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# Chapter 16: Energy in Transition: Thermodynamics work was required to make room for products. What is ∆ U?

Form A A) +220 kJ
B) -220 kJ
C) -130 kJ
1. Calculate ∆ U for a system that does 300 kJ of work on the surroundings when 150 D) 0 kJ
kJ of heat are absorbed by the system. E) +130 kJ
A) +450 kJ
B) 0 kJ
C) -450 kJ 7. For a certain reaction at constant pressure, ∆ U = -125 kJ and 22 kJ of expansion
D) -150 kJ work is done by the system. What is ∆ H for this process?
E) +150 kJ A) -125 kJ
B) +147 kJ
C) +103 kJ
2. Calculate ∆ U for a system that absorbs 325 kJ of heat and has 65 kJ of work done D) -147 kJ
on the system. E) -103 kJ
A) -260 kJ
B) +390 kJ
C) 0 kJ 8. For a certain reaction at constant pressure, ∆ U = +45 kJ and 14 kJ of expansion
D) -390 kJ work is done by the system. What is ∆ H for this process?
E) +260 kJ A) -59 kJ
B) +59 kJ
C) +31 kJ
3. Calculate ∆ U for a system that loses 225 kJ of heat and has 150 kJ of work done D) +45 kJ
on the sysyem. E) -31 kJ
A) +375 kJ
B) -375 kJ
C) +75 kJ 9. Calculate the work needed to make room for products in the combustion of 1 mole
D) 0 kJ of CH4(g) to carbon dioxide and water vapor at STP (1 L * atm = 101 J).
E) -75 kJ
A) -4.52 kJ
B) -2.26 kJ
C) -6.79 kJ
4. Calculate ∆ U for a system that loses 325 kJ of heat while doing 200 kJ of work on
D) -11.3 kJ
the surroundings.
E) no work is needed
A) +125 kJ
B) -525 kJ
C) 0 kJ
10. Calculate the work needed to make room for products in the combustion of 1 mole
D) -125 kJ
of C3H8(g) to carbon dioxide and water vapor where reactants and products are
E) +525 kJ
brought to STP (1 L * atm = 101 J).
A) no work is needed
5. In a certain exothermic reaction at constant pressure, ∆ H = -75 kJ and 35 kJ of B) -15.8 kJ
work was required to make room for products. What is ∆ U? C) -13.6 kJ
A) -40 kJ D) -4.52 kJ
B) 0 kJ E) -2.26 kJ
C) -110 kJ
D) +110 kJ
E) +40 kJ 11. Which of the following reactions leads to a decrease in entropy of the system?
A) 2H2O(l) −−> 2H2(g) + O2(g)
B) C(s) + H2O(g) −−> CO(g) + H2(g)
6. In a certain endothermic reaction at constant pressure, ∆ H = +175 kJ and 45 kJ of

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C) PCl5(s) −−> PCl3(l) + Cl2(g) D) H2O(l) −−> H2O(g)
D) C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) −−> 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) E) Na(l) −−> Na(g)
E) N2(g) + 3H2(g) −−> 2NH3(g)

## 17. Which of the following processes would have a positive ∆ Sro?

12. Which of the following reactions has the largest positive molar entropy change? A) He(g, 1 atm) −−> He(g, 10 atm)
A) 6Li(s) + N2(g) −−> 2Li3N(s) B) 2NO(g) −−> N2O4(g)
B) 2Na(l) + H2(g) −−> 2NaH(s) C) H2(g) + I2(s) −−> 2HI(g)
C) NH3(g) + HCl(g) −−> NH4Cl(s) D) NH3(g) −−> NH3(aq)
D) CaSO4*2H2O(s) −−> CaSO4(s) + 2H2O(g) E) Pb(s) + Br2(l) −−> PbBr2(s)
E) 2Mg(s) + CO2(g) −−> 2MgO(s) + C(s)

18. When 1 mole of white tin changes to gray tin at 13.0oC, the change in entropy is
13. Which of the following has the largest entropy at 298 K? -7.5 J * K-1. This means that
A) I2(g) A) the change from white to gray tin is predicted to be spontaneous on the basis of the
B) Cl2(g) entropy change.
C) Br2(l) B) gray tin has an entropy of -7.5 J * K-1.
C) gray tin is more ordered than white tin.
D) F2(g)
D) gray tin has a higher molar entropy than white tin.
E) Br2(g) E) white tin is more ordered than gray tin.

14. Which of the following has the largest entropy at 298 K? 19. Which of the following reactions has the largest positive molar entropy change?
A) Xe(g) A) N2(g) + 3H2(g) −−> 2NH3(g)
B) Ne(g) B) KClO4(s) + 4C(s) −−> KCl(s) + 4CO(g)
C) Kr(g)
D) He(g) C) CH4(g) + 2O2(g) −−> CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
E) Ar(g) D) PCl5(g) −−> PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)
E) H2O(s) −−> H2O(g)
15. Which of the following has the largest entropy at 298 K?
A) CH3Cl(l)
B) CH4(g) 20. Which of the following has the smallest molar entropy at 298 K?
A) S(s, rhombic)
C) CCl4(l) B) C(s, diamomd)
D) CCl4(g) C) Sn(s, gray)
E) CH3Cl(g) D) Sn(s, white)
E) CaCO3(s)

16. All of the following changes give a positive ∆ Sro except 21. List the following in order of decreasing molar entropy at 298 K.
A) H2O(s) −−> H2O(l) HCl(g), Cl2(g), HCl(aq), Cl(g)
A) HCl(aq) > Cl(g) > HCl(g) > Cl2(g)
B) H2O(l, 20oC) −−> H2O(l, 50oC)
B) Cl2(g) > Cl(g) > HCl(g) > HCl(aq)
C) N2(g) + 3H2(g) −−> 2NH3(g)
C) HCl(g) > HCl(aq) > Cl2(g) > Cl(g) A) 217 J * K-1
D) Cl(g) > Cl2(g) > HCl(g) > HCl(aq) B) -217 J K-1
E) Cl2(g) > HCl(g) > Cl(g) > HCl(aq) C) 4.03 ∗ 103 J * K-1
D) -4.03 ∗ 103 J * K-1
E) 5.54 ∗ 103 J * K-1
22. For the freezing of water at 0oC,
A) ∆ Ssurroundings is less than ∆ Ssystem
B) ∆ Ssurroundings is greater than ∆ Ssystem 27. The normal boiling point of benzene is 80oC. If the enthalpy of vaporization of
C) ∆ Ssurroundings = ∆ Ssystem benzene is 33.9 kJ * mol-1, calculate the molar entropy of vaporization at its boiling
D) (∆ Ssurroundings + ∆ Ssystem) is less than zero point.

## E) ∆ Ssurroundings is negative A) 96.0 J * K-1

B) 139 J * K-1
C) 235 J * K-1
23. If the enthalpy of vaporization of water at 100oC is 40.7 kJ * mol-1, calculate ∆ So D) 373 J * K-1
for vaporization of one mole of H2O(l) at 100oC. E) 423 J * K-1

A) 136 J * K-1
B) 109 J * K-1 28. Estimate the normal boiling point of Br2(l), given the molar enthalpy and molar
C) 40.7 ∗ 103 J * K-1 entropy of vaporization of 30.7 kJ * mol-1 and 93.0 J * K-1 * mol-1, respectively.
D) -109 J * K-1 A) 57oC
E) -40.7 ∗ 103 J * K-1 B) 303oC
C) 100oC

24. If the enthalpy of fusion of water at its normal melting point is 6.00 kJ * mol-1, D) 30oC

## calculate ∆ So for freezing 1 mole of water at this temperature. E) 330oC

A) -20.1 J * K-1
B) -6.00 ∗ 103 J * K-1 29. Estimate the normal boiling point of ethanol, C2H5OH, given the molar enthalpy
C) +6.00 ∗ 103 J * K-1 and entropy of vaporization of 38.7 kJ * mol-1 and 110 J * K-1 * mol-1,
D) -22.0 J * K-1 respectively.
E) 22.0 J * K-1 A) 100oC
B) 78.8oC

## 25. The entropy of the universe C) 11.0oC

A) is always increasing. D) 352oC
B) has nothing to do with the universe. E) 284oC
C) remains constant.
D) is zero.
E) is also decreasing.
30. The enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol, C2H5OH, is 38.7 kJ * mol-1 at its normal

## boiling point, 78oC. Calculate ∆ So for vaporization of 1 mole of ethanol at its

26. If ∆ Ho = -1202 kJ and ∆ So = -217 J * K-1 for the combustion of 2 moles of normal boiling point.
magnesium, the change in entropy of the surroundings at 298 K is

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A) 103 J * K-1 E) be spontaneous at all temperatures.

B) 292 J * K-1
C) 496 J * K-1 35. Consider the following reaction.
D) 110 J * K-1 CaCO3(s) −−> CaO(s) + CO2(g)

E) 142 J * K-1 If this reaction is endothermic, which one of the following statements is true at 298
K and 1 atm?
A) ∆ Gor is positive at all temperatures.
31. Consider the following reaction
N2H4(l) + 2H2O2(l) −−> N2(g) + 4H2O(g) B) ∆ Gro is negative at low temperatures.

## If ∆ Hro = -530 kJ at 298 K, then C) ∆ Gro is negative at high temperatures.

A) the reaction will only be spontaneous at very low temperatures. D) ∆ Sro is negative.
B) the reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures.
C) the reaction is not spontaneous at any temperature. E) ∆ Hro is negative. 7
D) the reaction will only be spontaneous at very high temperatures.
E) to determine if the reaction will be spontaneous, ∆ Sro must be given.
36. Which one of the following statements is true?
A) Spontaneous reactions always have ∆ Hro < 0.
32. Which of the following conditions will result in a spontaneous reaction at all
B) Reactions with positive values of ∆ Sro always become spontaneous at high
temperatures?
A) ∆ H < 0, ∆ S < 0 temperatures.
B) ∆ H > 0, ∆ S < 0 C) All of these statements are false.
C) ∆ H < 0, ∆ S > 0 D) Spontaneous reactions always have ∆ Hro > 0.
D) ∆ H > 0, ∆ S > 0
E) Spontaneous reactions always have ∆ Gro > 0.
E) ∆ H > 0, ∆ S = 0

33. Consider the following reaction. 37. The vapor pressure of water at 25oC is 24 Torr. ∆ G for the reaction
PCl5(g) −−> PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) H2O(l) −−> H2O(g, 24 Torr)
Which statement is true for this reaction?
A) ∆ S>0 at 25oC is therefore
A) 0
B) ∆ S=0
B) 8.56 kJ
C) ∆ G = ∆ H + T∆ S C) -8.56 kJ
D) Smo = 0 for Cl2(g) D) 20.7 kJ
E) ∆ S<0 E) -7.87 kJ

34. For the reaction 38. The vapor pressure of water at 25oC is 0.0316 atm. ∆ Gro for the reaction
2SO3(g) −−> 2SO2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l) −−> H2O(g, 24 Torr)
∆ Hro = 197.8 kJ at 298 K. This reaction will at 25oC is therefore
A) be driven by the enthalpy. A) 0
B) not be spontaneous at high temperatures. B) -(8.314)(298)ln(0.0316)
C) not be spontaneous at any temperature. C) +(8.314)(298)ln(0.0316)
D) be spontaneous at high temperatures. D) -(8.314)(25)ln(0.0316)
E) +(8.314)(25)ln(0.0316)
39. Calculate ∆ Gro for the decomposition of ammonium nitrate at 298 K. 43. For the following reaction
C6H6(g) + 3H2(g) −−> C6H12(g)
NH4NO3(s) −−> N2O(g) + 2H2O(l)
at 298 K, ∆ Hro = -206 kJ and ∆ Sro = -363 J * K-1. Calculate ∆ Gro at 500oC.
∆ Hfo, kJ * mol-1 -365.56 82.05 -285.83
A) -24.5 kJ
Smo, J * K-1 * mol-1 151.08 219.85 69.91 B) -97.8 kJ
C) +74.6 kJ
A) -186.21 kJ
D) -487 kJ
B) -332.64 kJ
E) -157 kJ
C) +99.62 kJ
D) -124.05 kJ
E) +120.45 kJ
44. The standard free energy of formation of CS2(l), a common solvent, is 65.27 kJ *

## mol-1 at 298 K. This means that at 298 K

40. Calculate ∆ Gro for the decomposition of mercury(II) oxide at 298 K. A) CS2(l) is thermodynamically unstable.
2HgO(s) −−> 2Hg(l) + O2(g) B) CS2(l) is thermodynamically stable.
C) no catalyst can be found to decompose CS2(l) into its elements.
∆ Hfo, kJ * mol-1 -90.83
D) CS2(l) has a negative entropy.
Smo, J * K-1 * mol-1 70.29 76.02
E) CS2(l) will not spontaneously form C(s) + 2S(s).
205.14
A) +246.2 kJ
B) -117.1 kJ
45. Consider the following compounds and their standard free energies of formation:
C) -246.2 kJ
(1) (2) (3)
D) -64.5 kJ
(4)
E) +117.1 kJ
C6H6(l) Ccl4(l) CS2(l)
PCl3(g)
41. For a reaction, ∆ Hro = -92 kJ and ∆ Sro = -65 J * K-1. Calculate the value of 124 kJ * mol-1 -65 kJ * mol-1 65 kJ * mol-1
∆ Gro for this reaction at 25oC. -268 kJ * mol-1
Which of these compounds is/are thermodynamically unstable?
A) +19,300 kJ
A) (1) and (3)
B) -111 kJ
B) (2) and (4)
C) -157 kJ
C) (4)
D) -73 kJ
D) (1)
E) -85 kJ
E) (2)

## 42. For the following reaction

46. For the reaction
CuO(s) + H2(g) −−> Cu(s) + H2O(g) 2NH3(g) −−> 3H2(g) + N2(g)
at 298 K, Hro = -87.0 kJ and ∆ Sro = 47.0 J * K-1. Calculate ∆ Gro at 400 K. ∆ Hro = 92.22 kJ and ∆ Sro = 198.75 J * K-1 at 298 K. With all reactants and
A) -106 kJ products in their standard states, this reaction will be spontaneous
B) -18.9 kJ A) at no temperature.
C) -68.2 kJ B) at all temperatures.
D) +18.9 kJ C) at temperatures above 464 K.
E) +106 kJ D) at 273 K.

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E) at temperatures below 463 K. Smo, J * K-1 * mol-1 +51.46 +223.07
+72.13 +202.78
47. For the reaction
2H2(g) + CO(g) −−> CH3OH(l)
51. If the standard molar free energy of formation of NO(g) is 86.69 kJ * mol-1 at 298
∆ Hro = -128.13 kJ and ∆ Sro = -332.23 J * K-1 at 298. Calculate ∆ Gro at 100oC.
K, calculate ∆ Gro for the reaction below.
A) -128.46 kJ
B) -252.05 kJ N2(g) + O2(g) −−> 2NO(g)
C) -4.21 kJ A) -173.4 kJ
D) -218.8 kJ B) +173.4 kJ
E) -29.13 kJ C) +86.69 kJ
D) -86.69 kJ
E) +42.35 kJ
48. Consider the reactions below.
1. C6H6(g) + 3H2(g) −−> C6H12(g), ∆ Hro = -206 kJ, ∆ Sro = -363 J * K-1
52. Copper(II) sulfate can be obtained in the anhydrous form, CuSO4(s), and as the
2. H2S(g) −−> H2(g) + S(s), ∆ Hro = 20.6 kJ, ∆ Sro = -43.3 J * K-1 blue pentahydrate, CuSO4*5H2O(s). If the anhydrous form is being considered as a
3. CaCO3(s) −−> CaO(s) + CO2(g), ∆ Hro = 179 kJ, ∆ Sro = 161 J * K-1 potential dehydrating agent, determine whether it will spontaneously pick up water

4. C6H6(l) −−> 6C(s) + 3H2(g), ∆ Hro = -49 kJ, ∆ Sro = 254 J * K-1 from the atmosphere at a temperature of 10oC and a vapor pressure of water of 9.98
Torr. Assume the product is the pentahydrate.
For which of these reactions would it be feasible to search for a catalyst to speed up Data: CuSO4(s):
the reaction at 298 K?
A) 1. and 4. ∆ Hfo = -771 kJ * mol-1, So = 109 J * K-1 * mol-1
B) all the reactions CuSO4*5H2O(s):
C) 3. only
D) 2. and 3. ∆ Hfo = -2280 kJ * mol-1, So = 300 J * K-1 * mol-1
E) 2. only
H2O(g):

## ∆ Hfo = -242 kJ * mol-1, So = 189 J * K-1 * mol-1

49. If ∆ Hfo and Smo for CCl4(l) and CCl4(g) are -135.4 and -103.0 kJ * mol-1, and

215.4 and 308.7 J * K-1 * mol-1, respectively, calculate the boiling point of carbon
53. Calculate ∆ Gr at 298 K for the reaction
tetrachloride.
A) 260 K C2H5OH(l) −−> C2H5OH(g, 0.0263 atm)
B) 347oC given ∆ Gro = 6.2 kJ at 298 K.
C) 61.4oC A) -2.8 kJ
D) 629 K B) 2.8 kJ
E) 70.0oC C) -15 kJ
D) 6.2 kJ
E) 15 kJ
50. Is it possible to use the following reaction to produce fluorine, (a) at 25oC; (b) at
250oC? 54. Consider the following reaction
2NaF(s) + Cl2(g) −−> 2NaCl(s) + F2(g) CuSO4(s) −−> CuO(s) + SO3(g)
∆ Hfo, kJ * mol-1 -573.65 If ∆ Go = -14.6 kJ at 950oC for this reaction, calculate ∆ Gr for an SO3(g) pressure
-411.15 of 20 atm at this temperature.
A) 30.5 kJ 1, calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for this reaction at 298 K.
B) 45.1 kJ
C) -45.1 kJ A) 4.06 ∗ 10-31
D) -14.6 kJ B) 9.35 ∗ 10-31
E) 15.9 kJ
C) 6.37 ∗ 10-16
D) 1.47 ∗ 10-15
55. If ∆ Gro = 27.1 kJ at 25oC for the reaction E) 1.57 ∗ 10-31

## CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) < = = > CH3COO-(aq) + H3O+(aq)

calculate Ka for this reaction at 298 K. 59. Calculate the equilibrium constant at 298 K for the reaction below.
NH3(g) + HCl(g) −−> NH4Cl(s)
A) 1.78 ∗ 10-5
∆ Gfo, kJ * mol-1 -16.45 -95.30 -202.87
B) 9.89 ∗ 10-1
C) 5.63 ∗ 104 A) 3.88 ∗ 1019
D) 1.15 ∗ 10-11 B) 9.39 ∗ 1015
E) 1.01 C) 1.42 ∗ 1055
D) 6.00 ∗ 1036
56. Consider the following reaction E) 9.11 ∗ 10
NO(g) + < = = > O2(g) −−> NO2(g)

If ∆ Hro = -56.52 kJ and ∆ So = -72.60 J * K-1 at 298 K, calculate the equilibrium 60. Consider the reaction
2NO(g) −−> N2(g) + O2(g)
constant for the reaction at 298 K.
A) 7.63 ∗ 10-7 If the standard molar free energy of formation of NO(g) at 298 K is 86.69 kJ * mol-
1, calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for this reaction at 298 K.
B) 1.31 ∗ 106
C) 8.08 ∗ 109 A) 6.80 ∗ 1014
D) 660 B) 1.57 ∗ 1015
E) 1.22 ∗ 1014 C) 1.07 ∗ 1030
D) 2.47 ∗ 1030
57. Consider the reaction E) 6.37 ∗ 1030
2SO3(g) −−> 2SO2(g) + O2(g)

If ∆ Hro = 196 kJ and ∆ Sro = 190 J * K-1 for this reaction at 298 K, the value of
61. The vapor pressure of water at 25oC is 24 Torr. ∆ Gro for the reaction
the equilibrium constant will be greater than 1
A) at no temperature. H2O(l) −−> H2O(g)
B) at temperatures below 1032 K. at 25oC is therefore
C) at temperatures below 759oC. A) -7.87 kJ
D) at temperatures above 1032 K. B) -8.56 kJ
E) at all temperatures. C) 8.56 kJ
D) 0
E) 20.7 kJ
58. Consider the reaction
N2(g) + O2(g) −−> 2NO(g)
62. The equilibrium constant for the reaction
If the standard molar free energy of formation of NO(g) at 298 K is 86.69 kJ * mol- Hg(l) < = = > Hg(g)

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is 3.6 ∗ 10-4 at 100oC. Calculate ∆ Gro for this reaction. B) -2.0 kJ
C) -0.4 kJ
A) -24.6 kJ D) 2.0 kJ
B) 24.6 kJ E) -4.7 kJ
C) 0
D) 6.59 kJ
E) -6.59 kJ
67. If the vapor pressure of Br2(l) at 298 K is 217 Torr, calculate ∆ Gro for
vaporization of 1 mole of Br2(l) at 298 K.
63. If the enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol is 38.7 kJ * mol-1 at its normal boiling A) -8.33 kJ
point of 78oC, determine ∆ Gro for the reversible vaporization of 1 mole of ethanol B) -3.11 kJ
C) 8.33 kJ
at 78oC and 1 atm. D) 3.11 kJ
A) 0 E) 0
B) 110 kJ
C) -110 kJ
D) 38.7 kJ 68. Consider the reaction
E) -38.7 kJ 2CuBr2(s) −−> 2CuBr(s) + Br2(g)

If the equilibrium vapor pressure of Br2(g) is 1.43 ∗ 10-5 Torr at 298 K, calculate
64. Calculate the standard free energy of formation of CHCl3(l) at 25oC given that ∆ Gr at this temperature when Br2(g) is produced at a pressure of 7.50 ∗ 10-7
∆ Gfo for CHCl3(g) is -70.12 kJ * mol-1 and the vapor pressure of chloroform at Torr.
A) 39.9 kJ
25oC is 0.500 atm. B) -7.31 kJ
A) -70.12 kJ * mol-1 C) -3.17 kJ
D) -4.15 kJ
B) -71.84 kJ * mol-1 E) 7.31 kJ
C) 0
D) -1.72 kJ * mol-1
E) 68.40 kJ * mol-1 69. If ∆ Gr = -46.9 kJ for the reaction of 5 mL of 0.20 M AgNO3(aq) with 5 mL of
0.60 M NaCl(aq) at 298 K, calculate the solubility product of AgCl at this
temperature.
65. Consider the reaction A) 7.2 ∗ 1010
NH3(aq) + H2O(l) < = = > NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) B) 3.5 ∗ 10-21
If Kc = 1.75 ∗ 10-5 at 25oC, calculate ∆ Gro for this reaction. C) 7.2 ∗ 10-10
A) -27.1 kJ D) 1.8 ∗ 10-10
B) 2.27 kJ E) 1.8 ∗ 1010
C) -2.27 kJ
D) 6.47 kJ
E) 27.1 kJ
70. If Ksp of AgBr is 7.7 ∗ 10-13 at 298 K, calculate ∆ Gr for the reaction of 5 mL of
0.20 M AgNO3(aq) with 5 mL of 0.20 M NaBr(aq) at 298 K.
66. If Kp for the reaction A) -25.1 kJ
N2O4(g) < = = > 2NO2(g) B) -57.7 kJ
C) 61.1 kJ
is 0.15 at 25oC, calculate ∆ Gro for this reaction. D) -61.1 kJ
A) 4.7 kJ E) 57.7 kJ
A) The reaction is exothermic.
B) The reaction is not spontaneous at any temperature.
71. Calculate ∆ Gr for the following reaction at 298 K. C) This is an enthalpy-driven reaction.
D) The reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures.
Ag(NH3)2+(aq, 0.100 M) −−> Ag+(aq, 0.00100 M) + 2NH3(aq, 0.00200 M) E) The reaction is spontaneous at high temperatures.
∆ Gro = -41.0 kJ for this reaction at 298 K.
A) -42.2 kJ 76. At the normal boiling point of Cl2(l), 238.5 K, the value of the standard enthalpy of
B) -1.2 kJ
C) 14.2 kJ vaporization is 20.4 kJ * mol-1. Assuming that Cl2(g) behaves as an ideal gas and
D) 83.2 kJ that the molar volume of Cl2(l) is negligible compared to that of Cl2(g), calculate
E) -83.2 kJ
the values of q, w, ∆ Uo, ∆ So, and ∆ Go for the reversible vaporization of 1 mole
of Cl2(l) at 238.5 K and 1 atm.
72. Consider the following reaction at 298 K.
HClO(aq) + H2O(l) < = = > ClO-(aq) + H3O+(aq)
77. Estimate the temperature at which oxygen reacts with Hg(l).
Kc = 3.0 ∗ 10-8 2Hg(l) + O2(g) −−> 2HgO(s)
Calculate ∆ Gr when [ClO-] = [H3O+] = 1.0 ∗ 10-6 M and [HClO] = 0.10 M. ∆ Hfo, kJ * mol-1
A) -62.6 kJ -90.83
B) -23.0 kJ
C) -19.8 kJ So, J * K-1 * mol-1 76.02 205.14
D) 42.8 kJ 70.29
E) -42.8 kJ
78. Estimate the temperature at which mercury(II) oxide can be expected to decompose.
2HgO(s) −−> 2Hg(l) + O2(g)
73. If the Ksp of AgBr is 7.7 ∗ 10-13 at 25oC, calculate the standard free energy of
reaction for ∆ Hfo, kJ * mol-1
Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) −−> AgBr(s) -90.83
A) -69.1 kJ Smo, J * K-1 * mol-1 70.29 76.02
B) +69.1 kJ
205.14
C) -5.80 kJ
A) HgO(s) is unstable and decomposes at all temperatures
D) +30.0 kJ
B) less than 839 K
E) -30.0 kJ
C) HgO(s) does not decompose at any temperature
D) less than 566oC
74. For the following process E) greater than 566oC
C6H6(l) −−> C6H6(g)

∆ Ho = 33.90 kJ * mol-1 and ∆ So = 96.4 J * K-1 * mol-1. Calculate the 79. For the production of formaldehyde,
temperature at which the vapor pressure of benzene is 35 Torr.
H2(g) + CO(g) −−> H2CO(g)

## ∆ Hro = 2 kJ and ∆ Gro = 35 kJ at 298 K. Estimate the temperature at which the

75. The equilibrium constant for the reaction
reaction is spontaneous.
NH4Cl(s) <= = > NH3(g) + HCl(g)
A) The reaction is not spontaneous at any temperature.
is 1.1 ◊ 10-16 at 25oC. If the equilibrium constant is 6.5 ∗ 10-2 at 300oC, which B) The reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures.
statement is correct? C) above 291oC

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D) below 291oC
E) above 18 K

80. The purification of nickel by the Mond process uses the reactions below.
Ni(s, impure) + 4CO(g) −−> Ni(CO)4(g) (1)
Ni(CO)4(g) −−> Ni(s, pure) + 4CO(g) (2)
If reaction (1) occurs at 353 K and reaction (2) at 473 K, reactions (1) and (2) are
A) both have ∆ G = 0.
B) entropy- and enthalpy-driven, respectively.
C) both entropy-driven,
D) both entalpy-driven.
E) enthalpy- and entropy-driven, respectively.
Answer Key -- Chapter 16A: Energy in Transition 49. E
1. D 51. B
3. E 53. A
4. B 54. E
5. C 55. A
6. E 56. B
7. E 57. D
8. B 58. A
9. E 59. B
10. E 60. D
11. E 61. C
12. D 62. B
13. A 63. A
14. A 64. B
15. D 65. E
16. D 66. A
17. C 67. D
18. C 68. B
19. B 69. D
20. B 70. B
21. E 71. E
22. C 72. C
23. B 73. A
25. A 75. E
28. A 78. E
29. B 79. A
30. D 80. E
31. B
32. C
33. A
34. D
35. C
36. B
37. A
38. A
39. A
40. E
41. D
42. A
43. C
44. A
45. A
46. C
47. C
48. A

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