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UNCLASSIFIED//LAW ENFORCEMENTSENSITIVE

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION EXTERNAL INTELLIGENCE NOTE

(U//LES)Boogaloo Adherents Likely Increasing


Anti-Government Violent Rhetoric and Activities,
Increasing Domestic Violent Extremist Threatin the
FBIDallas Area of Responsibility

(U) PREPARED BY FBI DALLAS FIELD OFFICE 29 SEPTEMBER 2020


FBI EIN304 20200929

(U) This documentis classified: Unclassified/Law EnforcementSensitive.


(U) ExternalIntelligence Note template approved for fiscal year 2020, as of 1 October 2019.
(U) LAW ENFORCEMENTSENSITIVE: Theinformation marked (U//LES) in this documentis the propertyof the Federal Bureau of Investigation
and maybe distributed withinthe federal government (and its contractors), U.S. intelligence, law enforcement, public safetyor protectionofficials,
and individuals with a need to know, Distributionbeyond these entities without FBI authorizationis prohibited. Precautions should betakento ensure
this informationis stored and/or destroyed in a mannerthat precludes unauthorized access.Informationbearing the LES caveat maynot beused in
legal proceedings without first receiving authorizationfromtheoriginating agency. Recipients are prohibited fromsubsequentlyposting the
information marked LES ona website or an unclassified networkwithout first obtaining FBI approval.
(U) This product expresses the judgmentsand perspectiveofthis office and may notreflect the national perspective of
the Federal BureauofInvestigation.

(U//LES) FBIDallas Field Office assesses boogaloo* adherents, such as militia violent extremists
(MVEs)andotheranti-governmentoranti-authority violent extremists,likely” are increasing anti-
governmentviolent rhetoric and criminal activities, increasing the threat of violent lone actors in
the FBIDallas area of responsibility (AOR)including the area of North Texas. FBI Dallas Field
Office also assesses boogaloo adherents likely are influencing individuals already suspicious of
perceived US Government (USG)overreachto participate in online and in-person anti-government
events, increasing their influence and the threat of violence at otherwise peaceful protests in the
FBI Dallas AOR. These assessments are made with medium confidence,‘ based on social media
posts, open source reporting, other law enforcementreporting, and human sourcereporting with
varying levels of access.

(U//LES) These assessments are based on these key assumptions: the purposes of the boogaloo
concept and those who adhereto boogaloorhetoric, are to denote a large-scale violent conflict with
the government culminating in a second Civil War through violence or criminal activity due to
perceived governmentoverreachorabuses,and individuals arrested thus far who wereassociated
with the boogaloo conceptare reflective of the goals and aspirations of the wider boogaloo

* (U//FOUO)Analyst Note: Boogaloo refers to a second Civil Waror impendinginsurgency against the government
dueto perceived abusesof powerand overreach, especially those associated with the Second Amendmentand abuses
of law enforcementauthority.
> (U) See Appendix A: Expressionsof Likelihood.
© (U) See Appendix B: Confidence in Assessments and Judgments Based on a Body of Information.
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adherent community andare not outliers. FBI Dallas Field Office judgesin the next three months
leading up to the January 2021 inauguration with the presidential elections acting as a potential
flashpoint, boogaloo adherentslikely will expandinfluence within the FBI Dallas AORdueto the
presenceofexisting anti-governmentor anti-authority violent extremists, the sentiment of
perceived USGoverreach,heightened tensions due to COVID-19 related state and local
restrictions, and violenceorcriminal activity at lawful protests as a result of the death of an African
American USPERin Minneapolis,“ Minnesota,factorsthat led to violence at otherwise peaceful
and lawful protests in the FBI Dallas AOR.Indicators that these assessmentsare correct would
includean increasedsocial media presenceof boogalooadherents andincreased“patrolling”at
lawfulprotests.

(U//LES) Boogaloo Adherents Likely Increasing Anti-Governmentor Anti-


Authority Violent Rhetoric and Activities, Increasing Threat of Violent Lone
Actor in FBI Dallas AOR

(U//LES)FBIDallas Field Office judges boogaloo adherents, such as MVEandotheranti-


governmentor anti-authority violent extremists, likely are increasing anti-governmentviolent
rhetoric and criminal activities, increasing the threat of violent lone actors in the FBI Dallas AOR,*
including the area of North Texas. FBI Dallas Field Office based this assessmentonthesignificant
increaseof violent social mediaposts of several boogaloo adherents in Texas, which,although
someposts are First Amendmentprotected, indicate a propensity toward violence and acquiring
weaponsthat cause masscasualties, used by a small numberofattackers. Additionally, several
boogaloo adherents nationally have conductedviolentattacks, showing the boogaloo concept

“(U) Analyst Note: On 25 May 2020 Minneapolispoliceofficers arrested an USPER, a 46-year-old black man who
shortly thereafter died in police custody while pinned beneath three police officers. This death, along with other recent
deaths of black Americansledto violence at otherwise peaceful protests across the United States.
© (U) Analyst Note: On 13 March 2020 according to open sourcereporting, an USPERin northeast Texasposted on
social media boogalooreferencesandclaimedto be readyto attack law enforcement. In mid-April 2020 the same
USPERlive-streamed onsocial mediathat he wassearching fora policeofficerto kill.
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attracts lone actors. The numberof boogaloo adherents at in-person events since May 2020 and the
decentralized, loosely organized nature of the movementare favorable to such loneactoractivity.

e (U//FOUO)Asof June 2020, according to an open source media website, a boogaloo


adherent and studentat an unidentified Texas school, posted to social media “Because I
haven’t had a specialvisit from the @fbi yet and I’m wondering whatthe fuck I’m
doing wrong. Also, @[Name Withheld] “[Name Withheld]‘ is a #bitch and better watch
his back” accompaniedby photoofan individual reaching for a firearm. Additionally,
as of May 2020,this sameindividual posted a screenshotof Internet searches that
included searches on how to convert AR-15 and AK47firearmsto fully automatic, how
to construct an improvised explosive device, and how to create homemade
suppressors.

e (U//FOUO)Asof 30 May 2020,accordingto an open source media website, a


boogaloo adherentposteda video of himself and several other males with tactical vests
and assault-style rifles on social media. Thevideo stated “this is the American civil war
guys, people versus pigs.” Additionally, in response to someonestating the police were
using non-lethal rounds, the boogaloo adherent responded “we would’ve been shooting
at ‘em.”?

e (U//FOUO)Asof summer 2020,according to a humansource with direct access,


identified boogaloo adherents, one of whomis a resident near Dallas, Texas, used social
media communication platformsto discussfirearms and financing for fellow boogaloo
adherents. The sameindividual also discussed creating a shell company for laundering
moneyfor the fundsto be used to produce firearms.’

(U//LES) Boogaloo Adherents Likely Influence Individuals Suspicious of


Perceived Government Overreach, Increasing Their Influence and the Threat of
Violence at Lawful Protests in the FBI Dallas AOR

(U//LES) FBIDallas Field Office also judges boogalooadherentslikely are influencingindividuals


already suspiciousof perceived USG overreach to participate in online and in-person anti-
government events,increasing their influence and the threat of violence at otherwise peaceful
protests in the FBI Dallas AOR. FBIDallas Field Office based this assessment on the attendance of
boogaloo adherents since spring 2020 at eventsprotesting stay-at-homeorders perceived as USG
overreach; specific to the FBI Dallas AOR, theseeventshistorically were attended by anti-
governmentoranti-authority groups, indicating commonalities or overlap between boogaloo
adherents and existing anti-governmentoranti-authority groups. Open source mediareporting and
FBIinvestigations, as of June 2020,indicate there have been an increased numberofindividuals
whosubscribeto the boogaloo conceptposting to online forumsand attending events with violent
or criminalactivity at lawful protests occurrencesin the FBI Dallas AOR due to COVID-19
restrictions and perceived government overreach.
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£ (U//FOUO) [Name withheld] refersto anidentified state governor.

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(U//FOUO)As of 30 April 2020, according to open source newsreporting and


according to a humansource with direct access, two armed individuals who both
identified themselves as USPER Duncan Lemp,* whois deceased but is a perceived
martyr among MVEs, some of whom adhereto the boogaloo movement, patrolled a
Dallas parking lot near an USBUS toprotestthe business being cited for reopening in
violation of local andstate stay-at-home orders.* ° Another open source newsarticle
reported violentrhetoric as being increasingly common amongpeopleprotesting stay-
at-home orders amid the COVID-19 pandemic.”®

(U//FOUO)Asof June 2020,according to a humansourcewith direct access,self-


identified boogaloo adherents were seen in downtownDallasin full tactical gear and
one adherent, Texas-based DVE 1, was quoted as saying he would “hunt” anti-fascist
anarchists andkill any Dallas looters.’ Furthermore, as of 6 May 2020, according to a
humansource with direct access, Texas-based DVE1,leaderof an identified anti-
governmentoranti-authority militia group in the FBI Dallas AOR," led several heavily
armed mento attend anin-personprotest hosted byan existing militia group protesting
the closure of a bar in West Texas due to COVID-19 restrictions. Several members
werearrested following a standoff with local law enforcementregarding the unlawful
reopening ofthe bar despite the COVID-19restrictions.®

(U//FOUO)Asof June 2020,according to a humansourcewith direct access,


associates of Texas-based DVE 1 who wasrecently arrested included military veterans
and some held similar anti-governmentor anti-authority extremist views. Oneof the
boogaloo adherents postedthat he kept track of National Guard movementswithin the
state of Texas. In addition, Texas-based DVE 1 coordinated a quick reaction force
(QRF) to Oklahomain support of an anti-governmentor anti-authority extremist in
OklahomaCity, Oklahoma, whowasarrested by the FBI.°

(U) Asof 2 June 2020, according to an open source media website, there were several
instances of boogaloo adherentsbeing present during the violent or criminal activity at
lawful protests in Dallas, as @boogaloo_2020 posted onsocial media the looting of
two USBUSs inaddition to the breaking of windowsat a subwaystation and
destruction ofa police vehicle. !!!; !21°

(U//FOUO)Asof 9 June 2020, accordingto a subject of an FBI investigation, an


identified USPERandresident of the FBI Dallas AORindicated he had corresponded

8 (U) Analyst Note: The wider militia extremist community references Duncan Lemp following the 12 March 2020
officer-involved shooting in Maryland of Lemp, whohad ties with the militia movementandself-identified as a I11%er,
a militia group with national presence. Lemp received widespread attention and support via martyrdom following his

* (U) See Appendix C: Boogalooin Dallas on 4 June 2020


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with Texas-based DVE initially due to his membership on andsharedinterest in gun


forums, along with several “2A”groups." 4

UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

(U) Boogaloo Tactical Awareness


(U//FOUO)Adherents of the boogaloo concept have demonstrated a uniqueability, different than existing militia extremists
in the FBI Dallas AOR,to adapt and changeoperational security measures, which is due to some identified adherents of the
boogaloo concepthavingpriortactical experience. During the lawfulprotests in late May and early June 2020, members
claimingto beaffiliated with the boogaloo conceptposted about jamming the Hyman Almy Murray (HAM)radio frequency
as a meansto disorient law enforcement. Additionally, members claiming to be boogaloo adherents discussed wearing
police uniforms in Minneapolis and Chicago,Illinois. Finally, a self-identified adherentof the boogaloo concept advised
fellow membersto not wear Hawaiianshirts due to law enforcementbeing awareofthe association betweentheshirts and
the movement.
(U) Sources
(U)FBI| CaseInformation | 5 June 2020 | 4 June 2020| “(TITLE REDACTED)”| UNCLASSIFIED//FOROFFICIAL USE ONLY| UNCLASSIFIED//FOR
OFFICIAL USE ONLY.
(U//FOUO)FBI| CaseInformation |5 June 2020 | 5 June 2020| “(U//FOUO)Civil Unrest Chicago AOR”| UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY|
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY.
(U//FOUO)FBI| CaseInformation | 5 June 2020 | 30 May 2020 |“(U//FOUO)Intel on Buildings with USMSProtected Tenants” | UNCLASSIFIED//FOR,
OFFICIAL USE ONLY| UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY.
(U)FBI| CaseInformation| 5 June 2020 | 4 June 2020 | “[TITLE REDACTED)”| UNCLASSIFIED//FOROFFICIAL USE ONLY| UNCLASSIFIED//FOR
OFFICIAL USE ONLY.

(U) Perspective

(U//FOUO)Theterm boogaloo,asit used today, emerged online in early 2013 andhas increasingly
been co-opted by MVEsto refer to a second Civil Warorviolent conflict with the government, and
was further exploited by some white racially or ethnically motivated violent extremists (RMVE)
andis linked with the RMVEtactic of accelerationism.'° Boogaloo adherents are predominately
made up of MVEsbutnot all MVEsadhereto the boogaloo concept.'*'”Asof June 2019, an
USPERwhoself-radicalized online, drafted a manifesto referencing both the boogaloo concept and
the involuntary celibate movement(Incel),! then openedfire on the Earle Cabell Federal Building
and Courthouse in Dallas; the incident ended with the USPERbeingfatally shot. The boogaloo
concept gained further momentum in 2020 surrounding the January 2020Virginia gunrightsrally.
It gained additional momentum with the COVID-19-related restrictions, the death of an African
American USPERin police custody, and violence at lawful protests in the FBI Dallas AOR.

(U//FOUO)Boogaloo,as defined by the 8 June 2020 joint FBI-DHS-NCTCIntelligence Bulletin,


titled “(U//FOUO) Domestic Violent Extremists Could Exploit Current Eventsto Incite or Justify
Attacks on Law EnforcementorCivilians Engaged in First Amendment-Protected Activities,”
refers to an anti-governmentor anti-authority concept advocating the violent overthrow of the
USG.Thisanti-government pushis not directed at any specific entity, but directedat all
governmentagencies, includinglocal, state, and federal agencies and law enforcement. Some
MVEswearballistic armor, including rifle-rated plates; carry semi-automaticrifles; have a desire

'(U) Analyst Note: For many individuals, “2A” is meant to refer to Second Amendmentgroups.
i (U) Analyst Note: Accordingto open sourceinformation, Incelis amovement madeupof men whohavedefinedthemselves by
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their inability to find a sexual or romantic partner and blame womenandsociety for their lack of romantic success.

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to build privately madefirearms; and possess military-grade optics andlaser sighting devices,as is
demonstratedin the following three separate incidents as of June 2020.'° Oneindividual, arrested
by FBILas Vegas, was found with fireworks, accelerants, an AR-15 rifle, a 12-gauge shotgun, and
ammunition. An individual claiming allegiance to the boogaloo concept was apprehended by
police in Denver, Colorado andfound in possession of gas masks, military-style rifles, handguns,
and ammunition. In addition, as of June 2020, a DVE wasarrested andchargedwithkilling a
sheriff’s office sergeant and woundinganother deputy, and then writing the word “Boog” ona
vehicle the DVE carjacked in Oakland, California; in addition this same DVE was identified as
shooting twofederal security officers in Ben Lamond,California, with an accomplice.”°

(U//LES) FBIDallas Field Office’s assessmentis specific to the potential threat posed by boogaloo
adherents within the FBI Dallas AOR andthusonly partially aligns with the 18 June 2020 joint
FBI-DHS-NCTCIntelligence Bulletin,titled “(U//LES) Militia Extremists Present Elevated Threat
to Law Enforcementand GovernmentPersonnel,” which discussed the broader MVEthreat to law
enforcement and governmentdueto drivers and grievances exacerbated by the COVID-19
pandemicandnationwideprotests againstpolice brutality and racism, and did notspecifically
touch on the boogaloo concept. This assessment does, however, align with the 21 August 2020 FBI
Strategic Perspective: Executive Analytical Report,titled “(U//LES) Adoption of “Boogaloo”
ConceptLikely Helps Some Domestic Violent Extremists Justify Violence, Provides Basis to
Organize,”albeit this productis specific to the FBI Dallas AOR.

(U) Analysis of Alternatives

(U//LES) FBIDallas Field Office considered the alternative hypothesis that, rather than boogaloo
adherents expandinginfluencein the FBI Dallas AOR, boogaloo adherents in the AORlikely travel
from outofstate to participate in lawful protests, increasing the threat of protest and counter-
protestactivity, but minimizingthe threat of a constant boogaloo presence in the AOR. FBIDallas
Field Office, however, discountedthis alternative hypothesis because manyofthe self-identified
adherentsof the boogaloo concept in the FBI Dallas AOR haveanestablished presence in the AOR
and although these individuals had contactsin otherstates, they were Texas residents. Indicators
that would alter this assessment include materialization of arrest records or social mediaposts that
individuals from otherstates were, in fact, presentat any of the aforementioned eventsorpart of
the violenceat lawful protests within the FBI Dallas AOR.

(U) Outlook

(U//FOUO)FBIDallas Field Office judgesin the next three months,continuing up to the January
2021 inauguration with the presidential elections acting as a potential flashpoint, boogaloo
adherents likely will expandinfluence within the FBI Dallas AORdueto the presenceofexisting
anti-governmentoranti-authority violent extremists, the sentiment of perceived government
overreach, heightened tensions due to COVID-19-related state and localrestrictions, and violence
or criminalactivity at lawful protests as a result of the death of an African American USPERin
Minneapolis, factorsthat led to violence at otherwise peaceful and lawful protests in the FBI Dallas
AOR.Opportunities for additional information on the boogaloo conceptalso will increase owing to
boogaloo adherents’ reliance on social mediaasa platform for violent propaganda. Additionally,
since the boogaloo conceptin Dallas, has appeared at eventstypically attended by anti-government
or anti-authority actors, this will present an additional opportunity to learn more aboutself-
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identified boogaloo adherents. Indicators that this assessmentis correct include increased violent
social media posts of boogaloo adherentsandincreased “patrolling” or attendanceat events that are
anti-law enforcement, anti-government,or anti-authority.
(U) Ifyou wouldlike to provide qualitative feedbackon this product, please sendanemail to the appropriate address with the producttitle as
the subject line: DI_Customer_Feedback@fbi.gov ; DI_Customer_Feedback@fbisgov.gov ; or DI_Customer_Feedback@fbi
(U) FBIDallas Field Office prepared this externalintelligence note. Please direct comments andqueries to the FBI Dallas Field Intelligence
Groupat 972-559-5501.
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(U) Appendix A: Expressions of Likelihood

(U) Phrases such as “the FBI judges”and “the FBI assesses,” and terms suchas “likely” and
“probably” convey analytical judgments and assessments. The chart below approximates how
expressionsoflikelihood and probability correlate with percentagesof chance. Only terms of
likelihood should appear in FBI products; the chart includes termsof probability strictly for
comparison, as they sometimesappear in reporting of other government agencies. Furthermore, the
FBIdoesnotarrive at judgmentsthroughstatistical analysis and will not use terms of probability to
convey uncertainty in FBI externalintelligence products.

UNCLASSIFIED

Almost Roughly
Terms of Very . 7 Very Almost
ao No rs Unlikely Even Likely « A
Likelihood Chance Unlikely Chance Likely Certain(ly)

. Roughly .
Terms of Remote Highly Improbable Even Probable Highly Nearly
Probability Improbable (Improbably) Odds (Probably) Probable Certain

Percentages 15% 5-20% Ssh 55-80% tO Sc hsyZa 95-99%


of Chance

(U) Table showing termsoflikelihood aligned with termsofprobability and percentages of chance.
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(U) Appendix B: Confidence in Assessments and Judgments Based on


a Bodyof Information

(U) Confidence levels reflect the quality and quantity of the source information supporting a
judgment. Consequently, the FBIascribes high, medium,or low levels of confidence to
assessments, as follows:

(U) High confidencegenerally indicates the FBI’s judgmentsare based on high quality
information from multiple sources. High confidencein a judgmentdoesnot imply the assessment
is a fact or a certainty; such judgments might be wrong. While additional reporting and information
sources may change analytical judgments, such changesare mostlikely to be refinements and not
substantial in nature.

(U) Medium confidencegenerally means the information is credibly sourcedand plausible but not
of sufficient quality or corroborated sufficiently to warrant a higher level of confidence. Additional
reporting or information sources have the potential to increase the FBI’s confidencelevels or
substantively change analytical judgments.

(U) Lowconfidence generally meansthe information’s credibility or plausibility is uncertain, the


information is too fragmented or poorly corroborated to make solid analytic inferences, or the
reliability of the sources is questionable. Absent additional reporting or information sources,
analytical judgments should be considered preliminary in nature.
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(U) Appendix C: Boogaloo in Dallas on 4 June 2020

=UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


(U/FOUO) Boogaloo in Dallas on 4 June 2020

(U) The above images wereposted by the subject of an FBI investigation to his social media account during lawful
protests, which were subjectto violent and criminalactivities taking place in downtownDallas on 4 June 2020.
Boogaloo adherents are wearingtactical gear, are armed withassault rifles, and referred to themselves as a QRF. The
boogalooadherents depictedin this picturereflect the tactical, heavily armed,and diverse ethnic makeup of the
boogaloo movementas a whole, further indicating the boogaloo movementis united by anti-governmentoranti-
authority sentimentrather thanracially or ethnically motivated violent extremism.

(U) Sources
(U) FBI| CaseInformation | 5 June 2020 | 4 June 2020 | “[TITLE REDACTED)”| UNCLASSIFIED//FOROFFICIAL USE ONLY|
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY.
(U) FBI| CaseInformation | 5 June 2020 | 4 June 2020 | “[TITLE REDACTED)”| UNCLASSIFIED//FOROFFICIAL USE ONLY|
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY.
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