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WIND ENERGY

Wind Energ. 2011; 14:13–25


Published online 1 May 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/we.399

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order


controllers: Stress on the mechanical drive train due
to a converter control malfunction
R. Melício1, V. M. F. Mendes2 and J. P. S. Catalão3
1 University of Beira Interior, Covilha, Portugal
2 Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
3 University of Beira Interior, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Covilha, Portugal

ABSTRACT
This paper is on variable-speed wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Three different
drive train mass models and three different topologies for the power-electronic converters are considered. The three dif-
ferent topologies considered are respectively a matrix, a two-level and a multilevel converter. A novel control strategy,
based on fractional-order controllers, is proposed for the wind turbines. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the
behaviour of the wind turbines during a converter control malfunction, considering the fractional-order controllers. Finally,
conclusions are duly drawn. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
KEYWORDS
wind turbines; permanent magnet synchronous generators; modelling; power converters; fractional-order control
Correspondence
J. P. S. Catalão, University of Beira Interior, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha,
Portugal.
E-mail: catalao@ubi.pt

Received 13 May 2009; Revised 29 December 2009; Accepted 10 February 2010

NOMENCLATURE J moment of inertia for blades, hub and generator


of the one-mass model
u0 average wind speed Jt moment of inertia for blades and hub of the two-
u wind speed value with disturbance mass model
Ak magnitude of the eigenswing k Tt mechanical torque
ωk eigenfrequency of the eigenswing k Tdt resistant torque in the wind turbine bearing of
Ptt mechanical power of the turbine the two-mass model
ρ air density Tat resistant torque in the hub and blades of the two-
R radius of the area covered by the blades mass model
cp power coefficient Tts torsional stiffness torque of the two-mass model
ωt rotor angular speed at the wind turbine ωg rotor angular speed at the generator
θ pitch angle of the rotor blades Jg moment of inertia for the rotor of the generator
λ tip speed ratio Tdg resistant torque in the generator bearing of the
Pt mechanical power of the wind turbine disturbed two-mass model
by the mechanical eigenswings Tag resistant torque due to the viscosity of the
m order of the harmonic of a eigenswing airflow in the generator of the two-mass model
gkm distribution of the m-order harmonic in the Tg electric torque
eigenswing k Jb moment of inertia of the flexible blades section
akm normalized magnitude of gkm of the three-mass model
hk modulation of eigenswing k Jh moment of inertia of the hub and the rigid
ϕkm phase of the m-order harmonic in the eigenswing k blades section of the three-mass model

Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 13


Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão

Tdb resistant torque of the flexible blades of the Accurate modelling and control of wind turbines have
three-mass model high priority in the research activities all over the world.
Tbs torsional flexible blades stifness torque of the At the moment, substantial documentation exists on mod-
three-mass model elling and control issues for the doubly-fed induction gen-
Tdh resistant torque of the rigid blades and the hub erator (DFIG) wind turbine. But this is not the case for
of the three-mass model wind turbines with PMSG and full-power converter.7
Tss torsional shaft stifness torque of the three-mass Previous papers were mainly focused on the transient
model analysis of variable-speed wind turbines at external grid
Tdg resistant torque of the generator of the three- faults.8,9 Grid code specifications in European countries
mass model require that wind turbines must be able to ride though grid
if equivalent rotor current disturbances that bring voltages down to very low levels.10
M mutual inductance Accordingly, great effort has been made to develop vari-
p number of pairs of poles able-speed wind turbines capable of supporting voltage/
id, iq stator currents frequency and remain connected to the system during
Ld, Lq stator inductances external grid faults,11,12 but little attention has been given
Rd, Rq stator resistances to the possibility of internal abnormal operating condi-
ud, uq stator voltages tions, such as a converter control malfunction, using dif-
ferent drive train mass models. Voltage sags and swells,
harmonics, frequency variation, phase steps, DC compo-
1. INTRODUCTION nents and noise are phenomena that can cause severe mal-
function in the control or supervision circuits13,14 of the
In Portugal, the wind power goal foreseen for 2010 was wind turbines. Also, oversimplification on the modelling
established earlier by the government as 3750 MW, repre- of the mechanical drive train could introduce significant
senting about 25% of the total installed capacity by 2010.1 error in the value of the results.15
But, this wind power goal has now been raised to Hence, this paper focuses on the analysis of the stress
5100 MW. Hence, Portugal has one of the most ambitious on the mechanical drive train of wind turbines with PMSG
goals in terms of wind power, and in 2006 was the second and full-power converters, considering: (i) three different
country in Europe with the highest wind power growth. drive train mass models, respectively, one, two and three
As the penetration level of wind power increases into mass models (ii) three different topologies for power-
the power systems, the overall performance of the electric electronic converters, respectively matrix, two-level and
grid will increasingly be affected by the characteristics of multilevel converters (iii) a novel fractional-order control
wind turbines. One of the major concerns related to the strategy (iv) a converter control malfunction and (v) the
high penetration level of the wind turbines is the impact bending flexibility of the blades. Simulation results for
on power system stability.2 Also, network operators have the converter control malfunction ascertain the perfor-
to ensure that consumer power quality is not deteriorated. mance of wind turbines equipped with fractional-order
Hence, the total harmonic distortion (THD) should be kept controllers.
as low as possible, improving the quality of the energy
injected into the electric grid.3
Power-electronic converters have been developed for 2. MODELLING
integrating wind power with the electric grid. The use of
power-electronic converters allows not only for variable 2.1. Wind turbine
speed operation of a wind turbine, but also for enhance-
ment on power extraction.4 In a recent overview of differ- The mechanical power of the turbine is given by:
ent wind generator systems,5 it is shown that variable-speed
1
conceptions equipped with power-electronic converters Ptt = ρπ R 2u3c p (1)
will continue to dominate and be very promising tech- 2
nologies for large wind farms. The computation of the power coefficient requires the
Today, variable-speed wind turbines have become more use of blade element theory and the knowledge of blade
common than traditional fixed-speed turbines.6 In a vari- geometry. In this paper, the numerical approximation
able-speed wind turbine with full-power converter, the developed in16 is followed, where the power coefficient is
wind turbine is directly connected to the generator and the given by:
generator is completely decoupled from the electric grid.
Of all the generators used in wind turbines, the permanent −18.4
⎛ 151 ⎞ λi
magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is the one with a c p = 0.73 ⎜ − 0.58θ − 0.002θ 2.14 − 13.2⎟ e (2)
⎝ λi ⎠
significant advantage: it is stable and secure under normal
operating conditions; and comparing with a wound syn- 1
λi =
chronous generator, it is smaller and does not need a direct 1 0.003 (3)

current power source for field excitation. (λ − 0.02θ ) (θ 3 + 1)

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R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers

The global maximum for the power coefficient is at null interaction; and eigenswing in the blades. The mechanical
pitch angle and it is equal to: power over the rotor of the wind turbine has been mod-
elled, using the mechanical eigenswings,18 as a set of har-
c p max [λ opt (0 ) , 0 ] = 0.4412 (4) monic terms multiplied by the power associated with the
energy capture from the wind by the blades, given by:
corresponding to an optimal tip speed ratio at null pitch
⎡ ⎛ ⎞ ⎤
3 2
angle equal to: Pt = Ptt ⎢1 + ∑ Ak ⎜ ∑ akm gkm (t )⎟ hk (t )⎥ (7)
⎣ k =1 ⎝ m =1 ⎠ ⎦
λ opt (0 ) = 7.057 (5)

In order to achieve maximum power, the tip speed ratio


gkm = sin (∫ mω (t ′) dt ′ + ϕ )
0
t
k km (8)

at each pitch angle should be kept at the value correspond- The frequency range of the wind turbine model with
ing to the global maximum for the power coefficient.4 mechanical eigenswings is from 0.1 to 10 Hz. The values
Hence, the rotor angular speed at the wind turbine is as used on equations (7) and (8) for the calculation of Pt are
a function of the maximum mechanical power Ptt max, given in Table I.18
given by:

2.2. One-mass drive train model


2 Ptt max
ω t = λ opt (θ )3 (6)
ρπ R c p max [λ opt (θ ) , θ ]
5
In a one-mass drive train model, all components are
lumped together and modelled as a single rotating mass.15
A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is used in deter- The equation for the one-mass model is based on the
mining the optimal rotor angular speed at the wind turbine second law of Newton, deriving the state equation for the
for each wind speed to obtain maximum rotor power.4 rotor angular speed at the wind turbine, given by:
When regulating the wind system under the specifica-
tion of maximum power, it must be taken into account that dω t 1
turbine power must never be higher than generator value = ( Tt − Tg ) (9)
dt J
for the rated power. Once generator rated power is reached
at rated wind speed it must be limited. For variable-speed
wind turbines, a mechanical actuator is usually employed
to change the pitch angle of the blades in order to reduce 2.3. Two-mass drive train model
power coefficient and maintain the power at its rated
value. When rated turbine speed is reached, control strat- A comparative study of wind turbine generator system
egy must be changed so that a higher wind velocity no using different drive train models19 has shown that
longer increases turbine speed but increases generated the two-mass model may be more suitable for transient
power until generator rated power; increases in rotor speed analysis.
of about 10% are allowed during transients because of the The equations for the two-mass model are based on the
slow pitch control response.17 torsional version of the second law of Newton, deriving
The conversion of wind energy into mechanical energy the state equation for the rotor angular speed at the wind
over the rotor of a wind turbine is influenced by various turbine and for the rotor angular speed at the generator,
forces acting on the blades and on the tower of the wind respectively given by:
turbine (e.g. centrifugal, gravity and varying aerodynamic
dω t 1
forces acting on blades, gyroscopic forces acting on the = (Tt − Tdt − Tat − Tts ) (10)
tower), introducing mechanical effects influencing the dt Jt
energy conversion. Those mechanical effects have been
modelled by eigenswings mainly due to the following dω g 1
= (Tts − Tdg − Tag − Tg ) (11)
phenomena: asymmetry in the turbine; vortex tower dt Jg

Table I. Mechanical eigenswings excited in the wind turbine.


k Source Ak ωk[rad/s] hk m akm ϕkm

1 Asymmetry 0.01 ωt 1 1 4/5 0


2 1/5 π/2
2 Vortex tower interaction 0.08 3 ωt 1 1 1/2 0
2 1/2 π/2
3 Blades 0.15 9π 1/2 (g11 + g21) 1 1 0

Wind Energ. 2011; 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão

2.4. Three-mass drive train model moments of inertia is possible. This estimation is out of
the scope of this paper, but it has been researched, for
With the increase in size of the wind turbines, one question instance in22.
arises whether long flexible blades have an important The equations for the three-mass model are based on
impact on the transient analysis of wind energy systems the torsional version of the second law of Newton, deriv-
during a fault.20 To determine the dynamic properties of ing the state equation for the rotor angular speed at the
the blade, finite element techniques may be used but this wind turbine and for the rotor angular speed at the gen-
approach cannot easily be implemented in power systems erator, respectively given by:
analysis programs. Hence, to avoid the use of the finite
element approach it is necessary to simplify the rotor dω t 1
= (Tt − Tdb − Tbs ) (12)
dynamics as much as possible. One way to achieve this is dt Jb
represented in Figure 1, where the blade analysis is repre-
sented as a simple torsional system. Since the blade dω h 1
bending occurs at a significant distance from the joint = (Tbs − Tdh − Tss ) (13)
dt Jh
between the blade and the hub, the blade can be split in
two parts, OA and AB. The blade sections OA1, OA2 and dω g 1
OA3 establish the moment of inertia of the hub and the = (Tss − Tdg − Tg ) (14)
dt Jg
rigid section blade and have the moment of inertia Jh, the
rest of the blade sections A1B1, A2B2 and A3B3 are
the effective flexible blade section and have the moment
of inertia Jb.21 2.5. PMSG
The configuration of the three-mass drive train model
is shown in Figure 2. The model for the PMSG is the usual one, where the state
The mass moments of inertia for the model are given as equations for modelling the PMSG stator currents, using
input data, but in their absence an estimation of the mass motor machine convention, are given by:

did 1
= [ud + pω g Lqiq − Rd id ] (15)
dt Ld

diq 1
= [uq − pω g ( Ld id + Mi f ) − Rqiq ] (16)
dt Lq

In order to avoid demagnetization of permanent magnet


in the PMSG, a null stator current id = 0 is imposed.23 The
electric power is given by:

Pg = [ud u f ][id if ]
T
uq iq (17)

2.6. Matrix converter


Figure 1. Blade bending dynamics for the three-mass drive
train model. The matrix converter is an AC-AC converter, with nine
bidirectional commanded insulated gate bipolar transistors
(IGBTs) Sij. It is connected between a first order filter and
a second order filter. The first order filter is connected to
a PMSG, whereas the second order filter is connected to
an electric network. A switching strategy can be chosen so
that the output voltages have nearly sinusoidal waveforms
at the desired frequency, magnitude and phase angle, and
the input currents are nearly sinusoidal at the desired dis-
placement power factor.24 A three-phase active symmetri-
cal circuit in series models the electric network. The phase
currents injected into the electric grid are modelled by the
state equation using, given by:

di fk 1
Figure 2. Configuration of the three-mass drive train model. = (u fk − Rni fk − uk ) k = {4, 5, 6} (18)
dt Ln

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Figure 3. Wind energy system with matrix converter.

The configuration of the simulated wind energy system switching state Sij. The index i with i ∈ {1,2} identifies
with matrix converter is shown in Figure 3. the IGBT. A group of two IGBTs linked to the same
The IGBTs commands Sij are given in function of the phase constitute a leg j of the converter. The index j with
on and off states, as follows: j ∈ {1,2,3} identifies a leg for the rectifier and j ∈ {4,5,6}
identifies the inverter one. The rectifier is connected
Sij = { 1, (on )
0, (off )
i, j ∈{1, 2, 3} (19)
between the PMSG and a capacitor bank. The inverter is
connected between this capacitor bank and a second order
filter, which in turn is connected to an electric grid. A
For the matrix converter modelling it is considered that: three-phase active symmetrical circuit in series models the
electric grid.26,27 The phase currents injected into the elec-
3 tric grid are modelled by the state equation (18).
∑S ij = 1 i ∈{1, 2, 3} (20) The configuration of the wind energy system with
j =1 two-level converter is shown in Figure 4.
A switching variable γj of each leg j is used to identify
3
the state of the IGBT i in the leg j of the converter. The
∑S ij =1 j ∈{1, 2, 3} (21)
switching variable of each leg j28 is given by:
i =1

The vector of output phase voltages is related to the ⎧1, ( S1 j = 1 and S2 j = 0 )


γj =⎨ j ∈{1, . . . , 6} (24)
vector of input phase voltages through the command ⎩0, ( S1 j = 0 and S2 j = 1)
matrix,25 as follows:
Hence, each switching variable depends on the conducting
⎡ v A ⎤ ⎡ S11 S12 S13 ⎤ ⎡ va ⎤ ⎡ va ⎤ and blocking states of the IGBTs. The voltage vdc is mod-
⎢ vB ⎥ = ⎢ S21 S22 S23 ⎥ ⎢ vb ⎥ = [ S ] ⎢ vb ⎥ (22) elled by the state equation, given by:
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ vC ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ S31 S32 S33 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ vc ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ vc ⎥⎦
dvdc 1 ⎛ 3 6

= ⎜ ∑ γ ji j − ∑ γ ji j ⎟ (25)
dt C ⎝ j =1 j=4 ⎠
The vector of input phase currents is related to the
vector of output phase currents through the command
matrix,25 as follows:
2.8. Multilevel converter
[ia ib ic ]T = [ S ]T [iA iB iC ]T (23)
The multilevel converter is an AC/DC/AC converter, with
twelve unidirectional commanded IGBTs Sij used as a rec-
tifier, and with the same number of unidirectional com-
2.7. Two-level converter manded IGBTs used as an inverter. A group of four IGBTs
linked to the same phase constitute a leg j of the converter.
The two-level converter is an AC/DC/AC converter, with The rectifier is connected between the PMSG and a capac-
six unidirectional commanded IGBTs used as a rectifier, itor bank. The inverter is connected between this capacitor
and with the same number of unidirectional commanded bank and a second order filter, which in turn is connected
IGBTs used as an inverter. Each IGBT is indicated by its to an electric grid. Again, a three-phase active symmetrical

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Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão

Figure 4. Wind energy system with two-level converter.

Figure 5. Wind energy system with multilevel converter.

circuit in series models the electric grid.26,27 The phase γ j (1 + γ j ) γ j (1 − γ j )


Φ1 j = ; Φ2 j = ; j ∈{1, . . . , 6} (27)
currents injected into the electric grid are modelled by the 2 2
state equation (18).
The configuration of the wind energy system with mul- Hence, each switching variable depends only on the
tilevel converter is shown in Figure 5. conducting and blocking states of the IGBTs. The voltage
The switching variable γj of each leg j is a function of vdc is the sum of the voltages vC1 and vC2 in the capacitor
the states Sij of the converter. The index i with i ∈ {1,2,3,4} banks C1 and C2, modelled by the state equation, given by:
identifies the IGBT. The index j with j ∈ {1,2,3} identifies
the leg for the rectifier and j ∈ {4,5,6} identifies the dvdc 1⎛ 3 6
⎞ 1 ⎛ 3 6

inverter one. The three valid conditions29 for the switching = ⎜ ∑ Φ1 j i j − ∑ Φ1 j i j ⎟ + ⎜ ∑ Φ2 ji j − ∑ Φ2 ji j ⎟
dt C1 ⎝ j =1 j=4 ⎠ C 2 ⎝ j =1 j=4 ⎠
variable of each leg j are given by:
(28)
⎧ 1, ( S1 j and S2 j ) = 1 and ( S3 j or S4 j ) = 0

γ j = ⎨ 0, ( S2 j and S3 j ) = 1 and ( S1 j or S4 j ) = 0
⎪−1, ( S and S ) = 1 and ( S or S ) = 0
⎩ 3j 4j 1j 2j 3. CONTROL STRATEGY
j ∈ {1, . . . , 6} (26)
3.1. Fractional-order controller
A switching variable Φ1j is associated with the two
upper IGBTs in each leg j (S1j and S2j), and also a switch- A novel control strategy based on fractional-order PIμ con-
ing variable Φ2j is associated with the two lower IGBTs trollers is studied for the variable-speed operation of wind
(S3j and S4j), respectively given by: turbines with PMSG and full-power converters, and its

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R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers

design is more complex than that of classical PI control- The influence of fractional-order controllers is due to
lers.30 Fractional-order calculus used in mathematical their ability for memory. An important property revealed
models of the systems can improve the design, properties by equation (33) is that whereas integer-order operators
and controlling abilities in dynamical systems.31 Fractional imply finite series, the fractional-order counterparts are
calculus theory is a generalization of ordinary differentia- defined by infinite series.31,33 This means that integer
tion and integration to arbitrary (non-integer) order.32. operators are local operators in opposition with the frac-
The fractional-order differentiator can be denoted by a tional operators that have, implicitly, a memory of all past
general operator aDμt,33 given by: events.
The differential equation of the fractional-order PIμ
⎧ d
μ
controller, 0 < μ < 1, in time domain, is given by:
⎪ dt μ , ℜ (μ ) > 0
μ ⎪ u (t ) = K p e (t ) + K i Dt− μ e (t ) (36)
a Dt = ⎨ 1, ℜ (μ ) = 0 (29)
⎪ t ℜ (μ ) < 0
⎪∫a ( dτ ) ,
−μ
where Kp is a proportional constant and Ki is an integration
⎩ constant. Taking μ = 1 in (36), a classical PI controller is
where μ is the order of derivative or integrals, R(μ) is the obtained. Hence, using Laplace transforms the transfer
real part of the μ. The mathematical definition of fractional function of the fractional-order PIμ controller is given by:
derivatives and integrals has been the subject of several
descriptions. The most frequently encountered one is G (s) = K p + Ki s− μ (37)
called Riemann–Liouville definition, in which the frac-
tional-order integral is given by:

1 t
Γ ( μ ) ∫a
a Dt− μ f (t ) = (t − τ )μ −1 f (τ ) dτ (30) 3.2. Converters control

Power converters are variable structure systems, because


whereas the definition of fractional-order derivatives is: of the on/off switching of their IGBTs. As mentioned
previously, the controllers used in the converters are
1 dn ⎡ t f (τ ) ⎤ respectively proportional integral and fractional-order PIμ
Γ ( n − μ ) dt n ⎢⎣ ∫a (t − τ )μ − n +1 ⎥⎦
a Dtμ f (t ) = dτ (31)
controllers. Pulse width modulation by space vector mod-
ulation associated with sliding mode is used for controlling
where the converters.
The sliding mode control strategy presents attractive

Γ ( x ) ≡ ∫ y x −1e − y dy (32) features such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of
0
the wind turbine and the generator as well as to electric
is the Euler’s Gamma function, a and t are the limits of grid disturbances.34
the operation, and μ is the number identifying the frac- Sliding mode controllers are particularly interesting in
tional order. In this paper, μ is assumed as a real number systems with variable structure, such as switching power
that satisfies the restrictions 0 < μ ≤ 1. Also, it is assumed converters, guaranteeing the choice of the most appro-
that a = 0. The following convention is used: 0Dt− μ ≡ Dt− μ. priate space vectors. Their aim is to let the system slide
The other approach is Grünwald–Letnikov definition of along a predefined sliding surface by changing the system
fractional-order integral, given by: structure.
The power semiconductors present physical limitations
t −a that have to be considered during design phase and during
h
Γ (μ + r ) simulation study. Particularly, they cannot switch at infi-
a Dt− μ f (t ) = lim h μ ∑ f (t − rh ) (33)
r =0 r !Γ (μ )
h→0 nite frequency. Also, for a finite value of the switching
frequency, an error eαβ will exist between the reference
while the definition of fractional-order derivatives is: value and the control value. In order to guarantee that
the system slides along the sliding surface S(eαβ,t), it
t −a has been proven that it is necessary to ensure that the
h
Γ ( μ + 1) state trajectory near the surfaces verifies the stability con-
a D f (t ) = lim h
μ
t
h→0
−μ
∑ (−1) r

r ! Γ ( μ − r + 1)
f (t − rh ) (34)
ditions25 given by:
r =0

where the binomial coefficients (r > 0) are given by defini- dS (eαβ , t )


S (eαβ , t ) <0 (38)
tion, given by: dt

⎛ μ⎞ ⎛ μ ⎞ μ ( μ − 1) . . . ( μ − r + 1) in practice a small error ε > 0 for S(eαβ,t) is allowed,


⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = 1, ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ = (35)
due to power semiconductors switching only at finite
0 r r!

Wind Energ. 2011; 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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DOI: 10.1002/we
Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão

frequency. Consequently, a switching strategy has to be 4. SIMULATION RESULTS


considered, given by:
The mathematical models for the wind energy system with
− ε < S (eαβ , t ) < + ε (39) the matrix, two-level and multilevel converters were
implemented in Matlab/Simulink. The wind energy system
A practical implementation of the switching strategy considered has a rated electric power of 900 kW. The time
considered in equation (39) could be accomplished by horizon considered in the simulation is 10 s. For the frac-
using hysteresis comparators. tional-order PIμ controllers, μ = 0.7 is assumed in this
The outputs of the hysteresis comparators are the integer paper. Table V summarizes the wind energy system data.
variables σαβ = (σα,σβ).25 For the two-level converter, σα The wind speed usually varies considerably and it has
and σβ assume values in the set Ω given by: been modelled in this paper as a sum of harmonics with
frequency range 0.1–10 Hz.18 The average wind speed
Ω ∈{−1, 0, 1} (40) considered in this paper is a ramp wind speed starting at
10 m/s and stabilizing at 20 m/s, after 2 s. The wind speed
The appropriate vector selection in order to ensure sta- model upstream of the rotor is modelled in this paper by:
bility for the two-level converter is shown in Table II.
⎡ ⎤
For the multilevel converter, σα and σβ assume values u (t ) = u0 ⎢1 + ∑ Ak sin (ω k t )⎥ 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 (42)
in the set Ω given by: ⎣ k ⎦
A converter control malfunction is assumed to occur
Ω ∈{−2, − 1, 0, 1, 2} (41) between 7.00 and 7.02 s, imposing a momentary malfunc-
tion on the vector selection for the matrix converter and
In this control strategy, only when vC1 ≠ vC2 a new vector for the inverter of the two-level and the multilevel convert-
is selected. The appropriate vector selection in order to ers, simulated by a random selection of vectors constrained
ensure stability for the multilevel converter is shown in to no short circuits on the converters.
Table III, for vC1 > vC2, and in Table IV, for vC1 < vC2. Simulations with the model for the matrix converter
Although wind turbines achieve an excellent technical were carried out, considering one-mass, two-mass and
availability of about 98% on average, they have to face a three-mass drive train models in order to establish a com-
high number of malfunctions.35 A severe malfunction in parative behaviour. The transient response in the drive
the control can occur due to voltage sags and swells, har- train model for the malfunction, a 20 ms power fluctua-
monics, frequency variation, phase steps, DC components tion, is about 3 s due to the drive train model inertias,
and noise.13 shown in Table V.
The rotor speed at the turbine with the one-mass drive
Table II. Output voltage vectors selection for the two-level train model is shown in Figure 6. It is almost a straight
converter. line although the mechanical torque is varying. This is due
to the significant moment of the inertia assumed as con-
σβ\σα −1 0 1
centrated in only one-mass.
−1 4 4; 5 5
0 6 0; 7 1
The mechanical torque over the rotor of the wind
1 2 3; 2 3 turbine disturbed by the mechanical eigenswings and the
electric torque of the generator, with the one-mass drive
train model, are shown in Figure 7. The electric torque of
Table III. Output voltage vectors selection for the multilevel the generator follows the rotor speed at the turbine except
converter, for vC1 > vC2. when it is decreased due to the malfunction.
σβ\σα −2 −1 0 1 2 The rotor speeds at the turbine and at the generator
−2 25 25 12 7 7 with the two-mass drive train model are shown in Figure
−1 24 13 13; 6 6 8 8. The rotor speed at the turbine is almost a straight line
0 19 18 1; 14; 27 5 9
1 20 17 17; 2 2 4
2 21 21 16 3 3

Table V. Wind energy system data.


Table IV. Output voltage vectors selection for the multilevel Blades moment of inertia 400 × 103 kgm2
converter, for vC1 < vC2. Hub moment of inertia 19.2 × 103 kgm2
σβ\σα −2 −1 0 1 2 Generator moment of inertia 16 × 103 kgm2
−2 25 25 12 7 7 Stiffness 1.8 × 106 Nm
−1 24 26 26; 11 11 8 Turbine rotor diameter 49 m
0 19 23 1; 14; 27 10 9 Tip speed 17.64–81.04 m/s
1 20 22 22; 15 15 4 Rotor speed 6.9–30.6 rpm
2 21 21 16 3 3 Generator rated power 900 kW

Wind Energ. 2011; 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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DOI: 10.1002/we
R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers

4.5 450

4 400 Mechanical torque



3.5 350
Rotor speed (rad/s)

3 300

Torque (kNm)
2.5 250

Electric torque
2 200

1.5 150

1 100

0.5 50

0 0
6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9 6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9
Time (s) Time (s)

Figure 6. Rotor speed at the turbine with the one-mass drive Figure 9. Mechanical and electric torque with the two-mass
train model, considering matrix converter. drive train model, considering matrix converter.

450 4.5

400 Mechanical torque 4


↓ Generator speed
350 3.5

Rotor speed (rad/s)

300 3
Torque (kNm)


250 2.5 ↑
Electric torque Turbine speed
200 2

150 1.5

100 1

50 0.5

0 0
6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9 6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9
Time (s) Time (s)

Figure 7. Mechanical and electric torque with the one-mass Figure 10. Rotor speeds at the turbine and at the generator
drive train model, considering matrix converter. with the three-mass drive train model, considering matrix
converter.

4.5 450

4 400 Mechanical torque

Generator speed ↓
3.5 350

Rotor speed (rad/s)

3 300
Torque (kNm)

2.5 ↑ 250 ↑
Turbine speed Electric torque
2 200

1.5 150

1 100

0.5 50

0 0
6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9 6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9
Time (s) Time (s)

Figure 8. Rotor speeds at the turbine and at the generator with Figure 11. Mechanical and electric torque with the three-mass
the two-mass drive train model, considering matrix converter. drive train model, considering matrix converter.

Wind Energ. 2011; 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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DOI: 10.1002/we
Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão

3.05 as it is for the one-mass drive train. Also, this is due to the
significant moment of the inertia associated with the blades
and hub. The rotor speed at the generator varies more
3
significantly after the malfunction due to the lesser moment
of inertia associated with the generator.
Rotor speed (rad/s)

Two−mass
2.95 ↓ The mechanical torque over the rotor of the wind
One−mass turbine disturbed by the mechanical eigenswings and the

electric torque of the generator, with the two-mass drive
2.9 train model, are shown in Figure 9. The electric torque of
↑ Three−mass
the generator follows the rotor speed at the generator
2.85 except when it is decreased due to the malfunction.
The rotor speeds at the turbine and at the generator with
the three-mass drive train model are shown Figure 10.
2.8 Comparing with Figure 8, it is possible to notice the influ-
6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9
Time (s) ence of the three-mass modelling as a clear composed
harmonic behaviour over the speed of the generator.
Figure 12. Rotor speeds at the turbine with the three different The mechanical torque over the rotor of the wind
mass drive train models, considering matrix converter. turbine disturbed by the mechanical eigenswings and the
electric torque of the generator, with the three-mass drive
train model, are shown in Figure 11. Again, as in Figure
1500 7, the electric torque of the generator follows the rotor
speed at the turbine except when it is decreased due to the
1000 malfunction.
In order to compare the behaviour for the drive train
500 models, the rotor speeds at the turbine with the three
different mass drive train models are shown in Figure
Current (A)

0 12. Whereas the rotor speeds at the turbine with the one-
mass and with the two-mass models are in a tight neigh-
−500 borhood, the rotor speed at the turbine with three-mass
model is lesser all the time, justifying the increase on
−1000
the mechanical torque in comparison with the other two
models.
This comparison is in favor of the three-mass model,
−1500
6.95 6.975 7 7.025 7.05 7.075 since it offers a more realistic dynamic behaviour for the
Time (s)
drive train.
The currents injected into the electric grid for the wind
Figure 13. Currents injected into the electric grid (matrix
converter and three-mass drive train model).
energy system with matrix converter and with the three-
mass drive train model are shown in Figure 13. As expected
during the malfunction they decrease, but almost after
the end of the malfunction they recover to their normal
3000 behaviour.
The voltage vdc for the two-level converter with a three-
2500 mass drive train model is shown in Figure 14. As expected
↑ during the malfunction this voltage increases, the capacitor
Converter control malfunction is charged, but almost after the end of the malfunction it
2000
recovers to its normal value.
Voltage (V)

The currents injected into the electric grid for the wind
1500
energy system with two-level converter and with the three-
mass drive train model are shown in Figure 15. As expected
1000 during the malfunction they decrease, but almost after
the end of the malfunction they recover to their normal
500 behaviour.
The voltage vdc for the multilevel converter with a three-
0 mass drive train model is shown in Figure 16. The behav-
6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9
Time (s) iour of this voltage is identical to the one with the two-level
converter.
Figure 14. Voltage vdc for the two-level converter with a three- The currents injected into the electric grid for the wind
mass drive train model. energy system with multilevel converter and with the

Wind Energ. 2011; 14:13–25 © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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DOI: 10.1002/we
R. Melício, V. M. F. Mendes and J. P. S. Catalão Wind turbines equipped with fractional-order controllers

1500 three-mass drive train model are shown in Figure 17. As


expected during the malfunction they decrease, but almost
1000 after the end of the malfunction they recover to their
normal behaviour.
500 For the same fault conditions, the transient response of
Current (A)

the three-mass drive train model is larger than that of the


0 one-mass or the two-mass model.

−500

5. CONCLUSIONS
−1000

This paper reports a study for PMSG variable-speed wind


−1500
6.95 6.975 7 7.025 7.05 7.075 turbines, considering three different drive train mass
Time (s) models and three different topologies for the power-
electronic converters. Our study deals with the transient
Figure 15. Currents injected into the electric grid (two-level analysis during an internal fault, namely a converter
converter and three-mass drive train model).
control malfunction. The contributions of this paper are
threefold: ascertaining the transient behaviour at an inter-
nal fault using matrix, two-level and multilevel converters;
using a novel control strategy based on fractional-
3000
order controllers; and investigating the effects of the
↓v dc bending flexibility of blades. The simulation results have
2500
shown that the consideration of the bending flexibility of
↑ Converter control malfunction
blades can influence the wind turbine response during
2000 internal faults. Hence, the three-mass drive train model,
Voltage (V)

↓v C1 including both blades and shaft flexibilities, may be more


1500 appropriate for the transient analysis of wind energy
systems.
1000
↑v C2

500
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