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Electromagnetism

Electricity · Magnetism

[show]Electrostatics

[show]Magnetostatics

[show]Electrodynamics

[show]Electrical Network

[show]Covariant formulation

[show]Scientists

inductors, capacitors, transmission lines, voltage sources, current sources, and switches.

An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path for the

current. A network is a connection of two or more components, and may not necessarily

be a circuit.

Electrical networks that consist only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped

elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed elements (transmission

lines) can be analyzed by algebraic and transform methods to determine DC response,

AC response, and transient response.

circuit. Such networks are generally nonlinear and require more complex design and

analysis tools.

Electrical laws

A number of electrical laws apply to all electrical networks. These include

• Kirchhoff's current law: The sum of all currents entering a node is equal to the

sum of all currents leaving the node.

• Kirchhoff's voltage law: The directed sum of the electrical potential differences

around a loop must be zero.

• Ohm's law: The voltage across a resistor is equal to the product of the resistance

and the current flowing through it (at constant temperature).

• Norton's theorem: Any network of voltage and/or current sources and resistors is

electrically equivalent to an ideal current source in parallel with a single resistor.

• Thévenin's theorem: Any network of voltage and/or current sources and resistors

is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source in series with a single resistor.

Other more complex laws may be needed if the network contains nonlinear or reactive

components. Non-linear self-regenerative heterodyning systems can be approximated.

Applying these laws results in a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved either

by hand or by a computer.

Ohm's law

resistor, R, the three quantities obeying Ohm's law:

I = V/R.

current through a conductor between two points is

directly proportional to the potential difference (i.e.

voltage drop or voltage) across the two points, and

inversely proportional to the resistance between them.

where I is the current in amperes, V is the potential difference in volts,and R is a circuit

parameter called the resistance (measured in ohms, also equivalent to volts per ampere).

The potential difference is also known as the voltage drop, and is sometimes denoted by

U, E or emf (electromotive force) instead of V.[1] I is from the German Intensität meaning

"intensity".[citation needed]

The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohm, who, in a treatise published

in 1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current through simple electrical

circuits containing various lengths of wire. He presented a slightly more complex

equation than the one above to explain his experimental results. The above equation is the

modern form of Ohm's law.

The resistance of most resistive devices (resistors) is constant over a large range of values

of current and voltage. When a resistor is used under these conditions, the resistor is

referred to as an ohmic device (or an ohmic resistor) because a single value for the

resistance suffices to describe the resistive behavior of the device over the range. When

sufficiently high voltages are applied to a resistor, forcing a high current through it, the

device is no longer ohmic because its resistance, when measured under such electrically

stressed conditions, is different (typically greater) from the value measured under

standard conditions (see temperature effects, below).

Ohm's law, in the form above, is an extremely useful equation in the field of

electrical/electronic engineering because it describes how voltage, current and resistance

are interrelated on a "macroscopic" level, that is, commonly, as circuit elements in an

electrical circuit. Physicists who study the electrical properties of matter at the

microscopic level use a closely related and more general vector equation, sometimes also

referred to as Ohm's law, having variables that are closely related to the I, V and R scalar

variables of Ohm's law, but are each functions of position within the conductor. See the

Physics and Relation to heat conduction sections below.

Contents

[hide]

• 2 Physics

• 3 How electrical engineers use Ohm's law

o 3.1 Hydraulic analogies

o 3.2 Sheet resistance

• 4 Temperature effects

• 5 Strain (mechanical) effects

• 6 Transients and AC circuits

• 7 Relation to heat conduction

• 8 History

• 9 See also

• 10 References

• 11 External links

Electrical circuits consist of electrical devices connected by wires (or other suitable

conductors). (See the article electrical circuits for some basic combinations.) The above

diagram shows one of the simplest electrical circuits that can be constructed. One

electrical device is shown as a circle with + and - terminals, which represents a voltage

source such as a battery. The other device is illustrated by a zig-zag symbol and has an R

beside it. This symbol represents a resistor, and the R designates its resistance. The + or

positive terminal of the voltage source is connected to one of the terminals of the resistor

using a wire of negligible resistance, and through this wire a current I is shown, in a

specified direction illustrated by the arrow. The other terminal of the resistor is connected

to the - or negative terminal of the voltage source by a second wire. This configuration

forms a complete circuit because all the current that leaves one terminal of the voltage

source must return to the other terminal of the voltage source. (While not shown, because

electrical engineers assume that it exists, there is an implied current I, and an arrow

pointing to the left, associated with the second wire.)

Voltage is the electrical force that moves (negatively charged) electrons through wires

and electrical devices, current is the rate of electron flow, and resistance is the property of

a resistor (or other device that obeys Ohm's law) that limits current to an amount

proportional to the applied voltage. So, for a given resistance R (ohms), and a given

voltage V (volts) established across the resistance, Ohm's law provides the equation

(I=V/R) for calculating the current through the resistor (or device).

The "conductor" mentioned by Ohm's law is a circuit element across which the voltage is

measured. Resistors are conductors that slow down the passage of electric charge. A

resistor with a high value of resistance, say greater than 10 megohms, is a poor

conductor, while a resistor with a low value, say less than 0.1 ohm, is a good conductor.

(Insulators are materials that, for most practical purposes, do not allow a current when a

voltage is applied.)

In a circuit diagram, like the one above, the various components may be joined by

connectors, contacts, welds or solder joints of various kinds, but for simplicity these

connections are usually not shown.

Physics

Physicists often use the continuum form of Ohm's Law:[2]

where J is the current density (current per unit area, unlike the simpler I, units of

amperes, of Ohm's law), σ is the conductivity (which can be a tensor in anisotropic

materials) and E is the electric field (units of volts per meter, unlike the simpler V, units

of volts, of Ohms's law). While the notation above does not explicitly depict the

variables, each are vectors and each are functions of three position variables. That is, in

the case of J, using cartesian coordinates, there are actually three separate equations, one

for each component of the vector, each equation having three independent position

variables. For example, the components of J in the x, y and z directions would be

Jx(x,y,z), Jy(x,y,z) and Jz(x,y,z).

with the element of path along the integration of electric field vector E. In the case

where the electric field is independent of the choice of path (as it is in a circuit),

where is the distance between points of interest. Since the current per unit area,

J, is equal to I / A (A being the cross section of the conductor), Ohm's Law becomes:

cross sectional area:

From this, it can be seen that Ohm's law takes on the more familiar, yet macroscopic and

averaged version:

The continuum form of the equation is only valid in the reference frame of the

conducting material. If the material is moving at velocity v relative to a magnetic field B,

a term must be added as follows:

See Lorentz force for more on this and Hall effect for some other implications of a

magnetic field. This equation is not a modification to Ohm's law. Rather, it is analogous

in circuit analysis terms to taking into account inductance as well as resistance.

A perfect crystal lattice, with no thermal motions or other deviations from periodic

structure, would have no resistivity,[3] but a real metal has crystallographic defects,

impurities, multiple isotopes, and thermal motion of the atoms. Electrons scatter from all

of these, resulting in resistance to their flow.

Ohm's law is one of the equations used in the analysis of electrical circuits,

whether the analysis is done by engineers or by computers. Though computers running

electronic computer-aided design and analysis programs do the bulk of the work

predicting and optimizing the performance of electrical circuits, most electrical engineers

still use Ohm's law every working day. Whether designing or debugging an electrical

circuit, electrical engineers must have a working knowledge of the practical aspects of

Ohm's law.

Virtually all electronic circuits have resistive elements, which are usually treated as ideal

ohmic devices, that is, they obey Ohm's law. From the engineer's point of view, resistors

(devices that "resist" the electric current) develop a voltage across their terminals (the two

wires emerging from the device) proportional to the amount of current through the

device.

More specifically, the voltage measured across a resistor at a given instant is strictly

proportional to the current through the resistor at that instant. When a functioning

electrical circuit drives a current I, measured in amperes, through a resistor of resistance

R, the voltage that develops across the resistor is I R, the value of R serving as the

proportionality factor.

The DC resistance of a resistor is always a positive quantity, and the current through a

resistor generates heat in it. Voltages can be either positive or negative, depending on the

ordering of the terminals and the direction of current. Currents can be either positive or

negative, the sign of the current indicating the direction of current.

applied voltage (or equivalently the injected current). That is, Ohm's law only applies to

the linear portion of the I vs. V curve centered around the origin. The equation is too

simple to encompass devices described by a more complicated I vs. V relationship.

Hydraulic analogies

A hydraulic analogy is sometimes used to describe Ohm's Law. Water pressure, measured

by pascals (or PSI), is the analog of voltage because establishing a water pressure

difference between two points along a (horizontal) pipe causes water to flow. Water flow

rate, as in liters per second, is the analog of current, as in coulombs per second. Finally,

flow restrictors — such as apertures placed in pipes between points where the water

pressure is measured — are the analog of resistors. We say that the rate of water flow

through an aperture restrictor is proportional to the difference in water pressure across the

restrictor. Similarly, the rate of flow of electrical charge, that is, the electric current,

through an electrical resistor is proportional to the difference in voltage measured across

the resistor.

Flow and pressure variables can be calculated in fluid flow network with the use of the

hydraulic ohm analogy.[4][5] The method can be applied to both steady and transient flow

situations.

Sheet resistance

Thin metal films, usually deposited on insulating substrates, are used for various

purposes, with the electrical current traveling parallel to the plane of the film. When

describing the electrical resistivity of such devices, the term ohms-per-square is used. See

sheet resistance.

Temperature effects

When the temperature of the conductor increases, the collisions between electrons and

ions increase. Thus as a substance heats up because of electricity flowing through it (or

by any heating process), the resistance will usually increase. The exception is

semiconductors. The resistance of an Ohmic substance depends on temperature in the

following way:

sectional area, T is its temperature, T0 is a reference temperature (usually room

temperature), ρ0 is the resistivity at T0, and α is the change in resistivity per unit of

temperature as a percentage of ρ0. In the above expression, we have assumed that L and A

remain unchanged within the temperature range. Also note that ρ0 and α are constants that

depend on the conductor being considered.

It is worth mentioning that temperature dependence does not make a substance non-

ohmic, because at a given temperature, R does not vary with voltage or current (V / I =

constant).

conductors as the temperature increases. This occurs because the electrons are bumped to

the conduction energy band by the thermal energy, where they can flow freely and in

doing so they leave behind holes in the valence band which can also flow freely.

Extrinsic semiconductors have much more complex temperature behaviour. First the

electrons (or holes) leave the donors (or acceptors) giving a decreasing resistance. Then

there is a fairly flat phase in which the semiconductor is normally operated where almost

all of the donors (or acceptors) have lost their electrons (or holes) but the number of

electrons that have jumped right over the energy gap is negligible compared to the

number of electrons (or holes) from the donors (or acceptors). Finally as the temperature

increases further the carriers that jump the energy gap becomes the dominant figure and

the material starts behaving like an intrinsic semiconductor.

Just as the resistance of a conductor depends upon temperature, the resistance of a

conductor depends upon strain. By placing a conductor under tension (a form of stress

that leads to strain in the form of stretching of the conductor), the length of the section of

conductor under tension increases and its cross-sectional area decreases. Both these

effects contribute to increasing the resistance of the strained section of conductor. Under

compression (strain in the opposite direction), the resistance of the strained section of

conductor decreases. See the discussion on strain gauges for details about devices

constructed to take advantage of this effect.

Ohm's law holds for linear circuits where the current and voltage are steady (DC), and for

instantaneous voltage and current in linear circuits with no reactive elements. When the

current and voltage are varying, effects other than resistance may be at work; these

effects are principally those of inductance and capacitance. When such reactive elements,

or transmission lines, are involved in a circuit, the relationship between voltage and

current becomes the solution to a differential equation.

Equations for time-invariant AC circuits take the same form as Ohm's law, however, if

the variables are generalized to complex numbers and the current and voltage waveforms

are complex exponentials.[6]

In this approach, a voltage or current waveform takes the form Aest, where t is time, s is a

complex parameter, and A is a complex scalar. In any linear time-invariant system, all of

the currents and voltages can be expressed with the same s parameter as the input to the

system, allowing the time-varying complex exponential term to be canceled out and the

system described algebraically in terms of the complex scalars in the current and voltage

waveforms.

shown that for an inductor,

and for a capacitor,

where V and I are the complex scalars in the voltage and current respectively and Z is the

complex impedance.

While this has the form of Ohm's law, with Z taking the place of R, it is not the same as

Ohm's law. When Z is complex, only the real part is responsible for dissipating heat.

In the general AC circuit, Z will vary strongly with the frequency parameter s, and so also

will the relationship between voltage and current.

For the common sinusoidal case, the s parameter is taken to be jω, corresponding to a

complex sinusoid Aejωt. The real parts of such complex current and voltage waveforms

describe the actual sinusoidal currents and voltages in a circuit, which can be in different

phases due to the different complex scalars.

Ohm's principle predicts the flow of electrical charge (i.e. current) in electrical

conductors when subjected to the influence of voltage differences; Jean-Baptiste-Joseph

Fourier's principle predicts the flow of heat in heat conductors when subjected to the

influence of temperature differences.

The same equation describes both phenomena, the equation's variables taking on different

meanings in the two cases. Specifically, solving a heat conduction (Fourier) problem with

temperature (the driving "force") and flux of heat (the rate of flow of the driven

"quantity", i.e. heat energy) variables also solves an analogous electrical conduction

(Ohm) problem having electric potential (the driving "force") and electric current (the

rate of flow of the driven "quantity", i.e. charge) variables.

The basis of Fourier's work was his clear conception and definition of thermal

conductivity. He assumed that, all else being the same, the flux of heat is strictly

proportional to the gradient of temperature. Although undoubtedly true for small

temperature gradients, strictly proportional behavior will be lost when real materials (e.g.

ones having a thermal conductivity that is a function of temperature) are subjected to

large temperature gradients.

A similar assumption is made in the statement of Ohm's law: other things being alike, the

strength of the current at each point is proportional to the gradient of electric potential.

The accuracy of the assumption that flow is proportional to the gradient is more readily

tested, using modern measurement methods, for the electrical case than for the heat case.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Network analysis is the process of finding the voltages across, and the currents through,

every component in the network. There are a number of different techniques for

achieving this. However, for the most part, they assume that the components of the

network are all linear. The methods described in this article are only applicable to linear

network analysis except where explicitly stated.

Contents

[hide]

• 1 Definitions

• 2 Equivalent circuits

o 2.1 Impedances in series and in parallel

o 2.2 Delta-wye transformation

2.2.1 Delta-to-star transformation equations

2.2.2 Star-to-delta transformation equations

o 2.3 Source transformation

• 3 Simple networks

o 3.1 Voltage division of series components

o 3.2 Current division of parallel components

3.2.1 Special case: Current division of two parallel components

• 4 Nodal analysis

• 5 Mesh analysis

• 6 Superposition

• 7 Choice of method

• 8 Transfer function

o 8.1 Two terminal component transfer functions

o 8.2 Two port network transfer function

8.2.1 Two port parameters

8.2.2 Distributed components

8.2.3 Image analysis

• 9 Non-linear networks

o 9.1 Boolean analysis of switching networks

o 9.2 Separation of bias and signal analyses

o 9.3 Graphical method of dc analysis

o 9.4 Small signal equivalent circuit

o 9.5 Piecewise linear method

• 10 See also

• 11 References

• 12 External links

Definitions

Component A device with two or more terminals into which, or out of which, charge

may flow.

Node A point at which terminals of more than two components are joined. A

conductor with a substantially zero resistance is considered to be a node

for the purpose of analysis.

Branch The component(s) joining two nodes.

Mesh A group of branches within a network joined so as to form a complete

loop.

Port Two terminals where the current into one is identical to the current out of

the other.

Circuit A current from one terminal of a generator, through load component(s)

and back into the other terminal. A circuit is, in this sense, a one-port

network and is a trivial case to analyse. If there is any connection to any

other circuits then a non-trivial network has been formed and at least two

ports must exist.

Transfer The relationship of the currents and/or voltages between two ports. Most

function often, an input port and an output port are discussed and the transfer

function is described as gain or attenuation.

Component For a two-terminal component (i.e. one-port component), the current and

transfer voltage are taken as the input and output and the transfer function will

function have units of impedance or admittance (it is usually a matter of arbitrary

convenience whether voltage or current is considered the input). A three

(or more) terminal component effectively has two (or more) ports and the

transfer function cannot be expressed as a single impedance. The usual

approach is to express the transfer function as a matrix of parameters.

These parameters can be impedances, but there is a large number of other

approaches, see two-port network.

Equivalent circuits

A useful procedure in network analysis is to simplify the network by reducing the number

of components. This can be done by replacing the actual components with other notional

components that have the same effect. A particular technique might directly reduce the

number of components, for instance by combining impedances in series. On the other

hand it might merely change the form in to one in which the components can be reduced

in a later operation. For instance, one might transform a voltage generator into a current

generator using Norton's theorem in order to be able to later combine the internal

resistance of the generator with a parallel impedance load.

A resistive circuit is a circuit containing only resistors, ideal current sources, and ideal

voltage sources. If the sources are constant (DC) sources, the result is a DC circuit. The

analysis of a circuit refers to the process of solving for the voltages and currents present

in the circuit. The solution principles outlined here also apply to phasor analysis of AC

circuits.

Two circuits are said to be equivalent with respect to a pair of terminals if the voltage

across the terminals and current through the terminals for one network have the same

relationship as the voltage and current at the terminals of the other network.

If V2 = V1 implies I2 = I1 for all (real) values of V1, then with respect to terminals ab and

xy, circuit 1 and circuit 2 are equivalent.

The above is a sufficient definition for a one-port network. For more than one port, then it

must be defined that the currents and voltages between all pairs of corresponding ports

must bear the same relationship. For instance, star and delta networks are effectively

three port networks and hence require three simultaneous equations to fully specify their

equivalence.

Any two terminal network of impedances can eventually be reduced to a single

impedance by successive applications of impendances in series or impendances in

parallel.

Impedances in series:

Impedances in parallel:

Delta-wye transformation

A network of impedances with more than two terminals cannot be reduced to a single

impedance equivalent circuit. An n-terminal network can, at best, be reduced to n

impedances. For a three terminal network, the three impedances can be expressed as a

three node delta (Δ) network or a four node star (Y) network. These two networks are

equivalent and the transformations between them are given below. A general network

with an arbitrary number of terminals cannot be reduced to the minimum number of

impedances using only series and parallel combinations. In general, Y-Δ and Δ-Y

transformations must also be used. It can be shown that this is sufficient to find the

minimal network for any arbitrary network with successive applications of series,

parallel, Y-Δ and Δ-Y; no more complex transformations are required.

For equivalence, the impedances between any pair of terminals must be the same for both

networks, resulting in a set of three simultaneous equations. The equations below are

expressed as resistances but apply equally to the general case with impedances.

Delta-to-star transformation equations

Source transformation

either an ideal voltage generator or an ideal current generator plus the impedance. These

two forms are equivalent and the transformations are given below. If the two networks

are equivalent with respect to terminals ab, then V and I must be identical for both

networks. Thus,

or

• Norton's theorem states that any two-terminal network can be reduced to an ideal

current generator and a parallel impedance.

• Thévenin's theorem states that any two-terminal network can be reduced to an

ideal voltage generator plus a series impedance.

Simple networks

Some very simple networks can be analysed without the need to apply the more

systematic approaches.

Consider n impedances that are connected in series. The voltage Vi across any impedance

Zi is

Consider n impedances that are connected in parallel. The current Ii through any

impedance Zi is

for i = 1,2,...,n.

Nodal analysis

Main article: nodal analysis

1. Label all nodes in the circuit. Arbitrarily select any node as reference.

2. Define a voltage variable from every remaining node to the reference. These voltage

variables must be defined as voltage rises with respect to the reference node.

Mesh analysis

Main article: mesh analysis

1. Count the number of “window panes” in the circuit. Assign a mesh current to each

window pane.

Superposition

Main article: Superposition theorem

In this method, the effect of each generator in turn is calculated. All the generators other

than the one being considered are removed; either short-circuited in the case of voltage

generators, or open circuited in the case of current generators. The total current through,

or the total voltage across, a particular branch is then calculated by summing all the

individual currents or voltages.

There is an underlying assumption to this method that the total current or voltage is a

linear superposition of its parts. The method cannot, therefore, be used if non-linear

components are present. Note that mesh analysis and node analysis also implicitly use

superposition so these too, are only applicable to linear circuits.

Choice of method

Choice of method[1] is to some extent a matter of taste. If the network is particularly

simple or only a specific current or voltage is required then ad-hoc application of some

simple equivalent circuits may yield the answer without recourse to the more systematic

methods.

• Superposition is possibly the most conceptually simple method but rapidly leads

to a large number of equations and messy impedance combinations as the network

becomes larger.

• Nodal analysis: The number of voltage variables, and hence simultaneous

equations to solve, equals the number of nodes minus one. Every voltage source

connected to the reference node reduces the number of unknowns (and equations)

by one. Nodal analysis is thus best for voltage sources.

• Mesh analysis: The number of current variables, and hence simultaneous

equations to solve, equals the number of meshes. Every current source in a mesh

reduces the number of unknowns by one. Mesh analysis is thus best for current

sources. Mesh analysis, however, cannot be used with networks which cannot be

drawn as a planar network, that is, with no crossing components.[2]

Transfer function

A transfer function expresses the relationship between an input and an output of a

network. For resistive networks, this will always be a simple real number or an

expression which boils down to a real number. Resistive networks are represented by a

system of simultaneous algebraic equations. However in the general case of linear

networks, the network is represented by a system of simultaneous linear differential

equations. In network analysis, rather than use the differential equations directly, it is

usual practice to carry out a Laplace transform on them first and then express the result in

terms of the Laplace parameter s, which in general is complex. This is described as

working in the s-domain. Working with the equations directly would be described as

working in the time (or t) domain because the results would be expressed as time varying

quantities. The Laplace transform is the mathematical method of transforming between

the s-domain and the t-domain.

This approach is standard in control theory and is useful for determining stability of a

system, for instance, in an amplifier with feedback.

For two terminal components the transfer function is the relationship between the current

input to the device and the resulting voltage across it. The transfer function, Z(s), will

thus have units of impedance - ohms. For the three passive components found in

electrical networks, the transfer functions are;

Resistor

Inductor

Capacitor

For a network to which only steady ac signals are applied, s is replaced with jω and the

more familiar values from ac network theory result.

Resistor

Inductor

Capacitor

Finally, for a network to which only steady dc is applied, s is replaced with zero and dc

network theory applies.

Resistor

Inductor

Capacitor

Transfer functions, in general, in control theory are given the symbol H(s). Most

commonly in electronics, transfer function is defined as the ratio of output voltage to

input voltage and given the symbol A(s), or more commonly (because analysis is

invariably done in terms of sine wave response), A(jω), so that;

will be a complex function of jω, which can be derived from an analysis of the

impedances in the network and their individual transfer functions. Sometimes the analyst

is only interested in the magnitiude of the gain and not the phase angle. In this case the

complex numbers can be eliminated from the transfer function and it might then be

written as;

Main article: Two-port network

The concept of a two-port network can be useful in network analysis as a black box

approach to analysis. The behaviour of the two-port network in a larger network can be

entirely characterised without necessarily stating anything about the internal structure.

However, to do this it is necessary to have more information than just the A(jω) described

above. It can be shown that four such parameters are required to fully characterise the

two-port network. These could be the forward transfer function, the input impedance, the

reverse transfer function (ie, the voltage appearing at the input when a voltage is applied

to the output) and the output impedance. There are many others (see the main article for a

full listing), one of these expresses all four parameters as impedances. It is usual to

express the four parameters as a matrix;

The matrix may be abbreviated to a representative element;

or just

These concepts are capable of being extended to networks of more than two ports.

However, this is rarely done in reality as in many practical cases ports are considered

either purely input or purely output. If reverse direction transfer functions are ignored, a

multi-port network can always be decomposed into a number of two-port networks.

Distributed components

is a matter of choice, not essential. The network can always alternatively be analysed in

terms of its individual component transfer functions. However, if a network contains

distributed components, such as in the case of a transmission line, then it is not possible

to analyse in terms of individual components since they do not exist. The most common

approach to this is to model the line as a two-port network and characterise it using two-

port parameters (or something equivalent to them). Another example of this technique is

modelling the carriers crossing the base region in a high frequency transistor. The base

region has to be modelled as distributed resistance and capacitance rather than lumped

components.

Image analysis

Main article: Image impedance

Transmission lines and certain types of filter design use the image method to determine

their transfer parameters. In this method, the behaviour of an infinitely long cascade

connected chain of identical networks is considered. The input and output impedances

and the forward and reverse transmission functions are then calculated for this infinitely

long chain. Although, the theoretical values so obtained can never be exactly realised in

practice, in many cases they serve as a very good approximation for the behaviour of a

finite chain as long as it is not too short.

Non-linear networks

Most electronic designs are, in reality, non-linear. There is very little that does not

include some semiconductor devices. These are invariably non-linear, the transfer

function of an ideal semiconductor pn junction is given by the very non-linear

relationship;

where;

• Io is an arbitrary parameter called the reverse leakage current whose value

depends on the construction of the device.

• VT is a parameter proportional to temperature called the thermal voltage and equal

to about 25mV at room temperature.

There are many other ways that non-linearity can appear in a network. All methods

utilising linear superposition will fail when non-linear components are present. There are

several options for dealing with non-linearity depending on the type of circuit and the

information the analyst wishes to obtain.

A switching device is one where the non-linearity is utilised to produce two opposite

states. CMOS devices in digital circuits, for instance, have their output connected to

either the positive or the negative supply rail and are never found at anything in between

except during a transient period when the device is actually switching. Here the non-

linearity is designed to be extreme, and the analyst can actually take advantage of that

fact. These kinds of networks can be analysed using Boolean algebra by assigning the

two states ("on"/"off", "positive"/"negative" or whatever states are being used) to the

boolean constants "0" and "1".

The transients are ignored in this analysis, along with any slight discrepancy between the

actual state of the device and the nominal state assigned to a boolean value. For instance,

boolean "1" may be assigned to the state of +5V. The output of the device may actually

be +4.5V but the analyst still considers this to be boolean "1". Device manufacturers will

usually specify a range of values in their data sheets that are to be considered undefined

(ie the result will be unpredictable).

The transients are not entirely uninteresting to the analyst. The maximum rate of

switching is determined by the speed of transition from one state to the other. Happily for

the analyst, for many devices most of the transition occurs in the linear portion of the

devices transfer function and linear analysis can be applied to obtain at least an

approximate answer.

It is mathematically possible to derive boolean algebras which have more than two states.

There is not too much use found for these in electronics, although three-state devices are

passingly common.

This technique is used where the operation of the circuit is to be essentially linear, but the

devices used to implement it are non-linear. A transistor amplifier is an example of this

kind of network. The essence of this technique is to separate the analysis in to two parts.

Firstly, the dc biases are analysed using some non-linear method. This establishes the

quiescent operating point of the circuit. Secondly, the small signal characteristics of the

circuit are analysed using linear network analysis. Examples of methods that can be used

for both these stages are given below.

In a great many circuit designs, the dc bias is fed to a non-linear component via a resistor

(or possibly a network of resistors). Since resistors are linear components, it is

particularly easy to determine the quiescent operating point of the non-linear device from

a graph of its transfer function. The method is as follows: from linear network analysis

the output transfer function (that is output voltage against output current) is calculated for

the network of resistor(s) and the generator driving them. This will be a straight line and

can readily be superimposed on the transfer function plot of the non-linear device. The

point where the lines cross is the quiescent operating point.

Perhaps the easiest practical method is to calculate the (linear) network open circuit

voltage and short circuit current and plot these on the transfer function of the non-linear

device. The straight line joining these two point is the transfer function of the network.

In reality, the designer of the circuit would proceed in the reverse direction to that

described. Starting from a plot provided in the manufacturers data sheet for the non-linear

device, the designer would choose the desired operating point and then calculate the

linear component values required to achieve it.

It is still possible to use this method if the device being biased has its bias fed through

another device which is itself non-linear - a diode for instance. In this case however, the

plot of the network transfer function onto the device being biased would no longer be a

straight line and is consequently more tedious to do.

This method can be used where the deviation of the input and output signals in a network

stay within a substantially linear portion of the non-linear devices transfer function, or

else are so small that the curve of the transfer function can be considered linear. Under a

set of these specific conditions, the non-linear device can be represented by an equivalent

linear network. It must be remembered that this equivalent circuit is entirely notional and

only valid for the small signal deviations. It is entirely inapplicable to the dc biasing of

the device.

For a simple two-terminal device, the small signal equivalent circuit may be no more than

two components. A resistance equal to the slope of the v/i curve at the operating point

(called the dynamic resistance), and tangent to the curve. A generator, because this

tangent will not, in general, pass through the origin. With more terminals, more

complicated equivalent circuits are required.

A popular form of specifying the small signal equivalent circuit amongst transistor

manufacturers is to use the two-port network parameters known as [h] parameters. These

are a matrix of four parameters as with the [z] parameters but in the case of the [h]

parameters they are a hybrid mixture of impedances, admittances, current gains and

voltage gains. In this model the three terminal transistor is considered to be a two port

network, one of its terminals being common to both ports. The [h] parameters are quite

different depending on which terminal is chosen as the common one. The most important

parameter for transistors is usually the forward current gain, h21, in the common emitter

configuration. This is designated hfe on data sheets.

The small signal equivalent circuit in terms of two-port parameters leads to the concept of

dependent generators. That is, the value of a voltage or current generator depends linearly

on a voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. For instance the [z] parameter model

leads to dependent voltage generators as shown in this diagram;

This applies to the [h] parameters as well as to the [z] and any other kind. These

dependencies must be preserved when developing the equations in a larger linear network

analysis.

In this method, the transfer function of the non-linear device is broken up into regions.

Each of these regions is approximated by a straight line. Thus, the transfer function will

be linear up to a particular point where there will be a discontinuity. Past this point the

transfer function will again be linear but with a different slope.

A well known application of this method is the approximation of the transfer function of

a pn junction diode. The actual transfer function of an ideal diode has been given at the

top of this (non-linear) section. However, this formula is rarely used in network analysis,

a piecewise approximation being used instead. It can be seen that the diode current

rapidly diminishes to -Io as the voltage falls. This current, for most purposes, is so small it

can be ignored. With increasing voltage, the current increases exponentially. The diode is

modelled as an open circuit up to the knee of the exponential curve, then past this point as

a resistor equal to the bulk resistance of the semiconducting material.

The commonly accepted values for the transition point voltage are 0.7V for silicon

devices and 0.3V for germanium devices. An even simpler model of the diode,

sometimes used in switching applications, is short circuit for forward voltages and open

circuit for reverse voltages.

The model of a forward biased pn junction having an approximately constant 0.7V is also

a much used approximation for transistor base-emitter junction voltage in amplifier

design.

The piecewise method is similar to the small signal method in that linear network

analysis techniques can only be applied if the signal stays within certain bounds. If the

signal crosses a discontinuity point then the model is no longer valid for linear analysis

purposes. The model does have the advantage over small signal however, in that it is

equally applicable to signal and dc bias. These can therefore both be analysed in the same

operations and will be linearly superimposable.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the conservation of charge and

energy in electrical circuits, and were first described in 1845 by Gustav Kirchhoff.

Widely used in electrical engineering, they are also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply

Kirchhoff's laws (see also Kirchhoff's laws for other meanings of that term).

Both circuit rules can be directly derived from Maxwell's equations, but Kirchhoff

preceded Maxwell and instead generalized work by Georg Ohm.

Contents

[hide]

o 1.1 Changing charge density

o 1.2 Uses

• 2 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)

o 2.1 Direction of the voltages

o 2.2 Electric field and electric potential

• 3 See also

• 4 References

• 5 External links

Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)

The current entering any junction is equal to the current leaving that junction. i1 + i4 = i2 +

i3

This law is also called , Kirchhoff's point rule, Kirchhoff's junction rule (or nodal

rule), and Kirchhoff's first rule.

At any point in an electrical circuit that does not represent a capacitor plate, the

sum of currents flowing towards that point is equal to the sum of currents flowing

away from that point.

Adopting the convention that every current flowing towards the point is positive and that

every current flowing away is negative (or the other way around), this principle can be

stated as:

n is the total number of currents flowing towards or away from the point.

Physically speaking, the restriction regarding the "capacitor plate" means that Kirchhoff's

current law is only valid if the charge density remains constant in the point that it is

applied to. This is normally not a problem because of the strength of electrostatic forces:

the charge buildup would cause repulsive forces to disperse the charges.

However, a charge build-up can occur in a capacitor, where the charge is typically spread

over wide parallel plates, with a physical break in the circuit that prevents the positive

and negative charge accumulations over the two plates from coming together and

cancelling. In this case, the sum of the currents flowing into one plate of the capacitor is

not zero, but rather is equal to the rate of charge accumulation. However, if the

displacement current dD/dt is included, Kirchhoff's current law once again holds. (This is

really only required if one wants to apply the current law to a point on a capacitor plate.

In circuit analyses, however, the capacitor as a whole is typically treated as a unit, in

which case the ordinary current law holds since exactly the current that enters the

capacitor on the one side leaves it on the other side.)

More technically, Kirchhoff's current law can be found by taking the divergence of

Ampère's law with Maxwell's correction and combining with Gauss's law, yielding:

This is simply the charge conservation equation (in integral form, it says that the current

flowing out of a closed surface is equal to the rate of loss of charge within the enclosed

volume). Kirchhoff's current law is equivalent to the statement that the divergence of the

current is zero, true for time-invariant ρ, or always true if the displacement current is

included with J.

Uses

A matrix version of Kirchhoff's current law is the basis of most circuit simulation

software, such as SPICE.

The sum of all the voltages around the loop is equal to zero. v1 + v2 + v3 + v4 = 0

This law is also called Kirchhoff's second law, Kirchhoff's loop (or mesh) rule, and

Kirchhoff's second rule.

The directed sum of the electrical potential differences around any closed circuit

must be zero.

Here, n is the total number of voltages measured. The voltages may also be complex:

measured clockwise or counter-clockwise as positive. It is a question of convenience, but

once decided, all voltages must be treated this way.

The confusion comes from the direction of the voltage at voltage sources and capacitors.

Considering the schematic diagram above, we may decide to measure all voltages

clockwise, that is, from a to b, from b to c, from c to d and from d to a.

At the resistors, the voltage will be positive, because we measure from "plus to minus".

But when we measure from d to a, we will measure a negative voltage, because we

measure from "minus to plus". We have to do this because otherwise, we would be

measuring counter-clockwise if we measured the other way around.

If our voltage source is a capacitor, we will also notice the we must consider the charge

negative, which is due to: Q = CV

There is the general rule that one must just "reverse supply voltages" in order to make the

calculation match KVL. There is, however, the risk that this may lead to additional

confusion in more complex circuits, in which it is not clear what the supply voltage

exactly is.

It is actually not a contradiction that we measure from "minus to plus"; inside a voltage

source, this is the direction in which the current flows. If a magnetic field induces a

voltage into an inductor, making it a voltage source (which is the principle of an electrical

generator), this should be obvious. Even in a battery, the circuit is closed because of Ions

flowing and representing charge carriers.

Inside capacitors, there is no flow of charge carriers. The KVL is valid anyway, but we

have to consider the electric field inside the capacitor in order to see this.

Kirchhoff's voltage law as stated above is equivalent to the statement that a single-valued

electric potential can be assigned to each point in the circuit (in the same way that any

conservative vector field can be represented as the gradient of a scalar potential).

Otherwise, it would be possible to build a perpetual motion machine that passed a current

in a circle around the circuit.

Considering that electric potential is defined as a line integral over an electric field,

Kirchhoff's voltage law can be expressed equivalently as

which states that the line integral of the electric field around closed loop C is zero.

In order to return to the more special form, this integral can be "cut in pieces" in order to

get the voltage at specific components.

This is a simplification of Faraday's law of induction for the special case where there is

no fluctuating magnetic field linking the closed loop. Therefore, it practically suffices for

explaining circuits containing only resistors and capacitors.

In the presence of a changing magnetic field the electric field is not conservative and it

cannot therefore define a pure scalar potential—the line integral of the electric field

around the circuit is not zero. This is because energy is being transferred from the

magnetic field to the current (or vice versa). In order to "fix" Kirchhoff's voltage law for

circuits containing inductors, an effective potential drop, or electromotive force (emf), is

associated with each inductance of the circuit, exactly equal to the amount by which the

line integral of the electric field is not zero by Faraday's law of induction.

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