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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

Respiration is the process of taking O2 to break down organic compounds into


CO2, H2O and energy. However, respiration is essentially a redox reaction,
where the substrate is oxidised to CO2 while O2 is absorbed as an oxidant is
reduced to H2O. Substrate respiration is called is any organic compound oxidized
in respiration, or compounds contained in plant cells are relatively large and are
usually issued to CO2 and water. While respiration is between metabolite-
intermediate formed in the reactions of respiration. Carbohydrate is the main
respiratory substrate contained in the plant cell high. There are several other
important respiratory substrate such as some types of sugars such as glucose,
fructose, and sucrose, starch, organic acids, and proteins (used in certain
circumstances and species). In general, the breath of the hydrates of carbon can
write follows: C6H12O6 + O2 6CO2 + H2O + energy breathing rate can be
influenced by several factors, including: availability substrate. Availability of
substrates in the plant is important during breathing. Plants with low content of
the substrate made a low respiration rate also. Similarly, when the substrate is
available sebliknya more or less breathing rate is meningkat.Ketersediaan
oxygen. Oxygen availability affect respiration rate, but the effects are different
for each species and even between different bodies in the same plant. normal
fluctuations in the content of oxygen in the air is not very affects the rate of
breathing, because much needed oxygen plant berrespirasi is much smaller than
oxygen available in the air. Temperature. Effect of the temperature factor for
plant respiration rate is closely related to factors of Q10, which is generally
breathing reaction rate increase per each 10 ° C temperature increase, but this
depends on each spesies.Tipe and age of the plant. Each plant species has a
different metabolsme, therefore the plant berespirasi need will be different for
each species. Young plants showed an increased rate of breathing in older
plants. Similarly, the body of the plant is in its infancy. Insects have a special
breathing device shaped tracheal system serves to transport and mngedarkan
O2 from the body, as well as transport and remove CO2 from the body.
elongated trachea and branches in the channel of good time devoted to all
tissues of the body, therefore transport of O2 and CO2 in this system don't need
any help or blood transport system. Air entry and exit through the stigma, i.e.
that there are small holes on each side of his body. Next stigama, the air entered
the ship and the trachea extending partially in the air bag. Large passing insects
the rest of the breathing gas due to the influence of the contraction of the
muscles that move your body on a regular basis.

1.2 TUJUAN
a) prove that animal respiration requires oxygen.

b) measurement of the velocity of oxygen consumption in crickets using


respirometre.

c) determine the rate of breathing) in animals (insects) and plants (plants).

1.3 WAKTU DAN TEMPAT

This practicum was held on Friday, 21 January 2011 7:15 to 8:45 pm


located in the living Biology Laboratory SMAN 4 Denpasar.
CHAPTER II

BASIC OF THEORY

2.1 catabolism
Catabolism is the reaction of decomposition of complex compounds into simpler
compounds with the help of enzymes. The decomposition of a compound to
produce energy. Energy comes from release of chemical bonds that make up the
compound. Examples of catabolism is the process of cell respiration or
respiration (Syamsuri, 1980).
2.2 Respiration
The definition of respiration is the process of decomposition of food material that
produces energy. Respiration is carried out by all the constituent body, either the
cells of plants and animals and human cells. Respiration is carried out both day
and night (Syamsuri, 1980).
As we know in all activities of living things require energy, plants also.
Respiration occurs in all parts of a plant, at a high level plant respiration occurs
in both the roots, stems and leaves and chemically in aerobic respiration of
carbohydrates (glucose) is the opposite of photosynthesis. On the respiration of
glucose by oxygen burning it to produce energy. Because of all parts of the plant
is composed of a network and a network made up of cells, then the respiration
occur in cells (Jasin, 1989).
The content of catalysts called enzymes, is essential for the reaction cycle of
respiration. Some chemical reactions allow mixing with the function of enzymes
speed up the enzyme or by combining with its active side. Use will be seen the
results on inhibitors of the enzyme activity (Mertens, 1966).
The respiratory system is gas exchange of O2 and CO2 in the body of organisms
and aims to get energy. Tools respiration in a variety of different animals. In
lower animals direct O2 diffuses through the surface of the body, the insect is
the trachea, lung scorpion with books, with the gills of fish, frog with lungs, skin
and oral cavity, reptiles with lungs, etc..
Respiration also occurs in humans is called respiration. The process of inhaling
oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. Respiration in humans could have a disorder
such as acute respiratory tract infections or also called (ARI), this is one health
problem in Indonesia because of the increasing incidence of acute respiratory
infection, especially among children under five. To prevent it can be used
sanitary houses, namely public health effort that focuses on the supervision of a
physical structure, in which people use as a shelter that affect human health.
Facilities include ventilation, temperature, humidity, solid occupancy,
daylighting, building construction, means of waste disposal, human waste
disposal facilities and water supply (Nindya, Sulistyorini, 2005). Judging from its
need for oxygen, respiration can be divided into two kinds:
2.2.1 Aerobic Respiration (aerobic)
Aerobic respiration is respiration that uses oxygen-free oxygen to obtain energy.
Reaction equation in a simple process of aerobic respiration can be written:
C6H12O6 + 6H2O>> 6H2O + 6CO2 + 675 cal
In fact the reaction is not that simple. Many steps that occur from the beginning
to the formation of energy. These reactions can be divided into 3 stages namely
glikolosis, Krebs cycle and electron transport (Syamsuri, 1980).
a. Glycolysis
The word "glycolysis" means "describes sugar" and that's what exactly happened
during this track. Glucose, six-carbon sugar, broken down into two three-carbon
sugar. Smaller sugar is then oxidized, and the remaining atoms rearranged to
make two molecules of pyruvate (champbell, 2002)
NADH is a source of high-energy electrons, whereas ATP is a high-energy
compounds. During glycolysis produced 4 molecules of ATP, but the 2 molecules
of ATP used them back to the course of other reactions so that the remaining 2
molecules of ATP that is ready to be used for the body. The whole process of
glycolysis does not require oxygen. Glycolysis reaction occurs in the cytoplasm
(excluding mitochondria). The final result before entering the Krebs cycle is
pyruvic acid. There is what distinguishes this stage into two, namely glycolysis
and oxidative dekarbosilasi. Glycolysis convert compounds into compounds 2C
6C on the end result of glycolysis. What is meant dekarbosilasi oxidative reaction
of pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl CoA (Syamsuri, 1980_.
b. Krebs cycle
Glycolysis is less than a quarter of the energy release of chemical energy stored
in glucose, most of the energy that remains stored in the two molecules piruvet.
If there is molecular oxygen, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion where the Krebs
cycle enzyme perfecting organic fuel oxidation (champbell, 2002)
Entering the Krebs cycle, acetyl CoA reacted with oxaloacetic acid (4C) to pyruvic
acid (6C). oxaloacetic acid cycle then enters into various substances that
eventually became oksalosuksinat acid. On his way, 1C (CO2) is released. At
each stage, the energy released in the form of ATP and hydrogen. ATP produced
can be directly used. Conversely, hydrogen energy is combined with hydrogen
receiver NAD and FAD, to be brought into the electron transport system. In this
stage energy is released, and direasikan hydrogen with oxygen to form water. All
of the Krebs cycle reactions take place by requiring free oxygen (aerobic). Krebs
cycle take place inside the mitochondria (Syamsuri, 1980).
c. Electron transport system
Energy created from the events of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are of two
kinds. First in the form of high-energy phosphate bond, ATP or GTP (Guanine
Tripospat). This energy is energy that instantly ready to use. Both in the form of
electron transport, namely NADH (Nicotine Adenine Dinokleutida) and FAD (Flafin
adenine dinucleotide) in the form of FADH2. Both kinds of electron sources is
brought kesistem electron transfer. Electron transfer process is very complex, in
essence, electrons and H + and NADH and FADH2 substrat carried from one to
another in a chain substrat. Each time you move, the energy released is used to
bind inorganic phosphate (P) kemolekul ADP to form ATP. At the end there is
oxygen as a receiver, forming H2O. a glucose catabolism through aerobic
respiration produces 3 ATP. Each reaction in glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron
transport resulting compounds - compounds between. The compound was used
ingredients anabolisme (Syamsuri, 1980).
2.2.2 Anaerobic respiration (Anaerobic)
Anaerobic respiration is the reaction of carbohydrate solution to obtain energy
without using oxygen. Anaerobic respiration using certain compounds such as
pyruvic acid or acetals fosfoenol dehida, so that hydrogen bonding and form
lactic acid or alcohol. Anaerobic respiration occurs in tissues that lack of oxygen,
will be submerged water plants, seeds - seeds that are difficult to penetrate the
thick skin of oxygen, the cells - the cells of yeast and anaerobic bacteria. The raw
material in fermentation anaerobic respiration is glucose. In addition to glucose,
raw materials such as fructose, galactose and malosa also can be converted into
alcohol. The end result is the alcohol, carbon dioxide and energy. Glucose is not
completely decomposed into water and carbon dioxide, the energy produced is
smaller than aerobic respiration. Her reaction:
C6H12O6 Yeast>> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 21Kal
From the reaction equation can be seen that oxygen is not required. Even the
anaerobic bacteria such as klostidrium tetani (causes tetanus) can not live if it
relates to free air. Tetanus infection can occur if the wound is closed so as to
give the possibility of bacteria added fertile (Syamsuri, 1980).
CHAPTER III

EXPERIMENT METHOD

3.1 Tools and Materials


a. Respirometer
b. Cotton
c. NaOH crystals
d. cicada
e. sprout
f. 1 piece balance
g. 1 piece stop watch
h. Playdough
i. Eosin

3.2 Method

1. respirometer cleanse gently, then put it in an open state.


2. Considering the materials needed by using the balance sheet.
3. Wrapping NaOH crystals by using cotton and put it in the respirometer.
4. includes 1 head of crickets and closed respirometer by giving playdough
in connecting the lid to avoid the air out of or into the respirometer.
5. dripping tip the scale respirometer with eosin to taste by using the
syringe (be careful not to eosin absorbed out of the pipe scale.
6. observing the movement of eosin every minute on the scale.
7. record the results in table observation.
8. After eosin included in the respirometer tube, clean the respirometer.
9. Repeating the workings of the above, with sprout material.
CHAPTER IV

RESULT OF EXPERIMENT
4.1 respiration in cicada
Mass of cicada : ± 0,7854 gr / cicada

the number of scale change


Time (minute)
crickets

2 1 0 – 0,2

2 0,2 – 0,4

3 0,4 – 0,54

4 1 0 – 0,14

2 0,14 – 0,31

3 0,31 – 00,44

6 1 0 - 0,4

2 0,4 – 0,69

3 0,69 – 0,88

4.2 respirasi pada kecambah

Berat Kecambah :
Jumlah jangkrik Waktu (menit) Perubahan Skala

5 1 0 – 0,05

2 0,05 – 0,12

3 0,12 – 0,2

10 1 0 – 0,01

2 0,01 – 0,21

3 0,21 – 0,33

15 1 0,1 - 0,15

2 0,15 – 0,3

3 0,3 – 0,48

CHAPTER V

CLOSING

5.1 Conclusion

a. small crickets require more oxygen in respiration, rather than large crickets. This, due to
body size and activity of crickets is a factor that affects the respiratory process.
b. NaOH to function as an enhancer for temperatures triggered a rapid respiration. NaOH
addition also serves as a binding CO2
c. Respiration is influenced by body mass, temperature and type of animal / plant.
5.2 References

www.google.com

www.wikipedia.org