between the propulsion unit(s) (P) and the pushing point (Pu) in relation to the distance between the centre of pressure (C) and the pushing point (Pu), the better the tug can work at right angles (see figure 4.17). ‘Skegs and their effect ‘The tug's underwater form should be such that the tug can perform in the best possible way. Skegs can contribute to a tug’s performance and tugs are often designed with some sort of skeg. A pure harbour tug should in general be most effective at ship speeds below six to seven knots, ‘when the assisted ship is slowing down and has to stop its main engine, losing its controllability to a large extent and during turning, berthing and ‘unberthing operations when hardly any use can be made of the ship’s own manoeuvring devices, except for bow and stern thrusters (see paragraph. 5.1), Such a harbour tug should be able to apply the highest possible towing forces in all the required directions and with a short response time. High pushing forces may be needed with the tug Figure 4.8 Direct and indiec towing methods ‘ip Direct Tcwing Method ~ A: Tractor tug B: ASD/Reverse-tracior Position 1: Steering and retarding Pas 2: Retarding Bottom: Indirect Towing Method ~ A: Tractor tug B: ASD/Reverse-tractor tug Position 1: Steering and retarding Pasion 2: Retarding as aresult performance decreases. A more forward lying centre of pressure in ASD/reverse-tractor tugs does not affect tug safety but increases the tug’s performance as, a slern tug. To minimise steering effort in keeping a VS tug in line with an escorted vessel when no assistance is required, a second towing point is installed at the after end of some VS tugs, which pins the tug under the towline and reduces the steering effort required. When steering assistance isirequired then the original towing. point more forward! is used again, which should be possible without releasing the towline. In ASD-tugs, specific designs are used to bring the centre of pressure more forward eg. in the USA ASD- tug Kinsman Hawk. This tug is designed with a deep forefoot which results in a more forward position of the centre of pressure and the stern is cut away significantly to provide a clean flow to the azimuth propellers and to push the tug’s centre of pressure forward as well. Forward skegs at the bow, or in combination with a 48 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE operating at right angles to the ship still having speed. A low underwater resistance is therefore needed. On the other hand, a tug may have to operate at higher speeds, and escorting of ships may be one of the ‘tug tasks. Then awell designed under water body, which may include a skeg, plays an importantrole in generating hhigh towing forces in the indirect mode by making use of the hydrodynamic forces working on the tug’s hull. As can be seen a skeg may be effective for one task, but ineffective for other tasks. With regard to skegs it should therefore be well considered what is expected from a tug, There is a large variety of skegs. Mainly the following skegs can be found on tugs, of which some have already been mentioned when discussing tug types: a) The skeg on tractor tugs. This type of skeg provides better course stability when free-sailing ahead (with skeg aft). It generates additional towing forces when operating as stern tug in the indirect towing mode because it increases the tug's lateral underwater arca ‘and brings the centre of pressure more aft, closer to the towing point. The skeg may have a specific form to generate the highest possible lift forces. ‘An aft skeg on tugs not being tractor tugs: A. vertical fin attached to the tug’s underwater ull in the centreline of the afer section at some distance before Pte]. Wate GBH, Geary Figure 4.9. VS tug operating inthe indirect towing mode the propellers, to give the tuga better course stability when free-sailing ahead. AA flat vertical skeg, or box keel, in the centreline of several ASD-tugs and reverse-tractor tugs, which extends for some distance before the propellers to the forefoot. It provides better course stability when free-sailing ahead and often, depending on skeg form, particularly astern. It generates additional towing forces when operating as stern tug in the indirect towing mode and when ASD-tugs operate as conventional tugs at @ ship having speed. Skeg at the bow of an ASD or reverse-tractor tug. Such a skeg improves the course stability when free sailing astern (not ahead) and increases a tug’s performance when operating as stern tug in the indirect mode and to some extent as bow tug when operating bow-to-bow at a ship having headway. Combinations of the skegs mentioned can be found as well, for instance of skeg types c and d When reading the following paragraphs and the capabilities of the various tug types in the different situations it is good to consider at the same time the possible skegs and their effects. 423° Stability Operational stability, one of the basic design requirements, is of great importance for harbour tgs due to the nature of their work. Conventional tugs, when towing on aline asa forward or ater tag, can experience very large athwartships towline forces. The same applies to ASD-tugs when towing on a line as a conventional tug. High towline forces can also occur when conventional tugs are operating in the way shown in figure 45. ‘Tractor tugs and ASD/réverse-tractor tugs also experience high athwartships towline forces when indirect towing. At high speeds these forces can be far in excess of a tug’s bollard pull. Towline forces can increase even further due to dynamic forces caused, amongst other things, by irregular engine performance and/or tug control, tug movements due to waves, and ‘when towlines are used with too little stretch, such as steel wires. ‘Tage with azimuth propellers may heel over appreciably if thrust is suddenly applied athwartships. These tugs tend to be powerful with respect to their size and the deeply immersed point of application of thrust, implying a long heeling lever, results in a large heeling moment. Whether the indirect or direct towing mode is applied this heeling moment counteracts the heeling moment created by towline force. When conventional tugs tow on a line the heeling moment caused by transverse steering thrust enlarges the heeling moment created by towline force, as explained when discussing lateral centre of pressure. The same happens when ASD-tugs operate like conventional tugs while towing on a line. In figure 4.10 heeling forces due to towline force, lateral resistance and steering force are shown for a conventional tug. Allthese aspects should be taken into account when tug stability requirements are considered. Means of increasing stability and reducing the heeling effects of ‘external forces on a tug include the following: High GM and good dynamic stability Good static and dynamic stability is required because of the high dynamic forces a tug experiences. A tug needs considerable residual dynamic stability when, due toasudden force, she heels over considerably. The tug’s beam has a large influence on its GM (Initial Metacentric Height). Making a tug beamier results in a larger GM and righting moment, assuming all other factors influencing its stability are unchanged. The length/width ratio of harbour tugs is decreasing and many modern tugs have a length/with ratio of between approximately 2.8:1 and 3:1. Several harbour tugs with even lower length/width ratios have also been built, suchas the USA. tractor tug Broward (Lo.a. 30m, bp 53 tons) with a length/ width ratio of 25:1 or the Canadian reverse-tractor tug Tiger Sun (.0.a. 21-7m, beam 10-7m, bp 70 tons) with a Figure 4.10. Heeling forces working on conzentionl tug when towing ona Kine M= itil Meacentre COP = Centre of Presse COB=Cente of Bouyancy CG Centre of Grosity V= Transverse Speed TUG USE INPORT 49 ‘Tugs are sometimes designed with sponsons, which create larger righting moments at smaller heeling angles. Reducing the transverse resistance of the hull Making the lateral area smaller allows a tug to be pulled more easily through the water instead of rolling over. Low transverse resistance of a tug’s hull also increases its capability of working at right angles to a ship's side with a ship underway and reduces its heeling moment. For tags making use of the underwater body, like conventional tugs towing on a line and tugs using the indirect towing method, this is contradictory to their required performance. For a good performance these tugs need a high lateral resistance in order to be able to generate high towline forces. A skeg may be added to increase lateral area (which also lowers the centre of pressure) and lateral resistance. The higher towline forces that can be generated and the lower centre of pressure, result in larger heeling angles and consequently in higher stability requirements. A radial hook, as shown in figure 4.11, reduces the heeling angle considerably. Fig. 4.11 The oft ofa radial hook With radial hook the helng Lerar cit shertr than with the owning point in the centre Hine of the tug (lverarm d). With a radial ‘ook the righting lzearm b it much longer than without (vera 4), With an egua force in the tin as shri ths flee, the ist sell be muck ls inca ofa radial hook, A radia ook sa substantial inrvement Reducing the height of the towing point ‘The height of the towing point above the lateral centre of pressure should be as small as possible in order toreduce the heeling moment created by towline forces. Ifa tug is equipped with a towing winch the lead of the towline may be such that either it goes straight from the winch towards the ship or it passes first through towing itt or fairlead. In either case the height of the fixed points from where the towline leaves the tug should be as low as possible above the lateral centre of resistance. Using a towing arm or radial hook (see figure 4.11) or similer gear, a tug heels until the heeling moment is counteracted by the larger induced righting moment. A radial hook is a substantial improvement for tug safety and performance. 50 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE Stability curve for tug GZ arm