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Module 1 continue…

Planning and implementing an IPv4


network
Defining subnets (Classful/Classless)

Class A (/8) Network Host ID


large network ID
0
w x y z

Class B (/16) Network ID Host ID


medium network
10
w x y z

Class C (/24) Network ID Host ID


small network
110
w x y z

Class D Class E
Multicasting Reservada
Overview of IPv4 settings

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

IP address 172 16 0 10
Subnet mask 255 255 0 0
Network ID 172 16 0 0
Host ID 0 0 0 10

172.16.0.10/16
10101100.00010000.00000000.00001010
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
Overview of IPv4 settings

172.16.0.10/16
10101100.00010000.00000000.00001010
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

• Mascara de red:
• Red (network id)(AND):
• Cantidad de Ips dentro de la red:
• Cantidad de IPs útiles (asignables a los hosts)
• Broadcast:
Overview of IPv4 settings

172.16.0.10/16
10101100.00010000.00000000.00001010
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
bits de la red=16 bits de host=16

Cantidad de direcciones:
2^(bits de host) = 2^16= 65536
• Recuerde:
• La primera dirección es la red
• La última dirección es el broadcast de la red4
Cantidad de direcciones útiles para los hosts:
2^(bits de host) - 2 = 2^16 – 2 = 65534
Overview of IPv4 settings – cidr - subredes

172.16.0.10/17
10101100.00010000.00000000.00001010
11111111.11111111.10000000.00000000
bits de la red=17 bits de host=15
2 ^ n bits = Cantidad de subredes
n=1 => 2 ^ 1 = 2 subredes
¿Cuál es la nueva mascara de red?
¿Cuál es la cantidad de direcciones de cada subred?
¿Cuáles serán los rangos de direcciones las
subredes?
• Revisar calculadoras en Internet
Public, private, and APIPA addresses

Public Private
• Required by devices and • Not routable on the
hosts that connect directly Internet
to the Internet • 10.0.0.0/8
• 172.16.0.0/12
• Must be globally unique • 192.168.0.0./16
• Routable on the Internet • Can be assigned locally
• Must be assigned by by an organization
IANA/RIR • Must be translated to
access the Internet
Public, private, and APIPA addresses

Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)


• Windows starts -> send broadcast to find a DHCP.
• Is unable to find a DHCP server:

it assign itself a range reserved by Microsoft


169.254.0.1 .. 169.254.255.254.
subnet mask: 255.255.0.0.

A Windows client using an APIPA address does


not assign itself a default gateway.

• A client will continue to use the APIPA address,


broadcasting for a DHCP server every 5 minutes,
until a DHCP server becomes available.
Análisis de un caso real

• Google: Who is my IP?


• MKTK: 181.188.132.237/23 GW-> 181.188.132.1

• Google: Who is IP?


• ¿Cuál es la clase de red asignada al ISP?
• ¿Quién la asigno?

• ¿En que subred está la IP que me asignaron?


• ¿Cuántas subredes han creado?
Bonus pack

• VLSM

• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LyltIZejvA
Discussion: Determining IPv4 notation and translation

Discuss the examples on the following slides

20 minutes
Discussion: Determining IPv4 notation and translation

• Which of the following addresses are Classful and


which are Classless?
• 10.14.27.32/8
• 172.16.34.22/26
• 192.168.87.19 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0
• 172.16.98.23 Subnet Mask 255.240.0.0
• 192.168.87.56/24
• 10.17.22.99/12
Discussion: Determining IPv4 notation and translation

• Identify the Network ID for each of the following


addresses.
• 10.15.12.100/24
• 10.25.12.100/16
• 172.168.20.66/24
• 172.168.20.66/26
• 192.168.52.98 255.255.255.0
• 192.168.52.98 255.255.255.240
Discussion: Determining IPv4 notation and translation

• For the network in which each of these addresses


reside, identify the first usable address and the
broadcast address
• 10.15.12.100/24
• 10.25.12.100/16
• 172.168.20.66/24
• 172.168.20.66/26
• 192.168.52.98 255.255.255.0
• 192.168.52.98 255.255.255.240
Scenario:

You are designing an appropriate network configuration


for a new campus. You have been allocated the
10.34.0.0/16 network that you can subnet as required,
given these requirements:
• There are four buildings on the new campus, and each
should have its own subnet to allow for routing between
the buildings.
• Each building will have up to 700 users.
• Each building will have network printers that will require
IP addresses.
• The typical ratio of users to printers is 50 to 1.
• You need to allocate a subnet for the server data center
that will hold up to 100 servers. 20 minutes
Discussion: Creating a subnetting scheme for a
new office

• How many subnets are required?


• How many bits are required to create that number of
subnets?
• How many hosts are required on each subnet?
• How many bits are required to support that number of
hosts?
• What is an appropriate subnet mask that would satisfy
these requirements?

20 minutes
Creating supernets

• Supernetting combines multiple small networks into a


larger network

• The networks that you combine must be contiguous

• The following table shows an example of supernetting two


class C networks (host bits underlined)
Network Range

192.168.00010000.00000000/24 192.168.16.0 - 192.168.16.255

192.168.00010001.00000000/24 192.168.17.0 - 192.168.17.255

192.168.00010000.00000000/23 192.168.16.0 - 192.168.17.255


Lab Scenario
A. Datum Corporation is an international organization with the North
American regional office located in Toronto. They are planning to open
three branch offices in different cities in North America. The branch
offices will be located in Houston, Mexico City, and Portland.
A. Datum is using Office 365 for all email and file access for the North
American branch offices, with some shared folders located in the Toronto
regional office on Windows servers. Because all offices have fast and
highly available network connections to the Toronto office, A. Datum is
not planning to deploy any servers in the branch offices at this point.
The A. Datum network team has assigned the subnets 172.16.18.0/18 to
the Toronto regional office. The Toronto office is currently using the
network assignments shown in the following table.
You need to plan an IPv4 address assignment for each of the branch
offices, use IP addresses from the list of addresses assigned to the
Toronto office. Ensure that the IP addresses assigned to computers
connected to wired connections are different from the IP addresses
assigned to devices connected to the wireless networks.
Lab Scenario

You need to plan an IPv4 address assignment for each of the branch
offices, use IP addresses from the list of addresses assigned to the
Toronto office. Ensure that the IP addresses assigned to computers
connected to wired connections are different from the IP addresses
assigned to devices connected to the wireless networks.
Lab A: Planning an IPv4 network

• Exercise 1: Planning the IPv4 address assignments

Estimated Time: 30 minutes


Lab Review

• How many default gateways will be required?


• What other factors would you take into
consideration when designing a network?
Lesson 2: Configuring an IPv4 host

• Configurable IPv4 settings


• Tools for configuring IPv4
• Demonstration: Configuring IPv4
• Configuring IPv4 automatically
Configurable IPv4 settings
Configurable IPv4 settings
Configurable IPv4 settings
Tools for configuring IPv4
Tools for configuring IPv4
Tools for configuring IPv4
Tools for configuring IPv4
Configuring IPv4 automatically

DHCP Server with IPv4 DHCP Client


IPv4 Scope

An APIPA address on an interface indicates that a


DHCP server could not be contacted

Code example:
Set-NetIPInterface –InterfaceAlias "Local Area
Connection" –Dhcp Enabled
Restart-NetAdapter –Name "Local Area Connection"
Lesson 3: Managing and troubleshooting IPv4
network connectivity

• Routing between IPv4 networks


• Modifying IPv4 routing
• IPv4 troubleshooting methodology
• Tools for troubleshooting IPv4
• Demonstration: Troubleshooting IPv4
• What is Microsoft Message Analyzer?
• Demonstration: Using Microsoft Message Analyzer
Routing between IPv4 networks

• IPv4 subnets are typically separated by a router


• The router is responsible for handling incoming and
outgoing IPv4 traffic, and delivering the IPv4 traffic to its
intended destination
• Routers send traffic to destinations based on a set of
data called routing tables
• Routing tables contain the following information about a
route for a specific interface:
• Network destination
• Netmask
• Gateway
• Interface
• Metric
Modifying IPv4 routing

You can use several methods to view and modify


the routing table:

• The Route command


route add 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 192.168.0.1

• Get-NetRoute, New-NetRoute, and Set-NetRoute


Windows PowerShell cmdlets
Get-NetRoute –AddressFamily IPv4

• The Routing and Remote Access console


IPv4 troubleshooting methodology

One methodology is to ask a series of questions about the


nature of the issue:

1. Can you duplicate the issue?


2. What is working?
3. What does not work?
4. How are the things that work and do not work related?
5. Does it work for other systems on the network?
6. Has it worked in the past?
7. What has changed since it last worked?
Tools for troubleshooting IPv4

Use the following tools to troubleshoot IPv4:


• Ipconfig
• Ping
• Tracert
• Pathping
• Telnet
• Netstat
• Resource Monitor
• Windows Network Diagnostics
• Event Viewer
What is Microsoft Message Analyzer?

You can use Microsoft Message Analyzer to perform


the following network analysis tasks:

Capture
message
data

Save Import View Filter Create


message message message message charts
data data data data from
captured
data