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INGLÊS

THAINÁ GUIDO
APOSTILA ALPHA

MÓDULO 1: Verbs tenses


FRENTE: Única

Nesse modulo vamos aprender os tempos verbais e o uso de cada um deles, esse
aprendizado permite o aluno a falar de forma fluida e também a compreender o
sentido e a coerência das frases. Dito isso, os tempos verbais em inglês são
formados pelo tempo + aspecto. O tense indica o tempo de um evento, enquanto o
aspecto diz respeito à duração e frequência.
Pode-se entender melhor a questão do aspecto segundo a estrutura gramatical, ou
seja, o aspecto é formado por um verbo auxiliar + um verbo principal. Em inglês,
temos dois aspectos: o progressivo e o perfeito. Para o tempo, há o passado, o
presente e o futuro.
Nos tópicos seguintes, abordaremos todos os tempos verbais e o uso de cada.

1.1 PRESENT
a) Simple presente: é um tempo verbal que exprime noções do dia a dia, de
maneira geral. Pode ser usado também para falar de hábitos e rotinas, a
frequência com que algo acontece.
Exemplos:
You go to school by car – afirmativa
She does’t go to school by car – negativa
Do they go to school by car? – interrogativa

Observe que o verbo só se flexiona na terceira pessoa do singular (he, she, it).
Normalmente, acrescenta-se apenas –s, mas, em outros casos, –es ou –ies. Em
frases negativas e interrogativas, usa-se o auxiliar do/does.

b) Present progessive: Quando algo acontece no exato momento de fala, isto


é, está em progressão. Esse tempo também é utilizado para falar de
situações temporárias ou planos futuros já decididos e organizados.
Exemplos:
I’m going to school by car - afirmativa
He isn’t going to school by car - negativa
Are they going to school by car? - interrogativa

Observe que esse tempo verbal é formado pelo verbo auxiliar to be + verbo
principal -ing. Não se esqueça de conjugar o verbo to be de acordo com o sujeito
correspondente.
c) Present perfect: Ao falar de experiências no passado, devemos usar o presente
perfeito. Quando descrevemos ações ou estados que têm conexão com o
presente, também usamos esse tempo verbal.
Exemplos:
You have gone to school by car - afirmativa
He hasn’t gone to school by car - negativa
Have they gone to school by car?- interrogativa

Veja que o presente perfeito é formado pelo verbo have/has + verbo principal no
particípio passado. Lembre-se de que os verbos regulares no particípio passado
terminam em –ed. Quanto aos irregulares, não existe uma regra específica, por
exemplo: I have gone to school. / Eu fui para a escola.

d) Present perfect progressive: Quando falamos de uma ação que acabou em


um determinado ponto no passado ou que se iniciou no passado e ainda
continua no presente, devemos usar o presente perfeito progressivo. O foco
está na duração da ação.
Exemplos:
You have been going to school by car. – afirmativa
He hasn’t been going to school by car. – negativa
Have they been going to school by car?- interrogativa

O presente perfeito progressivo é formado pelo verbo have + been + verbo principal
– ing. Assim, a frase “I have been going to school by car.” / “Eu tenho ido para
escola de carro.” foca na questão da duração, ou seja, ir para escola de carro tem
ocorrido continuamente, desde o passado até o momento presente.

1.2 PAST
a) Simple past: usado falar do passado, especialmente de ações acabadas
em um determinado ponto no passado. É importante dizer que essas ações não
devem ter nenhuma conexão com o presente.
Exemplos:
You went to school by car - afirmativa
He didn’t went to school by car - negativa
Did they go to school by car? – interrogative
Observe que, no passado simples, o verbo auxiliar das frases negativa e
interrogativa é did. Nesse tempo verbal, o verbo principal não se flexiona. Além
disso, é importante destacar que, no passado, existem os verbos regulares, em que
se acrescenta –ed no final (talked, turned, watched etc.), e os verbos irregulares, tal
qual go = went. Os verbos irregulares não possuem uma regra de terminação.

b) Past progressive: utiliza-se esse o tempo verbal para falar de ações que
estavam em progressão no passado. Por vezes, a ação em progressão é
interrompida por outra no passado. Além disso, podemos usá-lo também para ações
temporárias no passado.
Exemplos:
I was going to school by car. - afirmativa
He wasn’t going to school by car. - negativa
Were they going to school by car? – interrogative

Veja que, de maneira semelhante ao Present progressive, esse tempo verbal é


formado pelo verbo auxiliar to be NO PASSADO + verbo principal -ing. Não se
esqueça de conjugar o verbo to be de acordo com o sujeito correspondente NO
PASSADO. Esse tempo verbal corresponde ao gerúndio passado do português (I
was going to school by car. / Eu estava indo para a escola de carro.).

c) Past perfect: é utilizado para falar de duas ações no passado e sinalizar


que uma antecedeu a outra – diferentemente do passado simples, que indicaria
apenas duas ações no passado ou, se combinado com o passado progressivo, uma
ação interromperia a outra. O past perfect aponta para uma ação que aconteceu
antes de outra e descreve a ação que aconteceu primeiro.
Exemplos:
You had gone to school by car.- afirmativa
He hadn’t gone to school by car.- negativa
Had they gone to school by car?- interrogativa

Esse tempo verbal é formado pelo verbo had + verbo principal no particípio
passado. Não se esqueça de que os verbos regulares no particípio passado
terminam em –ed. Já os verbos irregulares não apresentam uma regra específica.

d) Past perfect progressive: esse tempo verbal foca na duração de algo


que estava acontecendo no passado antes de alguma outra coisa ter acontecido.
Exemplos:
You had been going to school by car.- afirmativa
He hadn’t been going to school by car.- negativa
Had they been going to school by car?- interrogativa
O passado perfeito progressivo é constituído pelo verbo had + been + verbo
principal – ing.

1.3 FUTURE
a) Simple future: é bastante utilizado para falar de planos futuros, fazer
predições ou decisões espontâneas, isto é, que acontecem no momento de
fala. Diferentemente dos outros tempos verbais, o futuro simples tem como
“verbo auxiliar” um verbo modal (will).
Exemplos:
You will go to school by car - afirmativa
He won’t go to school by car - negativa
Will they go to school by car? – interrogativa

Veja que, no futuro simples, o modal will deve acompanhar o verbo principal (to go)
em todas as frases, sejam elas afirmativas, negativas ou interrogativas. A forma
contraída de will + not é won’t

b) Future progressive: este tempo verbal descreve ações em progressão


em um determinado momento do futuro. O futuro progressivo é formado pelo verbo
modal will + be + verbo principal – ing.
Exemplos:
You will be going to school by car. - afirmativa
He won’t be going to school by car. -negativa
Will they be going to school by car?- interrogativa

Veja que esse tempo verbal se assemelha ao gerúndio futuro do português (I will be
going to school by car. / Eu estarei indo para escola de carro.)

c) Future perfect: é utilizado para indicar que algo terá terminado em um


ponto específico do futuro.
Exemplos:
You will have gone to school by car. - afirmativa
He won’t have gone to school by car. - negativa
Will they have gone to school by car? – interrogativa

Perceba que esse tempo verbal é formado por will + have + verbo principal no
particípio passado.
d) Future perfect progressive: Quando algo já tiver começado e continua
no futuro, deve-se utilizar esse o tempo verbal.
Exemplos:
You will have been going to school by car.- afirmativo
He won’t have been going to school by car. - negativo
Will they have been going to school by car? – interrogativo

O futuro perfeito progressivo é constituído pelo verbo modal will + have + been +
verbo principal – ing.

EXERCÍCIOS:

1- Identifique os tempos verbais das seguintes frases:

a. I will travel around the world.


b. You ate three hamburgers last night!
c. She plays the drums on Saturdays.
d. He is watching a cartoon.
e. They will be coming home by plane.
f. We were playing cards yesterday night.

2- Complete as seguintes frases utilizando os verbos entre parênteses:

a. You __________ your diner when they arrived from work. (eat)
b. The dog __________ with the cat for 10 minutes when their owner
came home. (play)
c. He __________ a difficult test. (take)
d. They ___________ for two hours! (run)
e. She __________ her doctorate by August. (finish)
f. I __________ my paper by the end of this year. (write)

TAREFA MÍNIMA (10 EXERCÍCIOS)

1 (UNESP)- John_______ me some Money last week.

a) sends
b) send
c) sent
d) sending
e) to send
2 – (ENEM/2017) British Government to Recruit Teens as Next Generation of Spies

In the 50 years since the first James Bond movie created a lasting impression of a
British secret agent, a completely different character is about to emerge. Britain’s
intelligence agencies are to recruit their next generation of cyber spies by harnessing
the talents of the “Xbox generation”.

In an expansion of a pilot program, Foreign Secretary William Hague announced


Thursday that up to 100 18-year-olds will be given the chance to train for a career in
Britain’s secret services. The move to recruit school-leavers marks a break with the
past, when agencies mainly drew their staff from among university graduates.

“Young people are the key to our country’s future success, just as they were during
the War”, Hague said. “Today we are not at war, but I see evidence every day of
deliberate, organized attacks against intellectual property and government networks
in the United Kingdom.”

The new recruitment program, called the Single Intelligence Account apprenticeship
scheme will enable students with suitable qualifications in science, technology or
engineering, to spend two years learning about communications, security and
engineering through formal education, technical training and work placements.

JEARY, P. Disponível em: http://worldnews.nbcnews.com. Acesso em: 19 nov. 2012

Segundo informações veiculadas pela NBC News, a geração digital já tem seu
espaço conquistado nas agências britânicas de inteligência. O governo britânico
decidiu que

a) enfrentará a guerra vigente e deliberada contra a propriedade intelectual no Reino


Unido.
b) abandonará a política de contratação de universitários como agentes secretos.
c) recrutará jovens jogadores de Xbox como ciberespiões das agências de
inteligência.
d) implantará um esquema de capacitação de adolescentes para atuarem como
agentes secretos.
e) anunciará os nomes dos jovens a serem contratados pelas agências de
inteligência.

3 - (IESES/2017) Qual alternativa está gramaticalmente INCORRETA?

a) You didn't walk yesterday.


b) Did you walk yesterday?
c) You walked yesterday.
d) Did you walked yesterday?
4- (ENEM/2015)

Na tira da série For better or for worse, a comunicação entre as personagens fica
comprometida em um determinado momento porque

a) as duas amigas divergem de opinião sobre futebol.


b) uma das amigas desconsidera as preferências da outra.
c) uma das amigas ignora que o outono é temporada de futebol.
d) uma das amigas desconhece a razão pela qual a outra a maltrata.
e) as duas amigas atribuem sentidos diferentes à palavra season.

5- (ENEM/2016)

New vaccine could fight nicotine addiction

Cigarette smokers who are having trouble quitting because of nicotine’s addictive
power may some day be able to receive a novel antibody-producing vaccine to help
them kick the habit.
The average cigarette contains about 4 000 different chemicals that — when burned
and inhaled — cause the serious health problems associated with smoking. But it is
the nicotine in cigarettes that, like other addictive substances, stimulates rewards
centers in the brain and hooks smokers to the pleasurable but dangerous routine.
Ronald Crystal, who chairs the department of genetic medicine at Weill-Cornell
Medical College in New York, where researchers are developing a nicotine vaccine,
said the idea is to stimulate the smoker’s immune system to produce antibodies or
immune proteins to destroy the nicotine molecule before it reaches the brain.

Muitas pessoas tentam parar de fumar, mas fracassam e sucumbem ao vício. Na


tentativa de ajudar os fumantes, pesquisadores da Weill-Cornell Medical College
estão desenvolvendo uma vacina que:
a) diminua o risco de o fumante se tornar dependente da nicotina.
b) seja produzida a partir de moléculas de nicotina.
c) substitua a sensação de prazer oferecida pelo cigarro.
d) ative a produção de anticorpos para combater a nicotina.
e) controle os estímulos cerebrais do hábito de fumar.

6- (Vunesp/2017)

Leia os quadrinhos para responder à questão.

A lacuna numerada no quarto quadrinho deve ser preenchida por

a) is writing
b) have written
c) used to write
d) might write
e) could have written
7 – SEDUC/2013

If the clause “she was the luckiest woman alive” (ℓ.2) had been used in the simple
present tense, the verbal form “was” should be replaced by

a) am
b) are
c) has
d) were
e) is
8- AOCP/2020

The sentence “Do you really mean that?” taken from the comic strip, express:

a) A question in the simple present tense.


b) A surprise in the present progressive tense.
c) A doubt in the past tense.
d) A hypothesis in the future tense.

9- (Unesp/2000) Assinale a alternativa que preenche corretamente cada lacuna da


frase apresentada:

I __________ to the radio every day, but I __________ listening to it now.

a) listen – am not
b) listened – had
c) listening – was not
d) was listening – not
e) not listen – was

10 - (JSF/2012)
Indicate the alternative that best completes the following sentence:

She __________ for you since 4 p.m.

a) has been waiting


b) had been waiting
c) Waits
d) is waiting
c) was waiting
RESOLUÇÃO:

1 - A alternativa correta é a C, pois a frase está falando sobre uma ação no passado
que foi concluída (o que pode ser visto pela expressão temporal last week, que
significa semana passada). Porém, aqui precisávamos saber que to send é um
verbo irregular cuja forma correta no simple past é sent.

2- Alternativa correta: d) implantará um esquema de capacitação de adolescentes


para atuarem como agentes secretos.

3 - A alternativa d) está gramaticalmente incorreta pois a forma interrogativa do


Simple Past é formada pelo auxiliar did e por um verbo principal no infinitivo sem o
to.

4- Alternativa correta: e) as duas amigas atribuem sentidos diferentes à palavra


season.
Em inglês, a palavra season pode significar tanto temporada quanto estação do ano.
Umas das amigas se refere ao outono, estação de ano. A outra se refere a uma
temporada esportiva, mais especificamente de futebol americano.

5- Alternativa correta: d) ative a produção de anticorpos para combater a nicotina.

A resolução dessa questão se dá através de uma correta interpretação do texto e


dos conhecimentos relativamente ao vocabulário da língua inglesa.

6- Alternativa correta: e) could have written.

O fato de a frase a ser preenchida referir last 30 seconds (últimos 30 segundos)


indica que existe uma referência a algo no passado.

7- Alternativa correta: e) is.


“Was” é a flexão de Simple Past do verbo “to be”, usada com a terceira pessoa do
singular (he/she/it).
“Is” é a flexão de Simple Present do verbo “to be” usada com a terceira pessoa do
singular.
“Was” é o passado de “is”.

8- Alternativa correta: A question in the simple present tense.


O Simple Present Tense é um tempo verbal que além de expressar ações habituais,
expressa também verdades universais, sentimentos, desejos, opiniões e
preferências.

9- Alternativa correta: a) listen – am not


Observe que na primeira frase, há um indicativo de que a lacuna deve ser
preenchida com uma flexão do Simple Present (presente simples).

10- A alternativa correta é a A, pois como o sujeito é she, devemos usar o has
(utilizado em terceira pessoa do singular). Além disso, esse é um caso de present
perfect continuous, já que ela ainda está esperando (ou seja, é uma ação que não
terminou), portanto, devemos usar o has been waiting (has + been + verbo principal
com ing).

TAREFA COMPLEMENTAR (10 EXERCÍCIOS) - COM RESOLUÇÃO

(VUNESP/2010)
1 - Instrução: leia o texto Status of same-sex marriage para responder a questão.

Status of same-sex marriage - South America

Argentina
The Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (a federal district and capital city of the
republic) allows same-sex civil unions.
The province of Rio Negro allows same-sex civil unions, too.
Legislation to enact same-sex marriage across all of Argentina was approved on July
15, 2010.

Brazil
A law that would allow same-sex civil unions throughout the nation has been
debated. Until the end of the first semester of 2010 the Supremo Tribunal Federal
had not decided about it.

Colombia
The Colombian Constitutional Court ruled in February 2007 that same-sex couples
are entitled to the same inheritance rights as heterosexuals in common-law
marriages. This ruling made Colombia the first South American nation to legally
recognize gay couples. Furthermore, in January 2009, the Court ruled that same-sex
couples must be extended all of the rights offered to cohabitating heterosexual
couples.

Ecuador
The Ecuadorian new constitution has made Ecuador stand out in the region.
Ecuador has become the first country in South America where same sex civil union
couples are legally recognized as a family and share the same rights of married
heterosexual couples.

Uruguay
Uruguay became the first country in South America to allow civil unions (for both
opposite-sex and same-sexcouples) in a national platform on January 1, 2008.
Children can be adopted by same-sex couples since 2009.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/. Adaptado.)

Assinale a alternativa na qual todas as palavras são formas verbais relativas ao


passado.

a) Adopted, become, decidec, recognized, ruled.


b) Adopted, allow, become, reconized, ruled.
c) Approved, became, been, decided, ruled.
d) Allow, approved, became, decided, may.
e) Can, debated, entitled, made, offered.

2- (UNCISAL-AL/2015)

The organisers of the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro HAVE DISMISSED concerns
about water pollution in the bay where sailing events will be held.

Brazilian officials said recent tests show that the waters in Guanabara Bay meet
international standards. (Disponível em: <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-
america-28632884>. Acesso em: 4 ago. 2014.)

Qual o tempo verbal sublinhado no texto acima?

a) Present Continuous.
b) Present perfect
c) Past continuous
d) Present tense
e) Past perfect

3. (Marinha/2017) - Which option correctly completes the text below?

The Rosetta Stone

"Egyptian hieroglyphic ________________ undeciphered until the 19th century.


Members of Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition of 1799________________a black
basalt stone, ______________ 114 x 72 cm, at Rashid (Rosetta). The stone
___________ with three different scripts: hieroglyphic, the derived demotic
script,_________________ everyday purposes, and Greek. (...)”

(CRYSTAL, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, 3rd edition,


Cambridge University Press, 2010.)

a) remained - discovered - measuring - was carved - used for


b) remained - had discovered - measuring - carved - used to
c) had remained - had discovered - measured - is carved - using to
d) had remained - discovered - measured - was carved - uses for
e) could remain - discovered - measuring - would carve - uses for

4. (Mackenzie/2000)

Em inglês, “Você está esperando alguma carta?” seria:

a) Have you been waiting for a chart?


b) Are you expecting a letter?
c) Are you attending any lecture?
d) Are you staying for the lecture?
e) Have you been hoping for a lecture?

5- (Fuvest)

She did not tell me the truth. She __________ to me.

a) lie

b) lain

c) laid

d) lay

e) lied

6- (PUCPR/006) When Carlos has a headache, he __________ some tea.

a) is drinking

b) drank

c) used to drink

d) drinks
e) would drink.

7- (UECE)

In terms of tense, the sentences "Katherine Rowe’s blue-haired avatar was flying
across a grassy landscape", "Some students had already gathered online." and "On
a square coffee table sat a short stack of original issues of the magazine…" are
respectively in the

a) present continuous, present perfect, simple past.

b) past perfect continuous, past perfect, past perfect.

c) past continuous, past perfect, simple past.

d) past continuous, simple past, simple present.

8-(IESES) Read the sentences below:

I. John study engineering at my university.

II. Helen is going to live in London last year.

III. Pedro wishes he can read more this month.

IV. When I grew up, I want to be a jazz singer.

Choose the best alternative to replace the words underlined in the sentences above:

a) Is studying – went to – cannot – grow up.

b) Studied – will – could – grow up.

c) Studies – was going to – could – grow up.

d) Studies – goes – could – grown up.

e) Studied – was going to – cannot – grown up.


9 - (IESES/2014)

Complete the sentence (use the present perfect):

Where’s the book I gave you? What _____________ with it?

a) are you doing

b) had you do

c) have you done

d) have you been doing

10 - (UNCISAL/2015)

Minister Norman Baker wants end to UK animal tests

By Brian Wheeler

Political reporter

The minister in charge of regulating animal experiments in the UK has said he wants
to see an end to all testing.[…]

Disponível em: www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-28580792

Ao seguir a regra gramatical de conjugação de verbos, de acordo com o exemplo da


manchete da reportagem acima, a frase “She ________ her dignity at any price”
será completada da seguinte forma com o verbo “to pursue”.

a) pursued.

b) pursuing.

c) pursuyed.

d) pursues.

e) pursue.
Resolução

1- A alternativa correta é a C, pois é somente nela que temos todos os verbos


conjugados no passado, sendo a maioria conjugada no simple past (com exceção
de been). Na alternativa A, become está no presente; na alternativa B, become e
allow estão no presente; na alternativa D, allow e may estão no presente; e, na E,
can está no presente também.

2- A alternativa correta é a B, pois temos um verbo formado pelo auxiliar to have e o


verbo principal conjugado no past simple, o que caracteriza o present perfect. Além
disso, a notícia trata de algo do passado que segue até o presente, o que faz parte
do uso desse tempo verbal.

3- Alternativa correta: a) remained - discovered - measuring - was carved - used for,


pois apresenta todos os verbos no tempo correto

4- Alternativa correta: b) Are you expecting a letter?


5- Alternativa correta: e) lied
A primeira parte da frase diz "Ela não me disse a verdade.". Há uma referência ao
passado expressa através do uso do auxiliar "did".

6- d) drinks

7- Alternativa correta: c) past continuous, past perfect, simple past.

8- Alternativa correta: c) Studies – was going to – could – grow up

9- Alternativa correta: c) have you done

10- Alternativa correta: d) pursues.


MÓDULO 2: PASSIVE VOICE
FRENTE: Única

A passive voice (voz passiva) é um tipo de construção frasal onde o sujeito é


paciente, ou seja, sofre a ação da frase em vez de praticá-la. É destacado o que
acontece com o sujeito, porém, sem enfatizá-lo.

1.1 REGRAS DE USO DA PASSIVE VOICE

A voz passiva pode ser utilizada em frases afirmativas, negativas e interrogativas.


Sua formação é expressa por:

“Objeto + verbo to be + Past Participle (Particípio passado) do verbo principal +


complemento”

Essa estrutura pode ser utilizada em diversos tempos verbais do presente, do


passado e do futuro. Para isso, basta flexionar o verbo to be.

Exemplos:
Passive voice no Simple Present:

Objeto + am/is/are + Past Participle (Particípio passado) do verbo principal +


complemento

Affirmative Form: The school is painted by John.


Negative Form: The school isn’t painted by John.
Interrogative Form: Is the school painted by Jonh?

Passive voice no Past Continuous:

Objeto + was being/were being + Past Participle (Particípio passado) do verbo


principal + complemento

Affirmative Form: The school was being painted by John.


Negative Form: The school wasn’t being painted by John.
Interrogative Form: Was the school being painted by John?
Passive voice no Future Perfect:

Objeto + will have been + Past Participle do verbo principal + complemento

Affirmative Form: By next week, the school will have been painted by John.

Negative Form: By next week, the school won’t have been painted by John.

Interrogative Form: Will the school have been painted by next week by John?

TAREFA MÍNIMA (10 EXERCÍCIOS) - COM RESOLUÇÃO

1. (PUC- Rio) The passive voice is used in “Orkut was quietly launched on January
22, 2004”. Find the sentence that is also in the passive voice.

a) Communities have never rejected new members.


b) Good ideas took shape at the end of the session.
c) Some communities have been able to control their growth.
d) Several social groups could be connected by the Internet.
e) Young students are never tired of chatting with friends on email.

2. Complete a voz passiva com o tempo verbal correto:

After the accident, two people _______________ to the hospital.

a) was taking

b) were taking

c) was taken

d) were taken

e) are taken

3-

We’re having the house painted next week.

In the passive sentence above, we can understand that:


I. We are not going to paint the house ourselves;

II. Someone else will paint it;

III. The emphasis is on who is painting the house.

Indicate the correct alternative according to the context.

a) The items I and II, only.

b) The items I and III, only.

c) The items II and III, only.

d) The item II, only.

4-
Which of the following is being used in the Passive Voice?

a)Williams used supercomputers simulations (...) (line 20)


b)The practical impacts of climate change can be hard to predict (...) (lines 1 and 2)
c)Climate change is expected to lead to stronger vertical wind shears (...) (lines 16
and 17)
d)But more frequent jolts in mid-air could be one way (...) (lines 3 and 4)

5- Which option completes the paragraph below correctly?

Neopalpadonaidtrumpi

Scientists _______ for the objectivity, but that ______ they don't have a sense of
humour. When DrVazrickNatari______the white tufts capping the head of a new
species of moth he ______around Baja California, one person______to mind:
Donald J Trump. Explaining why he ______Neopalpadonaidtrumpi for the organism
in 2017, Natari said: The specific epithet______because of the resemblance of the
scales on the frons (head) of the moth to Mr. Trump’s hairstyle’.

(Adapted from http: / / blog.oxforddicttonaries. com)

a) are known / isn’t meant / was seen / discovered / came / was chosen / has
selected
b) know / doesn't mean / saw / was discovered / was come / was chosen / has
selected
c) are known / doesn’t mean / saw / discovered / came / chose / has been
selected
d) are known / isn’t meant / saw / discovered / was come / was chosen / has
selected

6- Qual das alternativas NÃO está na voz passiva?

a) Mary has been married three times.

b) The roof is being repaired.

c) The shirts have been ironed.

d) The office is being cleaned.


7- “The boys are watching a movie.” In the Passive Voice this sentence is:

a) The boys watched a movie.

b) A movie is being watched by the boys.

c) A movie is being watching by the boys.

d) A movie are watching by the boys

8- Para a questão, escolha a alternativa que complete a sentença


CORRETAMENTE.

Russian Sports Minister says he ___________ by the slow pace of designing the
country’s stadiums for the 2018 World Cup and threatened heads will roll if the
situation is not rectified.

a) is alarming

b) is alarmed

c) has alarmed

d) has been alarming

9- Choose the sequence that correctly completes the sentences below.

1- The UK ____ less than 2% of its gas from Russia.

2- Several agreements ________to try to reduce water pollution.

3- Some political measures ______ for many years.

4- You should take a coat and an umbrella. I heard the weather _______later.

5- Thousands of people _____ every year in storms and hurricanes.

6- Climate change ______ the weather all over the world.

a) gets – have been made – won't be understood - will change – are killed – is
affecting
b) is got – have being made – will understand - will be changed – kill – is being
affected

c) gets - is made – won't be understood – is being changed - are being killed –


was affected

d) is got - are made – will understand – will change – is killed – affects

10- Read the sentence below and choose the option that fills in the blank with the
correct form of the verb.

“The drugs affected by grapefruit juice usually have some difficulty entering the body
after they are consumed because an intestinal enzyme partially destroys them as
they ______________.”

a) are absorbing

b) absorbs

c) would be absorbed

d) are absorbed

RESOLUÇÃO:

1- Alternativa D
2- Alternativa D
3- Alternativa A
4- Alternativa C
5- Alternativa C
6- Alternativa A
7- Alternativa B
8- Alternativa B
9- Alternativa A
10- Alternativa D
TAREFA COMPLEMENTAR (10 EXERCÍCIOS)

1- (Unesp) Indique a alternativa que expressa o mesmo significado de: When


children watch TV, they encounter a wide range of places, people, and information.

a) When children watch TV, a wide range of places, people, and information will be
encounter
b) When children watch TV, a wide range of places, people, and information are
encountered.
c) When children watch TV, a wide range of places, people, and information is
encountered.
d) When TV was watched, a wide range of places, people, and information are
encountered by children.
e) A wide range of places, people, and information will be encountered when
children watched TV.

2. (UEM) Indicate the passive form of “The author wrote The Old Man and the Sea.”

a) The author has written The Old Mand and the Sea.
b) The Old Man and the Sea was being written by the author.
c) The Old Man and the Sea was written by that author.
d) The Old Man and the Sea wrote that author.
e) B and C are correct.

3- (UNESP) Sue asked Barbara: “What movie do you want to see?”

Sue asked her what movie ______________

a)- did she want to see.


b)- does she want to see.
c) - to see.
d) - she wanted to see.
e) - she want to see.
4- (ADVISE 2009) Do the passive voice of the sentence: He has made everything
beautiful in its time.

a) He had made everything beautiful in its time.

b) He was made everything beautiful in its time.

c) In its time, everything beautiful was made by him.

d) In its time, everything beautiful has been made by him.

e) In its time, everything beautiful had been made by him.

5. (Mackenzie-SP) Voz Passiva em Inglês: A voz passiva de “Somebody must send


me the new books” é:
a) The new books would be sent to me.
b) The new books must be sent by somebody.
c) I must sent the new books.
d) The new books must be sent to me.
e) I will sent the new books.

06. (Mackenzie-SP) Choose the CORRECT alternative. Change the following


sentence to the passive voice: “You don’t need to wind this wonderful watch.”

a) This wonderful watch isn’t needed to be wind.


b) This wonderful watch doesn’t need to be winded.
c) This wonderful watch doesn’t need to be wound.
d) This wonderful watch don’t need to be wounded.
e) You don’t need to be wounded by this wonderful watch.

7- Read the text and answer question.

Part of New Bicycle Path Collapses in Rio de Janeiro Leaving Two Deaths
The Rio Fire Department says two people died __ Thursday, April 21, after a part __
the recently inaugurated bicycle path on Niemeyer avenue, __ the south zone of Rio
de Janeiro.
The path was named after Brazilian singer Tim Maia and is located between
Niemeyer avenue and a cliff, hanging over the sea
The path is a connection between Leblon beach and São Conrado, both in the city’s
south zone. The bike path was inaugurated earlier this year, on January 17, and cost
R$ 44,7 million.
Glossary

Hanging over – suspenso sobre

What’s the active voice for “The bike path was inaugurated earlier this year”.

a) Someone inaugurated the bike path earlier this year.


b) Someone will inaugurate the bike path earlier this year.
c) Someone has inaugurated the bike path earlier this year
d) Someone inaugurates the bike path earlier this year.

8- Which sequence of verbs completes the sentences below?

I- The house ______ much more attractive by the new owners.


II- John ______ as a sort of clown.
III- Politics ______ the art of the possible.
IV- Nobody understood why she ______ their engagement.
V- She’s worried about ______ careful enough with her translation.

a) has being made / would see / is / breaks off / not been


b) has been made / was seen / is / broke off / not having been
c) made / had been seen / are / would break off / not to be
d) is made / could be seen / are / doesn’t break off / not being

9-
In the sentence “It is being added to the normal atmosphere” (line10), we can find
the passive voice of which verb tense?

a) Future
b) Simple present
c) Present progressive
d) Past progressive

10- Select the alternative that contains the passive voice of the sentence below:

Somebody has hurt Ronaldo during the soccer match.

a) Ronaldo is hurt during the soccer match.


b) Ronaldo was hurt during the soccer match.
c) Ronaldo had been hurt during the soccer match.
d) Ronaldo has been hurt during the soccer match.

RESOLUÇÃO:
1- Letra “c” - When children watch TV, a wide range of places, people, and
information is encountered.Note que na “Active Voice”, o núcleo do sujeito da oração
é ‘range’. Então, por uma questão de concordância com “range“, que corresponde a
“it”, a forma do verbo “to be” precisa ser “is” (is encountered).

2- Correta letra C

3 – She wanted to see

4 – Correta letra D

5- Correta letra D

6- Correta letra C

7- Correta letra A

8- Correta letra B

9- Correta letra C

10- Correta D
MÓDULO 3: ADVERBS
FRENTE: única

Os advérbios em inglês (adverbs) são palavras que modificam o verbo, o adjetivo ou


o advérbio.

De acordo com o sentido que oferecem na frase eles são classificados em:
advérbios de tempo, modo, lugar, afirmação, negação, ordem, dúvida, intensidade,
frequência e interrogativos.

1.1 Interrogative Adverbs

Os advérbios interrogativos são utilizados em perguntas e sempre aparecem no


começo das frases.
How: como
When: quando
Where: onde
Why: por que

Exemplos:
How much are these boots?
When will you go to the mal?
Where are my glasses?
Why did you buy that car?

1.2 Classificação: lista de advérbios


Veja abaixo os diferentes tipos de advérbios e as sequências com os principais
advérbios em inglês.

Afirmação: certainly (certamente); evidently (evidentemente); indeed (sem dúvida);


obviously (obviamente); surely (certamente); yes (sim).

He is certainly waiting for you to call back

Negação: no, not (não).

I am not in the mood to go to the movies.

Dúvida: maybe (possivelmente); perchance (porventura); perhaps (talvez); possibly


(possivelmente).

Perhaps she won't come.


Frequência: daily (diariamente); monthly (mensalmente); occassionally
(ocasionalmente); often (frequentemente); yearly (anualmente); rarely (raramente);
weekly (semanalmente).

They travel to their parent's yealy.

Intensidade: completely (completamente); enough (bastante); entirely


(inteiramente); equally (igualmente); exactly (exatamente); greatly (grandemente);
largely (grandemente); little (pouco); merely (meramente); much (muito); nearly
(quase); pretty (bastante); quite (completamente); rather (bastante); slightly
(ligeiramente); sufficiently (suficientemente); throughly (completamente); too
(demasiadamente); utterly (totalmente); very (muito); wholly (inteiramente).

He loves her very much.

Lugar: Above (em cima); anywhere (em qualquer parte); around (em redor); bellow
(abaixo); everywhere (em toda a parte); far (longe); here (aqui); hither (para cá);
near (perto); nowhere (em parte alguma); there (lá); thither (para lá); where (onde);
yonder (além).

There's a very good Italian restaurant near here.

Modo: actively (ativamente); amiss (erroneamente); badly (mal); boldly


(audaciosamente); faithfully (fielmente); fast (rapidamente); fiercely (ferozmente);
gladly (alegremente); ill (mal); quickly (rapidamente); purposely (propositadamente);
simply (simplesmente).

Slow down! You're driving too fast!

Ordem: firstly (primeiramente); secondly (em segundo lugar); thirdly (em terceiro
lugar).

Firstly I'd like to thank you for all your support. (Primeiramente, eu gostaria de te
agradecer por todo o seu apoio.)
Tempo: already (já); always (sempre); early (cedo); formerly (outrora); hereafter
(doravante); immediately (imediatamente); late (tarde); lately (ultimamente); never
(nunca); now (agora); presently (dentro em pouco); shortly (em breve); soon
(brevemente); still (ainda); then (então); today (hoje); tomorrow (amanhã); when
(quando); yesterday (ontem).

You never listen to me!

Interrogativos: how (como); when (quando); where (onde); why (por que).

When will you travel to Brazil?

1.3 Posição dos advérbios em inglês

O posicionamento de um advérbio em uma frase, por norma segue duas ordens


básicas:

Adverb + verb + object (advérbio + verbo + objeto)

He frequently arrives late.

Verb + object + adverb. (verbo + objeto + advérbio)

She sings very well.

EXERCÍCIOS
1. Assinale a alternativa incorreta em relação às classificações dos advérbios em
inglês.
a) advérbio de intensidade - nearly
b) advérbio de modo - quickly
c) advérbio de tempo - secondly
d) advérbio de frequência - rarely
e) advérbio de dúvida - possibly
2. Preencha as lacunas com advérbios interrogativos:

a) _______ is you name?


b) _______ do you live?
c) _______ old is your baby?
d) _______ were you born?

TAREFA MÍNIMA (10 EXERCÍCIOS)

1- Look at the sentence below. The word “hard” refers to a specific part of speech.
Which one? Choose the CORRECT answer.
“He works “hard” every day. His parents should be proud of him.

a) Adverb.
b) Article.
c) Pronoun.
d) Adjective.

2- Leia o quadrinho para responder a questão:

The underlined words and phrases in the strip are correctly used in the sentences
below except for the sentence in alternative:

a) The school has acquired expensive new equipment that has hardly ever been
used by either teachers or students.
b) The children were all very tired; because of that, the mother allowed any one of
them to watch TV or sleep late.
c) I haven´t ever learned how to speak German or Italian, but I hope I will some day.
d) The couple haven´t decided anything at all about their wedding ceremony next
month.
3- We’re all looking forward to have a few days’ holiday together.
In the context above, there is mistake related to:

a) An adverbial phrase.
b) Gerund use
c) A determiner.
d) An infinitive form

4- Choose the correct option to complete the paragraph below.

Is an autonomous ship a 'ship' in the eyes of the law?


Different defmitions of 'ship' appear in different statutes and conventions, and it has
often fallen to judges to decide if a floating object is, or is not, a 'ship'.
______________ , none of the defmitions of'ship' requires that the floating object be
manned, generally simply requiring that it be used or be capable of being used in
navigation. Whether this is by remote control or fully autonomous would not appear
to be a problem in terms of the legal definition of a 'ship'. It appears
probable,________________ , that autonomous ships are likely to fali within the
legal definition of 'ship' and so will have to comply with the relevant laws and
conventions ______________ the laws themselves might require some modification.

(Abridged from SEAWAYS -The International Journal o f the Nautical Inslitute.


Dec/2017).
a) Also / however / even so
b) Because / otherwise / anyhow
c) Moreover / instead / in addition
d) However / therefore / although

5- The alternative that contains only adverbs of frequency is


a) always – often – usually – rarely.
b) frequently – sometimes – early -.
c) badly – often – never – actually.
d) really – seldom – hardly ever.
6-

In the cartoon, the underlined word is

a) an adjective.
b) a conjunction.
c) a verb.
d) an adverb.

Texto para as questões 7 e 8

7 -Mark the question that could be correctly asked for the answer “On May 15”.
a) When did you say would Mark arrive?
b) When did she say she did it?
c) When have you moved here?
d) When have you lived in this city?
8- The excerpt “ A study by University of Cambridge researchers has found” (line 4)
could be correctly replaced, with no change in meaning, with:

a) A study by University of Cambridge researchers have found.


b) A research by University of Cambridge has found.
c) In a study by University of Cambridge, researchers have found.
d) Researchers from University of Cambridge has found.

9-

As used in (line 5), ‘currently’ can be replaced by


a) now.
b) finally.
c) actually.
d) eventually.
10- Os advérbios têm a mesma função em inglês e em português, ou seja,
modificam um verbo, um adjetivo outro advérbio ou uma frase completa.

Com base nessas informações analise as sequências apresentadas a seguir.

I - Actively, quickly, easily, independently, carefully, poorly.

II - Above, below, here, there, near, far (from).

III - Today, yesterday, now, early, late, last next, soon, ago.

IV - Temporarily, shortly, indefinitely, permanently, forever.

V - Very, almost, extremely, greatly, partially, strongly, totally.

VI - Possibly, perhaps, maybe, almost, certainly, definitely.

Assinale a alternativa cuja correspondência entre os exemplos (acima) e os tipos


( abaixo) de advérbios está correta.

a) adverbs of manner, adverbs of place, adverbs of degree, adverbs of duration,


adverbs of time, adverbs of probability
b) adverbs of manner, adverbs of place, adverbs of time, adverbs of duration,
adverbs of degree, adverbs of probability
c) adverbs of place, adverbs of manner, adverbs of time, adverbs of duration,
adverbs of degree, adverbs of probability
d) adverbs of manner, adverbs of probability, adverbs of time, adverbs of duration,
adverbs of degree, adverbs of place

RESOLUÇÃO

1- Correta letra A
2- Correta letra B
3- Correta letra D
4- Correta letra D
5- Correta letra A
6- Correta letra D
7-Correta letra B
8- Correta letra C
9- Correta letra A
10- Correta letra B
TAREFA COMPLEMENTAR (10 EXERCÍCIOS)
1- Read the sentences below.

I- I work hardly every day.


II- My classmates speak French very well.
III- Ana drives incredibly fast.
IV- Our father is a very carefully driver.

Choose the option according to the correct use of the adverbs and modifiers.

a) Only the sentences I, lll and IV are correct.


b) Only the sentences I and lll are correct.
c) Only the sentences II and lll are correct.
d) Only the sentences II, lll and IV are correct.

2 - Why Is Spain Really Taking Lionel Messi to Tax Court?

By Jonathan Mahler Sep 27, 2013


So Spain has decided to haul Lionel Messi into court for tax evasion, which strikes
me as completely insane on pretty much every level.
You may remember the story from a few months back: The greatest soccer player in
the world and his father were accused of setting up
a bunch of shell companies in Belize and Uruguay to avoid paying taxes on royalties
and other licensing income.
Messi - who makes an estimated $41 million a year, about half from sponsors -
reached a settlement with Spain’s tax authorities earlier
this summer, agreeing to pay the amount he apparently owed, plus interest. The
matter was settled, or so it seemed. Messi could go
back to dazzling the world with his athleticism and creativity.
Only it turns out that Spain wasn’t quite done with Messi. His adopted country -
Messi is Argentine but became a Spanish citizen in 2005
- is now considering pressing criminal charges against him.
Cracking down on tax-evading footballers has become something of a trend in
Europe, where players and clubs have been known to
launder money through “image-rights companies” often set up in tax havens. When
you need money - and Europe needs money - go to
the people who have it, or something like that. Over the summer, dozens of Italian
soccer clubs were raided as part of an investigation
into a tax-fraud conspiracy. A number of English Premier League clubs were forced
last year to pay millions of pounds in back taxes.
No one likes a tax cheat, and there’s little doubt that widespread tax fraud has
helped eat away at the social safety net in Spain and
elsewhere, depriving schools, hospitals and other institutions of badly needed funds.
But Europe is not going to find the answers to its
financial problems in the pockets of some professional soccer players and clubs.
Messi’s defense, delivered by his father, seems credible enough to me. “He is a
footballer and that’s it,” Messi’s father Jorge said of his
soccer-prodigy son. “If there was an error, it was by our financial adviser. He created
the company. My mistake was to have trusted the
adviser.” Even if Messi is legally responsible for the intricate tax dodge he is accused
of having participated in, it’s pretty hard to believe
that he knew much about it.
More to the point, Lionel Messi is probably Spain’s most valuable global asset. What
could possibly motivate the Spanish government to
want to tarnish his reputation, especially after he’s paid off his alleged debt? After
four years of Great-Depression level unemployment,
have anxiety and despair curdled into vindictiveness?
Here’s another explanation: Maybe this whole case has less to do with money than it
does with history. Maybe it’s no coincidence that
the target of the Spanish government’s weird wrath happens to play for FC
Barcelona, which is, after all, "mes que un club." It's a symbol
of Catalan nationalism - and a bitter, longtime rival of Spain’s establishment team,
Real Madrid.
Too conspiratorial? Prove it, Spain. Release Cristiano Ronaldo’s tax return.

(Adapted form http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-09-27/why-is-spain-really-


taking-lionel-messi-to-tax-court-.html)

A synonym for badly, as it is used in the text, is:

a) closely.
b) evenly.
c) almost
d) much
3-

Read the text below and choose the alternative that fills in correctly and respectively
the blanks:

a) destroy/ however/ on/ even/ somebody/ frequency/ off/ just/ though


b) annoy/ though/ so/ but/ another/ usually/ at/ simply/ even
c) allow/ even/ by/ and/ ones/ attendance/ off/ lonely/ although
d) avoid/ with/ about/ so/ others/ often/ of/ only/ even
4-

The sentence “It almost never worked.” (line 40) refers to the fact that the author

a) tried to control his impulse of doing irrelevant errands before facing his
commitments.
b) had to change his goals to concentrate only on the details of his daily tasks.
c) could never see the relevance of doing important work very early in the morning
on weekdays.
d) believes that failure is critical to learning, so it is not essential to control oneself to
do the right things.
5-
A palavra que preenche corretamente a lacuna [ADVERB] é

a) today.
b) past.
c) always.
d) ever.

6-

The fragment “…energy sources can change, never tomorrow, but always some
day.” (lines 68-69) implies that

a) energy sources may eventually change.


b) energy sources will certainly change overnight.
c) it is highly unlikely that energy sources will change one day.
d) it is possible to predict when the energy sources should change.
7-

The underlined word in “ Often combining….” (lines 5-6) is the opposite of

a) always.
b) seldom.
c) also.
d) never.
8-

They _________________ walk along the stream. They frequently do that.

a) often
b) sometimes
c) every day
d) always
9-
According to the text, Favela-Bairro adopted the integral approach methodology:
a) Ittle by little;
b) all at once;
c) once in a while;
d) from the beginning;

10 – She said to me: “I’m washing my car.”

a) She said that she washes cars.


b) She said that she was washing her car.
c) She said to wash her car.
d) She said to her car: wash!

RESOLUÇÃO:

1- Correta letra C
2- Correta letra D
3- Correta letra D
4- Correta letra A
5- Correta letra D
6- Correta letra A
7- Correta letra B
8- Correta letra A
9- Correta letra A
10- Correta letra B

MÓDULO 4: NOUNS AND PRONOUNS


FRENTE: Única

1.1 Nouns
Os nouns, em português substantivos, é uma classe de palavras que nomeia os
seres em geral, objetos, lugares, sentimentos, entre outros.
Eles estão entre as palavras mais importantes do idioma, mesmo que haja um vasto
conhecimento sobre as regras da gramática, sem os substantivos a comunicação e
o entendimento seria extremamente difícil.
Tipo de substantivos:

a) Proper nouns (substantivos próprios)


Nomeiam os seres de forma específica. Como aqueles que designam nome de
pessoas, lugares geográficos, dias da semana.

b) Commom nouns (substantivos comuns)


Nomeiam seres da mesma espécie, se referem a coisas em geral.

c) Concrete nouns (substantivos concretos)


Nomeiam os seres concretos com existência real ou imaginaria.

d) Colletive nouns (substantivo coletivos)


Nomeiam os seres pertencentes a um conjunto de uma mesma espécie.

e) Abstratc nouns (substantivos abstratos)


Nomeiam qualidade ou sentimentos.

f) Countable nouns (substantivos contáveis)


São aqueles que podemos contar, enumerar.

g) Uncontable nouns (substantuvos não contáveis)


São aqueles que não podemos contar. Geralmente precisamos recorrer a uma
palavra específica para quantificar esses substantivos.

h) Compound nouns (substantivos compostos)


São aqueles que possuem mais de uma palavra na sua formação. Essas palavras
podem estar aglutinadas, formando um único termo, podem estar separadas por
hífen ou apenas separadas por espaço.

1.2 Pronouns
Os Pronomes em Inglês (Pronouns), segundo a função que exercem na frase, são
classificados de diversos modos, é importante destacar que os pronomes são
palavras que substituem ou acompanham os substantivos ou mesmo outro
pronome.

a) Pronomes Pessoais (Personal Pronouns)


Os pronomes pessoais são termos que indicam pessoas, lugares e objetos. São
classificados em:

Pronomes Pessoais do Caso Reto (Subject Pronouns): funcionam como sujeitos,


por exemplo: She is beautiful.

Pronomes Pessoais do Caso Oblíquo (Object Pronouns): funcionam como objetos,


por exemplo: Juan wants to meet her.

b) Pronomes Possessivos (Possessive Pronouns)


Os pronomes possessivos em inglês, tal qual no português, indicam que algo
pertence a alguém ou alguma coisa. São classificados em pronomes adjetivos e
pronomes substantivos.

Pronomes Adjetivos (Possessive Adjectives): diferentes da língua portuguesa, os


pronomes adjetivos não são flexionados em grau (singular e plural). Sempre são
acompanhados por substantivos, modificando-os.

Pronomes Substantivos (Possessive Pronouns): os pronomes possessivos


substantivos têm a função de substituir o substantivo, diferentemente dos pronomes
adjetivos, que sempre estão ligados a ele.
Eles não sofrem flexão de grau (singular e plural), como ocorre na língua
portuguesa.

Exemplo: These bikes are mine.

Exemplo: My house is located on Avenue de Paris

c) Pronomes Reflexivos (Reflexive Pronouns)


Os pronomes reflexivos são aqueles que aparecem após o verbo, concordando
sempre com o sujeito da oração.
São palavras construídas com os sufixos “-self” (no singular) e “-selves” (no plural).

Exemplo:
I promised myself to study hard (Eu prometi a mim mesma estudar bastante)

Confira abaixo uma tabela de pronomes em inglês, com as correspondências


das diferentes classificações:
TAREFA MÍNIMA (10 EXERCÍCIOS)
1-

A frase nominal “this kind of barrier” (L. 14‐15) refere‐se:

a) ao muro de Trump na fronteira com o México.


b) à ponte The Gateway International Bridge
c) a protestos de migrantes na fronteira.
d) ao muro invisível criado por práticas do governo Trump.

Texto para questoes 2 a 4:


Brazil must legalise drugs – its existing policy just destroys lives
For decades, guns and imprisonment have been the hallmarks of Brazil’s war
against the drug trafficking. But the only way to beat the gangs is to stop creating
criminals, says a top Brazilian judge

“The war raging in Rocinha, Latin America’s largest favela, has already been lost.
Rooted in a dispute between gangs for control of drug trafficking, it has disrupted the
daily life of the community in Rio de Janeiro since mid-September. With the sound of
shots coming from all sides, schools and shops are constantly forced to close.
Recently, a stray bullet killed a Spanish tourist. The war is not the only thing being
lost.
For decades, Brazil has had the same drug policy approach. Police, weapons and
numerous arrests. It does not take an expert to conclude the obvious: the strategy
has failed. Drug trafficking and consumption have only increased. […]
In a case still before the Brazilian supreme court, I voted for decriminalising the
possession of marijuana for private consumption. […]
Drugs are an issue that has a profound impact on the criminal justice system, and it
is legitimate for the supreme court to participate in the public debate. So here are the
reasons for my views.
First, drugs are bad and it is therefore the role of the state and society to discourage
consumption, treat dependents and repress trafficking. The rationale behind
legalisation is rooted in the belief that it will help in achieving these goals.
Second, the war on drugs has failed. Since the 1970s, under the influence and
leadership of the US, the world has tackled this problem with the use of police
forces, armies, and armaments. The tragic reality is that 40 years, billions of dollars,
hundreds of thousands of prisoners and thousands of deaths later, things are worse.
At least in countries like Brazil.
Third, as the American economist Milton Friedman argued, the only result of
criminalisation is ensuring the trafficker’s monopoly.
With these points in mind, what would legalisation achieve? In most countries in
North America and Europe, the greatest concern of the authorities is users and the
impact drugs have on their lives and on society. These are all important
considerations. In Brazil, however, the principal focus must be ending the dominance
drug dealers exercise over poor communities. Gangs have become the main political
and economic power in thousands of modest neighbourhoods in Brazil. This
scenario prevents a family of honest and hard-working people from educating their
children away from the influence of criminal factions, who intimidate, co-opt and
exercise an unfair advantage over any lawful activity. Crucially, this power of
trafficking comes from illegality.
Another benefit of legalisation would be to prevent the mass incarceration of
impoverished young people with no criminal record who are arrested for trafficking
because they are caught in possession of negligible amounts of marijuana. A third of
detainees in Brazil are imprisoned for drug trafficking. Once arrested, young
prisoners will have to join one of the factions that control the penitentiaries – and on
that day, they become dangerous.
[…]
We cannot be certain that a progressive and cautious policy of decriminalisation and
legalisation will be successful. What we can affirm is that the existing policy of
criminalisation has failed. We must take chances; otherwise, we risk simply
accepting a terrible situation. As the Brazilian navigator Amyr Klink said: “The worst
shipwreck is not setting off at all.”

Disponível em: . Acesso em: 14 nov. 2017.

2- Considering the excerpt “[...] it has disrupted the daily life of the community […]”,
and the context it was taken from, mark the correct option regarding the pronoun “it”.

a) “It” is a subject pronoun and refers back to “Rocinha”.


b) “It” is a possessive pronoun and refers back to “Rocinha”.
c) “It” is a personal pronoun and refers back to “the war”.
d) “It” is an objective pronoun and refers back to “the war”.

3- Consider the following excerpt: “Since the 1970s, under the influence and
leadership of the US, the world has tackled this problem with the use of police
forces, armies, and armaments.” Mark the option which best describes the use of
some words in the excerpt.

a) There are 9 nouns, 1 adjective, and 5 articles.


b) There are 8 nouns and 2 verbs, but no adjectives.
c) There are 5 articles, 3 adjectives, and 1 verb, but no adverbs.
d) There are 4 prepositions, 2 conjunctions, and 1 pronoun.

4- In the excerpt “Recently, a stray bullet killed a Spanish tourist”, the expression
“stray bullet” is

a) Formed by nouns and it means “a decisive shot”.


b) Formed by an adjective and a noun and it means “a random shot”.
c) Formed by an adverb and a noun and it means “a sharp shot”.
d) Formed by a verb and a noun and it means “a lost shot”.

5- A depressão é um problema de saúde pública mundial. Ela se distingue da


tristeza pela duração de seus sinais e pelo contexto em que ocorre. Trata-se de uma
experiência cotidiana associada a várias sensações de sofrimento psíquico e físico.
Leia o TEXTO e responda

Depression in Developing Countries


The National Institute of Mental Health defines depression as a serious but common
illness characterized by prolonged periods of sadness. According to the fifth edition
of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a diagnosis for major
depressive disorder requires either symptoms of a depressed mood or loss of
interest and pleasure, along with other symptoms such as changes in weight, fatigue
or feelings of suicidal thoughts. We can better understand the global impact of
depression by measuring it in terms of disability. When analyzed by the disruption
and dysfunction it causes in peoples’ lives, depression is the leading cause of
disability worldwide. Fortunately, today, many therapies for depression are highly
effective.

Disponível em: https://yaleglobalhealthreview.com/2015/05/16/depression-in-


developing countries/ . Acessado em: 08 set. 2017. Adaptado.

Na frase “We can better understand the global impact of depression by measuring it
in terms of disability”, o pronome it, em destaque, refere-se:

a) Ao desenvolvimento.
b) Ao impacto global da invalidez.
c) Ao impacto global da depressão.
d) Aos termos de invalidez.

6-
Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente a lacuna numerada no texto.

a) which.
b) when.
c) while.
d) who
7-

In paragraph 5, “ they” in the phrase “…they are useless at running a household…”


most likely refers to

a) men who subject women to benevolent sexism.


b) women who try to compete with men as equals.
c) men who are especially skilled in business and mechanics.
d) men in general, according to certain benevolent sexists.
8-
In terms of reference, it is correct to affirm that

a) “its” (line 17) refers to “five months ago” (lines 16-17).


b) “it” (line 18) refers to “New Shepard rocket” (line 17).
c) “which” (line 33) refers to “space” (line 32).
d) “They” (line 43) refers to “Masten Space Systems” (line 42).

9-

In picture 3, the pronoun “that” could have been omitted without a change in
meaning. Mark the alternative in which “that” can NOT be omitted.

a) I didn’t realize that Mafalda had gone to hospital.


b) Mafalda is the girl that suffered an accident.
c) Mafalda thinks that she’s in trouble now.
d) Everybody knows that being in hospital can be hard.
10- Leia o texto abaixo e responda a questão.

We may take advantage of this pause in the narrative to make certain statements. Orlando had
become a woman – there is no denying it. But in every other respect, Orlando remained
precisely as he had been. The change of sex, though it altered their future, did nothing
whatever to alter their identity. Their faces remained, as their portraits prove, practically the
same. His memory – but in future we must, for convention's sake, say 'her' for 'his,' and 'she'
for 'he' – her memory then, went back through all the events of her past life without
encountering any obstacle. Some slight haziness there may have been, as if a few dark drops
had fallen into the clear pool of memory; certain things had become a little dimmed; but that
was all. The change seemed to have been accomplished painlessly and completely and in
such a way that Orlando herself showed no surprise at it. Many people, taking this into
account, and holding that such a change of sex is against nature, have been at great pains to
prove that Orlando had always been a woman, that Orlando is at this moment a man. Let
biologists and psychologists determine. It is enough for us to state the simple fact; Orlando
was a man till the age of thirty; when he became a woman and
has remained so ever since.

Woolf, Virginia. Orlando – A Biography. Londres. Granada. 1984.

Virginia Woolf foi uma escritora inglesa do século 20. Neste parágrafo de seu romance
Orlando – Uma Biografia, ela

a) se utiliza de um jogo de pronomes possessivos para expressar a mudança de sexo de


Orlando de homem para mulher.
b) se utiliza de tempos verbais variados para salientar o envelhecimento de Orlando.
c) emprega uma variedade de adjetivos para destacar as mudanças na aparência de Orlando.
d) faz uso de vários advérbios para mostrar como o caráter e o comportamento de Orlando
alteraram-se.

RESOLUÇÃO
1- Correta letra D
2- Correta letra C
3- Correta letra A
4- Correta letra B
5- Correta letra C
6- Correta letra D
7- Correta letra D
8- Correta letra B
9- Correta letra B
10- Correta letra A
TAREFA COMPLEMENTAR (10 EXERCÍCIOS
1-
Nos anúncios, as palavras use, you, need, electricity e wisely são exemplos, respectivamente,
de

a) Substantivo, pronome, verbo, substantivo e advérbio.


b) verbo, pronome, verbo, substantivo e advérbio.
c) substantivo, adjetivo, verbo, substantivo e adjetivo.
d) verbo, pronome, verbo, adjetivo e adjetivo.

Texto para questão 2 e 3

2- O pronome it, utilizado na última linha do primeiro parágrafo, na frase for the
products it markets, refere-se:
a) à necessidade da propaganda.
b) à área de publicidade.
c) à ideologia da propaganda.
d) aos mercados consumidores.

3- A expressão none of this matters, no segundo parágrafo, refere-se


a) às características de anúncios mencionadas no primeiro parágrafo.
b) à falta de coerência e de sentido que certos anúncios podem conter.
c) às características positivas de anúncios mencionadas no texto.
d) à interpretação de anúncios de acordo com uma ideologia de consumo.
4-

The best alternative to fll in the space in line 05 is:


a) Yet, which country is the wisest?
b) So how did he reach this conclusion?
c) Still, can grasshoppers become wiser?
d) But is it true that age brings wisdom?
Texto para questão 5 e 6:

5- The only question to which there is no answer in this fragment of the article is in
alternative

a) What was that planet like?


b) What were the moons made of?
c) Why was there the creation of two moons?
d) How often did those collisions use to happen?
6- Considering language use in the text, it’s correct to say:

a) The verb form “had” (L. 1) is in the Past Participle.


b) The relative pronoun “that” (L. 2) can be replaced by which.
c) The possessive adjective “its” (L. 2) refers to “the Earth” (L. 1).
d) The modal “may” (L. 4) expresses certainty.

Texto para questão 7 e 8

Not just na old chatalan

7- In “ Though few Italians may admit it openly…”, the pronoun it refers to the fact
that:

a) The Italians will miss Berlusconi.


b) Berlusconi is an old charlatan.
c) Berlusconi will leave scars on the national psyche.
d) The Exprime Minister is a wealth and important man.

8- Himself (second paragraph) refers to:

a) Italians.
b) Taxes.
c) Berlusconi.
d) Spouses.
Texto para as questões 9 e 10.

9- The right pronoun to fill Blank II is:

a) Himself
b) He
c) His
d) Us

10- The phrase “a Harvardeducated airline entrepreneur” functions as:


a) noun
b) adverb
c) adjective
d) preposition
RESOLUÇÃO
1- Correta letra B
2- Correta letra B
3- Correta letra A
4- Correta letra D
5- Correta letra D
6- Correta letra B
7- Correta letra A
8- Correta letra C
9- Correta letra B
10- Correta letra C