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Clinical Laboratory investigation of Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome of

fattening pigs in Kathmandu valley due to moldy swill feed.

Dr.Kedar Karki, Dr.Krishna Raj Panday, Dr.Salina Manandhar, Dr Pragya Koirala,
Dr.Karuna Sharma.

Central Veterinary Laboratory Tripureswor Kathmandu

An abrupt mortality of pigs mostly age group of 3 to 4 month age in Kathmandu valley in

month of April to June 2010 was reported .Clinical history as reported by owners’ revealed

limited information sudden death of one or several pigs within three months. In all farm

death was associated with Hotel restaurant waste left over feeding was common.Postmortem

of the dead pig revealed dark black color liver with Fibrosed,spleen enlarged and dark black

coloroured ,lung anemic emphysematous,ballooned intestine with severe hemorrhage.

Numerous yeasts and mould Penicillium was detected in mucosal impression smears tissue of

ileum, colon and caecum. Additional analyses in farms suffering from big losses due to HBS

suggested that several environmental and management factors may be involved.

Pathogenetically feeding only once a day of excessive amounts of a liquid diet especially

swells a highly fermentable substrate, poor hygiene of liquid diets high bacterial counts and

yeast concentrations. In mixed breeding and fattening units, the aforementioned factors could

be responsible also for sudden deaths in dry sows caused by colonic bloat often associated

with intestinal rupture and torsions of the stomach and/or the spleen. When rest of herds

were treated with toxin binder Varishta and Albmd mixed in same feed along with probiotic

Lactoline and Chlortetra cycline in water for seven there was check in mortality.

Key words:

Swill feeding, pigs, Hemmorrhagic Bowel syndrome, Penicillium, Varishta,

Lactoline, Albmd, Kathmandu.


An outbreak of disease affecting pigs raised in around Kathmandu valley mostly

age group of 3 to 4 month of age in the month of April to June 2010 was
reported. A total death of 346 pigs in herd of 1056 was reported. Pigs on
affected styes were mostly fed with stale leftover from hotel ,restaurants
mostly consisting of rice, meat, fish,vegetables,all cooked in heavey oils and
left over deaserts.Pigs mostly age groups after consuming such (swills) Kitchen
waste garbage started showing symptoms like diarrhorea, swaying gate
movement which were generally treated with antibiotics without recovery
were investigated.
Material and Methods:

Clinical and post-mortem examination of Herds:

Clinical history as reported by owners revealed limited information sudden
death of one or several pigs within three months, association with Hotel
restaurant waste left over feeding was common. The pig to die was in excellent
condition but extremely pale. Its blood was thin and watery. Significantly more
cases of HBS was seen during spring and early summer. An affected pig was
typically one of the best-doing pigs, found dead without warning. The pig use
to become bloated after death with unusual speed, and intestines filled with
gas and blood wad observed at necropsy. The small intestine contained bile-
stained mucus to the level of mid-ileum where hemorrhage began and became
gradually more copious with large blood clots in the terminal ileum. The ileal
mucosa was thickened and irregular due to corrugations involving the entire
circumference and oriented in both transverse and longitudinal planes. The
large intestine contained a great deal of clotted blood which appeared to have
been passed from the ileum. The terminal jejunum and entire ileum had thick
corrugated mucosae and large intraluminal blood clots. Cecum. colon and
rectum contained dark, tarry blood which was similar to report of W. D. G.
Yates, E. G. Clark, A. D. Osborne, C. C. Enweani, O. M. Radostits, and A.
Theede.The condition has no definitive lesions, and the stomach can often be
filled with feed was similar reported in
www.ces.purdue.edu/.../gigf.htm. Necropsy revealed that the entire intestinal
tract has a severely congested, thin-walled appearance. Intestinal contents are
usually watery and contain unclotted brownish blood. The condition must be
differentiated from gastric ulcers, gastrointestinal torsion or volvulus, and from
the hemorrhagic form of proliferative enteritis was similar to earlier reported
in vetmed.iastate.edu/.../miscellaneous-lesions –
Laboratory examination of, feed sample, and post-mortem tissue samples
Samples of Swills of different lots and post-mortem tissue samples in mycobioal
culture media revealed the growth of penicillum spp, which was similar to the
findings of Karki et.al.2008.

Treatment and prevention attempted.

Based on clinical observation, history all the pigs in affected styes were treated
with toxin binder Varishta, BMD, mixed in swill, and Lactoline Tylosin and
Chlortetracycline antibiotic in water for 7 to 15 days the condition subsided

Review of literatures:

Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome has been reported from the United Kingdom,
United States, Taiwan, Australia and Europe. Reports from other countries
indicate that cases occur elsewhere. The condition is well known to veterinary
pathologists in Canada but has not been formally reported. The suggested
causes for the unexplained hemorrhagic enteropathies seen in swine have been
numerous. including hypersensitivitv reactions to Escherichia coli antigens or to
whey proteins, clostridial or coliform enterotoxemias. mycotoxins. Vitamin E
deficiency. mesenteric torsion, indigestion leading to gaseous distension and
shock ,genetic predisposition and or clotting defects and stress . In the specific
case of Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome , however, the strongest correlation is
found with the presence of the bacterium Campylobacter sputorum subspecies
mu(cosalis in affected areas. There has been some success in reproducing the
condition experimentally, using intragastric administration of this organism and
homogenized intestinal mucosa from pigs with adenomatosis (W. D. G. Yates,
E. G. Clark, A. D. Osborne, C. C. Enweani, O. M. Radostits, and A. Theede).
Some call it the stealth bomber of swine disease. It strikes suddenly, without
warning. It kills quickly, often taking the best pigs. And it frequently leaves the
producer wondering what struck his herd--and why
of-swine-diseases. Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) is an unpredictable
medical condition of swine. Its major cause is unknown but is likely a
combination of many things, including genetic predisposition, irregular diets or
feeding schedules, and high summer temperatures. HBS most often occurs in
finisher/market pigs over 160 lb, so the economic costs of HBS can be very high
with even a few affected pigs even though mortality is usually around 2%. An
affected pig is typically one of the best-doing pigs, found dead without
warning. The hog may become bloated after death with unusual speed, and
intestines filled with gas and blood may be observed at necropsy. The condition
has no definitive lesions, and the stomach can often be filled with feed.
Outbreaks may last 7 to 10 days, often coming in waves in which several pigs
are affected and then the herd seems healthy until the next wave.
alpharmaswine.com/.../HMBS_enteric.html. Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome
Pigs weigh >150 pounds Similar to bloody form of proliferative ileitis. Stool
may be dark, tar-like, or bloody. Severe bleeding into the intestine which may
result in sudden death. Blood filled loops of small intestine. Thinning of small
intestinal wall with no proliferation of intestinal cells.
www.ces.purdue.edu/.../gigf.htm.Haemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) causes

the sudden death of 4-6 month-old fattening pigs (70-120kg). Usually, there is
no clinical or pathological previous history, and no warning signs that could
alert the farmer. In most of the cases, the weight and health conditions of the
affected animals are perfectly normal. As a result, the diagnosis of HBS is
mainly done post-mortem. HBS can account for up to one-third of total
fattening mortality. www.thepigsite.com/.../understanding-and-managing-
sudden-death-in-fattening-pigs-during-summ.. Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome is
such defined due to the low prevalence and inability to target one specific
disease process or organism as the contributor to the syndrome.
Conclusion and Recommendation:
From all above finding and observation it is concluded that when ever there is
climate changes from cooler season to hotter humid summer in tropics there is
likely increase in fermentation in swill which mostly contains grains, heavy fat
and protein in hotel and restaurant waste which is common practices to feed
pigs. Further humid and hot weather condition favors the mold growth and
putrification leading to formation of mycotoxin and endotoxin which
detrimental to livestock, poultry and pig. If these feed are fed untreated there
is likely loss of these animal need to be looked into.

1. Häni H, Zimmermann W, Huber A, Schmidt J The "hemorrhagic bowel

syndrome" of swine: clinical, pathologo-anatomic and etiopathogenic
aspects.Institut für Tierpathologie, Universität Bern. Schweiz Arch
Tierheilkd. 1993;135(4):117-24.
2. Understanding and Managing Sudden Death in Fattening Pigs
3. William L. Hollis, B.S., D.V.M., Carthage A Veterinarian’s Perspective
Will Nutrition and Management Stop Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome?
Veterinary Service, Ltd. Professional Swine Management, LLC, IL, USA
and published in the Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference 2006.

4. W. D. G. Yates, E. G. Clark, A. D. Osborne, C. C. Enweani, O. M.
Radostits, and A. Theede Can Vet J. 1979 October; 20(10): 261–268.
PMCID: PMC1789606 Proliferative Hemorrhagic Enteropathy in Swine: An
Outbreak and Review of the Literature: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › Journal
List › Can Vet J › v.20(10); Oct 1979
5. Miscellaneous Lesions, Conditions, and Syndromes | Iowa State ...
vetmed.iastate.edu/.../miscellaneous-lesions –
6. Hemorrhagic bowelAlpharma:alpharmaswine.com/…/HMBS_enteric.html
7. Growing/Finishing Diarrheal Diseases:www.ces.purdue.edu/.../gigf.htm
8. Kedar Karki and Purnima Manandhar:
ClinicalEpidemiologicalInvestigation of Mouldy Corn Poisoning due to
Penicillium spp. in mules at Udayapur District, Nepal: Veterinary World
pp 107-110 vol. 1 no. 4 April 2oo8


We would like to thank Dr.Ram Krishna Khatiwada Program Director of

Directorate of Animal Health Tripureswor Kathmandu for providining early
indication of problem. Thanks are due to Mr. Bal Bahadur Kunwar Mr. Tek
Bahadur Air Senior Vet. Technician and Mr.Bhimsen Adhikari Vet. Technician of
Microbioly Unit, Mr. Purna Maharajan Vet Technician of Central Veterinary
Laboratory for doing the microbiology and post-mortem works and office
assistant Mr. Chandra Bahadur Rana for his tireless effort in handling the
carcass during post-mortem work.