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# 1.

(a) CD = OD − OC (A1)
(C1)

1
OA = CD
(b) 2
1
(OD − OC )
= 2 (A1)
(C1)

(c) AD = OD − OA
1
OD − (OD − OC )
= 2 (A1)
1 1
OD + OC
= 2 2 (A1)
(C2)
Note: Deduct [1 mark] (once only) if appropriate vector
notation is omitted.
[4]

     
2. (a) u = −i + 2 j v = 3i + 5 j
   
u + 2v = 5i + 12 j (A1)
(C1)
 
u + 2v = 52 + 122
(b)
= 13 (A1)
 26  
w= (5i + 12 j )
Vector 13 (A1)
 
= 10i + 24 j (A1) (C3)
[4]

OA
3. (a) =6 ⇒ A is on the circle (A1)
OB
=6 ⇒ B is on the circle. (A1)
 5 
OC =  
 11 
= 25 + 11
=6 ⇒ C is on the circle. (A1) 3

1
(b) AC = OC − OA
 5   6
  −  
=  11   0  (M1)
 −1 
 
=  11  (A1) 2

AO ⋅ AC
cos OAˆ C =
AO AC
(c) (M1)
 − 6  − 1 
 . 
 0   11 
= 6 1 + 11
6
= 6 12 (A1)
1 3
=
= 2 3 6 (A1)

6 2 + ( 12 ) 2 − 6 2
cos OAˆ C =
OR 2 × 6 × 12 (M1)(A1)
1
= 12 as before (A1)

## OR using the triangle formed by AC and its horizontal and

vertical components:

AC = 12
(A1)
1
cos OAˆ C =
12 (M1)(A1)
3
Note: The answer is 0.289 to 3 sf

2
(d) A number of possible methods here
BC = OC − OB
 5   − 6
 − 
 11   0 
= (A1)
 11 
 
=  11 
(A1)
 BC  = 132
1
× 132 × 12
 ∆ ABC  =2 (A1)
= 6 11 (A1)

## OR ∆ ABC has base AB = 12 (A1)

and height = 11 (A1)
1
× 12 × 11
⇒ area = 2 (A1)
= 6 11 (A1)

3
cos BAˆ C =
OR Given 6
33 1 33
sin BAˆ C = ⇒ ∆ABC = × 12 × 12 ×
6 2 6 (A1)(A1)(A1)
= 6 11 (A1) 4
[12]

10 
OB =  
4. (a) 5 (A1)
(C1)
 − 3
AC =  
 6  (A1) (C1)

## (b) OB ⋅ AC = (10 × (–3)) + (5 × 6) = 0 (M1)

Angle = 90° (A1) (C2)
[4]

3
5. u + v = 4i + 3j (A1)
Then a(4i + 3j) =8i + (b – 2)j
4a = 8
3a = b – 2 (A1)
Whence a= 2 (A1) (C2)
b= 8 (A1) (C2)
[4]

 3   − 1
  −  
6. Required vector will be parallel to  − 1  4  (M1)
 4 
 
=  − 5 (A1)
 − 1  4 
  + t  
Hence required equation is r =  4   − 5  (A1)(A1) (C4)
 3  4 
  + s 
Note: Accept alternative answers, eg  − 1  − 5  .
[4]

 18 
 
7. (a)  24  = 30 km h–1 (A1)
 36 
  = 36 2 + (−16) 2
 − 16 
= 39.4(A1) 2

## (b) (i) After ½ hour, position vectors are

9  18 
   
12  and  − 8  (A1)(A1)

## (ii) At 6.30 am, vector joining their positions is

 9   18   − 9   9 
  −   =    
12   − 8   20  (or  − 20  ) (M1)
 − 9
 
 20  (M1)
= 481 (= 21.9 km to 3 sf) (A1)
5

4
18 
 
(c) The Toyundai must continue until its position vector is  k  (M1)
 18 
 
Clearly k = 24, ie position vector  24  . (A1)
To reach this position, it must travel for 1 hour in total. (A1)
Hence the crew starts work at 7.00 am (A1)
4

## (d) Southern (Chryssault) crew lays 800 × 5 = 4000 m (A1)

Northern (Toyundai) crew lays 800 × 4.5 = 3600 m (A1)
Total by 11.30 am = 7.6 km
Their starting points were 24 – (–8) = 32 km apart (A1)
Hence they are now 32 – 7.6 = 24.4 km apart (A1)
4

## (e) Position vector of Northern crew at 11.30 am is

 18   18 
  =  
 24 − 3.6   20.4  (M1)(A1)
 18 
 
20.4 
Distance to base camp =  (A1)
= 27.2 km
27.2
Time to cover this distance = 30 × 60 (A1)
= 54.4 minutes
= 54 minutes (to the nearest minute) (A1)
5
[20]

## 8. Vector equation of a line r = a + λ t (M1)

0  2
   
a = 0 , t =  3 (M1)(M1)
⇒ r = λ (2i + 3j) (A1) (C4)
[4]

5
9. (a)
y
4
C
3
2
1
B
0 1 2 3 4 5 x
– 1
– 2
– 3
A

(A3)
(C3)
Note: Award (A1) for B at (5, 1); (A1) for BC perpendicular to
AB; (A1) for AC parallel to the y-axis.

 2 
OC =  
(b)  3.25  (A1)
(C1)
Note: Accept correct readings from diagram (allow ±0.1).
[4]

16  12 
12 + t − 5
10. (a) (i)
r1 =    
16 
 
t = 0 ⇒ r1 = 12  (M1)
(16 2 + 12 2 )
| r1| = = 20 (A1)

 12 
 
(ii) Velocity vector = − 5
(12 2 + ( −5) 2 )
⇒ speed = (M1)
= 13 (A1) 4

6
 x  16  12 
 y  = 12 + t − 5
(b)      
 5   x   5   6   5   12 
12 .  y  = 12 . 12 + 12 . t − 5
⇒             (M1)
⇒ 5x + 12y = 80 + 144 (A1)
5x + 12y = 224 (A1)(AG)

OR
x − 16 y − 12
=
12 −5 (M1)
5x – 80 = 144 – 12y (A1)
⇒ 5x + 12y = 224 (A1)(AG)

OR
12 − y
x = 16 + 12t, y = 12 – 5t ⇒ t = 5 (M1)
 12 − y 
 
⇒ x = 16 + 12  5  (A1)
⇒ 5x = 80 + 144 – 12 y
⇒ 5x + 12y = 224 (A1)(AG)
3

 12  2.5
 − 5  
(c) v1 =   v2 =  6  (M1)
 12  2.5
 . 
v1.v2 = − 5  6  (M1)
= 30 – 30
⇒ v1.v2 = 0 (A1)
⇒ θ = 90° (A1) 4

 x   12   23   12 
 y  . − 5 = − 5 . − 5
(d) (i)         (M1)
⇒ 12x – 5y = 23 × 12 + 25 = 301 (A1)
OR
x − 23 y + 5
=
2.5 6
⇒ 6x – 138 = 2.5y + 12.5 (M1)
⇒ 12x – 276 = 5y + 25
⇒ 12x – 5y = 301 (A1)

7
5 x + 12 y = 224 25 x + 60 y = 1120 
⇒ 
12 x − 5 y = 301  144 x − 60 y = 3612
(ii) (M1)
169x = 4732
x = 28, y = (12 × 28 – 301) ÷ 5 = 7
(28, 7) (A1)(A1) 5
Note: Accept any correct method for solving simultaneous
equations.

## (e) 16 + 12t = 23 + 2.5t ⇒ 9.5t = 7 (M1)

12 – 5t = –5 + 6t ⇒ 17 = 11t (M1)
7 17

9.5 11 (A1)
⇒ planes cannot be at the same place at the same time (R1)

OR
28 28 16  12 
 7  ⇔  7  = 12 + t − 5
r1 =         (M1)
 12t = 12

⇔ − 5t = −5 ⇔ t = 1 (A1)
 23  2.5 25.5 28
 + = ≠ 
When t = 1 r2 = − 5  6   1   7  (A1)(R1)

OR
28 28  23  2.5
 7  ⇔  7  =  − 5 + t  6 
r2 =         (M1)
⇔ t = 2 (A1) 4
[20]

8
1  6 
  .  
11.  2   − 8  = 6 – 16 = –10 (A1)
1  6 
  = 12 + 2 2 = 5 ,   = 6 2 + 8 2 = 100
 2  − 8 = 10 (A1)
1  6  1  6 
  .   =    
 2  − 8  2   − 8  cosθ
− 10 1 −1
=−
–10 = 5 × 10 cosθ ⇒ cosθ = 10 5 5 ⇒ θ = arccos 5 (M1)
θ ≈ 117° (A1)
[4]

 2  x − 4
  .  
12.  3   y + 1 (M1) (M1)
Notes: Award (M1) for using scalar product.
 x − 4
 
Award (M1) for  y + 1  .
2(x – 4) + 3(y + 1) = 0 (A1)
2x – 8 + 3y + 3 = 0
2x + 3y = 5 (A1)

OR
 2 3
 
 3
Gradient of a line parallel to the vector is 2 (M1)
2
Gradient of a line perpendicular to this line is – 3 (M1)
2
So the equation is y + 1 = – 3 (x – 4) (A1)
⇒ 3y + 3 = –2x + 8
⇒ 2x + 3y = 5 (A1)
[4]

## 13. (a) At 13:00, t = 1 (M1)

 x  0   6  6
  =   + 1 ×   =  
⇒  y   28   − 8   20  (A1)
2

9
 x  x
  −  
y y
(b) (i) Velocity vector:   t =1   t =0 (M1)
6 0  6 
  −   =  
=  20   28   − 8  (km h )
–1
(A1)

(6 2 + ( −8) 2 )
(ii) Speed = ; (M1)
–1
= 10; 10 km h (A1)
4

x = 6t 

y = 28 − 8t 
(c) EITHER (M1)
Note: Award (M1) for both equations.
 x
 
⇒ y = 28 – 8  6  (M1)(A1)
Note: Award (M1) for elimination, award (A1) for equation in
x, y.
⇒ 4x + 3y = 84 (a1)
4

OR
⊥ ⊥
 x  6  0  6 
  .   =   .  
 y   − 8  28   − 8  (M1)
 x  8  0  8
  .   =   .  
 y   6   28   6  (M1)(A1)
⇔ 4x + 3y = 84 (A1)
4

10
18 
 
(d) They collide if  4  lies on path; (R1)
EITHER (18, 4) lies on 4x + 3y = 84
⇔ 4 × 18 + 3 × 4 = 84
⇔ 72 + 12 = 84; OK; (M1)
x = 18 (M1)
⇒ 18 = 6t ⇒ t = 3, collide at 15:00 (A1)
4
18   0   6 
  =   + t  
OR  4   28   − 8  for some t,
 18 = 6t 
 
⇔ and 4 = 28 – 8t  (A1)
 t =3 
 
⇔ and 8t = 24 (A1)
 t = 3
 
⇔ and t = 3
They collide at 15:00 (A1)
4

 x  18  5
  =   + (t − 1)  
(e)  y  4  12  (M1)
 18 + 5t − 5 
 
=  4 + 12t − 12  (M1)
2
 13   5 
  + t  
=  − 8  12  (AG)

(f) At t = 3, (M1)
  
x 13 + 3 × 5   28 
  =   =  
 y   − 8 + 3 × 12   28  (A1)
 28  18   10 
  −   =  
 28   4   24  (A1)
2 2
(10 + 24 ) = (676)
= 26
26 km apart (A1) 4
[20]

11
a.b
ab
14. cos θ = (M1)
− 4 + 14
= 20 50 (A1)
10
= 10 10
1
= 10 (= 0.3162) (A1)
θ = 72° (to the nearest degree) (A1) (C4)
[4]

 2  0.7   3.4 
  + 2  =  
15. (a) At t = 2,  0   1   2  (M1)
2 2
Distance from (0, 0) = 3.4 + 2 = 3.94 m (A1)
2

 0. 7 
  = 0.7 2 + 12
(b)  1  (M1)
–1
= 1.22 m s (A1)
2

## (c) x = 2 + 0.7 t and y = t (M1)

x – 0.7y = 2 (A1) 2

## (d) y = 0.6x + 2 and x – 0.7y = 2 (M1)

 170 160 
 or x = and y = 
x = 5.86 and y = 5.52  29 29  (A1)(A1)
3

12
(e) The time of the collision may be found by solving
 5.86   2   0.7 
  =   +  
 5.52   0   1  t for t (M1)
⇒ t = 5.52 s (A1)
[ie collision occurred 5.52 seconds after the vehicles set out].
Distance d travelled by the motorcycle is given by
 5.86   0 
  −   = (5.86) 2 + (3.52) 2
5. 52   2
d=  (M1)
= 46.73
= 6.84 m (A1)
d 6.84
=
Speed of the motorcycle = t 5.52
–1
= 1.24 m s (A1) 5
[14]

 6 1
  −  
16. Direction vector =  5   3  (M1)
5
 
=  2 (A1)
 x  1  5
  =   + t  
 y   3  2  (A2)

OR
 x  6  5
  =   + t  
 y  5  2 (A2) (C4)
[4]

 2 x   x + 1
 • 
 x − 3   5 
17. (a) =0 (M1)(M1)
⇒ 2x(x + 1) + (x – 3)(5) = 0 (A1)
2
⇒ 2x + 7x – 15 = 0
(C3)

13
(b) METHOD 1
2
2x + 7x – 15 = (2x – 3)(x + 5) = 0
3
⇒ x = 2 or x = –5 (A1)
(C1)
METHOD 2

− 7 ± 7 2 − 4( 2)(−15)

x= 2( 2)
3
⇒ x = 2 or x = –5 (A1)
(C1)
[4]

 240 
OA =  
70 
OA = 240 + 70 = 250
2 2
18. (a) (i)  (A1)
1  240   0.96 
 = 
250  70   0.28 
unit vector = (M1)(AG)

 0.96   288 
v = 300  =  
(ii)  0.28   84  (M1)(A1)
240 5
=
(iii) t = 288 6 hr (= 50 min) (A1)
5

##  480 − 240   240 

AB =   =  
(b)  250 − 70   180  (A1)
AB = 240 + 180 = 300
2 2

OA • AB ( 240)(240) + (70)(180)
=
cos θ = OA × AB ( 250)(300) (M1)
= 0.936 (A1)
⇒ θ = 20.6° (A1) 4

 339 − 240   99 
AX =   =  
(c) (i)  238 − 70  168  (A1)
 − 3   240 
  •  
(ii)  4   180  = –720 + 720 = 0 (M1)(A1)
⇒ n ⊥ AB (AG)

14
(iii) Projection of AX in the direction of n is
1  99   − 3  − 297 + 672
  •   =
XY = 5 168   4  5 = 75 (M1)(A1)(A1)
6

## (d) AX = 99 2 + 168 2 = 195 (A1)

AY = 195 − 75
2 2
= 180 km (M1)(A1)
3
[18]

19. x = l – 2t (A1)
y = 2 + 3t (A1)
x –1 y – 2
=
–2 3 (M1)
3x + 2y = 7 (A1)(A1)(A1) (C6)
[6]

15
20.

y U

T
V

x
S

(a) ST = t – s (M1)
 7  – 2
  –  
7
=  
– 2
9
 
9
=  (A1)
VU = ST (M1)
9
 
9
u–v=  
9
 
v=u–  
9
 5  9  – 4
  –   =  
15
=    
9 6  (A1)
V(–4, 6) (A1)5

9  1 
   or k   
9  1 
(b) Equation of (UV): direction is =    (A1)
5 9 5 1 
  + λ     + λ  
15
r=    9  or 15  1  (A1)
OR
 – 4 9  – 4  1
  + λ     + λ  
r= 
6   9  or  6   1 (A1)
2

16
1
 
(c) 11 is on the line because it gives the same value of λ , for both the x
and y coordinates. (R1)
4
For example, 1 = 5 + 9λ λ =– 9
4
11 = 15 + 9λ λ =– 9 (A1) 2

a 1
EW =   –  
(d) (i) 17  11 (M1)
 a – 1
 
=  6  (A1)

EW = 2 13 ⇒
( a – 1) 2
+ 36
= 2 13 (or (a – 1) + 36 = 52)
2
(M1)
2
a – 2a + 1 +36 = 52
2
a – 2a – 15 = 0 (A1)
a = 5 or a = –3 (A1)(AG)

(ii) For a = –3
 – 4  6 
   
EW =  6  ET = t – e =  – 4 (A1)(A1)
EW ⋅ ET
EW ET
cos WÊT = (M1)
– 24 – 24
= 52 52 (A1)
12
= – 13
Therefore, WÊT = 157° (3 sf) (A1)
10
[19]

17
21. Angle between lines = angle between direction vectors. (M1)
 4 1
   
3
Direction vectors are   and  – 1 . (A1)
 4  1   4  1 
       
 3  .  – 1   3   – 1
= cos θ (M1)

4(1) + 3(–1) =
( )
4 2 + 32  12 + ( – 1) 

2

 cos θ (A1)
1
cos θ = 5 2 = 0.1414 (A1)
θ = 81.9° (3 sf), (1.43 radians) (A1) (C6)

 4
 
–1
Note: If candidates find the angle between the vectors  
 2
 
4
and   , award marks as below:
4  2
   
–1
Angle required is between   and  4 (M0)(A0)
 4   2  4   2
       
 – 1  .  4   – 1  4 
= cos θ (M1)
 4 + ( – 1)  2 + 4
4(2) + (–1) 4 = 
2

2
( 2 2
) cos θ (A1)
4
17 20 = cos θ = 0.2169 (A1)
θ = 77.5° (3sf), (1.35 radians) (A1) (C4)
[6]

## (ii) b= 62 + 82 = 10 (A1)

1
=> unit vector in direction of b = 10 (6i + 8j) (A1)
= 0.6i + 0.8j

18
(iii) a . b =  a  b cos θ (M1)
12( 6) + 5( 8)
=> cos θ = 13(10) (A1)
112 56
=
= 130 65 (A1)
6
[6]

23. METHOD 1
At point of intersection:
5 + 3λ = –2 + 4t (M1)
l – 2λ = 2 + t (M1)
Attempting to solve the linear system (M1)
λ = –l (or t = 1) (A1)
 2
OP =  
 3 (A1)(A1) (C6)

METHOD 2
(changing to Cartesian coordinates)
2x + 3y = 13, x – 4y = –10 (M1)(A1)(A1)
Attempt to solve the system (M1)
 2
OP =  
 3 (A1)(A1) (C6)
Note: Award (C5) for the point P(2, 3).

## 24. (a) c ⋅ d = 3 × 5 + 4 × (–12) (M1)

= –33 (A1) (C2)
[2]

25. (a) OR = PQ
=q–p
10   7 
  –  
1
=   
3 (A1)(A1)
 3 
 
=
– 2 (A1)
3

19
PO ⋅ PQ
OP̂Q =
PO × PQ
(b) cos (A1)
PO = ( – 7 ) 2 + ( – 3) 2 58 , PQ = 32 + ( – 2 )
2

= = 13 (A1)(A1)
PO ⋅ PQ = –21 + 6 = –15 (A1)
– 15 – 15
OP̂Q = =
cos 58 13 754 (AG)
4

## (c) (i) Since OP̂Q + PQ̂R = 180° (R1)

 15 
= 
cos P Q̂R = –cos OP̂ Q  754  (AG)

2
 15 
1–  
(ii) sin P Q̂R =  754 
(M1)
529
= 754 (A1)
23
= 754 (AG)
OR
15
cos θ = 754

7 5 4
1 5

x P
(M1)
2
therefore x = 754 – 225 = 529 ⇒ x = 23 (A1)
23
⇒ sin θ = 754 (AG)
Note: Award (A1)(A0) for the following solution.
15
cos θ = 754 ⇒ θ = 56.89°
⇒ sin θ = 0.8376
23 23
754 = 0.8376 ⇒ sin θ = 754

## (iii) Area of OPQR = 2 (area of triangle PQR) (M1)

20
1
PQ × QR × sin PQ̂R
=2× 2 (A1)
1 23
13 58
=2× 2 754 (A1)
= 23 sq units. (A1)
OR
Area of OPQR = 2 (area of triangle OPQ) (M1)
1
 ( 7 × 1 – 3 × 10 )
=2  
2 (A1)(A1)
= 23 sq units. (A1)
7
Notes: Other valid methods can be used.
Award final (A1) for the integer answer.
[14]

 4  6 
  + t  
26. B, or r =  4   2  (C3)
 7   3
  + t  
D, or r =  5   1  (C3)
Note: Award C4 for B, D and one incorrect,
C3 for one correct and nothing else, C1 for one correct and one
incorrect, C0 for anything else.
[6]

 60   – 30 
  •  
27. (a)  25   40  = 60 × (–30) + 25 × 40 (M1)
= –800 (A1) (C2)

− 800

(b) cos θ =
60 2 + 25 2 ( − 30) 2 + 40 2 (M1)(A1)
Note: Trig solutions:
Award M1 for attempt to use a correct strategy, A1 for correct
values.
cos θ = –0.246... (A1)
θ = 104.25...° (or 255.75...°) (A1)
(C4)
She turns through 104° (or 256°)
[6]

21
 − 1 8
OB =   OC =  
28. (a) 7 9 (A1)(A1)
2

(b) AD = BC = OC − OB (M1)
 8   − 1  9 
  −   =  
= 9  7   2 (A1)
 2   9  11   8   3  11 
OD = OA + AD =   +   =    or   +   =   
 2  2  4    9  − 5  4  
 11 
 accept   
 
d = 11   4  (A1)
3

11  − 1  12 
BD =   −   =  
(c)  4   7   − 3 (A1)
1

 x   − 1  12    – 1  4  
  =   + t    or  + t   
y 7 −3 7 −1
(d) (i) l :            (A2)
(ii) At B, t = 0 by observation (A1)
OR
 − 1  − 1  12 
  =   + t  
 7   7   − 3
⇒t = 0 (A1) 3

 7   − 1  12 
  =   + t  
(e)  5   7   − 3  ⇒ 7 + 1 = 12t = 8
2
⇒t = 3 (A1)
 x   − 1  4 
  =   + t  
Note: The equation  y   7   − 1 leads to t = 2.

2  2
 
when t = 3 , y = 7 +  3  (–3) (M1)
= 7 – 2 = 5 (A1)
ie P on line (AG)

22
OR
5 – 7 = –3t = –2
2
⇒t = 3 (A1)
2 2
when t = 3 , x = –1 + 3 × 12 (M1)
= –1 + 8 = 7 (A1)
ie P on line (AG) 3

 7 8  − 1
CP =   −   =  
(f)  5 9  − 4 (A1)
 − 1   12 
  •  
 − 4   − 3  = –12 +12 = 0 (M1)(A1)
Scalar product of non-zero vectors = 0 ⇒ are perpendicular (R1)(AG)
OR
Geometric approach
CP: m = 4 (A1)
−1
BD: m1 = 4 (A1)
 −1
 
mm = 4 ×  4  = –1
1 (A1)
Product of gradients is –1 ⇒ lines (vectors) are perpendicular (R1)(AG)
4
[16]

## 29. Direction vectors are a = i – 3j and b = i – j. (A2)

a ⋅ b = (1 + 3) (A1)
 a = 10 ,  b = 2 (A1)
a ⋅b  4 
 = 
ab 10 2 
cos θ = (M1)
4
cos θ = 20 (A1) (C6)
[6]

 − 3  2 
AB = OB − OA =   −  
30. (a) (i)  − 1  − 2 (M1)
 − 5
 
= 1  (A1) (N2)
2

23
AB = 25 + 1
(ii) (M1)
= 26 (= 5.10 to 3 sf) (A1) (N2)
2
Note: An answer of 5.1 is subject to AP.

(b) AD = OD − OA
d  2 
  −  
=  23   − 2 
 d − 2
 
 25 
= (A1)(A1) 2

## BÂD = 90° ⇒ AB • AD = 0 or mention of scalar (dot) product. (M1)

 − 5  d − 2
  •  
⇒  1   25  = 0
–5d + 10 + 25 = 0 (A1)
d=7 (AG)

OR
1 
5  

25 

d − 2 (A1)
 25   1 
  × − 
 d − 2   5  = –1 (A1)
⇒d = 7 (AG)

7
OD =  
(ii)  23  (correct answer only) (A1)
3

24
5
BC =  
 25  (A1)
OC = OB + BC (M1)
 − 3  5 
OC =   +  
 − 1   25 
2
 
=  24  (A1) (N3)
4
Note: Many other methods, including scale drawing, are
acceptable.

AD  or BC  = 5 2 + 25 2 = 650
(e)   (A1)
Area = 26 × 650 =( 5.099 × 25.5)

= 130 (A1) 2
[15]

→ → →

## 31. (a) (i) BC = OC − OB

= −6i − 2 j (A1)(A1) (N2)
→ → →

(ii) OD = OA + BC
= −2i + 0 j (= −2i ) (A1)(A1) (N2) 4

25
→ → →

(b) BD = OD − OB
= −3i + 3 j (A1)
→ → →
AC = OC − OA
= −9i − 7 j (A1)
→ →

## Let θ be the angle between BD and AC

 
 (−3i + 3 j ) • (−9i − 7 j ) 
cos θ = 
 (−3i + 3 j ) − 9i − 7 j 
  (M1)
numerator = + 27 – 21 (= 6) (A1)

denominator
= 18 130 = 2340 ( ) (A1)
6
cosθ =
therefore, 2340

6

## (c) r = i − 3 j + t (2i + 7 j ) ( = (1 + 2t )i + (−3 + 7t ) j ) (A1)

(N1) 1

(d) EITHER
4i + 2 j + s( i + 4 j ) = i − 3 j + t ( 2i + 7 j ) (may be implied) (M1)
4 + s = 1 + 2t 

2 + 4 s = −3 + 7t 
(A1)
t = 7 and/or s = 11 (A1)

## Position vector of P is 15i + 46 j (A1)

(N2)
OR
7 x − 2 y = 13 or equivalent (A1)
4 x − y = 14 or equivalent (A1)

x = 15 , y = 46 (A1)

## Position vector of P is 15i + 46 j (A1)

(N2) 4
[15]

26
32. (a) OG = 5i + 5j – 5k A2
2

(b) BD = 5i + 5k A2
2

(c) EB = 5i + 5j – 5k A2
2
Note: Award A0(A2)(A2) if the 5 is consistently omitted.
[6]

 4  − 3
   
33. (a) Finding correct vectors, AB =  3  AC =  1  A1A1
Substituting correctly in the scalar product
AB ⋅ AC = 4(–3) + 3(1) A1
= –9 AG 3

(b) | AB | = 5 | AC | = 10 (A1)(A1)
−9
Attempting to use scalar product formula cos BAC = 5 10 M1
= –0.569 (3 s.f) AG
3
[6]

34. (a) Attempting to find unit vector (eb) in the direction of b (M1)

 3
1  
 4
32 + 4 2 + 0 2  0 
Correct values =   A1
 0.6 
 
 0.8 
 0 
=   A1

## Finding direction vector for b, vb = 18 × eb (M1)

10.8 
 
14.4 
 0 
b=   A1
Using vector representation b = b0 + tvb (M1)

27
 0  10.8 
   
 0  + t 14.4 
 5  0 
=     AG 6

## (b) (i) t = 0 ⇒ (49, 32, 0) A1

1
(ii) Finding magnitude of velocity vector (M1)

(−48) 2 + (−24) 2 + 6 2
Substituting correctly vh = A1
–1
= 54(km h ) A1 3

10.8t   49 − 48t 
   
14.4t  =  32 − 24t 
 5   6t 
(c) (i) At R,     A1
5
t = 6 (= 0.833) (hours) A1
2
5
(ii) For substituting t = 6 into expression for b or h M1
(9,12,5) A2 3
[15]

35. METHOD 1
Using a ⋅ b = ab cos θ (may be implied) (M1)

 3   – 2  3   – 2
  •   =     cos θ
 4  1   4  1 (A1)
 3   – 2
  •   = ( 3 × – 2 ) + ( 4 ×1) = – 2
Correct value of scalar product  4   1  (A1)

 3  −2 
  = 25 ( = 5 ) ,   = 5
4 1
Correct magnitudes   (A1)(A1)
−2
cosθ =
125 (A1) (C6)

28
METHOD 2

 3
  = 25
 4 (A1)

 −2 
  = 5
1 (A1)

 5
  = 34
 3 (A1)
Using cosine rule (M1)
34 = 25 + 5 − 25 5 cosθ (A1)
2
cosθ = −
125 (A1) (C6)
[6]

→  200   −600
AB =  − 
36. (a) (i)  400   −200 (A1)
 800 
= 
 600  (A1) (N2)

## (ii) AB = 800 2 + 600 2 = 1000 (must be seen) (M1)

1  800 
=  
unit vector 1000  600  (A1)
 0.8 
= 
 0.6  (AG) (N0) 4
Note: A reverse method is not acceptable in “show that”
questions.

 0.8 
v = 250  
(b) (i)  0.6  (M1)
 200 
= 
 150  (AG) (N0)
Note: A correct alternative method is using the given vector
equation with t = 4.

29
(ii) at 13:00, t = 1
 x   −600  200
 y  =  −200 + 1 150
      (M1)
 − 400 
= 
 −50  (A1) (N1)

## (iii) AB = 1000

1 000
= = 4 (hours)
Time 250 (M1)(A1)
over town B at 16:00 (4 pm, 4:00 pm)
(Do not accept 16 or 4:00 or 4) (A1)
(N3) 6

(c) Note: There are a variety of approaches. The table shows some of them,
with the mark allocation. Use discretion, following this allocation as closely
as possible.
Distance from A to B to Fuel used from A to B
Time for A to B to C
C (A1)
= 9 hours
= 2250 km = 1800 × 4 = 7200 litres

## Light goes on after Light goes on after Fuel remaining

16000 litres 16000 litres = 9800 litres (A1)
Time for 16 000 Distance on 16000 litres Hours before light
litres 8800
16000 1800
= (A1)
1800 16000 8 (A1)
= × 250 = 4 ( = 4.889)
8 1800 9
= 8 ( = 8.889)
9
Time remaining is 2
= 2222 (= 2222.22)
1 9 km Time remaining is
(= 0.111) 1 (A1)
=9 hour = ( = 0.111)
9 hour
1 Distance to C 1
= × 250 = × 250
Distance 9 = 2250 – 2222.22 Distance 9
= 27.8 km = 27.8 km = 27.8 km (A2) (N4) 7
[17]

16 + 9 25 = 5
37. (a) = (M1)(A1)
(C2)

30
 − 2  4  6
  + 2  =  
(b)  1  3   7  (so B is (6, 7) ) (M1)(A1)
(C2)

 − 2  4
  + t  
(c) r =  1  3  (not unique) (A2)
(C2)
Note: Award (A1) if “ r = ” is omitted, ie
not
an equation.
[6]

12 − 4   8
→    
38. (a) DE =  11 − 5  = 6 (M1)(A1)
(N2)

(b)

 DE = 82 + 62 (= 64 + 36 ) (M1)
= 10 (A1) (N2)

31
(c) Vector geometry approach
Using DG = 10 (M1)
2 2
(x − 4) + (y − 5) = 100 (A1)
Using (DG) perpendicular to (DE) (M1)
 − 6  6
→   →  
Leading to DG =  8  , DG =  − 8 (A1)(A1)
→ → →

## Using DG = DO + OG (O is the origin) (M1)

G (−2, 13), G (10, −3) (accept position vectors) (A1)(A1)
Algebraic approach
6
gradient of DE = 8 (A1)
8

gradient of DG = 6 (A1)
4
− ( x − 4)
equation of line DG is y − 5 = 3 (A1)
Using DG = 10 (M1)
2 2
(x − 4) + (y − 5) = 100 (A1)
Solving simultaneous equation (M1)
G (− 2, 13), G (10, −3) (accept position vectors) (A1)(A1)
Note: Award full marks for an
appropriately
labelled diagram (eg showing that DG =10 ,
displacements of 6 and 8), or an accurate
[12]

0  5 
  + 2  
39. (a) p = 2 ⇒ 12   − 3  (A1)
10 
 
= 6 (accept any other vector notation, including (10, 6) ) (A1)
(N2)

32
(b) METHOD 1
(i) equating components (M1)
0 + 5p = 14 + q , 12 − 3p = 0 + 3q (A1)
p = 3, q =1 (A1)(A1) (N1)(N1)
(ii) The coordinates of P are (15, 3) (accept x = 15, y = 3 ) (A1)
(A1) (N1)(N1)
METHOD 2
(i) Setting up Cartesian equations (M1)
x = 5p x = 14 + q
y =12 − 3p y = 3q
giving 3x + 5y = 60 3x − y = 42 (A1)
Solving simultaneously gives x = 15, y = 3
Substituting to find p and q
15   0   5  15  14  1
  =   + p   ,   =   + q   ,
 3  12   − 3 3 0  3
p=3 q=1 (A1)(A1)
(N1)(N1)
(ii) From above, P is (15, 3) (accept x = 15, y = 3 seen above)
(A1)(A1) (N1)(N1)
[8]

 5 
→  
40. (a) PQ =  − 3  A1A1
N2

(b) Using r = a + tb
 x  1  5 
  =   + t  
 y   6   − 3  A2A1A1 N4
[6]

33
41. (a) (i) Evidence of subtracting all three components in the correct order M1
→ → →

eg AB = OB − OA = ( 4i − 5 j + 21k ) − ( 2i + 3 j + k )
= 2i −8j + 20k AG
N0

(ii)

 AB  =
2 2 + ( − 8) + 20 2 =
2
( 468 = 6 13 = 2 117 = 21.6 ) (A1)
1
( 2i − 8 j + 20k )
u= 468 A1 N2
 2 8 20 
 = i− j+ k , 0.0925i − 0.370 j + 0.925k , etc.
 468 468 468 
(iii) If the scalar product is zero, the vectors are perpendicular. R1
Note: Award R1 for stating the relationship
between
the scalar product and
perpendicularity, seen
anywhere in the solution.
 → → →

 u • OA or AB • OA 
Finding an appropriate scalar product   M1
→  2   −8   20 
u • OA =   × 2 +   × 3 +   × 1
eg  468   468   468 

 4 − 24 + 20 
 = 
 468 
→ →
AB • OA = 2 × 2 + ( − 8) × 3 + 20 × 1
→ → →
u • OA = 0 or AB • OA = 0 A1 N0

34
(b) (i) EITHER
 2 + 4 3 − 5 1 + 21 
S , , 
 2 2 2  (M1)(A1)

## Therefore, OS = 3i − j + 11k (accept (3, −1, 11)) A1 N3

OR
→ → 1 →
OS = OA + AB
2 (M1)
1
= (2i + 3j + k) + 2 (2i + 8j + 20k) (A1)

OS = 3i − j + 11k A1 N3
(ii) L1 : r = (3i − j + 11k) + t (2i + 3j + 1k) A1
N1

## (c) Using direction vectors (eg 2i + 3j + 1k and −2i + 5j − 3k) (M1)

Valid explanation of why L1 is not parallel to L2 R1
N2
eg. Direction vectors are not scalar multiples of each other.
Angle between the direction vectors is not zero or 180.
Finding the angle
d1 • d2 ≠  d1  d2 .
Note: Award R0 for “direction vectors are
not equal”.

## (d) Setting up any two of the three equations (M1)

For each correct equation A1A1
eg 3 + 2t = 5 − 2s, −1 + 3t = 10 + 5s, 11 + t = 10 − 3s
Attempt to solve these equations (M1)
Finding one correct parameter (s = −1, t = 2) (A1)
P has position vector 7i + 5j + 13k A2
N4
Notes: Award (M1)A2 if the same parameter
is used
for both lines in the initial correct
equations.
Award no further marks.
[19]

35
→ → →

## 42. (a) (i) AB = OB − OA (A1)

17   7 
   
 2  −  − 3
 5  − 5
=    

10 
 
 5
10 
=   A1 N2

AB = 10 2 + 5 2 + 10 2
(ii) (M1)
= 15 A1 N2

or (iii)) A1
→ →

N1
→ →

N1
→ →

## (iii) AB⋅ AE = 0 ((10)(−2) + 5(−4) + 10(4)) A1

N1
 π
 or 
(iv) 90°  2  A1 N1

→ → →
(c) Volume =  AB  ×  AD  ×  AE  (A1)
= 15 × 9 × 6
= 810 (cubic units) A1 N2

36
(d) Setting up a valid equation involving H. There are many possibilities.
 x − 9   − 10 
→ → → → →  →   → 
OH = OG + GH , OH = OA + AE + EH ,  y − 4  =  − 5 
 z − 12   − 10 
eg     (M1)
Using equal vectors (M1)
→ → → →

eg GH = − AB , EH = AD
 9  10   − 1  7   − 2   − 6   − 1
→      →        
OH =  4  −  5  =  − 1 , OH =  − 3  +  − 4  +  6  =  − 1
12  10   2   − 5   4   3  2 
             
coordinates of H are (− 1, −1, 2) A1
N3

18 
→  
HB =  3 
 3
(e)   A1
→ →
AG⋅ HB
P̂ =
→ →
AG HB
Attempting to use formula cos (M1)

2 ×18 + 7 × 3 + 17 × 3  108 
= 
 342 342 
2 2 + 7 2 + 17 2 18 2 + 3 2 + 3 2 
= A1
= 0.31578... (A1)
P̂ = 71.6° (= 1.25 radians) A1
N3
[19]

  1  3 
→ →     

AB = OB − OA  =  5  −  2  
  3  1  
43. (a)      (M1)
 − 2
→  
AB =  3 
 2 
  A2 N3

37
(b) Using r = a + tb
 x   3  − 2  x  1  − 2
           
 y  =  2  + t  3  or  y  =  5  + t  3 
 z   1   2   z   3  2 
            A1A1A1
N3
[6]

→  1  →  x 
AB =   , OR =  
44. (a)  − 3  3 − 3x  A1A1
N2
→ →

(b) AB • OR = x − 3 ( 3 − 3x ) A1
→ →
AB • OR = 0 (10 x − 9 = 0) M1

9 3
 , 
R is  10 10  A1A1 N2
[6]

## 45. (a) u•v=8+3+p (A1)

For equating scalar product equal to zero (M1)
8+3+p=0
p = −11 A1 N3

u 2 2 + 3 2 + ( − 1)
2
= 14 , 3.74
(b) = (M1)
q 14 =14 A1

q = 14 ( = 3.74) A1 N2
[6]

38
46. Note: In this question, accept any correct vector notation, including row
vectors eg (1, − 2, 3).

## (a) (i) PQ = OQ − OP (M1)

= i − 2j + 3k A1 N2

(ii) r = OP + s PQ (M1)
= −5i + 11j −8k + s(i − 2j + 3k) A1
= (−5 + s) i + (11 − 2s)j + (−8 + 3s) k AG
N0

## (b) If (2, y1, z1) lies on L1 then −5 + s = 2 (M1)

s=7 A1
y1 = −3, z1 = 13 A1A1 N3

## (c) Evidence of correct approach (M1)

eg (−5 + s)i + (11 − 2s) j + (−8 + 3s) k = 2i + 9j +13k + t(i +2j + 3k)
At least two correct equations A1A1
eg −5 + s = 2 + t, 11 − 2s = 9 + 2t, −8 + 3s = 13 + 3t
Attempting to solve their equations (M1)
One correct parameter (s = 4, t = −3) A1

OT = −i + 3j + 4k A2 N4

## (d) Direction vector for L1 is d1 = i − 2j + 3k (A1)

Note: Award A1FT for their vector from (a)
(i).
Direction vector for L2 is d2 = i − 2j + 3k (A1)

d1 d
d1 • d2 = 6, = 14 , 2 = 14 , (A1)(A1)(A1)

6  6 3
cos θ = = = 
14 14  14 7  A1
θ = 64.6° (= 1.13radians) A1
N4
Note: Award marks as per the markscheme
if their (correct) direction vectors
give
d1 • d2 = −6, leading to θ = 115°
[22]

39
3 2 + 4 2 + 10 2
47. (a) speed = (M1)

## = 125 = 5 5 , 11.2, (metres per minute) A1

N2

a
 
b
c
(b) Let the velocity vector be  

## Finding a velocity vector A2

3  − 5 a 3  − 5
         
 16   10  b  16   10 
 39   23  c  39   23 
eg   =   +2   ,   −  

 4
 
 3
8
Dividing by 2 to give   A1
 x  − 5  4
     
 y  10   3
z  23  8
  =   +t   AG
N0

 3 3  − 5  4
       
 2 4  10   3
7 10   23  8
(c) (i) At Q,   + t  =   +t   (M1)
Setting up one correct equation A1
eg 3 + 3t = − 5 + 4t, 2 + 4t = 10 + 3t, 7 + 10t = 23 + 8t
t=8 (A1)
eg after 8 minutes, 13:08 N3
(ii) Substituting for t (M1)
 x  3 3  x  − 5  4
           
 y  2 4  y  10   3
z 7 10  z  23  8
  =   + 8   , or   =   +8  

 27 
 
 34 
 87 
x = 27, y = 34, z = 87 or (27, 34, 87), or   A1
N2

40
3  4
   
4  3
10  8
(d) For choosing both direction vectors d1 =   and d2 =   (A1)

d1 d
d1 • d2 = 104, = 125 , 2 = 89 (A1)(A1)(A1)
104
125 89
cos θ = = 0.98601... A1
θ = 0.167 (radians)(accept θ = 9.59°) A1 N3
[17]

## 48. (a) (i) Evidence of approach

 0  6
    → → →
 7  −  0  , JQ = JO + OQ

10   0 
eg JQ =     M1
 − 6
→  
JQ =  7 
 10 
  AG N0
 6 
→  
MK =  − 7 
 10 
(ii)   A1 N1

41
6  − 6 0  − 6
       
0  7  7  7 
0  10  10   10 
(b) (i) r=   +t   or r =   +t   A2
N2
Note: Award A1 if “r = ” is missing.
 − 6  6 
   
 7  − 7
 10   10 
(ii) Evidence of choosing correct vectors   ,   (A1)(A1)
Evidence of calculating magnitudes (A1)(A1)

eg
( − 6) + 7 2 + 10 2 = 185
2
6 2 + ( − 7 ) + 10 2
2

= 185

 − 6  6 
   
 7   − 7
 10   10 
  •   = − 36 − 49 + 100 (= 15) (accept −
15) (A1)
For evidence of substitution into the correct formula M1
15  15 
= = 0.0811
eg cos θ = 185 185  185 
 − 15 
 accept 
 185 185 

## θ = 1.49 (radians), 85.3° A1 N4

(c) METHOD 1
Geometric approach (M1)
Valid reasoning A2
→ → 1 →
OD = OM + MK
eg diagonals bisect each other, 2
Calculation of mid point (A1)
 6 + 0 0 + 7 0 + 10 
 , , 
eg  2 2 2 

 3 
→  
OD =  3.5 
 5 
  (accept (3,3.5,5)) A1
N3

42
METHOD 2
Correct approach (M1)
6  − 6 0  6 
       
0  7  7 − 7
0  10  10   10 
eg   +t   =   +s  

## Two correct equations A1

eg 6 − 6t = 6s,7t = 7 − 7s, 10t = 10s
Attempt to solve (M1)
One correct parameter
s = 0.5 t = 0.5 A1
 3 
→  
OD =  3.5 
 5 
  (accept (3, 3.5, 5)) A1
N3

METHOD 3
Correct approach (M1)
0  − 6 0  6 
       
7  7  7 − 7
10   10  0  10 
eg   +t   =   +s  

## Two correct equations A1

eg − 6t = 6s, 7 + 7t = 7 − 7s, 10 + 10t = 10s
Attempt to solve (M1)
One correct parameter
s = 0.5 t = − 0.5 A1
 3 
→  
OD =  3.5 
 5 
  (accept (3, 3.5, 5)) A1
N3
[16]

43
49. (a) (i) evidence of combining vectors (M1)
→ → → → → →
eg AB = OB − OA (or AD = AO + OD in part (ii))
 2 
 
 − 4
→  − 2
AB =   A1 N2
 2 
 
 k − 5
→  −2 
(ii) AD =   A1 N1

## (b) evidence of using perpendicularity ⇒ scalar product = 0 (M1)

 2   2 
   
e.g.  − 4  •  k − 5  = 0
 − 2  − 2 
   
4 − 4(k − 5) + 4 = 0 A1
−4k + 28 = 0 (accept any correct equation clearly leading to k = 7) A1
k=7 AG
N0

 2 
 
 2 
→  
(c) AD =  − 2  (A1)
1
 
1
→  
BC =  −1 A1
evidence of correct approach (M1)
 3  1   x − 3  1 
→ →     
→   
OC = OB + BC ,  1  +  1  ,  y − 1  =  1 
 2   − 1  z − 2   − 1
eg        

 4
 
 2

1
OC =   A1 N3

44
(d) METHOD 1
→ →

## choosing appropriate vectors, BA , BC (A1)

finding the scalar productM1
eg −2(1) + 4(1) + 2(−1), 2(1) + (−4)(1) + (−2)(−1)

cos AB̂C = 0 A1 N1
METHOD 2
→ →
BC parallel to AD (may show this on a diagram with points labelled) R1
→ →
BC ⊥ AB (may show this on a diagram with points labelled) R1
AB̂C = 90°

cos AB̂C = 0 A1 N1
[13]

## 50. pw = pi + 2pj − 3pk (seen anywhere) (A1)

attempt to find v + pw (M1)
eg 3i + 4j + k + p(i + 2j − 3k)
collecting terms (3 + p)i + (4 + 2p)j + (1 − 3p) k A1
attempt to find the dot product (M1)
eg 1(3 + p) + 2(4 + 2p) − 3(1 − 3p)
setting their dot product equal to 0 (M1)
eg 1(3 + p) + 2(4 + 2p) − 3(1 − 3p) = 0
simplifying A1
eg 3 + p + 8 + 4p − 3 + 9p = 0, 14p + 8 = 0
 8
− 
P = − 0.571  14  A1
N3
[7]

45
51. (a) (i) evidence of approach M1
→ → →

eg AO + OB = AB, B − A
 − 4
 
 6 
→  −1
AB =   AG N0
→ → →
(ii) for choosing correct vectors, ( AO with AB , or OA with

BA ) (A1)(A1)
→ →
Note: Using AO with BA will lead to
π − 0.799. If they then say B Â O
= 0.799, this is a correct solution.
→ →
→ → AO , AB
calculating AO • AB , (A1)(A1)(A1)
eg d1•d2 = (−1)(−4) + (2)(6) + (−3)(−1) (= 19)

d1 = ( − 1) 2 + 2 2 + ( − 3) 2 ( = 14 ,)
d2 = ( − 4) 2 + 6 2 + ( − 1) 2 ( = 53 )
evidence of using the formula to find the angle M1
( − 1) ( − 4) + ( 2) ( 6) + ( − 3) ( − 1) ,
eg cos θ =
( − 1) 2 + 2 2 + ( − 3) 2 ( − 4) 2 + 6 2 + ( − 1) 2
19
, 0.69751...
14 53

N3

## (b) two correct answers A1A1

eg (1, − 2, 3), (−3, 4, 2), (−7, 10, 1), (−11, 16, 0)
N2

46
 1   − 3
   
 − 2 + t  4 
 3   2 
(c) (i) r=     A2
N2
 k   1   − 3
     
 − k  =  − 2  + t 4 
 5   3   2 
(ii) C on L2, so       (M1)
evidence of equating components (A1)
eg 1 − 3t = k, − 2 + 4t = −k, 5 = 3 + 2t
one correct value t = 1, k = −2 (seen anywhere) (A1)
coordinates of C are (−2, 2, 5) A1 N3

## (d) for setting up one (or more) correct equation using

 − 2  3   1 
     
 2  =  − 8  + p − 2 
 5   0   −1
      (M1)
eg 3 + p = −2, −8 −2p = 2, − p = 5
p = −5 A1 N2
[18]

## 52. evidence of equating vectors (M1)

eg L1 = L2
for any two correct equations A1A1
eg 2 + s = 3 − t, 5 + 2s = −3 + 3t, 3 + 3s = 8 − 4t
attempting to solve the equations (M1)
finding one correct parameter (s = −1, t = 2) A1
the coordinates of T are (1, 3, 0) A1
N3
[6]

47