Você está na página 1de 10


Agriculture is a vital sector of Pakistan's economy and accounted for 25.9 percent of
GDP in 1999-2000, according to government estimates. The sector directly supports
three-quarters of the country's population, employs half the labor force , and
contributes a large share of foreign exchange earnings. The main agricultural
products are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, and vegetables, in addition to
milk, beef, mutton, and eggs. Pakistan depends on one of the world's largest
irrigation systems to support production.
There are two crop growing seasons in Pakistan. One is the Rabi in which the crops
are sown in the beginning of winter season (October-November) and harvested in
early summer (April-May). Wheat, barley, grams, oilseeds and pulses are some Rabi
crops. The other crop is the Kharif which is sown in summer and harvested in
winter. Rice, sugarcane, maize and cotton are some Kharif crops.
Sugar Cane (Cash Crop)

Sugar cane is an important cash crop of Pakistan.All available evidences indicate

that Sugar Cane originated in Indo-Pak sub-continent.The description of sugar cane
is found in the Indian mythological literature of 1000 B.C.

It is a type of long grass "perennial" in nature.The first crop is called "plant cane"
and the succeeding crops are called "Ratoon Crops".Although it is a plant of
tropical regions but it can also be cultivated in sub-tropical areas.
Uses of Sugar Cane

Sugar cane is used for sweetening purposes.It is the most important and cheapest
source of refined sugar.Gur,Alcohol and Desi Shakkar are also prepared from
Sugar cane.The left out stalk fibers (bagasse) are used in the paper industries are as
fuel and cattle food.
Favourable Conditions For Its Growth
1. Temperature

Sugarcane is a crop of wet tropical lands .From eight to twenty four months elapse
between 65 degree F to 85degree F.Little or no growth takes place at a temperature
below 60 degree F.Frost is very dangerous to young cane and sever frost during the
period of ripening causes inversion of the sucrose.The sugarcane needs a minimum
of 250 frost free days.
2. Water

Heavy precipitation is beneficial during the early and intermediate stage of crop
growth,but a dry season is desirable before harvest.It grows well in areas having
rainfall of more than 40 degree annually.It is very sensitive to dought
conditions.Stagnant water is very damaging.In our country Sugarcane is cultivated
in canal irrigated areas since the rainfall is below 20" which is not sufficient.

Sugarcane can be grown on a variety of soils ranging from sandy loams the heavy
clays but sill loams and clay loams are most suitable.It is grown primarily on both
alluvial and red soils.The soil should contain some elements of lime,potash and

The best land for sugarcane is flat or undulating and fertile with topsoil that retains
moisture and sub soils that permit drainage.Therefore the main Sugarcane area in
Pakistan is located in the canal colonies of the fertile Indus valley.

Sugarcane Cultivation

In Pakistan,Sugarcane is cultivated in the spring season in the month of February

or March.It is harvested in November or December .Sugarcane is included in both
Rabi and Kharif Crops.It is a "perennial " crop.The first crop is called "plant cane"
and the succeeding crops are called "ratoon crops" .Generally good yields from
ratoon crops are obtained only in one or two years.

Sugarcane Growing Areas

In Pakistan,a sub tropical continental climate milltates against the growing of thick
canals.All the areas of our country are not suited to the growth of Sugarcane.It is
mostly cultivated in canal irrigated areas of Punjab,N.W.F.P and Sindh provinces.
1. Punjab:

Faisalabad,Sargodha,Multan,Bahawalpur,Lahore and Gujranwala division are

famouse for Sugar cane production.
2. Sindh:

Hyderabad division ranks first and Sukkur division second in the production of
Sugar cane .
3. N.W.F.P

Mardan and Peshawar districts are at the top and some amount of Sugar cane is
also produced in the districts of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan.
Cotton (Cash Crop)

Cotton is considered to be the most important cash crop of Pakistan.Pakistan,ranks

fifth in world cotton production.It is outstanding among vegetable,animal and
synthetic fibers,accounting for approximately one half of the all materials that are
made into cloth.Besides the preparation of a number of its products ,we also earn a
large amount of foreign exchange from its export to other countries .Its importance
may be estimated from the fact that it contributes 15% to the G.N.P The entire
textile industry directly or indirectly depends upon it.It provides employment to
2/3rd of industrial labour force.
Biological And Historical Reference

Cotton is also known as the "Silver Fiber" .It is a wooly fibre surrounded around
the seeds of the plant the longing to genus "Gossypium".It is known to have been
produced in the Indus plain since 3000 B.C.
Favourable Conditions For Its Growth
1. Temperature:

Humid tropical and sub-tropical savanna climates are both conductive to cotton
growth .At the time of cultivation it requires temperature ranging between 80
degree F to 100 degree F but at the time of picking 50 degree F to 60 degree F
temperature remains sufficient.Frost or severe cold is dangerous for its growth.As
produced commercially,cotton requires a growing season of atleast 180 to 200 frost-
free days.
2. Water:

A minimum precipitation amount of 20" and a maximum of 40" per year is

considered to be the optimum requirement for cotton cultivation.The annual
rainfall in Pakistan is less than 20" which is insufficient ,so without artificial
irrigation,cotton cultivation is not possible.It is for this reason that canal and tube
well irrigated areas of Sindh and Punjab are devoted to cotton cultivation.The
moisture should be comparatively even throughout much of the year but retarted
during the harvesting period.
3. Soil:

Cotton grows best on soils which retain moisture at their upper levels and are well
drained at lower depths.Its favours alluvial soil but can do quite well on tighter soils
if sufficient moisture is present to prevent excessive compaction around the plant
roots.The use of natural or artificial manure is essential to maintain the fertility of
4. Land:

Sea breeze is very helpful for the production of quality cotton.For this reason low
lands near the sea (Sindh areas ) are considered to be ideal situations for its
Cotton Cultivation:

Cotton is a Kharif crop in Pakistan and is cultivated in the summer season.Sowing is

mainly broadcast and begins in April in Sindh and in May or June in Punjab.In
Sindh,picking starts from August.Whereas in Punjab it begins in September or
October.Cotton mostly grows in rows and the minimum distance between row to
row is kept about 11/2 feet .Similarly the minimum distance between plant to plant
remain about 6".
Cotton Growing Areas:

In Pakistan cotton is grown in canal irrigated areas of Punjab and Sindh and also in
some parts of Baluchistan and N.W.F.P.
1. Punjab:

The province of Punjab has a network of canals leading out from the mighty river
Indus and draining the are. (0 % of the crop depends Bahawalpur,Dera Ghazi
Khan,Faisalabad,Sargodha,Lahore and Gujranwala constitute the cotton belt .In
these areas the well-known variety of medium staple cotton is grown.A small
quantity of Desi quality cotton is allowed to be grown for domestic use.Punjab
produces a surplus quantity of cotton and after meeting the local requirements the
rest of it is exported.
2. Sindh:

The province of Sindh also produces a considerable amount of cotton.The canal

irrigated areas of Sindh,constituting Hyderabad and Sukkur division are the main
cotton centres.Here both the American medium staple and Desi qualities of cotton
are grown.Sindh also produces surplus quantity of cotton which is more than the
local requirements.

Rice (Food Crop)

Importance of Rice in Pakistan:

Rice holds an important position among the cash crops of Pakistan.It fulfills the
food requirements of our country but we also earn a lot of foreign exchange from its
export.Besides it is an important raw material for manufacturing starch,paper
,sandals,hats,mattresses etc.grain as well as its husk is also used as fodder for cattle.
Biological and Historical References

Rice belongs to the genus "Oxygen",two species of which are cultavated,"Oryza

Glaberrima" and "Oryza Sativa".The former is found only in tropical west African
while the latter is found all over the rice growing areas..The exact origin of rice is
not known but most of the research workers give this credit to South East Asi.After
1468 it was introduced in Italy from where it spread to european and many other
contries of the world.
Favourable Coditions For Its growth:
1. Temperature:

Rice is a tropical plant.it requires high temperature during the growing season of 4
to 6 months.The temperature should be more than 80 degree F and in no way less
than 70 degree F even for the quick maturing varieties.In Pakistan rice is cutivated
only one a year i.e.early summer.Its cultivation is not possible in areas of severe cold
or where the temperature goes below freezing point.
2. Water

Rice is known as a plant of water.Its cultivation requires large amount of

moisture.The annual rainfall should not be in any way leas than 40 ".The root of the
rice plant should remain submerged in water for a long time.For 75 days the rice
fields should have 6 " of slow moving water.When the rice crops mature ,less water
is required and during ripening season,the field should be almost dry so that it can
be harvested easily.

The rice growing areas of Pakistan have an average annual rainfall of less than 20
" .So the deficiency of rainfall has been met by the artificial arrangements of
irrigation water through canals and tube wells etc.
3. Soil:

With the exemption of sandy soils which are very permeable ,rice can be grown
successfully on soils ranging from silt loam to clays .Alluvial soil is the most suitable
soil for the rich growth of rice.Heavy clayey sub soil with water retaining capacity
gives best results.
4. Land:

The flooding of rice fields requires level land and therefore river valleys,deltas and
coasted plains are suitable areas,otherwise terracing is required.
System of Cultivation

There are two methods of rice cultivation:

1.Broad Cast Sowing:

This involves direct plantation of rice plants in the fields.


In this case sowing is first done in nursery beds.When the plants attain a height of 4
" to 6 ",they are transplanted into big fields.This method is also called the Japanese
method.It is the most scientific and beneficial method.By its practice ,the per acre
production increases considerably.

Rice is mostly cultivated in rows and the distance from row to row is kept about 6 "
and from plant to plant remains 3 ".
Rice Growing Areas

Cultivation of rice is mainly confined to the low lying parts of the Punjab plain and
the flooded rivers and canal areas of Sindh.To a small extent it is also grown in the
submountain districts in the North and the canal irrigated areas.Rice cultivation in
N.W.F.P .Baluchistan and Azad Kashmir areas is not more than 1 % to 2 % of their
total areas.
1. Punjab:

In Punjab,the division of Lahore and Gujranwala rank at the top.Best equalities

like Basmati,Parmal,Sukhdari,Irri-six etc. are grown in this part of Punjab.Besides
somu rice is also cultivated in Shakhupura,Sargodha,Faisalabad,Multan and
Bahawalpur divisions.
2. Sindh:

In the province of Sindh,the districts of Sukkur division are most famouse for good
quality rice cultivation .Larkana district ranks at cultivated in
Khairpur,Nawabshah and Hyderabad districts.The main qualities of rice which are
common in the province of Sindh are Kangni,Beghi,Irri-8 etc.

WHEAT (Food Crop)


Wheat is the most popular food crop of Pakistan.Wheat being the staple diet of most
of the people of Pakistan it dominates all crops in acreage and production .We use
wheat and its products in a number of ways.It accounts for over 70 % of the gross
cereals and over 36 % of the country's acreage is devoted to wheat cultivation.

Wheat is being cultivated in our country from ancient times.According to some

experts wheat was first cultivated in the Indus Valley.Pakistan is the 4th largest
producer of wheat in Asia and stands 11th in world production.
Favourable Conditions For Its Growth
1. Temperature:

Wheat is essentially a temperate crop requiring moderate heat and moisture.In

Pakistan it is a rain (winter) crop.It is cultivated in the month of October and
November.The temperature then is between 50 degree and 60 degree F which is
most suitable for wheat growth while it is harvested at the end of April or early in
May when the temperature is between 80 degree F and 100 degree F.This high
temperature helps in the ripening of the crop.
2. Water:

For wheat cultivation,rain must come during the period of growth and sunny
conditions should prevail at the time of ripening.Minimum rainfall required during
the growing season is 20 ".Rainfall is no way should exceed 40 ".In Pakistan the
average annual rainfall is less than 20 " which is insufficient.Thus wheat is mostly
grown by means of irrigation.Due to lack of irrigational facilities Baluchistan and
Potwar plateau depend exclusively on rainfall.However the yield per acre of the rain
fed fields is about half that of irrigated fields.

3. Soil:

Wheat is known to grow on a varioty of soils but it does best in the well-drained
clayey loams having plenty of humus.Hence the dark coloured chernozems of the
temperate grasslands like that of Pakistan are the most suitable soils.
Kinds of Wheat:

There are two main types of wheat:

1.Vulgare or Sharbati:

It is widely cultivated and is prized for common bread.


It has local importance and is mostly used for making of Suji (Semolina) and Sewian
Wheat Producing Centres of Pakistan:

Wheat is cultivated in all the four provinces of Pakistan.Punjab and Sindh

provinces however rank at the top.The plain areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces
have alluvial soil brought by River Indus and its tributaries.These rivers further
increase the fertility of the soil by adding a number of organic and in-organic
matters brought by them from various areas of our country .The plain areas of
Punjab and Sindh provinces have insufficient rainfall.This deficiency has been made
up by providing canals and other irrigational facilities.The temperate climate aids
wheat production in Sindh and Punjab.
1. Punjab:

The province of Punjab ranks at the top in the production of wheat.The upper indus
plain accounts for 70 % of the total wheat of our country.Canal fed fields produce
2/3 and the rest comes from the rain fed fields.The main wheat growing divisions
are :

Sargodha,Faisalabad,Multan,Dera Ghazi
Khan,Bahawalpur,Lahore,Sahiwal,Shaikhupura and Sialkot.
2. Sindh:

The province of Sindh ranks second in wheat production.Kabul,Kurram and Gomal

rivers have a substantial share in wheat acreage.Most of the lands devoted to wheat
cultivation in the lower Indus Plains are located in the irrigated districts of
Nawabshah,Hyderabad,Sukkur,Tharparkar and Khairpur.
3. N.W.F.P:

The North west Frontier province does not contribute much towards wheat
production.In the canal irrigated areas of N.W.F.P Mardan,Peshawar and Bannu
are famouse for wheat cultivation.

Some wheat is also grown in the plateau areas and the valleys of the hilly regions of
Baluchistan.On the Potwar Plateau there are large areas under wheat which depend
entirely on rainfall.

Livestock is the second important sector of agriculture. While the share of
agriculture in GDP declined from 26 in 1986-87 to 24 per cent in 2003-04, the share
of livestock went up from eight to 11.4 per cent during that period.

In other words, the share of livestock in agriculture increased from 30 to 48 per

cent. Its foreign exchange earnings increased to Rs53 billion in 2003-04 which is
12.34 per cent of the total national export earnings as compared to its share of 5.3
per cent in 2001-02. Despite the neglect of livestock sector, its share in GDP and that
of agriculture as well as of export earnings increased.

Pakistan is rich in its major livestock wealth as is evident from its population
growth as shown in Table 1:

Increase of livestock population between 1960-61 to 2002-03

Livestock 1960-61 2002-03 Increase

(million in numbers)

Baffloes 8.2 24.8 16.6

Cattle 16.4 23.3 6.9

Goats 10.4 52.8 42.4

Sheep 12.4 24.6 12.2

Camels 0.4 0.8 0.4

t is evident from Table 1 , that there was significant increase in the population of
livestock, especially goats, buffaloes, sheep and cattle in the given order. Although,
there was increase in the population of camels and bovines, but this increase except
that of donkeys was not significant .Because their population was below one million
in 1960-61 and it remained below one million even after 43 years in 2002-03.

Presently, livestock is the major economic activity of small and landless farmers
,tenants , sedentary ,nomadic and transhumance herders for their survival.


The major buffalo breeds are Nili-Ravi and Kundi ,while Sahiwal and Red Sindhi
are the dominant milk breeds .Of the draught cattle Bhagnari and Dajal are heavy
breeds ,Dhani and Lohani are medium , Rohani and Rojan are light breeds ,while
Thari is a dual breed both for milk and draught purposes .

There are around 31 breeds of goats which are raised mainly for milk, meat, skin,
hair manure etc. Some of these breeds reared for specific purposes are Betal, Dera
Din Panah, Jattan and Kamori mainly for milk, while Chamber, Shurri, Damani,
Nachi, Potwari and Khurassani, Sindh Desi, Tapri mainly for milk and meet.
Similarly, Kaghani, Hairy Goat, Lehri, Desi(Jattal) and Burgi mostly for meat and
hair, while Kooti, Buchi, Labri, Gaddi, Kajli, Chappar and Tharki mainly for meat,
milk and hair. Likewise,Teddy Pateri and Barbari are primarily raised for meat.
In Northern areas due to severe cold weather ,shortage of food ,feed and burning
material for warmth and cooking ,the Baltistani ,Jarakhel , Koai Ghizar and
Piameri breeds of goats are used for mutton, milk, hair and dung to supplement
animal dung for cooking and warming up as well as manure .

Similarly, there are nearly 30 breeds of sheep, out of which 16 are thin-tailed and 14
are fat-tailed sheep. They are raised for different purposes depending upon the
breeds such as mutton, wool, milk, fat, manure etc Again, camel is one of the most
neglected animal in spite of its great importance in our arid, semi-arid regions, it is
a valuable source of milk, meat, skin hair. fuel, bones, ploughing, riding and
transportation in these regions where other sources are negligible or not sufficient.
And yet, there is not a single camel research institute in the country.

Camel and its by-products have great potential of their export to Middle East
,Africa and other countries. Policy makers and planners of livestock development
should seriously consider to establish a national camel research institute in Thal,
Cholistan, Thar and Chagai-Kharan based on technical and socio-economic
parameters as has been done by India at Bikaner in their Rajisthan desert .