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Applied Mathematics

The Ph.D.Entrance Test (PET) syllabus for Applied Mathematics consists of following topics:
1. Real Analysis 2. Complex Analysis 3. Numerical Analysis 4. Functional Analysis 5. Classical
Mechanics 6. Fluid Mechanics 7. Ordinary Differential Equations 8. Partial Differential Equations
9. Linear Algebra and MATLAB 10. Distribution Theory 11. Mathematical Methods

1. Real Analysis:

Definition and Existence of Riemann-Stieltjes Integral, Properties of the Integral, Integration and
Differentiation, The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Examples.

Integration of Vector Valued Functions. Rectifiable Curve. Examples. Sequences and Series of Func-
tions. Point wise and Uniform Convergence. Cauchy Criterion for Uniform Convergence. Weierstrass

Uniform Convergence and Continuity, Uniform Convergence and Riemann-Stielljes Integration. Ex-
amples. Uniform Convergence and Differential, The Stone - Weierstrass Theorem, Examples. Power
Series, Abel’s and Taylor’s Theorems, Uniqueness Theorem for Power Series. Examples.

Functions of Several Variables, Linear Transformations, Derivatives in an Open Subset of Rn, Chain
Rule, Examples. Partial Derivatives, Change of the Order of Differentiation, Inverse Function Theo-
rem, Implicit Function Theorem, Jacobins, Derivatives of Higher Order, Differentiation of Integrals,

1.Walter Rudin: Principles of Mathematical Analysis,(3rd Ed.),McGraw Hill,1976. Internat.Students
2. T. M. Apostol: Mathematical Analysis, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 1985.
3. J. C. Burkill and H. Burkill: A second course in Mathematical Analysis, Cambridge University
Press, 1970.
4. Serge. Lang: Analysis- I and II, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1969.

2. Complex Analysis:

Elementary Functions; The Exponential Function, The Logarithmic function and Complex Expo-
nents with basic properties, Bilinear Transformation, Analytic Function; Cauchy-Riemann Equa-
tions, Analyticity , Harmonic Function. ,

Power series; Preliminary, Uniform Convergence, Maclaurian and Taylor Series, Complex Integra-
tion and Cauchy’s Theorem; Line Integral, Prerequisite, Green’s Theorem, Cauchy’s Weak Theorem,
Cauchy’s Theorem,

Applications of Cauchy’s Theorem, Cauchy’s first Integral Formula, Cauchy’s Second Integral For-
mula, Taylor’s Theorem for Complex Functions, Morera’s Theorem, Cauchy’s Inequality and Appli-

cations, Cauchy’s Inequality, Liouville’s Theorem, The fundamental Theorem, of Algebra, Identity
Theorem ,

Maximum / Minimum Modulus Theorem, Gauss’s Mean-Value Theorem, Maximum Modulus the-
orem [(First form) and (Second form)], Minimum Modulus Theorem, Schwarz’s Lemma and Corol-
laries, Classification of Singularities, Riemann’s Theorem, Casorati-Weierstrass Theorem.

Laurent Series, Evaluation of Real Integrals; Examples, Residue Theorem, Contour Integration with
Different Examples.

1. H. Silverman: Complex Variables, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1975.
2.Ahlfors: Complex Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966.
3. S.Ponnusamy and H. Silverman: Complex variables with Applications, Birkhauser, 2006.

3. Numerical Analysis:
Choleskey’s Method, Factorization Method, Inverse of a Matrix, Jacobi Method, Gauss- Seidel
Method, Over Relaxation Method, System of Nonlinear Equations, Newton-Raphson Method for
Transcendental and Nonlinear Equations.

Matrix Eigen - Equations: Concept of Eigen-System, Polynomial Method, The Fadeev-Leverrier

Method, Graffi’s root squaring Method for Roots of Polynomial, Power Method for Eigenvalues and
Eigenvector, QR-Iterative Method.

Solution of Differential Equations: Picard Method, Taylor Series Method, Euler Method, Heuns
Method, Polygon Method, General Concepts of Rung-Kutta Method, Second and Fourth Order
Rung-Kutta Method.

Single-Step and Multi-Step Methods and Accuracy, Milner-Simpson Method, Adams-Bashforth- Mo-
tion Method, Modifiers in Multi-Step Methods, Second Order Differential Equations, Higher Order
Differential Equations.

Numerical Solutions of Partial Differential Equations :Nature of Partial Difference Equations, Funda-
mentals of Finite Difference (F.D.) Method, Representation of Derivations as Difference Expressions,
Expressing Differential Equation as Difference Equations, Expressing (Dirichlet and Newman Type
Condition) Boundary Conditions in Finite Difference Method.

Numerical Solutions of Partial Differential Equations - II Modification in Non-Rectangular Mesh,

Special Triangular Grid, General Approach to Solve a set of Finite Difference Equations, Liebmann’s
Iterative Method to solve Laplace Equations, Bender-Schmidt Method to Solve Heat Equations,
Grank- Nicholson Method, The Solution of Wave Equations, Solution of Helmjoltz Equation in 2 -

Finite Element Method, Variation Method, Functional and its Extremism, Euler Lagrange Equation,
Accuracy, Residual Excitation Method to get Functional, Examples of Functional Establishments,
Ritz’s Method, Galerkin Method.

Shape Functions, Rectangular Elements, Triangular Elements, Element matrices, System Assem-
bling, Nature of Matrices, Solution Techniques, Formulation and Boundary Value Problem, Green’s
Function, Matrix Development, Solution, and Combination with Finite Element Method.

1. P.B. Patil, U.P. Verma: Numerical Computational Methods. Narosa, New Delhi - 2006.
2. J.N.Reddy: An Introduction to the Finite Element Method, McGraw Hill,1985

4. Functional Analysis:
Normed linear spaces. Banach spaces and examples, quotient spaces of a normal linear space and
its completeness, equivalent norms.

Bounded linear transformations, Normed linear spaces of bounded linear transformations, Halm-
Banach theorem. Conjugate spaces with examples, natural embedding of a normed linear space in
its second dual, reflexive spaces

Open mapping theorem, closed graph theorem, uniform boundedness theorem and its consequences.
Inner product spaces, examples.

Hilbert spaces and its properties. Orthogonal complements, orthonormal sets, Bessel’s inequality,
complete orthonormal sets and parseval’s identity, conjugate space of a Hilbert space, reflexivity of
a Hilbert space.

Self adjoint operators, positive, projection, normal and unitary operators and their properties Eigen-
values and eigenspace of an operator on a Hilbert space, spectrum of an operator on a finite dimen-
sional Hilbert space Finite dimensional spectral theorem.

1. G. F. Simmons: Introduction to topology and Modern Analysis, McGraw Hill (1963)
2. Johan Horvath: Topological Vector spaces and Distributions, Addison-Wesley 1966.
3. J.L. Kelley and Isaac Namioka: Linear Topological Spaces, D. Van Nostrand Company, 1963.

5. Classical Mechanics:
Mechanics of system of particles, generalized coordinates, Holonomic and nonholonimic system,
Scleronomic and Rheonomic system, D’ Alemberts’s principle and Lagrange’s equation of motion,
different forms of Lagrange’s equation, Generalized potential, conservative fields and its energy equa-
tion, Application of Lagrange’s formulation.

Functionals, Linear functionals, Fundamental lemma of Calculus of Variations simple variational

problems, The variation of functional, the extermum of functional, necessary condition for extreme,
Euler’s equation, Euler’s equation of several variables, invariance of Euler’s equation, Motivating
problems of calculus of variation, Shortest distance, Minimum surface of revolution, Brachistochrone
Problem, Isoperimetric problem, Geodesic.

The fixed end point problem for ’n’ unknown functions, variational problems in parametric form,
Generalization of Euler’s equation to (i) ’n’ dependent functions (ii) higher order derivatives. Vari-
ational problems with subsidiary conditions,

Hamilton’s principle, Hamilton’s canonical equations, Lagrange’s equation from Hamilton’s princi-
ple, extension of Hamilton’s principle to nonholonomic systems, Application of Hamilton’s formu-
lation (Hamiltonian) cyclic coordinates and conservation theorems, Routh’s procedure, Hamilton’s
equations from variational principle, The principle of least action.

Two-dimensional motion of rigid bodies. The independent coordinates of a rigid body, orthogonal
transformations, Properties of transformation matrix, The Euler angles, Cayle-Klein parameters and
related quantities, Euler’s dynamical equation for the motion of rigid body.

1. H. Goldstein : Charles Poole, John Safko: Classical Mechanics, Pearson 3rd Education, 2002.
2. I. M. Gelfand and S. V. Fomin : Calculus of variations, prentice-Hall.
3. N. Rana and B. Joag : Classical Mechanics, Tata McGraw Hill 1991.
4. F. Gantmacher: Lectures in Analytic Mechanics, NIR Pub.House, New Delhi.
5.A. S. Ramsey: Dynamics Part II, Cambridge University Press 1972
6. Louis N. Hand and Janet D. Finch: Analytical Mechanics, Cambridge Uni. Press, 1998.

6. Fluid Mechanics:
Kinematics: Lagrangian and Eulerian methods , Real and ideal fluids, velocity at a point, stream-
lines, path lines, streak lines, velocity potential, irrotational and rotational motions , vorticity and
circulation, Local and particle rates of change, The equation of continuity.

Acceleration of a Fluid. Conditions at rigid boundary, General analysis of fluid motion. Pressure
at a point in a fluid at rest and moving fluid, conditions at a boundary of two inviscid immiscible
fluids, Euler’s equation of motion, Bernoulli’s equation.

Steady motion under conservative body forces, Potential Theorems, Axial symmetric flows, some
two dimensional flows, Impulsive motion, some aspects of vortex motion, sources, sinks, doublets
and their images.

Some two dimensional flows: Meaning of two dimensional flow, use of cylindrical polar coordinates,
The stream function, The complex potential for two dimensional irrotational, incompressible flow,
complex velocity potentials for standard two dimensional flows.

Examples, two dimensional image systems, Milne-Thomson circle theorem, applications and exten-
sion of circle theorem, the theorem of Blasius, Conformal Transformation.

Viscous flows, stress components in a real fluid, Relation between Cartesian components of stress,
translation motion of a fluid element, rate of strain quadric and principal stresses, properties of the
rate of strain quadric,

Stress Analysis in Fluid Motion, relation between stress and rate of strain, the coefficient of viscos-
ity and laminar flow, the Navier Stock’s equations, The energy equation, Equations in Cartesian,
cylindrical or spherical polar coordinates for a viscous incompressible fluid, Diffusion of velocity and
dissipation of energy due to viscosity,

Some Solvable Problems in viscous flow with heat transfer: - Flow between parallel Plates velocity
and temperature distribution ,steady flow through a tube of uniform circular cross section, Velocity

and Temperature Distribution, Distribution of steady flow between concentric rotating cylinders,
velocity and temperature distribution,

Flow in tubes of arbitrary but uniform cross section, equations for velocity and Temperature in a
steady flow, Uniqueness Theorem for the velocity and Temperature, Velocity distribution for tubes
having equilateral triangular or elliptic cross section, Velocity distribution for the flow through a
tube of rectangular cross section Flow between two porous Plates

Plane Couett of plane poisseuille flow - velocity and temperature distribution, Flow through a con-
vergent or divergent channel,Flow of two immiscible fluids between parallel Plates, Flow due to a
Plane wall suddenly set in motion or due to an oscillating plane wall,

Flows at small or large Reynolds numbers: Dimensional Analysis Non-dimensional form of the Navier
Stokes equations, approximate equations for flows at small or large Reynolds numbers, Flows at small
Reynolds number: Theory of Lubrication between two plates, Model of a Paint brush, Stoke’s flow
past a sphere, drag, Flow through a porous slab,Flows at large Reynolds number: Derivation of the
boundary layer equations, Karnans momentum integral equations,

1. F. Chorlton: Textbook of Fluid Dynamics, C.B.S. Pub. Delhi, 1976,
2. R. K. Rathy: An Introduction to Fluid dynamics, I.B.H. Pub. Co, New Delhi 1976,
3. J. L. Bansal: Viscous Fluid Dynamics, Oxford and IBH Pub. Co. 1977.
4. G. K. Batchelor: An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Foundation books, New Delhi, 1994,
5. S. W. Yuan: Foundations of Fluid Mechanics Prentice Hall, of India, New Dehli, 1976.
6. W. H. Besaut and A. S. Ramsay: A Treatise on Hydrodynamics, II, CBS Pub. Delhi 1988.
7. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lipschitz: Fluid Mechanics, Pergamon Press London 1985.
8. H. Schlicating: Boundary layer Theory McGraw Hill New York, 1979.
9. A. D. Young: Boundary Layer AIAA Education Series, Washington, 1989.
10. A. J. Chorian and A Marsdeu: A Mathematical Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Springer
Verlag New York 1993.

7. Ordinary Differential Equations:

Existence, Uniqueness and Continuation of Solutions: Introduction, Method of Successive Approxi-

mations for the Initial Value Problem y’ = f (x, y), y(x0) = y0, The Lipschitz Condition. Notation
and Definitions, Peano’s Existence Theorem, Maximal and Minimal Solutions, Continuation of So-

Existence Theorems for System of Differential Equations: Picard-Lindelof Theorem, Peano’s Exis-
tence Theorem, Dini’s derivatives, Differential Inequalities.

Linear Systems: Introduction, Superposition Principle, Preliminaries and Basic Results, Properties
of Linear Homogeneous System, Theorems on Existence of a Fundamental System of Solutions of
First Order Linear Homogeneous System, Abel-Liouville Formula.

Adjoint System, Periodic Linear System, Floquet’s Theorem and its Consequences, Applications,
Inhomogeneous Linear Systems, Applications. Preliminaries, and Basic Facts of Second Order Lin-
ear Ordinary Differential Equations

Superposition Principles, Lagrange’s Identity, Green’s Formula, Variation of Constants, Liouville
Substitution, Riccati Equations, Prufer Transformation, Sturm Liouville Boundary Value Problem,
Eigenvalues, Eigenfunctions, Orthogonality.

1.E. A.Coddington: An Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations. Prentice-Hall 1961.
2.M.Rama Mohana Rao: Ordinary Differential Equations, East-West Press 1986.
3.P.Hartman: Ordinary differential Equations, 2nd edition, SIAM,2002.
4.W.T. Reid: Ordinary Differential Equations, John Wiley, New York, 1971.
5.E.A. Coddington and N. Levinson: Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations, McGraw -
Hill, New York, 1955.

8. Partial Differential Equations:

Examples of Partial Differential Equations Classification of second order Partial Differential Equa-
tions. Transport equation - Initial value problem Non-homogeneous equations. Laplace’s equation-
Fundamental solution, Poisson’s equation, Mean value formulas, Properties of Harmonic functions,

Laplace’s Equation, Strong maximum principle, Strong minimum principle, uniqueness, Regularity,
Local estimates for harmonic functions Green’s function, Derivation of Green’s function, Green’s
function for half space, Green’s function for a ball, Energy methods, uniqueness,

Heat Equation-fundamental solution, Initial value problem, Non-homogenous problem, Mean value
formula, Properties of solutions, Strong maximum principle, uniqueness, Energy methods, unique-
ness, Backwards uniqueness, Wave Equation - solution by spherical means,

Non-homogeneous equations, Energy methods. Nonlinear first Order PDE- Complete Integrals, en-
velopes, new solutions from envelopes characteristics,

Representation of solutions-separation of variables, Similarity Solutions, Plane and Traveling waves,

solutions, similarity under scaling,Applications Converting Nonlinear into linear Partial Differential
Equation Cole-Hopf transformation, A parabolic Partial Differential Equation with quadratic no
linearity Burger’s equation with viscosity, Hodograph and Legendre Transforms, Potential function.

1. Lawrence C. Evans: Partial Differential Equations, Graduate studies in Mathematics
Vol. 19 AMS, 1998.
2. Ion N. Sneddon: Elements of Partial Differential Equations McGraw Hill, 1957.
3. F. John: Partial differential Equation, Springer Verlag, (4th Edition), 1995
4. T. Amarnath: Partial Differential Equations, Narosa Publication, (2nd Edition) 2003.

9. Linear Algebra and MATLAB:

Vector Spaces: Definition, Examples, Subspaces, Span of a Set, Linear Independence and Depen-
dence, Basis and Dimension, Affine Spaces, Quotient Spaces, Linear Transformations: Definition
and Examples.

Properties of Linear Transformation, Representation of linear maps by Metrics, Kernel, Image of a

Linear Transformation, Rank of Linear Transformations, Linear Isomorphism, Inverse and General-

ized Inverse (More-Prose Inverse) of Linear Transformation.

Definition of Eigenvalues and Eigenvector, Matrix Exponential, Defective (or no diagonalizable) Ma-
trices, Diagonalization, Caley-Hamilton Theorem, Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices, Existence
and Uniqueness of Operator Equation and system of Linear Equations, Jordan Canonical form of
Matrices, Existence and Uniqueness of solution of System of Equations.

MATLAB: Introduction and Features, Numbers, Variables, Functions, and operators, Expressions in
Matlab. Controlling Command Windows, Command line Editing, Graphics, Matlab Plotting tools,
Mesh and Surface Plots. Matrices: Creating Matrices, M-Files, Operations with matrices, Vector
and Matrix Norms, The Magic function.

Linear Algebra: Arrays. Multivariate Data, Scalar Expansion Logical Subscripting, Find Func-
tion, Vector Product and Transpose. System of Equations: General Solution, Square System Over
determined and Undetermined systems, Determinants and inverse of a matrix, Cholesky Factoriza-
tion, LU Factorization. Positive integer powers, Inverse and Fractional Powers, Element-by-Elements
Powers, Exponentials, Eigenvalues, Decomposition, Defective Matrices.

1. Strang G.: Linear Algebra and its Applications, Harcourt Brace 3rd Ed 1998..
2. Serge Lange: Linear Algebra, Addison Wesley Publishing Company
3. Rudra Pratap: Gettiing started with MATLAB 7, Oxford Press, Indian edition, 2007 .
4. Delores M. Etter: Engineering Problem solving with Matlab, Prentice Hall, 1993.
5. Brain D Hahn Dan: Essential MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists, 3rd Edition,
6. Jon H. Davis: Methods of Applied Mathematics with a MATLAB Overview,

10. Distribution Theory:

The Dirac delta function and Delta Sequences: The Heaviside function, The Dirac delta functional
the delta sequence, the unit dipole, the Heaviside sequences.

Schwartz - Sobolev theory of Distributions: Definitions, Test Functions, Linear Functionals and
distributions, Algebraic and Analytic Operations on Distributions, Support and singular support of
distribution, Transformation properties, Convergence of distributions. Fourier series.

Tempered distributions and the Fourier Transforms: The space of rapidly decreasing functions, The
spaces of Tempered Distributions,multipliers, Fourier Transform and its properties.

Direct product and convolutions of Distributions: Definition of the direct product, the direct prod-
uct of tempered distributions. The Fourier Transform of the direct product of tempered distribu-
tions,Convolution of the distributions, Fourier Transform.

Laplace Transform: Review of classical results, The Laplace Transform of distributions, The Laplace
Transform of distributional Derivatives and vice versa.

1. S. Kesavan: Topics in Functional Analysis and Application Wiley Eastern New Delhi. (1989)
2. E. H. Lib and M. Loss: Analysis, Narosa Publishing House New Delhi, 1997.

3. R. P. Kanwal: Generalized functions Theory and Technique Academic Press New York (1983)
4. R. S. Pathak: A course in Distribution Theory and Applications, Narosa New Delhi, 2001
5. A. H. Zemanian: Distribution Theory and Transform Analysis McGraw Hill, New York (1965)

11. Mathematical Methods:

Fourier Transforms: Fourier Integral Formula, Definition and Basic Properties, Convolution parse-
vals’s relation Applications to ordinary and partial differential equations, Fourier cosine and sine
transforms and their Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations and Partial Differential Equa-

Laplace Transforms: Definition and Basic properties existence conditions, Differentiation and Inte-
gration of Laplace Transforms, Convolution Theorem and properties of Convolution inverse Laplace
Transforms. Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations and Partial Differential Equations.

Hankel Transforms: Definition of Hankel Transforms and examples, operational properties and ap-
plications to partial Differential Equations Finite Hankel Transform and its basic operational Prop-
erties. Applications of Finite Hankel Transforms.

Linear Integral equation of the first and second kind of Fredhlom and Voltera type, Solutions with
separable kernels.

Characteristic numbers and eigenfunctions, resolvent kernel.Applications to Differential Equations.

1. I. N. Sneddon: The use of Integral Transform, McGraw Hill, New York 1972.
2. L Debnath: Integral Transforms and their Applications CRC Press, Inc. 1995.
3. R. Charchill: Operational Mathematics, McGraw Hill, New York 1972.
4. R.P.Kanwal: Linear Integral Equations, Theory and Techniques, Academic Press, N.Y. 1971
5. S.G.Mikhlin: Linear Integral Equations, Hindustan Book Agency, 1960