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“All the world ’s a stage.

And all the


men and women merely players.
They have their exits and their
entrances. And one man in his time
play many parts. ”
—William Shakespeare
The Stories of Jeffrey
Dahmer and Alice Walker
Jeffrey Dahmer had a troubled
childhood. His parents constantly bickered
before they divorced, his mother had
emotional problems and doted on his
younger brother, and he felt that his father
neglected him. When he was 8 years old,
Jeffrey was sexually abused by an older
boy. But most individuals who suffer
through such childhood pains never go on
to commit Dahmer’s grisly crimes.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 2
The Stories of Jeffrey
Dahmer and Alice Walker
In 1988, Dahmer murdered three people. He
first met a 14-year old boy at a bus stop and
asked him to pose nude photos. Soon after they
arrived at Dahmer’s apartment, he had sex with
the boy, drugged him, strangled him, dismembered
him and smashed his bone with a sledgehammer.
In 1991, when he was arrested, the police found in
Dahmer’s apartment at least 15 dismembered
bodies, a head in the refrigerator and a heart in the
freezer, and a blue barrel of acid for leftovers
(Matthews, 1992)
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 3
The Stories of Jeffrey
Dahmer and Alice Walker
Alice Walker was born in 1944. She
was the eighth child of Georgia
sharecroppers who earned $300 a year.
When Walker was 8, her brother
accidentally shot her in the left eye with a
BB gun. By the time her parents got her to
the hospital a week later (they had no car),
she was blind in that eye and it had
developed a disfiguring layer of scar tissue.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 4
The Stories of Jeffrey
Dahmer and Alice Walker
Despite the counts against her, Alice
Walker went on to become an essayist, a poet
and an award-winning novelist. She won the
Pulitzer Prize for her book “The Color
Purple.” Like her characters, especially the
women, Alice Walker overcame pain and
anger to celebrate the human spirit. Walker
writes about the people who “make it, who
come out of nothing…People who triumph.”

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 5
Questions to Ponder:
1. What leads one child to grow up and
commit brutal acts of violence and
another to turn poverty and trauma
into a rich literary harvest?
2. How can we explain how one child
picks up the pieces of a life shattered
by tragedy, while another becomes
unhinged by life’s stress?

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 6
What is Developmental Psychology?

Developmental
psychology
• Concerned with the changes in
behavior and abilities of man
over the course of development.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 7
The lifespan
perspective is a
view of human
development
that takes into
account all
phases of life,
not just
childhood or
adulthood
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 8
Development is
lifelong—from
conception to old age
Development is
multidimensional—it
consists of biological,
cognitive and socio-
emotional dimensions
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 9
Development is
multidirectional—some
dimensions of development
expand and others sink.
Development is
multidisciplinary—it
cuts across disciplines

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Development is
contextual—individuals
are changing beings in a
changing world, acting on
contexts such as biological
make-up, physical
environment, cognitive
processes, historical
contexts, social contexts
and cultural contexts. 11
abmartinez @ upm-psych101
Development involves
growth, maintenance
and regulation—the
mastery of life often
involves conflict and
competition among three
goals of human
development: growth,
maintenance and
regulation.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 12
The Nature of
Development
As children, each of us
traveled some common paths.
Yet, we are also unique.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 14
What is human development?
Human development
• Refers to the pattern of
movement or change in
human capabilities that begins
at conception and continues
throughout the life span.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 15
ëThe pattern of change is complex because it is
a product of several
abmartinezdevelopmental
@ upm-psych101 processes.
16
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 17
Processes of Development

SOCIO-EMOTIONAL
COGNITIVE PROCESSES—
BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES — involve changes in an
PROCESSES — involve changes in individual’s
involve changes an individual’s relationship w ith other
in an individual’s thought, people, changes in
intelligence, emotions and changes
physical nature. in personalit y.
language.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 18
These processes
are interwoven in
the development
of the individual
throughout the
human life cycle. BIOLOGICAL
PROCESSES

COGNITIVE SOCIO-
PROCESSES EMOTIONAL
PROCESSES

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 19
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 21
@ The interaction of
heredity with
environment (nature vs.
nurture issue) has a great
effect on many behavioral
and psychological traits.
@ How much of our behavior
is due to inherited factors
and how much to
environmental factors has
been a cause of debate.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 22
@ Environment (nurture)—the
influence of parents, siblings,
family, friends, schooling,
nutrition, and all other
experiences in which a child is
exposed
@ Nurture includes family
dynamics, parenting, peer
relations, schooling,
neighboring quality, media,
culture and other biological
encounters such as viruses,
birth complications, physical
accidents, medical care, etc.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 23
• Hereditary (nature)—
influences based on the
genetic makeup of an
individual that influence
growth and development
throughout life.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 24
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Y Questions to ponder on:
– Did you become this person
that you are now gradually—
like the slow, cumulative
growth of a seedling into a
giant oak tree?
– Or did you experience
sudden, distinct changes in
your development—the way
a caterpillar changes into a
butterfly?

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 26
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Y The debate on whether
development displays
continuity or discontinuity
has two components:
– The pattern of
development
– The connectedness of
development

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 27
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Y Is development smooth and
stable, with new abilities, skills
and knowledge gradually added
at a relative uniform pace
(continuous)?
Y Or does development occur at
different rates, alternatives
between periods of little change
and periods of abrupt, rapid
change (discontinuous?)

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 28
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Y Many behaviors follow a natural sequence of
development:
– Infants reach for an object before they are able to
pick them up
– We learn to walk before we run
– We learn to speak words before sentences
– We learn to count by rote before we understand
the concept of numbers

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 29
Y Sequences in development usually proceed
from simple behaviors to those that are more
differentiated and complex
complex——there are orderly
sequences in development.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 30
Continuity vs. Discontinuity

In explaining these orderly sequences, some


psychologists prefer to interpret them either as
continuous or discontinuous processes.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 31
Continuity of Development
Y Advocates argue that processes in
human development involves
gradual, smooth, cumulative and
quantitative changes in behavior.
Y They believe in successive
approximations that earlier skills
are strengthened and lead to the
development of later skills.
Y They argue that human
development is an additive
process that occurs in small steps,
without sudden changes.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 32
Discontinuity of Development
YAdvocates argue that
development involves
distinct stages that are
qualitatively different.
YEach new stage integrates
past and present
experiences in a new,
more complex response
pattern.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 33
Discontinuity of Development
Y The concept of stages implies that:
– Behaviors at a given stage are organized around a dominant
theme—there is a task or an ability of a particular stage.
– Behaviors at one stage are qualitatively different from
behaviors that appear at earlier or later stages;
– All children go through the same stages in the same order—
the stages are sequentially arranged and the speed of passing
through various stages may be accelerated or delayed as a
result of genetic or environmental factors.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 34
Do early experience rule
us for life?
“Early experience” advocates

Y Early
Early--experience advocates
emphasize the importance of
childhood experiences
Y They believe that, unless infants
experience warm, nurturing care
giving, they will not develop their
full potential. abmartinez @ upm-psych101 36
“Early Experience” Advocates
Y Early-experience doctrine
suggests that after a period of
early development, we
become relatively fixed and
permanent in our
developmental make-up.
Y It rests on the belief that life is
an unbroken trail on which a
psychological quality can be
traced back to its origin.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 37
Y The later-experience
advocates argue that
although early experiences
are important contributors
to human development,
they are not necessarily
more important than later
experiences.

“Later Experience” Advocates


abmartinez @ upm-psych101 38
“Later Experience” Advocates
Y Later
Later--experience
advocates argue that
children are malleable
throughout
development and later
(adult) sensitive care
giving is just as
important as earlier
sensitive care giving.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 39
“Later Experience” Advocates
YLater-experience
advocates believe that
early experience can
create a foundation for
later experience, but
both make important
contributions to
human development.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 40
“The child is the father of man. ”

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 41
The Jim and Jim Twins
Jim Springer and Jim Lewis are
identical twins. They were separated at the
age of four weeks and didn’t see one
another again until they were 39 years old.
Even so, they share uncanny similarities
that read more like fiction than fact. For
example, they have both worked as a part-
time deputy sheriff, have vacationed in
Florida, have driven Chevrolets, have had
dogs named Toy, and have married and
divorced women named Betty.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 42
The Jim and Jim Twins
In addition, one twin named his son
James Allan, and the other named his son
James Alan. Both like Math but not
spelling, and both enjoy carpentry and
mechanical drawing. They have chewed
their fingernails down to the nubs and
have almost identical drinking and smoking
habits. Both have hemorrhoids, put on ten
pounds at about the same time, and first
suffered headaches at the age of 18. They
also have similar sleep patterns.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 43
The Jim and Jim Twins
Jim and Jim have some differences as
well. One wears his hair over his forehead,
whereas the other wears it slicked back
with sideburns. One expresses himself
better verbally, the other is more
proficient in writing. For the most part,
however, they are more alike than
different.
The Jim and Jim twins were part of
the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared
Apart, directed by Thomas Bouchard and
his colleagues (1996).
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 44
Genetic Foundations of Development
Plasticity—central tenet of
human growth which states that
people are molded by their life
experiences.

But plasticity requires some raw


materials to be shaped and start
the development process—
genes provide
abmartinez @ upm-psych101
that raw material
45
• biological transmission
Biological of traits from parents to
offspring that have
process evolved from generation
to generation.

• defines one’s
nature—based on
Nature one’s biological
structures and
processes.

• involved in almost
Importance all aspects of
in human behavior,
psychology personality and
mental processes.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 46
Genes and Chromosomes:
The Code of Life
• chemical strands in the cell nucleus that
Chromosomes contain the genes
• 23 pairs in every human cell

• the 22 pairs of human


Autosomes
chromosomes

• the pair of human chromosomes


Sex
that determines one’s sex (i.e.,
chromosome
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 XX, XY) 47
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 48
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What does heredity have
to do with psychology?
Examples: Behavior is
mental dependent to a
Many human
retardation large extent on
behaviors,
such as Down's the physical
traits and
syndrome, a structure of
characteristics
tendency to the nervous
are influenced
schizophrenia, system, which
by heredity.
intelligence, is definitely
etc. inherited.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 51
Some traits are Most traits are much
controlled by a single more complex than
Most traits are pair of genes, one gene the simple
determined by the of which is dominant
dominant-recessive
interaction of and one recessive
controlled trait
several genes. (e.g., eye color, curly
or straight hair, color (e.g., intelligence or
blindness, etc.). height).

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 52
Heredity
Polygenic
• Most traits are influenced
by many genes

Multifactorial
• Most traits are influenced
by many factors
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 53
Heredity
Genotype (genetic
potential)
• the arrangement of genes
underlying a trait but
outwardly invincible.
Phenotype (genetic
expression)
• the expressed or observable
..\movies\Heredity trait, resulting from the
[www[1].keepvid.com].mp4 interaction of genotype and
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 54
environment.
Heredity
Dominant trait
• The one trait that is expressed
when two competing traits are
present.

Recessive trait
• A trait within an organism that is
present, but not expressed.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 55
Principles of Genetic Transmission
Principle of dominance
• When either gene is dominant, the characteristic
is expressed; only when both genes are
recessive is the other characteristic expressed

DOMINANT RECESSIVE
Brown eyes Blue, gray or green eyes
Normal hair Baldness (in men)
Dark hair Blond hair
Normal color vision Color blindness
Freckles No freckles
Dimples No dimples
abmartinez @Attached
upm-psych101 56
Free earlobes earlobes
Principles of Genetic Transmission

But environment can


play a crucial role in the
expression of genes.

Genes operate always


within an environmental
context, and the immediate
context can affect the ways
in which they are expressed
(Gottlieb, 1998). 57
abmartinez @ upm-psych101
Genetic Disorders
Genetic imperfections may occur given the
billions of sperm cells generated by the male
and the 2 million or so ova generated by the
female.

These variations—or mutations—are the


driving force behind evolution.

When “errors” turn out to be adaptive, they


result in improvements in the species or
the creation of a new species.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 58
Genetic Disorders
Some human disorders are
entirely hereditary and are passed
on along according to the same
principles of inheritance.

Other genetic disorders are not inherited


but may result from errors during cell
division , or are made abnormal by
radiation, drugs, viruses, chemicals, etc.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 59
Hereditary Disorders

Example: Huntington’s
disease—appears at the age
of 30-40 in which the
nervous system deteriorates
resulting to uncontrollable
muscular movements and
disordered brain function
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 60
Hereditary Disorders
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
• a problem involving the body’s
management of protein, in which
the body fails to produce an
enzyme that breaks down
phenylalanine, an amino acid,
hence resulting to an abnormal
amounts of substance that
accumulate in the blood and
harm the developing brain cells.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 61
Hereditary Disorders
Tay-Sachs Disease
• the nervous system disintegrates
because of the lack of enzyme that
breaks down fats in brain cells, the fatty
deposits swell and the brain cells die;
• produces blindness and muscle
degeneration prior to death (occurring
mainly in Jews of Eastern Europe
ancestry)

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 62
Hereditary Disorders
Sickle-cell anemia (SCA)
• A recessive gene abnormality that does not involve
metabolism; people have red blood cells that do not contain
normal hemoglobin and hence cause red blood cells to
become sickled and clogging small blood vessels,
preventing blood from reaching parts of the body

Example:
• Among the Bamba tribe in Africa, SCA
incidence is as high as 39%; one African
American in 400 has the disease

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 63
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 64
Structural Defects in Chromosomes

Genetically Types
based problems
may also result
from physical
changes in the Autosomal
chromosomes. Sex-
disorders
chromosomes
disoders
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 65
Autosomal Disorders
Down syndrome
• Caused by the presence of an extra chromosome
on the 21st pair;
• first described by physician John Langdon Down.
• Most frequent cause of mental retardation.

1 in 1,000 births of mothers under age


30, and 74 times greater between ages
45 and 49
20-30% of Down syndrome cases are
contributed by the father.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 66
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abmartinez @ upm-psych101 68
Disorders of the Sex Chromosome

Turner’s syndrome
• Occurs when an ovum is fertilized by a
sperm that carries no sex chromosome
or when it is the ovum that has no sex
chromosome (45, XO);
• The baby appears female at birth, but
the ovaries have already disappeared,
they do not produce the hormones
necessary for sex differentiation (e.g.,
women do not develop breasts or
menstruate)
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 69
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 70
Disorders of the Sex Chromosome

Klinefelter ’s syndrome
• Occurs when an ovum carrying two
XX chromosomes is fertilized by a
sperm carrying a Y chromosome
(hence, 47,XXY).
• The presence of Y chromosome causes
the child to have male appearance, but
is somewhat feminized because the
male hormone levels are low (they
have underdeveloped penis but
overdeveloped breasts
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 71
Disorders of the Sex Chromosome
47,XYY—occurs when the sperm
provides two Y chromosomes,
hence 47,XYY males appear almost
opposite of 45,XO females because
they have large body built and
masculine personality
characteristics.

Fragile X syndrome —caused by


an abnormal gene on the X
chromosome, a genetically based
cause of mental retardation in
which boys are more likely to be
affected than girls
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 72
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I. Prenatal period (conception to birth)
II. Neonatal and infancy (birth to 1.5 years)
III. Early childhood (1.5 or 2 to 6-7 years)
IV. Middle and late childhood (7 to 12 years)
V. Adolescence (puberty to 18 or 21 years)
VI. Early adulthood (18 or 21 to mid 30’s)
VII.Middle adulthood (mid 30’s to 60 years)
VIII.Late adulthood (60 years onwards)

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 75
“The history of man for
nine months preceding
his birth is probably far
more interesting and
contains more stunning
events than all the
years that follow.” –
20th Century
Samuel Taylor, 20
American poet-
poet-essayist

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 76
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 77
It is the time from
conception to birth
and lasts about 266
days or nine months.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 78
It is a time of
tremendous growth—
from a single cell to an
organism complete
with brain and
behavioral capabilities.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 79
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 80
1. Germinal Stage —first two
weeks following conception

2. Embryonic Stage —occurs 2-8


weeks after conception

3. Fetal Stage —begins two months


after conception and
abmartinez @ upm-psych101
lasts until birth 81
Fertilization

• Once the sperm


penetrates the
ovum’s outer • Once the
membrane, the ovum has
sperm and the been
egg are joined fertilized, it
• Release of is called a
together
an ovum or ZYGOTE,
egg cell which will
from a begin the
woman’s process of
ovaries repeated
division.
Ovulation Zygote
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 82
The sperm usually reach the egg in the portion
of the fallopian tube within 90 minutes after
ejaculation.

300 million sperm in each ejaculation, with an


estimated of 2,000 reaching the fallopian tube,
only 50 will reach the egg and only one can
penetrate the ovum ’ s memb

The zygote receives 23 chromosomes from the


mother and 23 from the father, to form a new
and genetically unique person.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 83
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 84
10. Tender, swollen breasts
9. Feelings of fatigue or
exhaustion
8. Implantation bleeding
7. Nausea or vomiting
6. Increased sensitivity to odors
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 85
5. Abdominal bloating
4. Frequent urination
3. A missed period
2. High basal body temperature
1. The proof: A positive
pregnancy test
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 86
Now the cell begins to specialize—some
forming an inner mass (blastocyst) and
outer mass (trophoblast).

The blastocyst would become the


embryo and the trophoblast would
become the placenta to provide nutrition
and support for the embryo.

Ten days after conception,


implantation—the attachment of zygote
to the uterine abmartinez
wall—takes place.
@ upm-psych101 87
On the second week, the
blastocyst, or developing
embryo, is looking for a spot to
implant itself in the uterus.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 88
y Occurs from 2 to 8 weeks
after conception:
vThe mass cells changes
from zygote to embryo
vRate of cell division
intensifies
vFormation of support
systems for the cell
vAppearance of organs

abmartinez @ upm-psych171 89
Although the embryo at first is only
the size of an apple seed, all major
internal and external structures form
during this period.

As such, these weeks are the most


delicate of the pregnancy and the
time when the growing embryo is
most vulnerable to threats from the
internal and external environments.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 90
Fetal development occurs in
cephalocaudal order, beginning
with the head and ending with
the lower body and extremities

This results in the head of typical


fetus to be disproportionately
larger than the rest of its body.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 91
EMBRYONIC STAGE—
STAGE
Early formation of the
central nervous system,
backbone and spinal
column, as well as the
heart and gastrointestinal
system, has begun.
begun. Arms
and leg buds are visible
and facial features are
also observable.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 92
Thus, in 8 weeks, a single,
tiny undifferentiated cell has
proliferated into a complex
organism with millions of
cells differentiated into heart,
kidneys, eyes, ears, nervous
system and other structures,
with an increased mass of 2
million percent.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 93
• the process of organ
formation that takes place
during the first months of
prenatal development.
Organogenesis
• when organs are being
formed, they are especially
vulnerable to
environmental changes.

abmartinez @ upm-psych171 94
Life-support
Systems:

Umbilical Amniotic
Placenta
cord sac

abmartinez @ upm-psych171 95
Begins two months after conception and
lasts for 7 months, on the average.

Growth and development continue, organ


systems mature to the point at which life
can be sustained outside of the womb.

Fetal growth begins to slow around the


eighth month.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 96
During the
fetal stage,
the fetus
develops vital
organs, such as
lungs, and
physical
characteristics
that are
distinctively
human.
The brain is fully
developed and the
fetus can suck,
swallow and make
irregular breathing
sounds. Fetus makes
active movements
including kicks and
somersaults.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 98
Although separate from the mother
in many ways during development,
the fetus is completely dependent
on her for survival during most of
the prenatal period.

The age of viability (or age at


which the infant has a chance to
survive if born prematurely) is
presently around 23 or 24 weeks of
fetal age.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 99
The fetus,
although
protected by the
placenta, is
vulnerable to
toxic agents and
chemicals—
called
teratogen—that
can harm the
developing
fetus.
Although living in a protected, A teratogen is any non-genetic
comfortable environment, the agent (e.g., substances or
fetus is not totally immune to conditions) that increases the
the larger world surrounding the risk of prenatal abnormalities
mother. and causes a birth defect.

These teratogens or
environmental influences such
With natural screening process,
as drugs, viruses and chemicals
90% of some kinds of
pass from the placenta into the
malformations end in
fetus ’ blood vessel and thus
spontaneous abortions.
affect fetal development and
cause birth defects.abmartinez @ upm-psych171 101
Sensitivity to teratogens begins about 3
weeks after conception.

The probability of structural defect is


greatest early in the embryonic stage
because this is when organs are being
formed.

After organogenesis is complete, teratogens


are less likely to cause anatomical defects
but may produce growth retardation or
tissue damage (Goldman, 1980)
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 102
But fetal exposure to teratogens is more
likely to stunt growth or create problems in
the way organs function.

Which organ is affected by a teratogen


depends in part on which organ is forming.

Vulnerability of the brain to teratogens is


greatest at 15-25 days after conception, the
eyes at 24-40 days, the heart at 20-40 days
and the legs at 24-36 days.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 103
Maternal characteristics that
can affect prenatal
development:
• Maternal diseases and infections
(e.g., Rubella, HIV, etc.)
• The mother’s age
• Nutrition
• Emotional states
• Stress
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 104
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 105
Prenatal
Development
“In every child who is born, no matter
what the circumstances, and no matter
who the parents are, the potentiality of
the human race is born.”
–JAMES AGEE, 2
200th Century writer
II. INFANCY
INFANCY—developmental
period that extends from
birth to 18 or 24 months.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 110


Infancy is a
time of extreme
dependence
upon adults for
care and
protection.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 111


INFANCY
Each baby has a unique
genetic makeup that will
ultimately determine
stature, hair, eye and skin
color, and possibly even
intellectual potential.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 112


NEONATAL PERIOD

• The newborn baby, called a neonate,


must make major adjustments at
birth, such as breathing on his own,
eating and digesting his own food,
excreting his own wastes, maintaining
his own body temperature, etc.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 113
• To help make these adjustments, infants
have quite a large number of inborn
behavioral patterns, called reflexes or
reflex actions.
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Vital functions 0 1 2
Heart rate Absent Slow—less than Fast—100-
100 beats per 140 beats per
minute minute
Respiratory effort No breathing for Irregular and slow Good
more than one breathing
minute with normal
crying
Muscle tone Limp and flaccid Weak, inactive but Strong, active
some flexion of motion
extremities
Body color Blue and pale Body pink but Entire body
extremities blue pink
Reflex irritability No response Grimace Coughing,
sneezing and
crying
y The Apgar exam is especially
good at assessing the newborn’s
ability to respond to the stress
of delivery, labor and the new
environment.
y The Apgar exam also identifies
high-risk infants who need
resuscitation.
Reflexes—are simple unlearned,
involuntary response that occur
automatically, that is, without
thinking about them or without
prior knowledge, in the presence
of certain stimuli.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 118


Reflexes are critical for survival
immediately after birth and
many of them unfold naturally as
part of the infant’s ongoing
maturation.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 119


Sucking, swallowing,
hiccupping, blinking,
urinating, stepping
and defecating are
all present in the
baby's behavioral
repertoire at birth.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 120


Other examples of reflexes:
• Rooting reflex —turning head
towards things that touch their
cheeks
• Sucking reflex—prompts infants to
suck at things that touch their lips
• Gag reflex—to clear the throat
• Startle reflex (Moro reflex)—
infants fling out their arms, fans the
fingers and arches the back in
response to a sudden noise.
• Crying—clears the lungs
• Babinski reflex—a baby’s toes fan
out when the outer edge of the sole
of the foot is stroked or tickled
• Darwinian reflex —infant grasps
hard when anything touches his
palms. abmartinez @ upm-psych101 121
The processes that underlie
infants ’ understanding of the
world around them are
sensation and perception.

Day by day, the infants


grows increasingly
comprehensible as their ability
to sense and perceive the
environment develops.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 122
Newborns are nearsighted, but visual
acuity develops quickly. As it grows,
infants’ distance vision grows
increasingly acute.

Infants are particularly attracted to


objects of light-and-dark contrasts, such
as the human face (especially their
mother’s), or to any objects that sharply
contrast with the rest of the environment.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 123
Newborns respond to sounds, especially
human voice (e.g., mother’s lullaby), and
can distinguish different people on the
basis of voice (they prefer their mother’s
voice)

Even in the womb, infants respond to


sound outside of its mother.

They show startle reactions to loud, sudden noises and


exhibit familiarity with certain sounds, such as continuing
to cry when other newborns are crying but stops when he
hears a recording of its own crying (Martin & Clark, 1982)
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 124
Newborns are sensitive to pain and touch. Their
senses of smell and taste are also well
developed.

Newborns turn away their heads from bad smell


(e.g., rotten egg) and produce positive facial
expressions to strawberry and vanilla smells
(Steiner, 1979).

Infants seem to have an innate sweet tooth even


before they have teeth: they prefer sweetened
tastes and suck harder at a bottle if sweetened
(Smith & Blass, 1996)
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 125
• Habituation —
decrease response
to stimulus that
occurs after
repeated
presentation

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 126


..\movies\infancy\Joseph
Campos- Visual Cliff Experiment
[www[1].keepvid.com].mp4
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 127
Infants gain an average
of 5-6 ounces per week
during the first month.

They double their birth


weight by age of 4
months and would nearly
triple it by the first year.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 128


By the end of its second
year, the average child
weighs four times its birth
weight.

The weight gains of


infancy are matched by
increased length.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 129
The relationship of the size of body
parts to one another changes
dramatically
At birth, During the
the head first 2
The head accounts years, the
becomes By
for one- baby’s
proportional
quarter of head is
adulthood
in size to the
the only one- it’s one-
rest of the eighth.
body newborn’s fifth of
entire body
body size. length.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 130


y Infants are born with 100-
200 billion neurons.
y At some point in prenatal
development, cell division
creates 250,000 additional
neurons every minute.
y Although the creation of
neurons stops just after
birth, neurons continue to
increase in size.

abmartinez @ upm-psych170 131


y At birth, the baby’s body
weight is only about 5% of
adult weight, whereas the
brain weighs about 25% of
its adult value.
y By 3 years of age, the brain
has attained 80% of its
ultimate weight and by 6
years, it has reached 90%
(Thatcher et al., 1996)

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 132


abmartinez @ upm-psych171 133
Motor skills develop in conjunction
with physical growth

Acquisition of motor skills is a key


feature of development in infants, giving
the baby power tools to acquire
knowledge and gain a sense of
competence and self-control.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 134
Gross motor skills
• involve large muscle activities
(e.g., walking, jumping)

Fine motor skills


• involve more finely tuned
movements (e.g., finger dexterity)

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 135


Proximodistal direction
• body parts closer to the center of the body
come under control before parts farther
out, or trunk-to-extremities direction (e.g.,
acquisition of early prehensile skills)

Cephalocaudal direction
• the tendency of body parts to mature in a
head-to-foot progression (e.g., progression
of early postural and locomotor skills)

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 136


abmartinez @ upm-psych101 137
With infant motor accomplishments
come the increasing degree of
independence.

Older infants can explore their


environment more extensively and
initiate social interaction more
readily than when they were younger.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 138


• There is also some
behavioral evidence
for individual
differences at birth.
• Neonates differ in
their general level of
activity, their
responsiveness to
light and sound, and
the quality and
intensity of their
bodily reactions.
@Temperament refers
to how children
behave, as opposed to
what they do, or why
they do it.
@From the time of
birth, infants show
temperamental
differences.

abmartinez @ upm-psych171 140


Attachment is a close emotional bond
between the infant and the caregiver
(Bowlby, 1989).

Freud believed that infants become


attached to the person or object that
provides oral satisfaction.

But a classic study of Harry Harlow and


Robert Zimmerman (1959) reveals that
feeding is not as important for the
development of attachment.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 141
Separation anxiety is the distress displayed
by infants when a customary care provider
departs.

Separation anxiety starts a little later than


stranger anxiety, usually beginning 8-9
months and peaks around 14 months.

Infants’ growing cognitive skills allow them


to ask questions with no readily apparent
answers ..\movies\infancy\separation
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 142anxiety
[www[1].keepvid.com].mp4
Stranger anxiety is the most
frequent expression of an
infant’s fear and tends to
appear in the second half of
the first year of life.

By age 9 months, the fear of


strangers is often more intense
and continues to escalate until
first birthday (Emde et al.,
1976).
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 143
Smiling is another important
communicative affective
behavior of the infant.

Two types of smiling:

Reflexive smile—
Social smile—
does not occur in
occurs in response
response to stimuli;
usually appear to an external
stimulus, typically a
during irregular
face; appears until
patterns of sleep,
2-3 months, or as
not when infant is
in alert state. early as 3 weeks.
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 144
Social referencing involves “reading”
emotional cues in others to help determine
how to act in a particular situation; “feeling
what others feel”

In social referencing, infants often look to


their mothers for cues about how to react or
behave (Mumme et al., 1996).

Social referencing occur around the age 8-9


months (Walden & Ogan, 1988)
abmartinez @ upm-psych171 145
Towards the latter
part of infancy
period, many
psychological
activities are
beginning—such
as language,
symbolic thought,
sensorimotor
coordination and
social learning.
Although most infants
reach developmental
milestones at similar
stages, infancy
development can differ
in terms of pacing. Some
babies may display signs
of developmental delays
during infancy, including
motor abilities.
EARLY CHILDHOOD—
CHILDHOOD—
extends from infancy
to about 5 or 6 years;
the preschool years
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 148
Many changes take place
during early childhood,
childhood , as
tiny dependent infants
transform into children who
can walk, talk and begin
formal learning.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 149
Children gain muscle
control, balance, eye-
hand coordinat ion, which
enable them to become
more physically active
and independent .

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 150


Pre-school children
experience changes
in their cognitive and
language abilities.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 151


Pre-school children
speak with ease,
know the alphabet,
count, play complex
games, tell stories,
communicate ably,
and develop school-
readiness skills.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 152


In early childhood, young
children learn to become
more self-sufficient and to
care for themselves. They
learn self-help skills such
as eating, dressing and
undressing without
assistance, etc.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 153


Children become less
dependent on parents
and more self-
self-reliant,
spending many hours in
play with peers.
They become increasingly
competent in their
social interaction with
others.

Importance of Play in Children ’s


Socio--emotional Development
Socio abmartinez @ upm-psych101 154
Importance of Play in Children ’s
Socio--emotional Development
Socio

• Children learn to take the


perspective of others and
infer others’ thoughts and
feelings, helping them
interpret others’ behavior.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 155
Importance of Play in Children ’s
Socio--emotional Development
Socio

Children learn to
respond
appropriately,
learning physical
and emotional
self-control.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 156


Impact of Parenting Styles on
Children’s Social Development

• Parents’ child-
rearing practices
are critical in
shaping the
children’s social
competence.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 157


Parenting Style Parent Behavior Child’s Behavior
Authoritarian Rigid, punitive strict Unsociable,
standards; value unfriendly,
unquestioning withdrawn
obedience of children
Permissive Lax, inconsistent, Immature, moody,
undemanding dependent, low
direction self-control
Uninvolved Detached emotionally, Indifferent,
sees role only as rejecting behavior
providing necessities
Authoritative Firm, sets limits and Good social skills,
goals, uses reasoning, likable, self-
encourages reliant,
independence independent
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 158
MIDDLE AND LATE
CHILDHOOD—
extends from
about 6 to 11
years of age,
approximately
corresponding to
the elementary
school years.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 159


Children at this stage
show significant
differences in physical
appearance (e.g.
height, weight, built).
Muscular strength,
hand-eye coordination
and stamina progress
rapidly, allowing older
children to perform
complex tasks.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 160


Elementary school
children master the
fundamental skills of
reading, writing,
arithmetic.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 161


Children are
formally exposed to
the larger world
and its culture.
They also learn how
to make friends.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 162


Achievement becomes a more central
theme of the child’s world and self-
control increases.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 163


Adolescence period
is the transition from
childhood to early
adulthood, entered
approximately at 10
to 12 years of age
and ending at 18 to
21 years of age.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 164


ëAdolescence is a time of
profound changes, and
sometimes turmoil.
ëIt begins with rapid
physical changes as
adolescents attain sexual
and physical maturity.
ëAdolescents are no longer
children but considered by
society to be not quite
adults.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 165


Physical development:
ëPuberty
Puberty——the period at which
maturation of the sexual organs
occurs, begins at about age 11
or 12 for girls and 13 or 14 for
boys
ëDevelopment of secondary
sexual characteristics such as
the deepening of voice and
growing of pubic and facial hair
for males, menarche and
development of pelvis and
enlargement of the breasts for
females, changes in body
contour, etc. abmartinez @ upm-psych101 166
ëThese physical changes
result largely from the
secretion of various
hormones and they affect
virtually every aspect of an
adolescent’s life.
ëMenarche—or the first
menstruation signals the
start of puberty for girls.
ëSpermarche—onset of
puberty for boys marked by
their first ejaculation.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 167
ëImplications of puberty
on adolescents:
§ Early maturing boys
have distinct advantage
over late-maturing boys
(e.g., athletics,
popularity with peers,
positive self concept)
§ For girls, although early
maturity helps in
developing self-esteem,
but it can also be
negative (e.g., being
source of ridicule)
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 168
ëAdolescent’s thought is
more logical, abstract
and idealistic.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 169


ëAt this point of human
development, the
pursuit of
independence and
identity are prominent.
ëIt is generally a time of
self-discovery, in which
young people aim to
define their place in the
world.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 170


ëThe questions of
“WHO AM I” and
“WHAT DO I
WANT TO BE”
become the
central theme.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 171


ëAdolescence period can be a
challenging time for teenagers
and their families.
ëIn quest for independence,
many teenagers start
questioning parental authority
and often show signs of
rebelliousness.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 172


ëTeenagers have an increasing need to
belong in society.
ëMany of them spend most of their time
with friends than their family, allowing
them to develop and practice
abmartinez @ upm-psych101
social skills.
173
However, it is also within this setting that
adolescents may face issues regarding peer
pressure, sexual intercourse and
experimentation with alcohol and drugs.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 174


Stormy Adolescence:
Myth or Reality?
ëDoes puberty foreshadow
a stormy, rebellious
period of adolescence?
ëIn their search for
identity, teenagers
experiment with a range
of behaviors that are
often objectionable to
parents and society.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 175
ëThey experience adolescent
egocentrism—a state of self-
absorption in which teenagers
view the world from his/her
own viewpoint.
ëEgocentrism leads
adolescents to be highly
critical of authority figures,
unwilling to accept criticism
and quick to fault others.
ëIt makes them believe that
they are the center of
attention, leading to self-
consciousness.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 176


ëAdolescents develop personal fables—
fables—the
belief that their experience is unique,
exceptional and shared by no one else.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 177


ëMany young people are overwhelmed by
feelings of stress, confusion and
depression from circumstances related to
family, academic and social life— life—leading
them to self-
self-destructive behaviors.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 178
Adolescent Suicide

• Third leading cause of – School problems


death for adolescents – Frequent incidents of
self-
• Male adolescents are
destructive behavior
5 times more likely to
commit suicide than – Loss of appetite or
excessive eating
females, although
– Withdrawal from others
females attempt
– Sleeping problems
suicide more often
than males – Signs of depression
– Preoccupation with death
– Announcement of
thoughts of suicide 179
abmartinez @ upm-psych101
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 180
• This begins in the late teens or early
twenties and lasts through mid-30s.
• The peak of health (18 – 25)
• Body begins to become slightly less
efficient and more susceptible to
disease at age 25

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 181


Early adulthood is a time of establishing
personal and economic independence from
parents, as self becomes the main reliance

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 182


Young adults strive to take
responsibility for themselves and
make their own decisions.
People envision life goals and
make career choices which form
part of their identity.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 183


It is also a time for
selecting a mate,
starting a family and
rearing children.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 184


Young adults often
become more focused
on advancing their
careers and gaining
stability in their
personal lives.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 185


It begins at
approximately
35 to 45 years of
age and extends
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 into the sixties.
186
For many, midlife is a time
when they start to think
about “how much time they
have left,” and hence
individuals begin to re-
examine their lives, their
relationships, their work
and the meaning of it all.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 187


However, people at
this point have
achieved the
“wisdom” in life.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 188


• Major physical and
biological changes
occur during middle
age. Hair is graying,
bodies are sagging, and
teeth are yellowing.
•There are also health
concerns, including
cardiovascular
problems, menopause
and stress.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 189


•The major biological change
that occurs during middle
adulthood pertains to
reproductive capabilities.
•During late 40s or early 50s
women begin to menopause—
the period during which
women stop menstruating and
are no longer fertile.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 190


•For men, the aging
process during middle
adulthood is subtler as
there are no physiological
signals of increasing age
except decrease in sperm
production and decline in
the frequency of orgasm

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 191


Middle adulthood is a time
of expanding personal and
social involvement and
responsibility, of assisting
the next generation; and
of reaching and
maintaining satisfaction
and commitment in
careers.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 192


The idea that life will
end at some point
becomes increasingly
influential in their
thinking, and they
question past
accomplishments.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 193


• Midlife crisis occurs as adults face signs
of physical aging and feeling of socio-
emotional dissatisfaction with their lives.
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 194
In their personal lives,
many marriages either
improve or deteriorate
during middle age.
Specific issues include
empty nest syndrome,
late parenting,
separation,
remarriage, sexuality
and grand parenting.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 195


LATE
ADULTHOOD—
ADULTHOOD —
begins in the 60s
or 70s and lasts
until death.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 196


Late adulthood is
a time of
adjustment to
decreasing
strength and
health, life
review,
retirement, and
adjustment to
new social roles.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 197


Grandparenting is one of the most
important milestones during old
age. For some, it means having
continuity and may involve
emotional self-
self-fulfillment.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 198


ëDuring the last stages of
adulthood, people become
more accept ing of others
and of their own lives and
are less concerned about
issues and problems that
once bothered them.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 199


• Senility
– Broad, imprecise term
typically applied to older
adults who experience
progressive deterioration
of mental abilities

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 200


It is a time to come to terms with
mortality, accepting one’s self—
self —
including mistakes and
achievements.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 201


• People come to
accept that fact
that death is
inevitable and
they try to
understand their
accomplishments
in terms of the
broader meaning
of life.

abmartinez @ upm-psych101 202


“The power, complexity and
beauty of human development
has been about life’s rhythm
and meaning, about turning
mystery into understanding, and
about weaving together a
portrait of who we were, are,
and will be. From the first cries
of a newborn baby to the final
prayers of an elderly adult —we
arrive, laugh, grow, seek, work,
question, hope, mate, quarrel,
sing, achieve and care. ”
–JOHN W. SANTROCK, 20th
Century psychologist
abmartinez @ upm-psych101 203