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Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet

Definitions Series
f (n) = O(g(n)) iff ∃ positive c, n0 such that X
n X
n X
n
n(n + 1) n(n + 1)(2n + 1) n2 (n + 1)2
0 ≤ f (n) ≤ cg(n) ∀n ≥ n0 . i= , i2 = , i3 = .
i=1
2 i=1
6 i=1
4
f (n) = Ω(g(n)) iff ∃ positive c, n0 such that
In general:
f (n) ≥ cg(n) ≥ 0 ∀n ≥ n0 .  
Xn
1 Xn

f (n) = Θ(g(n)) iff f (n) = O(g(n)) and im = (n + 1)m+1 − 1 − (i + 1)m+1 − im+1 − (m + 1)im
i=1
m+1 i=1
f (n) = Ω(g(n)).
X  
1 X m+1
n−1 m
f (n) = o(g(n)) iff limn→∞ f (n)/g(n) = 0. im = Bk nm+1−k .
i=1
m + 1 k
k=0
lim an = a iff ∀ > 0, ∃n0 such that
n→∞ Geometric series:
|an − a| < , ∀n ≥ n0 . ∞ ∞
X n
cn+1 − 1 X 1 X c
sup S least b ∈ R such that b ≥ s, ci = , c 6= 1, ci = , ci = , |c| < 1,
c−1 1−c 1−c
∀s ∈ S. i=0 i=0 i=1
X
n ∞
X
ncn+2 − (n + 1)cn+1 + c c
inf S greatest b ∈ R such that b ≤ ici = , c 6= 1, ici = , |c| < 1.
s, ∀s ∈ S. i=0
(c − 1)2 i=0
(1 − c)2
Harmonic series:
lim inf an lim inf{ai | i ≥ n, i ∈ N}.
n→∞ n→∞ X n
1 X
n
n(n + 1) n(n − 1)
Hn = , iHi = Hn − .
lim sup an lim sup{ai | i ≥ n, i ∈ N}. i=1
i i=1
2 4
n     
n→∞ n→∞
n
 Xn X i n+1 1
k Combinations: Size k sub- Hi = (n + 1)Hn − n, Hi = Hn+1 − .
sets of a size n set. i=1 i=1
m m+1 m+1
n   n      
Stirling numbers (1st kind): n n! X n n n
k
Arrangements of an n ele- 1. = , 2. =2 , n
3. = ,
k (n − k)!k! k k n−k
ment set into k cycles.     k=0      
n n n n−1 n n−1 n−1
4. = , 5. = + ,
k Stirling numbers (2nd kind): k k k−1 k k k−1
Partitions of an n element       X n    
n m n n−k r+k r+n+1
set into k non-empty sets. 6. = , 7. = ,

n m k k m−k k n
n     n     
k=0
k 1st order Eulerian numbers: X k n+1 X r s r+s
Permutations π1 π2 . . . πn on 8. = , 9. = ,
m m+1 k n−k n
{1, 2, . . . , n} with k ascents.  
k=0   k=0    

n n k−n−1 n n
2nd order Eulerian numbers. 10. = (−1)k , 11. = = 1,
k k k 1 n
Cn Catalan Numbers: Binary        
n n n−1 n−1
trees with n + 1 vertices. 12. = 2n−1
− 1, 13. = k + ,
2 k k k−1
         
n n n n n
14. = (n − 1)!, 15. = (n − 1)!Hn−1 , 16. = 1, 17. ≥ ,
1 2 n k k
            Xn    
n n−1 n−1 n n n n 1 2n
18. = (n − 1) + , 19. = = , 20. = n!, 21. Cn = ,
k k k−1 n−1 n−1 2 k n+1 n
          k=0    
n n n n n n−1 n−1
22. = = 1, 23. = , 24. = (k + 1) + (n − k) ,
0 n−1 k n−1−k k k k−1
  n      
0 1 if k = 0, n n n+1
25. = 26. = 2n − n − 1, 27. = 3n − (n + 1)2n + ,
k 0 otherwise 1 2 2
Xn      X m     X n   
n x+k n n+1 n n k
28. xn = , 29. = (m + 1 − k)n (−1)k , 30. m! = ,
k n m k m k n−m
  X k=0
n    k=0
   
k=0
n n n−k n n
31. = (−1) n−k−m
k!, 32. = 1, 33. = 0 for n 6= 0,
m k m 0 n
   k=0
    Xn    
n n−1 n−1 n (2n)n
34. = (k + 1) + (2n − 1 − k) , 35. = ,
k k k−1 k 2n
  X n       X    X n 
k=0

x n x+n−1−k n+1 n k k
36. = , 37. = = (m + 1)n−k ,
x−n k 2n m+1 k m m
k=0 k k=0
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
Identities Cont. Trees
  X  n  k  n 
X  Xn     n 
X   
n+1 k 1 k x n x+k Every tree with n
38. = = nn−k = n! , 39. = , vertices has n − 1
m+1 k m m k! m x−n k 2n
  X   k  k=0 k=0   X k=0   edges.
n n k+1 n n+1 k
40. = (−1) n−k
, 41. = (−1)m−k , Kraft inequal-
m k m+1 m k+1 m
 k
 X m     X
k
m   ity: If the depths
m+n+1 n+k m+n+1 n+k of the leaves of
42. = k , 43. = k(n + k) ,
m k m k a binary tree are
  X k=0    X   k=0
n n+1 k n n+1 k d1 , . . . , dn :
44. = (−1)m−k , 45. (n − m)! = (−1)m−k , for n ≥ m, X n
m k+1 m m k+1 m 2−di ≤ 1,
 k X      k 
X m − nm + n m + k 
n m−n m+n m+k n i=1
46. = , 47. = ,
n−m m+k n+k k n−m m+k n+k k and equality holds
  k  X      k  X    
n `+m k n−k n n `+m k n−k n only if every in-
48. = , 49. = . ternal node has 2
`+m ` ` m k `+m ` ` m k
k k
sons.

Recurrences
Master method:  Generating functions:
T (n) = aT (n/b) + f (n), a ≥ 1, b > 1 1 T (n) − 3T (n/2) = n 1. Multiply both sides of the equa-

logb a− 3 T (n/2) − 3T (n/4) = n/2 tion by xi .
If ∃ > 0 such that f (n) = O(n )
.. .. .. 2. Sum both sides over all i for
then
. . . which the equation is valid.
T (n) = Θ(nlogb a ). 
log2 n−1 3. Choose a generatingPfunction
3 T (2) − 3T (1) = 2 ∞
If f (n) = Θ(nlogb a ) then G(x). Usually G(x) = i=0 xi gi .
T (n) = Θ(nlogb a log2 n). Let m = log2 n. Summing the left side 3. Rewrite the equation in terms of
we get T (n) − 3m T (1) = T (n) − 3m = the generating function G(x).
If ∃ > 0 such that f (n) = Ω(nlogb a+ ), T (n) − nk where k = log2 3 ≈ 1.58496.
4. Solve for G(x).
and ∃c < 1 such that af (n/b) ≤ cf (n) Summing the right side we get
5. The coefficient of xi in G(x) is gi .
for large n, then X n
m−1 X i
m−1
3i
= n 3
. Example:
T (n) = Θ(f (n)). i 2
i=0
2 i=0
gi+1 = 2gi + 1, g0 = 0.
Substitution (example): Consider the
following recurrence Let c = 32 . Then we have Multiply
X and sum: X X
i
X
m−1  m  gi+1 xi = 2gi xi + xi .
Ti+1 = 22 · Ti2 , T1 = 2. i c −1
n c =n i≥0 i≥0 i≥0
c−1 P
Note that Ti is always a power of two. i=0
We choose G(x) = i≥0 xi gi . Rewrite
Let ti = log2 Ti . Then we have = 2n(clog2 n − 1)
in terms of G(x):
ti+1 = 2i + 2ti , t1 = 1. X
= 2n(c(k−1) logc n − 1) G(x) − g0
= 2G(x) + xi .
Let ui = ti /2i . Dividing both sides of = 2nk − 2n, x
i≥0
the previous equation by 2i+1 we get
ti+1 2i ti and so T (n) = 3n − 2n. Full history re-
k Simplify:
= + i. G(x) 1
2 i+1 2 i+1 2 currences can often be changed to limited = 2G(x) + .
history ones (example): Consider x 1−x
Substituting we find
ui+1 = 12 + ui , u1 = 12 , X
i−1
Solve for G(x):
Ti = 1 + Tj , T0 = 1. x
G(x) = .
which is simply ui = i/2. So we find j=0
(1 − x)(1 − 2x)
i−1
that Ti has the closed form Ti = 2i2 . Note that Expand this 
using partial fractions:

Summing factors (example): Consider X
i
2 1
the following recurrence Ti+1 = 1 + Tj . G(x) = x −
1 − 2x 1 − x
T (n) = 3T (n/2) + n, T (1) = 1. j=0
 
Subtracting we find X X
Rewrite so that all terms involving T
Xi X
i−1 = x 2 2i xi − xi 
are on the left side Ti+1 − Ti = 1 + Tj − 1 − Tj i≥0 i≥0
T (n) − 3T (n/2) = n. X
j=0 j=0
= i+1
(2 − 1)x i+1
.
Now expand the recurrence, and choose = Ti . i≥0
a factor which makes the left side “tele-
scope” And so Ti+1 = 2Ti = 2i+1 . So gi = 2i − 1.
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
√ √
1+ 5 1− 5
π ≈ 3.14159, e ≈ 2.71828, γ ≈ 0.57721, φ= 2 ≈ 1.61803, φ̂ = 2 ≈ −.61803

i 2i pi General Probability
1 2 2 Bernoulli Numbers (Bi = 0, odd i 6= 1): Continuous distributions: If
Z b
2 4 3 B0 = 1, B1 = B2 =− 21 ,B4 = 1
6,
1
− 30 , Pr[a < X < b] = p(x) dx,
1 1 5
3 8 5 B6 = 42 , B8 = − 30 , B10 = 66 . a

4 16 7 Change of base, quadratic formula: then p is the probability density function of


√ X. If
5 32 11 loga x −b ± b2 − 4ac Pr[X < a] = P (a),
logb x = , .
6 64 13 loga b 2a
then P is the distribution function of X. If
7 128 17 Euler’s number e: P and p both exist then
e=1+ 1
+ 16 + 241 1
+ 120 + ··· Z a
8 256 19 2
 
x n P (a) = p(x) dx.
9 512 23 lim 1 + = ex . −∞
n→∞ n Expectation: If X is discrete
10 1,024 29 n n+1 X
1 + n1 < e < 1 + n1 .
11 2,048 31   E[g(X)] = g(x) Pr[X = x].
n e 11e 1
12 4,096 37 1 + n1 = e − + 2
−O . x
2n 24n n3 If X continuous
Z ∞ then Z
13 8,192 41 ∞
Harmonic numbers: [g(X)] = g(x)p(x) dx = g(x) dP (x).
14 16,384 43 E
1, 32 , 11 25 137 49 363 761 7129
6 , 12 , 60 , 20 , 140 , 280 , 2520 , . . .
−∞ −∞
15 32,768 47 Variance, standard deviation:
16 65,536 53 ln n < Hn < ln n + 1, VAR[X] = E[X 2 ] − E[X]2 ,
  p
17 131,072 59 1 σ = VAR[X].
Hn = ln n + γ + O .
18 262,144 61 n For events A and B:
19 524,288 67 Factorial, Stirling’s approximation: Pr[A ∨ B] = Pr[A] + Pr[B] − Pr[A ∧ B]
20 1,048,576 71 1, 2, 6, 24, 120, 720, 5040, 40320, 362880, ... Pr[A ∧ B] = Pr[A] · Pr[B],
21 2,097,152 73  n    iff A and B are independent.
√ n 1
22 4,194,304 79 2πn
n! = 1+Θ . Pr[A ∧ B]
e n Pr[A|B] =
23 8,388,608 83 Pr[B]
Ackermann’s
 function and inverse:
24 16,777,216 89 For random variables X and Y :
 2j i=1
25 33,554,432 97 a(i, j) = a(i − 1, 2) j=1 E[X · Y ] = E[X] · E[Y ],

26 67,108,864 101 a(i − 1, a(i, j − 1)) i, j ≥ 2 if X and Y are independent.

27 134,217,728 103 α(i) = min{j | a(j, j) ≥ i}. E[X + Y ] = E[X] + E[Y ],


E[cX] = c E[X].
28 268,435,456 107 Binomial distribution:
 
n k n−k Bayes’ theorem:
29 536,870,912 109 Pr[X = k] = p q , q = 1 − p, Pr[B|Ai ] Pr[Ai ]
30 1,073,741,824 113 k Pr[Ai |B] = Pn .
X n   j=1 Pr[Aj ] Pr[B|Aj ]
31 2,147,483,648 127 n k n−k
E[X] = k p q = np. Inclusion-exclusion:
32 4,294,967,296 131 k h_ n i X n
k=1
Poisson distribution: Pr Xi = Pr[Xi ] +
Pascal’s Triangle
e−λ λk i=1 i=1
1 Pr[X = k] = , E[X] = λ. h^ i
k! X
n X k
11 Normal (Gaussian) distribution: (−1)k+1 Pr Xij .
k=2 ii <···<ik j=1
121 1 2 2
p(x) = √ e−(x−µ) /2σ , E[X] = µ. Moment inequalities:
1331 2πσ   1
14641 The “coupon collector”: We are given a Pr |X| ≥ λ E[X] ≤ ,
λ
1 5 10 10 5 1 random coupon each day, and there are n h i 1
different types of coupons. The distribu- Pr X − E[X] ≥ λ · σ ≤ 2 .
1 6 15 20 15 6 1 tion of coupons is uniform. The expected λ
1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1 Geometric distribution:
number of days to pass before we to col-
lect all n types is Pr[X = k] = pq k−1 , q = 1 − p,
1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1
X∞
1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1 nHn . 1
E[X] = kpq k−1 = .
p
1 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10 1 k=1
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
Trigonometry Matrices More Trig.
Multiplication: C
(0,1) X
n
C = A · B, ci,j = ai,k bk,j . a
b b h
(cos θ, sin θ) k=1
C θ Determinants: det A 6= 0 iff A is non-singular.
A
(-1,0) (1,0) A c B
det A · B = det A · det B, Law of cosines:
c a
(0,-1)
XY n
c2 = a2 +b2 −2ab cos C.
B det A = sign(π)ai,π(i) .
π i=1 Area:
Pythagorean theorem:
C 2 = A2 + B 2 . 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 determinant:

a b A = 12 hc,

Definitions: c d = ad − bc, = 12 ab sin C,
sin a = A/C, cos a = B/C,
a b c c2 sin A sin B
= .
csc a = C/A, sec a = C/B, d e f = g b c − h a c + i a b 2 sin C
e f d f d e
sin a A cos a B g h i Heron’s formula:
tan a = = , cot a = = .
cos a B sin a A aei + bf g + cdh √
Area, radius of inscribed circle: =
− ceg − f ha − ibd. A = s · sa · sb · sc ,
1 AB
Permanents: s = 12 (a + b + c),
2 AB, A+B+C
.
XY
n
sa = s − a,
Identities: perm A = ai,π(i) .
π i=1
sb = s − b,
1 1
sin x = , cos x = , Hyperbolic Functions sc = s − c.
csc x sec x
1 Definitions: More identities:
tan x = , sin2 x + cos2 x = 1, r
cot x ex − e−x e +e x −x
x 1 − cos x
sinh x = , cosh x = , sin 2 = ,
1 + tan2 x = sec2 x, 1 + cot2 x = csc2 x, 2 2 2
e −e
x −x
1 r
 tanh x = x , csch x = , 1 + cos x
sin x = cos π2 − x , sin x = sin(π − x), e + e−x sinh x cos x2 = ,
1 1 2
 sech x = , coth x = . r
cos x = − cos(π − x), tan x = cot π2 − x , cosh x tanh x 1 − cos x
tan x2 = ,
Identities: 1 + cos x
cot x = − cot(π − x), csc x = cot x2 − cot x, 1 − cos x
cosh2 x − sinh2 x = 1, tanh2 x + sech2 x = 1, =
sin x
,
sin(x ± y) = sin x cos y ± cos x sin y,
sin x
coth2 x − csch2 x = 1, sinh(−x) = − sinh x, = ,
cos(x ± y) = cos x cos y ∓ sin x sin y, 1 + cos x
r
cosh(−x) = cosh x, tanh(−x) = − tanh x, 1 + cos x
tan x ± tan y cot x2 = ,
tan(x ± y) = , 1 − cos x
1 ∓ tan x tan y sinh(x + y) = sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y,
1 + cos x
cot x cot y ∓ 1 = ,
cot(x ± y) = , cosh(x + y) = cosh x cosh y + sinh x sinh y, sin x
cot x ± cot y sin x
2 tan x sinh 2x = 2 sinh x cosh x, = ,
sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x, sin 2x =
1 + tan2 x
, 1 − cos x
cosh 2x = cosh2 x + sinh2 x, eix − e−ix
cos 2x = cos2 x − sin2 x, cos 2x = 2 cos2 x − 1, sin x = ,
2i
1 − tan2 x cosh x + sinh x = ex , cosh x − sinh x = e−x , eix + e−ix
cos 2x = 1 − 2 sin2 x, cos 2x = ,
1 + tan2 x cos x = ,
(cosh x + sinh x)n = cosh nx + sinh nx, n ∈ Z, 2
2 tan x cot2 x − 1 eix − e−ix
tan 2x = 2 , cot 2x = , 2 sinh2 x2 = cosh x − 1, 2 cosh2 x2 = cosh x + 1. tan x = −i ix ,
1 − tan x 2 cot x e + e−ix
sin(x + y) sin(x − y) = sin2 x − sin2 y, e2ix − 1
θ sin θ cos θ tan θ . . . in mathematics = −i 2ix ,
e +1
cos(x + y) cos(x − y) = cos2 x − sin2 y. you don’t under- sinh ix
0 0 √
1 √
0 sin x = ,
π 1 3 3 stand things, you i
Euler’s equation: 6 2 2 3
√ √ just get used to
eix = cos x + i sin x, eiπ
= −1. π 2 2
cos x = cosh ix,
4 2 2 1 them.
v2.02 1994
c by Steve Seiden π

3 1
√ – J. von Neumann tan x =
tanh ix
.
3 2 2 3 i
sseiden@acm.org π
2 1 0 ∞
http://www.csc.lsu.edu/~seiden
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
Number Theory Graph Theory
The Chinese remainder theorem: There ex- Definitions: Notation:
ists a number C such that: Loop An edge connecting a ver- E(G) Edge set
tex to itself. V (G) Vertex set
C ≡ r1 mod m1 c(G) Number of components
Directed Each edge has a direction.
.. .. .. Simple Graph with no loops or G[S] Induced subgraph
. . .
multi-edges. deg(v) Degree of v
C ≡ rn mod mn ∆(G) Maximum degree
Walk A sequence v0 e1 v1 . . . e` v` .
if mi and mj are relatively prime for i 6= j. Trail A walk with distinct edges. δ(G) Minimum degree
Path A trail with distinct χ(G) Chromatic number
Euler’s function: φ(x) is the number of
vertices. χE (G) Edge chromatic number
positive integersQnless than x relatively Connected A graph where there exists Gc Complement graph
prime to x. If i=1 pei i is the prime fac-
a path between any two Kn Complete graph
torization of x then
Yn
vertices. Kn1 ,n2 Complete bipartite graph
φ(x) = piei −1 (pi − 1). Component A maximal connected
r(k, `) Ramsey number
i=1
subgraph. Geometry
Euler’s theorem: If a and b are relatively Tree A connected acyclic graph.
prime then Projective coordinates: triples
Free tree A tree with no root.
1 ≡ aφ(b) mod b. (x, y, z), not all x, y and z zero.
DAG Directed acyclic graph.
Eulerian Graph with a trail visiting (x, y, z) = (cx, cy, cz) ∀c 6= 0.
Fermat’s theorem:
each edge exactly once. Cartesian Projective
1 ≡ ap−1 mod p.
Hamiltonian Graph with a cycle visiting (x, y) (x, y, 1)
The Euclidean algorithm: if a > b are in- each vertex exactly once. y = mx + b (m, −1, b)
tegers then Cut A set of edges whose re- x=c (1, 0, −c)
gcd(a, b) = gcd(a mod b, b). moval increases the num- Distance formula, Lp and L∞
Qn ber of components. metric:
If i=1 pei i is the prime factorization of x p
then Cut-set A minimal cut. (x1 − x0 )2 + (y1 − y0 )2 ,
X Yn
piei +1 − 1 Cut edge A size 1 cut.  1/p
S(x) = d= . k-Connected A graph connected with |x1 − x0 |p + |y1 − y0 |p ,
pi − 1  
d|x i=1 the removal of any k − 1 lim |x1 − x0 |p + |y1 − y0 |p
1/p
.
Perfect Numbers: x is an even perfect num- vertices. p→∞

ber iff x = 2n−1 (2n −1) and 2n −1 is prime. k-Tough ∀S ⊆ V, S 6= ∅ we have Area of triangle (x0 , y0 ), (x1 , y1 )
Wilson’s theorem: n is a prime iff k · c(G − S) ≤ |S|. and (x2 , y2 ):

(n − 1)! ≡ −1 mod n. k-Regular A graph where all vertices x1 − x0 y1 − y0
1 .
2 abs x − x
have degree k. 2 0 y2 − y0
Möbius 
inversion: k-Factor A k-regular spanning
 1 if i = 1. Angle formed by three points:
 subgraph.
0 if i is not square-free.
µ(i) = Matching A set of edges, no two of

 (−1) r
if i is the product of (x2 , y2 )
r distinct primes. which are adjacent.
`2
Clique A set of vertices, all of
If X θ
which are adjacent.
G(a) = F (d), (0, 0) `1 (x1 , y1 )
Ind. set A set of vertices, none of
d|a
which are adjacent. (x1 , y1 ) · (x2 , y2 )
cos θ = .
then X a Vertex cover A set of vertices which `1 `2
F (a) = µ(d)G . cover all edges. Line through two points (x0 , y0 )
d
d|a Planar graph A graph which can be em- and (x1 , y1 ):

beded in the plane. x y 1
Prime numbers:
ln ln n Plane graph An embedding of a planar x0 y0 1 = 0.
pn = n ln n + n ln ln n − n + n
ln n graph. x1 y1 1
 
n X Area of circle, volume of sphere:
+O , deg(v) = 2m.
ln n A = πr2 , V = 43 πr3 .
v∈V
n n 2!n
π(n) = + + If G is planar then n − m + f = 2, so
ln n (ln n)2 (ln n)3 If I have seen farther than others,
  f ≤ 2n − 4, m ≤ 3n − 6.
n it is because I have stood on the
+O . Any planar graph has a vertex with de- shoulders of giants.
(ln n)4
gree ≤ 5. – Issac Newton
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
π Calculus
Wallis’ identity: Derivatives:
2 · 2 · 4 · 4 · 6 · 6···
π =2· d(cu) du d(u + v) du dv d(uv) dv du
1 · 3 · 3 · 5 · 5 · 7··· 1. =c , 2. = + , 3. =u +v ,
dx dx dx dx dx dx dx dx
Brouncker’s continued fraction expansion:  
dx − u
v du dv
12 d(un ) du d(u/v) d(ecu ) du
π 4. = nun−1 , 5. = dx
, 6. = cecu ,
4 =1+ 32 dx dx dx v2 dx dx
2+ 52
2+
2+ 72 d(cu ) du d(ln u) 1 du
2+···
7. = (ln c)cu , 8. = ,
dx dx dx u dx
Gregrory’s series:
1 1 1 1
4 =1− 3 + − − ···
π
+ d(sin u) du d(cos u) du
5 7 9 9. = cos u , 10. = − sin u ,
dx dx dx dx
Newton’s series:
d(tan u) du d(cot u) du
1 1 1·3 11. = sec2 u , 12. = csc2 u ,
dx dx dx dx
6 = 2 + 2 · 3 · 23 + 2 · 4 · 5 · 25 + · · ·
π

d(sec u) du d(csc u) du
Sharp’s series: 13. = tan u sec u , 14. = − cot u csc u ,
dx dx dx dx
1  1 1 1  d(arcsin u) 1 du d(arccos u) −1 du
π
= √ 1− 1 + 2 − 3 +··· 15. =√ , 16. =√ ,
6 3 ·3 3 ·5 3 ·7 dx 2
1 − u dx dx 1 − u2 dx
3
Euler’s series: d(arctan u) 1 du d(arccot u) −1 du
17. = , 18. = ,
dx 1 + u2 dx dx 1 + u2 dx
π2 1 1 1 1 1
6 = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + 52 + ··· d(arcsec u) 1 du d(arccsc u) −1 du
π2 1 1 1 1 1
19. = √ , 20. = √ ,
2
u 1 − u dx 2
u 1 − u dx
8 = 12 + 32 + 52 + 72 + 92 + ··· dx dx
π2 1 1 1 1 1 d(sinh u) du d(cosh u) du
12 = 12 − 22 + 32 − 42 + 52 − ··· 21. = cosh u , 22. = sinh u ,
dx dx dx dx
Partial Fractions d(tanh u) du d(coth u) du
23. = sech2 u , 24. = − csch2 u ,
Let N (x) and D(x) be polynomial func- dx dx dx dx
tions of x. We can break down d(sech u) du d(csch u) du
N (x)/D(x) using partial fraction expan- 25. = − sech u tanh u , 26. = − csch u coth u ,
dx dx dx dx
sion. First, if the degree of N is greater
than or equal to the degree of D, divide d(arcsinh u) 1 du d(arccosh u) 1 du
27. =√ , 28. =√ ,
dx 2
1 + u dx dx 2
u − 1 dx
N by D, obtaining
N (x) N 0 (x) d(arctanh u) 1 du d(arccoth u) 1 du
= Q(x) + , 29. = , 30. = 2 ,
D(x) D(x) dx 1 − u2 dx dx u − 1 dx
where the degree of N 0 is less than that of d(arcsech u) −1 du d(arccsch u) −1 du
31. = √ , 32. = √ .
D. Second, factor D(x). Use the follow- dx u 1 − u2 dx dx |u| 1 + u2 dx
ing rules: For a non-repeated factor: Integrals:
N (x) A N 0 (x) Z Z Z Z Z
= + ,
(x − a)D(x) x−a D(x) 1. cu dx = c u dx, 2. (u + v) dx = u dx + v dx,
where   Z Z Z
N (x) 1 1
A= . 3. n
x dx = xn+1 , n 6= −1, 4. dx = ln x, 5. ex dx = ex ,
D(x) x=a
n+1 x
Z Z Z
For a repeated factor: dx dv du
6. = arctan x, 7. u dx = uv − v dx,
N (x) X
m−1
Ak N 0 (x) 1 + x2 dx dx
= + , Z Z
(x − a) D(x)
m (x − a)m−k D(x) 8. sin x dx = − cos x, 9. cos x dx = sin x,
k=0

where    Z Z
1 dk N (x) 10. tan x dx = − ln | cos x|, 11. cot x dx = ln | cos x|,
Ak = .
k! dxk D(x) x=a Z Z
12. sec x dx = ln | sec x + tan x|, 13. csc x dx = ln | csc x + cot x|,
The reasonable man adapts himself to the
world; the unreasonable persists in trying Z p
to adapt the world to himself. Therefore 14. arcsin xa dx = arcsin xa + a2 − x2 , a > 0,
all progress depends on the unreasonable.
– George Bernard Shaw
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
Calculus Cont.
Z p Z
15. arccos x
a dx = arccos x
a − a2 − x2 , a > 0, 16. arctan xa dx = x arctan xa − a
2 ln(a2 + x2 ), a > 0,
Z Z
 
17. sin2 (ax)dx = 1
2a ax − sin(ax) cos(ax) , 18. cos2 (ax)dx = 1
2a ax + sin(ax) cos(ax) ,
Z Z
19. sec2 x dx = tan x, 20. csc2 x dx = − cot x,
Z Z Z Z
sinn−1 x cos x n − 1 cosn−1 x sin x n − 1
21. sinn x dx = − + sinn−2 x dx, 22. cosn x dx = + cosn−2 x dx,
n n n n
Z Z Z Z
tann−1 x cotn−1 x
23. n
tan x dx = − tan n−2
x dx, n 6= 1, 24. cot x dx = −
n
− cotn−2 x dx, n 6= 1,
n−1 n−1
Z Z
tan x secn−1 x n − 2
25. secn x dx = + secn−2 x dx, n 6= 1,
n−1 n−1
Z Z Z Z
cot x cscn−1 x n − 2
26. cscn x dx = − + cscn−2 x dx, n 6= 1, 27. sinh x dx = cosh x, 28. cosh x dx = sinh x,
n−1 n−1
Z Z Z Z

29. tanh x dx = ln | cosh x|, 30. coth x dx = ln | sinh x|, 31. sech x dx = arctan sinh x, 32. csch x dx = ln tanh x2 ,
Z Z Z
2 2
33. sinh x dx = 1
4 sinh(2x) − 1
2 x, 34. cosh x dx = 1
4 sinh(2x) + 1
2 x, 35. sech2 x dx = tanh x,
Z p Z
36. arcsinh x
a dx = x arcsinh x
a − x2 + a2 , a > 0, 37. arctanh xa dx = x arctanh xa + a
2 ln |a2 − x2 |,

Z
 x p
 x arccosh − x2 + a2 , if arccosh xa > 0 and a > 0,
38. arccosh xa dx = a
p
 x arccosh x + x2 + a2 , if arccosh x < 0 and a > 0,
a a
Z  p 
dx
39. √ = ln x + a2 + x2 , a > 0,
a2 + x2
Z Z p p
dx 1 2
40. 2 2
= a arctan x
a , a > 0, 41. a2 − x2 dx = x2 a2 − x2 + a2 arcsin xa , a > 0,
a +x
Z p 4
42. (a2 − x2 )3/2 dx = x8 (5a2 − 2x2 ) a2 − x2 + 3a8 arcsin xa , a > 0,
Z Z Z
dx dx 1 a + x dx x
43. √ x
= arcsin a , a > 0, 44. = ln , 45. = √ ,
2
a −x 2 2
a −x 2 2a a−x 2
(a − x ) 2 3/2
a a2 − x2
2
Z p p p Z p
2 dx
46. a2 ± x2 dx = x2 a2 ± x2 ± a2 ln x + a2 ± x2 , 47. √ = ln x + x2 − a2 , a > 0,
x2 − a2
Z Z
dx 1 x √ 2(3bx − 2a)(a + bx)3/2
48. 2
= ln , 49. x a + bx dx = ,
ax + bx a a + bx 15b2
Z √ Z Z √ √
a + bx √ 1 x 1 a + bx − a
50. dx = 2 a + bx + a √ dx, 51. √ dx = √ ln √ √ , a > 0,
x x a + bx a + bx 2 a + bx + a
Z √ 2 p a + √a2 − x2 Z p
a − x2
52. 2 2
dx = a − x − a ln , 53. x a2 − x2 dx = − 13 (a2 − x2 )3/2 ,
x x

Z p p Z a + √a2 − x2
4 dx
54. x2 a2 − x2 dx = x8 (2x2 − a2 ) a2 − x2 + a8 arcsin xa , a > 0, 55. √ = − a1 ln ,
2
a −x 2 x
Z p Z 2 p
x dx x dx 2
56. √ = − a2 − x2 , 57. √ = − x2 a2 − x2 + a2 arcsin a, x
a > 0,
2
a −x 2 a2 − x2
Z √ √ Z √
a2 + x2 p a + a2 + x2 x2 − a2 p

58. dx = a2 + x2 − a ln , 59. dx = x2 − a2 − a arccos |x| a
, a > 0,
x x x
Z p Z
dx x
60. x x2 ± a2 dx = 13 (x2 ± a2 )3/2 , 61. √ = a1 ln √ ,
x x2 + a2 a + a2 + x2
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
Calculus Cont. Finite Calculus
Z Z √
dx 1 dx x2 ± a2 Difference, shift operators:
62. √ a
= a arccos |x| , a > 0, 63. √ =∓ ,
x x2 − a2 x2 x2 ± a2 a2 x ∆f (x) = f (x + 1) − f (x),
Z Z √
x dx p x2 ± a2 (x2 + a2 )3/2 E f (x) = f (x + 1).
64. √ = x2 ± a2 , 65. dx = ∓ ,
x2 ± a2  x4 3a2 x3 Fundamental Theorem:

2ax + b − b2 − 4ac X

 1 f (x) = ∆F (x) ⇔ f (x)δx = F (x) + C.
Z 
 √ ln √ , if b2 > 4ac,
dx 2
b − 4ac 2ax + b + b − 4ac
2
66. = X
b X
b−1
ax2 + bx + c   2 2ax + b f (x)δx = f (i).

√ arctan √ , if b2 < 4ac, a
4ac − b2 4ac − b2 i=a
Differences:
 √ p
 1 ∆(cu) = c∆u, ∆(u + v) = ∆u + ∆v,
Z 
 √ ln 2ax + b + 2 a ax2 + bx + c , if a > 0,
dx a
67. √ = ∆(uv) = u∆v + E v∆u,
ax2 + bx + c   1 −2ax − b
√ arcsin √ , if a < 0, ∆(xn ) = nxn−1 ,
−a b2 − 4ac
Z Z ∆(Hx ) = x−1 , ∆(2x ) = 2x ,
p 2ax + b p 2 4ax − b2 dx  
68. ax2 + bx + c dx = ax + bx + c + √ , ∆(cx ) = (c − 1)cx , x
∆ m x
= m−1 .
4a 8a 2
ax + bx + c
Sums:
Z √ Z P P
x dx ax2 + bx + c b dx cu δx = c u δx,
69. √ = − √ ,
2
ax + bx + c a 2a 2
ax + bx + c P P P
(u + v) δx = u δx + v δx,
 √ √
−1 2 c ax2 + bx + c + bx + 2c P P

 u∆v δx = uv − E v∆u δx,
Z 
 √c ln , if c > 0,
dx x P n n+1 P −1
70. √ = x δx = xm+1 , x δx = Hx ,
2
x ax + bx + c   1 bx + 2c

 √ arcsin √ , if c < 0, P x x P x
 x

c
−c |x| b2 − 4ac c δx = c−1 , m δx = m+1 .
Z p Falling Factorial Powers:
71. x3 x2 + a2 dx = ( 13 x2 − 15
2 2
a )(x2 + a2 )3/2 , xn = x(x − 1) · · · (x − n + 1), n > 0,
Z Z
x0 = 1,
72. xn sin(ax) dx = − a1 xn cos(ax) + n
a xn−1 cos(ax) dx,
1
Z Z xn = , n < 0,
(x + 1) · · · (x + |n|)
1 n
73. n
x cos(ax) dx = ax sin(ax) − n
x n−1
sin(ax) dx,
a xn+m = xm (x − m)n .
Z Z Rising Factorial Powers:
xn eax
74. xn eax dx = − n
xn−1 eax dx,
a a xn = x(x + 1) · · · (x + n − 1), n > 0,
Z  
75. xn ln(ax) dx = xn+1
ln(ax)

1
, x0 = 1,
n+1 (n + 1)2 1
Z Z xn = , n < 0,
xn+1
m (x − 1) · · · (x − |n|)
76. xn (ln ax)m dx = (ln ax)m − xn (ln ax)m−1 dx.
n+1 n+1 xn+m = xm (x + m)n .
Conversion:
x1 = x1 = x1 xn = (−1)n (−x)n = (x − n + 1)n
x2 = x2 + x1 = x2 − x1 = 1/(x + 1)−n ,
x3 = x3 + 3x2 + x1 = x3 − 3x2 + x1 xn = (−1)n (−x)n = (x + n − 1)n
x4 = x + 6x3 + 7x2 + x1
4
= x − 6x3 + 7x2 − x1
4
= 1/(x − 1)−n ,
x5 = x5 + 15x4 + 25x3 + 10x2 + x1 x5 − 15x4 + 25x3 − 10x2 + x1 Xn   n  
= n k X n
xn = x = (−1)n−k xk ,
k k
x1 = x1 x1 = x1 k=1 k=1
Xn  
x2 = x + x1
2
x2 = x − x1
2
xn =
n
(−1)n−k xk ,
x3 = x3 + 3x2 + 2x1 x3 = x3 − 3x2 + 2x1 k=1
k
Xn  
x4 = x4 + 6x3 + 11x2 + 6x1 x4 = x4 − 6x3 + 11x2 − 6x1 n n k
x = x .
x5 = x5 + 10x4 + 35x3 + 50x2 + 24x1 x5 = x5 − 10x4 + 35x3 − 50x2 + 24x1 k
k=1
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
Series
Taylor’s series: Ordinary power series:

X (x − a)i
(x − a)2 00
0

X
f (x) = f (a) + (x − a)f (a) + f (a) + · · · = f (i) (a). A(x) = ai xi .
2 i=0
i!
i=0
Expansions:
X∞ Exponential power series:
1
= 1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + · · · = xi , X∞
xi
1−x i=0 A(x) = ai .
X∞ i!
1 i=0
= 1 + cx + c2 x2 + c3 x3 + · · · = ci xi ,
1 − cx i=0
Dirichlet power series:
∞ X∞
1 X ai
= 1 + x n
+ x 2n
+ x3n
+ · · · = xni , A(x) = .
1 − xn i=1
ix
i=0
X∞ Binomial theorem:
x 2 3 4 n  
= x + 2x + 3x + 4x + · · · = ixi , X n n−k k
(1 − x)2 (x + y)n = x y .
  i=0
X∞ k
dn 1 k=0
xk n = x + 2n x2 + 3n x3 + 4n x4 + · · · = in xi , Difference of like powers:
dx 1−x i=0
X∞
xi X
n−1

ex = 1 + x + 12 x2 + 16 x3 + · · · = , xn − y n = (x − y) xn−1−k y k .
i=0
i! k=0
X∞
xi For ordinary power series:
ln(1 + x) = x − 12 x2 + 13 x3 − 14 x4 − · · · = (−1)i+1 , ∞
X
i
i=1

αA(x) + βB(x) = (αai + βbi )xi ,
1 Xx i
= x + 12 x2 + 13 x3 + 14 x4 + · · ·
i=0
ln = , ∞
1−x i X
i=1
X∞ xk A(x) = ai−k xi ,
1 3 1 5 1 7 x2i+1
sin x = x − 3! x + 5! x − 7! x + · · · = (−1)i , i=k
(2i + 1)! Pk−1 ∞
X
i=0

A(x) − ai xi
X x2i
i=0
= ai+k xi ,
cos x = 1 − 2! 1 2
x + 4! 1 4
x − 6! 1 6
x + ··· = (−1)i , xk i=0
i=0
(2i)! ∞
X
X∞ ci ai xi ,
x2i+1 A(cx) =
tan−1 x = x − 13 x3 + 15 x5 − 17 x7 + · · · = (−1)i , i=0
(2i + 1) ∞
∞  
i=0 X
X n i A0 (x) = (i + 1)ai+1 xi ,
2
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx + n(n−1) 2 x + · · · = x,
i i=0
∞  
i=0 ∞
X X
1 n+2 2
 i+n i xA0 (x) = iai xi ,
= 1 + (n + 1)x + 2 x + · · · = x,
(1 − x)n+1 i i=1
i=0
X∞ Z ∞
X
x 1 1 2 1 4 Bi xi ai−1
= 1 − 2 x + 12 x − 720 x + · · · = , A(x) dx = xi ,
e −1
x i! i=1
i
i=0
X∞  
1 √ 2 3 1 2i i A(x) + A(−x)

X
(1 − 1 − 4x) = 1 + x + 2x + 5x + · · · = x, = a2i x2i ,
2x i+1 i 2
∞  
i=0 i=0
1 X 2i i ∞
√ = 1 + x + 2x2 + 6x3 + · · · = x, A(x) − A(−x) X
1 − 4x i = a2i+1 x2i+1 .
 √ n 2
∞  
i=0
1 1 − 1 − 4x  X 2i + n i Pi
i=0
4+n 2
√ = 1 + (2 + n)x + 2 x + · · · = x, Summation: If bi = j=0 ai then
1 − 4x 2x i=0
i
X∞ 1
1 1 B(x) = A(x).
ln = x + 32 x2 + 11 6 x 3
+ 25 4
12 x + · · · = Hi xi , 1−x
1−x 1−x Convolution:
 2 i=1
∞  
1 1 X Hi−1 xi ∞
ln = 12 x2 + 34 x3 + 11 x 4
+ · · · = , X Xi
2 1−x 24 i A(x)B(x) =  aj bi−j  xi .
i=2
X∞ i=0 j=0
x 2 3 4
= x + x + 2x + 3x + · · · = Fi xi ,
1 − x − x2 i=0 God made the natural numbers;
X∞
Fn x 2 3 all the rest is the work of man.
= F n x + F 2n x + F 3n x + · · · = Fni xi .
1 − (Fn−1 + Fn+1 )x − (−1)n x2 i=0
– Leopold Kronecker
Theoretical Computer Science Cheat Sheet
Series Escher’s Knot
Expansions:

X    −n X∞  
1 1 n+i i 1 i
ln = (Hn+i − Hn ) x, = xi ,
(1 − x)n+1 1−x i x n
∞   ∞  
i=0 i=0
X n i X i n!xi
xn = x, (e − 1)
x n
= ,
i n i!
 n X∞  
i=0 i=0
X∞
1 i n!xi (−4)i B2i x2i
ln = , x cot x = ,
1−x i=0
n i! i=0
(2i)!
X∞ 2i 2i 2i−1 X∞
i−1 2 (2 − 1)B2i x 1
tan x = (−1) , ζ(x) = x
,
i=1
(2i)! i=1
i
X∞ X∞
1 µ(i) ζ(x − 1) φ(i)
= x
, = ,
ζ(x) i=1
i ζ(x) i=1
ix
Y 1
ζ(x) = , Stieltjes Integration
p
1 − p−x

If G is continuous in the interval [a, b] and F is nondecreasing then
X d(i) P Z b
ζ 2 (x) = where d(n) = d|n 1,
i=1
xi G(x) dF (x)
a

X S(i) P exists. If a ≤ b ≤ c then
ζ(x)ζ(x − 1) = where S(n) = d|n d, Z c Z b Z c
i=1
xi
G(x) dF (x) = G(x) dF (x) + G(x) dF (x).
2n−1
2 |B2n | 2n a a b
ζ(2n) = π , n ∈ N, If the integrals involved exist
(2n)! Z b Z Z
X∞  b b
x (4i − 2)B2i x2i G(x) + H(x) dF (x) = G(x) dF (x) + H(x) dF (x),
= (−1)i−1 , a a a
sin x (2i)! Z Z Z
 √ n
i=0 b  b b

X G(x) d F (x) + H(x) = G(x) dF (x) + G(x) dH(x),
1 − 1 − 4x n(2i + n − 1)!
= xi , a a a
2x i!(n + i)! Z Z Z b
i=0 b b 
X∞ i/2 iπ c · G(x) dF (x) = G(x) d c · F (x) = c G(x) dF (x),
x 2 sin 4 i a a a
e sin x = x, Z b Z b
i!
s
i=1
G(x) dF (x) = G(b)F (b) − G(a)F (a) − F (x) dG(x).
√ ∞
1− 1−x X (4i)!
a a
= √ xi , If the integrals involved exist, and F possesses a derivative F 0 at every
x i=0
i
16 2(2i)!(2i + 1)! point in [a, b] then
 2 ∞
X Z b Z b
arcsin x 4i i!2
= x2i . G(x) dF (x) = G(x)F 0 (x) dx.
x i=0
(i + 1)(2i + 1)! a a

Cramer’s Rule Fibonacci Numbers


00 47 18 76 29 93 85 34 61 52
If we have equations: 86 11 57 28 70 39 94 45 02 63
a1,1 x1 + a1,2 x2 + · · · + a1,n xn = b1 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, . . .
95 80 22 67 38 71 49 56 13 04
a2,1 x1 + a2,2 x2 + · · · + a2,n xn = b2 59 96 81 33 07 48 72 60 24 15
Definitions:
.. .. .. 73 69 90 82 44 17 58 01 35 26 Fi = Fi−1 +Fi−2 , F0 = F1 = 1,
. . . 68 74 09 91 83 55 27 12 46 30 F−i = (−1)i−1 Fi ,
an,1 x1 + an,2 x2 + · · · + an,n xn = bn 37 08 75 19 92 84 66 23 50 41
 
14 25 36 40 51 62 03 77 88 99
Fi = √15 φi − φ̂i ,
Let A = (ai,j ) and B be the column matrix (bi ). Then 21 32 43 54 65 06 10 89 97 78 Cassini’s identity: for i > 0:
there is a unique solution iff det A 6= 0. Let Ai be A
with column i replaced by B. Then
42 53 64 05 16 20 31 98 79 87
Fi+1 Fi−1 − Fi2 = (−1)i .
det Ai Additive rule:
xi = . The Fibonacci number system:
det A Every integer n has a unique Fn+k = Fk Fn+1 + Fk−1 Fn ,
representation F2n = Fn Fn+1 + Fn−1 Fn .
Improvement makes strait roads, but the crooked n = Fk1 + Fk2 + · · · + Fkm , Calculation by matrices:
roads without Improvement, are roads of Genius.    n
where ki ≥ ki+1 + 2 for all i, Fn−2 Fn−1 0 1
– William Blake (The Marriage of Heaven and Hell) 1 ≤ i < m and km ≥ 2. = .
Fn−1 Fn 1 1