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Vglume l, lssue 1

Apnl-l993

For Private Circulation Only

ANew ldentity
Welcome to the first issue o/ Altlktter, EQUATIONS' new Wh ile wc u i Il co n t irut e o u r o cu s o f t ou
f rism c r it iq u e an d r espo nsfu c
publication. With this, we also enil the publicntion of the action, ute wiII actiaely seek lhe inttokrement, etpertLse nrul
ALTERN ATNE NETWOR K LETTER / NL in brief
- which suyrport of ucademics anrl othcrs concerned utith the issue.
we brought to our renders since early
'1986. -
Additionally, communication will be combined with campaign
As some of you who were with us back then might remember, ANL acti<tns. Seuer aI such camlnigns are planned for lhe year, on isx rcs
was first published following the'1984 Workshop on Alternatiae Iike Tourism and Indigenous People , GoIf Touri^sm, Tourism and
Tburbm held at Chkng Mai in Thailand. EQUAT/ONS was set Structural Adjustnrcnt, and so on.
up in'l 9 8 5, par tly as a result of Ch ian g Mai, anil t nk rap onsibili ty
for puhlkhing ANL from its second issue. Ciuen thnt tourL<nr is an internalional issuc,ute plnn to strengthcn
our link utith grou;n u,orkingwith similar ualues,and especiallq
Anewpublication signifies a change: in this case,it represents the those in South Asia. We shnll do so through the existing
changes that haoe taken place at EQUATIONS wer the past year ,ANTENNA network,and a meetingis plnnned during'1993.
or so, and those that are planned t'or the next couple of years.
Ohuiously, such changes cannot take plnce without appropriote
Our role in the past has mainly been as a resource and informtion hunnn and structural re-rtrganising,, and
ute hope to hnae n t'ant
centre on Third World tourLsm bsues, focussing on India. A new fates nt thc officc stnn!
n!7: 'n'trt of our wor\ centered around our drcumentation
ai,. ."r,.!hich prouided the basis for workhops, campuigns, A N Let ter will re.flcct thc new f trus of our efforts , nul int'onn our
publicni'ions nnd audio-aisunls, and collnborations with actiuists
readers of ei,ents ,n,1 flngktpments at EQU,ATIONS md Ltllrcrs
and acadenics.
inoofued in tourLqm critique and response . Your contrihutians in
By enrly '199'l
, there was a clear sense that ghanges were needed, tlrc form of nrticles , nppeals ,lctters or neus items arc most wclcome ,
giaen thcchanging context of tourbminlndia. We inztitedsome
network partners in April that year to share with us their palues Finally, n pcrsorral niote. I hnac cnjoycd being nt the hclnr ol uffairs
and aiauts, their assessment and future expectations of us. since '1985, nnd uill continue tolte assuinted with EQUATIONS.
I am sure ottr readers nnd ynrtners aiII continuc to support nnd
This pr trc ess c ontirurcd with the setting up an internal Task F orce enciluoge tryr zuork in the t'uture, in pnrtiarlnr thc le.ndcrship thnt
'l
in late 1991 . During the latter part of 992, we uere able to retsicw Sureih prot'idx to this phase.
the progress in these efforts, anrl arrioed at a number of decLsions
regarding the future.

Starting this year, we will proaide aaried anil multi-t'aceted Paul Gonsalves
Iearning experiences on tourLsm doncerns in lndia. A national
seminar is scheduled for May, to be folluaeil up by a training
programme inDecember.

Alongside, will work towards rsetting up a Touism Policy


zne
Group in
India, consisting of wdlthrum people t'rofi uried
backgrounds who would collcctiae$ be in a paition to influence
poltcy.
lssues

Glimpses of a Culture of dependency


JEREMY SFJBROOK

ftt"rrpu, sikri in Uttar Pradesh is a vendors of shiny novelties, trinkets and money home to his mother and three
lr!'""r oi merancnorrc granoeur. Tne mementoes; the degraded village in the young sisters;the stone- masons, whose
I capital of Emperor Akbar in the shadow of the majestic ruin is a curious ancestors built the Red Fort, chipping
16th century, it was abandoned after only metaphor for India. The ruins of a away at slabs ol red sandstone in a work
14 years and no one quite knows why. lt civilisation inhabited by its own ol skilled and loving restoration for Rs.
is an evocative, eerie place; the palace estranged descendants is always a 60 a day; the young man who is a
has a vast red sandstone courtyard poignant spectacle; in lndia, it is tragic. security guard at the Jewel House for Rs.
surrounded by high crenellated walls. A 1,000 a month; the cycle-rickshaw men
Fatehpur Sikri is some 40 kms lrom Agra.
from Bihar, Orissa and other parts of
llock ol parrots on the Chhatris looks like At Agra, there is the contemporary Uttar Pradesh, fighting each other at
an eflorescence ol vivid green equivalent of the old Mughal capital,
Agra station for the privilege ol driving
tourists and their baggage to*the
sheltered luxury of five-star hets' '.rd
the tourists, who may be paying $ r50
per night, will haggle over the Rs. 10
which the cycle-rickshaw drivers ask:
such thin men, prematurely aged, with
wasted bodies, the sinews ol their legs
taut as they pedal up the slight incline
from the station.

Enjoying the super-rich


The tourists think they are being brave
by travelling in the lragile vehicles,
perched on the leatherette horse-shoe
and jolted by the potholes in the road.
The drivers do not even own their
vehicles: They pay Rs. '15 a day to the
owners. some of whom have a fleet of 50
or more. There are too many of them,
and the work is fiercely competitive;
many have no shelter but their
rickshaws; and at night, they can . rn
in the unlit side- roads, thdlu'ucidy
perched on the crossbar, their leet on the
handlebars, their back resting on the
leaves. another expensive folly, which suggests
seat.
that histoiy does repeat itself. This is in
the lorm of the Mughal Sheraton Hotel. None of this disturbs the tourists who will
The fretted marble and the tomb- stones
It, too, is an enclosed fortress, a find a 'welcome'spelt out in iasmine and
in the mosque are dazzling in the red rose-petals on the lloor ol the lobby.
alternoon sun; the rools of the towers are defensive architecture, a place of
sequestered privilege, and within, it Some will be garlanded with marigolds
covered with lichen, while purple and
replicates some of the excesses of the and escorted to the Mughal Chambers;
orange bougainville has invaded the
Mughal emperors whose name it flaunts. for them, a lantasy is being enacted that
crumbling edge of the city. The dust and
Only this time, the invaders, who must be makes Akbar's games ol hide and seek
grit swirl in the courtyard, polishing the
kept lrom any disturbing contact with the in his palace with women from the harem
stone till it shines like glass.
people who live here, are tourists, whose a reality, the use of slaves as pieces on
ln the shadow of the abandoned city, sojourns at the lavish hotel is of even a giant outdoor chess-board as nothing,
visited now only by tourists, a culture of shorter duration than that o{ Akbar at compared to the self-importance ol these
mendicancy and servility has grown. Fatehpur Sikri. parties of westerners, who are decked
Children who live in the poor village at out in velvet waistcoats, and caps with
the foot of the palace have acquired the In the service of mass tourism, people glittering tinsel designs, kurta and kamiz,
accomplishment of touching the hearts have come lrom all over India; the sad or diaphanous gold-edged robes belore
of visitors by saying, "No mother, no boy {rom West Bengal, living in a single proceeding to their banquets o{ "secret
{ather", and to ask lor money in all the slrared room with three others for the recipes from the Emperor's kitchen", or
principal European languages and privilege of earning Rs. 500 a month in a "the appropriate complement to
Japanese. Around lhe monument, restaurant, so that he can send some Jehangir's table".
lssues
The hotel lobby flashee and explodea the only thing standing between so many
with people taking photographs of each villages in India and utter destitution
other in their exotic wear. Here are being as rickshaw driver, kitchen boy, or that-
staged memories to last a lifetime, an peculiar form of histrionics required by a
experience to cherish, as befits a day servitude that lights up tired faces, as
when they have seen the Taj Mahal; though the arrival of each new stranger
monument to the wife of Shah Jahan. were the culminating experience of a
who died giving birth to their 14th Child. li{etirne.
They have seen the Red Fort where
Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his
We have heard recently rnuch abor-rt
grandson, lrom where he could look out ecological tourism, about not ruining the
from his marble jail inlaid with beaches and polluting such
semi-precious stones and diamonds, 'unspoilt'corners as remain in the world.
across the Yamuna. lt is only fitting at the But we should perhaps also consider
end of such a day.to be processed by a what might be the meaning of a tourism,
hotel chain that bears as its mendacious or lorms ol travel, that do not exacerbate
log, 'We Enjoy People', when all they social iniustice; a kind ol interaction,
really enjoy are the super-rich. where the lives of the people are not
Understanding the exile simply an adjunct to our own fantasies,
Anl yet, those who must at all costs be but where we begin to understand our
f lved from the derelict culture of Yet, in the hotel, the foods, and relationship to them, where they might
dependence, poverty and dust outside especially the drinks, consumed by the begin to receive rewards commensurate
are also, in their way, mendicants, avid guests are imported: Black-Label whisky, with the tasks they perlorm. But that
{or some new experience, some fresh Cointreau, Napoleon Brandy; French would mean following them back to their
sensation; there is a deep sadness in cui6ine in the restaurants; and, where hutments, the hovels and letid rooms
them too; perhaps they have been local produce is used, money is no where they receive the letters with the
touched by the melancholy of Akbar, the obiect, which means that the best of it is pictures of their own children whom they
ghost o'f Shah Jahan. Or perhaps they consumed here: this distorts the local have not yet seen; it would mean
know that this kind ol tourism, imposed economy and places even basic witnessing the griel of those who labour
upon a society where 40 per cent of the nourishment out ol the reach of the overtime to pay for a father's medical
people are malnourished, whose people who live in Agra. The easy expenses, or to help a sibling through
purchasing power is too leeble even to spending of tourists raises the price ol school; it would mean understanding the
register in the same marketplace in transport; it attracts desperate people exile from which. unlike the tourists
which the rich display their prior claims whose lives have been scarred by whose fast coaches will taken them to
of their whims over the necessities of the casteism, communalism and monstrous the airport or the station lirst thing in the
people. lt is argued that this kind of travel social injustice; and who have been im- morning, there is no going back. t
brings foreign exchange to the country, pelled to travel 2,OOO kms to earn
and is therefore justifiable, even something to send home that The Pioneer, B Decemher 1992.
desirable. precarious and vital remittance that is

Tourism Policy
hational Action Plan
The National Action Plan for Tourism formally released by the Minister for Civil In special areas and specilied
Aviation and Tourism, Mr. Madhav Rao Scindia on Sth May, 1992, projects the destinations, the interest subsidy will be
ambitious expansion plans for lndian tourism. Following is a summary of this 2O page increased lo 5"/" lor 1, 2 and 3 - star
document. hotels to stimulate their growth, as well
as on loans advanced lor construction oJ
lncreasing employment opportunltles Diversiflcation of the tourism product new heritage hotels. Heritage hotels will
also receive a capital subsidy of Rs. 5
Employment opportunities should. be at Diversification of the tourism product lakhs or 25o/o ol the cost.
least double the present level of 13-14 would continue, particularly in the lield of
million persons before the turn of the leisure, adventure, convention and in- Pilgrim tourism: The central govern-
century. centive tourism. ment will earmark an annual sum of
Rs. 5.OO crores for this purpose.
Development of Internatlonal tourlsm lncrease in lndia's share In world
and optlmlsation of foreign exchange tourlsm: One objective would be to Travel Trade: Streamlining and
earnings increase lndia's share to 1% within the liberalising rules and procedures for
next five years, from the present O.4% (oI recognising travel agents and tour
Tourism will be so developed that foreign global tourist arrivals). operators.
exchange earnings increase from
Rs. 2440 crores to Rs. 1O,OOO crores by Accommodatlon: The interest subsidy
the end of the century. to all 4-5 star hotels will be discontinued. (Continued on page 7)
Upcoming Conferences

"TheWorld NoGolf Doy"


At present, about 24,000 golf courses environmental pollution from runolf of In order to raise a world wide public
are operating in lhe world, with further silt, pesticides, chemical lertilizer and awardness on golf course issue, we
lew lhousands under conslruclion or other toxic chemicals such as soil hereby propose lo our friends in the
planned. Which means more than 2.4 hardening agents and soil improving wdrld an international action of "The
million heclares of land are assumed lo agents, as well as skyrockeling prices lor World No Golf Day"on April29th 1993 of
be occupied with golf courses. (The land and homes, corruplion in local GNAGA'S anniversary. Each people of
avsrage area of one golf course is about government in adminislrative, repre- sach lcountry are expecled to make
100 hectares.) se'ntalive and judicial branches, and feel-free actions simultaneously such as
social disruption such as an increase in opposition campaigns or rallies to the
The largest golf country, U.S.A., has
homeless persons and incidence of golf courses, developing companies or
more than 13,600 golf courses, more
crime. administrative branches, or holding
than a half ol all the golf courses in the
symposia and olher meetings on goll
world. Hawaii, California and Florida are
cours€ problems.
the most crowded slates.
At the Third World Tourism Forum i i
Though Japan is a small and People's Plan for the 21st Century, h-eld
mountainous country, it is expected to
in Phuket/Thailand from November 29th
to December 4th 1992 and organized by
the Phuket Environmental Protection
Group (PEP), the Thai Network on
Tourism (TNT) and the Ecumenical
Coalition on Third World Tourism
(ECTWT), the participants conlirmed the
declaration of the "The World No Golf
Day" and agreed to initiate activities
e accordingly.
lO
a
e'
o One of the proposed actions, which
"\. {-"i:
^g
emerged from the PP21 Third World
Tourism Forum, is by a joint initiative of
Sahabat Alam Malaysia (SAM, Friends ol
the Earth), the South East Asian branch
of lhe Asian Tourism Action Nerwgrl
(ANTENNA) and the Global Netwc )r
Anti-Golf Course Action (GNAGA) lo
hold a Workshop on Golf Course and
Resort Development in the Asia-Pacific
Region in Penang, Malaysia, on lhe
have 2,000 golf courses in near future. In a world today beset by serious global occasion of the "the World No Golf Day"
Escaping from such a heavy environmental problems, there is no between April 26-29, 1993.
concentration in its own counlry, the room for environmental deslruction
Japanese developers are going abroad caused for the sake of a mere game. The first lwo days will be organized
lo seek for the cheaper land such as around exposures, presentation of case
Hawaii, Australia, South East Asia, etc. We, GNAGA, (The Global Network for sludies and working.group sessions. The
Anti-Golf Course Action), organized on ihird day will be reserved for strategy
Also in olher areas like Europe, Oceania, discussion. The workshop will end with
April 29, 1992 has begun networking
Pacific islands and Central America, golf an action day on April 29th 1993, the
with citizens around the world who are
course conslruclions continue to spread. I
opposing golf course development. And 'World No Golf Day".
Golf course conslruction results in through informatlon exchange and
serious problems for the local society networking with others abroad, we hope
near the sile including destruclicln of to be able to slop the development of goll
f orests, f armland and wetlands, and courses abroad by Japanese companies

Lcts Make a World Wide Anti-Golf Course Action on 2914193


Conference Reports

Starting over:
Wofiing Conftrence on Rebuilding Kauai's visitor industry
Tourism, Culture and Hawaii, February ll.-13, 1993

Development I{ui l{o'Okipa O Kauai, a new l-Iawaiian group hosied a


conference <ln the rebuilding of Kauai's visitor indu-stry fronr a
native I lawaiian persprective following the devastation of
|v[ay ?A - 29, 1993, Eguations, Bangalore
I{urricane Iniki. Co-spon-rcred by the l-Iawaii Ecumenical
Coalition, repr€Eentatives fronr the native l-Iawaiian community
and the visitor industry global tourism activists etc. also
One of the initiatives during 1993 at EQUATIONS is an
Participated.
experimental forum that would bring tqgether a group of
individuals and organisations who have worked with tourism
related issues or are con-sidering working with the same. The
purpose of this workshop is both e(pository and exploratory: an HUI HO'OKIPA O KAUA'I
attempt te generate and transmit learnings in tourism through an
,t-\action between research lindings and action experiences. Hul Ho'oklpa O Kaua'|, a new non-profit, grassroots organization
, -..,icipants will therefore be drawn from activist groups, tourisnr has been formed to provide, for the first tinre on Kaua'i, a unified
practitioners, academics, the press, etc. voice of influence for the NaLive Flawaiian conrmunity in visitor
industry affairs.
The expository content would seek to familiarisg participants with
existing and conllicting perspectives on tourism and their Composed of Native l-lawaiian leaden fnrm around the island and
limitations. These perspectives will be drawn from development fircm representativesegnrents of the l-lawaiian community on Kaua'i,
economics, history, anthropology, sociology/ecology and membership is opren to all Native Flawaiian households on Kaua'i as
postmodernism. The divergent perspectives on tourism as an well as otlrcr supportive island residents.
instrument of development would l'relp us examine tl're protentials
and weaknesses of such strategies as alternative tourisnt, Mlsslon Staternent (Atlopted 1 Decentber 1992)
sustainable tourism, etc.
We are an organization that has enrerged from Hurricane Iniki to
At the exploratory level the programme begine with case studies of assunre a key role in the rebuilding of Kauai's visitor industry so lhat
destination regiors and action groups (both within the industry and it is at least nrore responsive to thegoalsof ourl-lawaiiancomnunity
oulside it). It is hoped that the experiences of these case studies will and, as a result, the whole of the people and island of Kaua'i. The
assist in modifying tlreoretical perspectives or even perhaps in guiding principles for our organization sl:nllbe ho' okipa, ho' omaopoyo,
reformulating tlrc questiors that theory asl.s. andho'omalca'ikni'.

By ho'okipa we mean a shared respon-sibility to create an autlreutic


preative process will be largely through interaction - srructured
;7-
\;:.i
non-structurcd. The pnogramme will therefore be designed so and hospitable cultural experience for visitors, and we will work to
as to encourage non-structured,exchange between persons of dirrectly channel visihrr industry rcvenues into support for our
common interesls and so also informal n'reetings between persorrs community's own cultural and educational progmnN. By
across interests. The principles guiding this workshop are : Ity'omaopolro we mean a conrmitnrent to help our I-lawaiian
community rediscover and showcase our cultural heritage, and we
1. The workqhop would privilege the role of the host in tourism. will work to mole responsibly intqgrate the values of our Hawaiian
2. A creative proaess directed towards examining and changing people with tl're ntarketing and operation of Kauai's existing visitor
perceptions. facilities. l3y h o' otnala' ika' i we nean a wi l l ingness to s hare our land
and hed tage with visi tors, and we will work to crea te our own visitor
3. To explore the possibility of generating knowledge through an
interaction between the practice of tourismand its negation, the facilities and ventures.
text and the field.
For deta lls, co ntach Kal n P st t erson, I Iu i I' Io' okip a, O Kau a' i 450 4 Kukul
4. To offer a forun
to generate and debate theoretical perspectives
Sh'et, Naa Pacific llous,e,.Suite - 16, Kapg'a, Ilazoaii 96746, LISA
on tourism and related issues.
5. To offer a forum for a dialogUe betlteen industry, academia,
aclivistsandothers interested ih thedevelopments of and within
tourism.

For detalls, contach KT Surcsh, EQIIAilONS.


Conference Reports
soughtto asserttheir rights, they have laced
harassment, and even repression. The
The Phuket Statement co-existence ol islands of aflluence in a sea
Peoples h-orum on the Inrpuct oJ'Iiurisnt, ol impoverishnent is an assault on the
29th Noventber to 4th December 1992, Thailand dignity of hurnan beings, a conrbination ol
II racism, iniustice and exploitation.
I

I hirty-eight participants from Thailand, The social effects were seen in the
II the Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan,
Hong Kong, India, Sri Lanka, Japan,
exploitatlon of Chao Lae (Sea People) as
tourist attractions, the increase ol
As we close our lorum, we resolve to oppose
and act upon touris m's destructive impact on
the USA, ltaly, Germany and the UK, took prostitution, and the adoption ol materialistic society, economy, culture and environment.
part in the Third World Tourism Forum of the lilestyles. In addition, big multinational
Peoples' Plan lor the 21st Century, held at hotelaus have denied people access to We support all initiatives that aim to liberate
the Phuket Teachers Training College, beaches, public land and even public roads. our peoples from the shackles ol this global
November 29 to December 4, 1992. The
phenomenon, and will endeavour to
In terms of response to the problems created
cmrdinate and integrate these etforts, and
Forum was organised and hosted by the by tourism in Phuket, the Phuket
continue to place tourism on the agenda ol
Phuket Environnrental Protection Group Environmental Protection Group (PEP)
(PEP), the Thai Network on Tourism fl-NT) other social movements.
works to create awareness and identify
and the Ecumenical C.oalition on Third World priorities lor urgent action, and calls for Recognising the importance of transborder
'Iourism (ECT\
/D. international support and solidarity. networking, we agree to work with global and
The forum brought together tourism We were enriched by presentations made by regional networks, such as the Ecunen;-e(
activists, sonre 'victims' of tourism from participants lrom Malaysia, Philippines, Coalition on Thiril World Tourism (ECT\ *i
Asian nalions and other concerned people Taiwan, Sri Lanka, Goa, India, Thailand and the Global Network on Anti-Goll Course
to share their situations, vievres and insights, Japan. Reports were also heard from Action (GNAGA), the Asian Tourism Action
based on personal experiences and existing networks on tourism such as the Network (ANTENNA), the Thhd World
cornnon struggles, to expose the Third World Tourism European Network Tourism European Network OEN) and the
consequences ol tourism, and raise global OEN), and the Asian Tourism Action North American Coordinating Center lor
Network (ANTENNA). Respons ible Tourism (NACCRT).
awareness and concern through this lorum.
Case studies were presented, and issues Conmon issues affecting Asian tourist We demand that corporate bodies, the
relating to the impacts and causes ol tourism tourism trade and related industries stop all
destinations include the development ol
analysed and discussed. The purposes of luxury goll courses and resorts, tourism exploitative and oppressive practices in
the {orum were to strengthen the networks prostitution, commercialisation ol tourism.
ol concern, to support popular action at indigenous cultures, acquisition ol land and We call upon the United Nations and related
various levels, and to initiate a critical other natural resources, violation ol human agencies, and our respective governrnents,
dialogue with policy makers. rights, insensitive government policies and to abide by and enforce existing international
On tlre lirst day, we were exposed to the plans, and the hegernonic role played by conventions, treaties and agreements,
reality of tourism in Phuket, with one group international multilateral and bilateral aid especially as they relate to tourism
examining issues relating to goll course and agencies, including the World Bank and the development issues. Furthermore, we urge
resort developrnent, and another visiting lnternational Monetary Fund. these bodies to consider the voice o1
various luxury beach resorts. communities atlected by tourism in the Third
We concluded that the local people have
been left out of the development process, World, as witnessed by and testilied to br
The next day, we met with local activists,
participants ol this forum. -'
teachers and a woman caddy, who shared and deprived of their rights. Social and
lirst-hand experiences on the impact ol mass cultural values have been undermined, In particular, we address these concerns to
tourism on people and the environment of natural resources depleted, and the the World Tourism Organisation, the UN
Phuket. We also heard lrom a village environment ravaged. While tourism claims Environnental Progranme, the UN
headman lrom Koh Samui on the etfect of to promote understanding and harmony Development Programme, the Worldwide
tourism on his island and marine resources. between people and cultures, its present Fund lor Nature, and intergovernnental and
Their presentations highlighted land form does not generally allow a hunrane non-government agencies implementing
encroachment, water resources depletion, relationship between tourists and local plans emerging from the Rio Earth Summit.
problems related to garbage and sewage people. The relationship between golfers
Finally, we express our solidarity with the
disposal, sea turtle extinction, coral and and caddies is a clear example of gentle and brave people of Thailand in their
mangrove lorest destruction. neo-colonia lism.
struggle against mass tourism, as well as
Tourism has economically benefitted just a all dehumanising and undemocratic
minority ol already atfluent people, while the practises. I
majority ol the population have to suffer the l. The Third Woild Tourism Forum Statement wa6
eflects of inllation and the indigrrity of servile, presented at lhe main forum of the People's Plan tor
lolrv-paid forms of employment. lhe ztst Century, hed al Chulatongkom Univetsily,
Bangkok, Thaitand, 6-10 D@nber 1992.
We realise that there is a close collusion 2. The lnternational People's Forum on the lmpact of
between the real estate developers, the Tourism was organizad by Phuket Envionmental
tourism industry, local and national Prctection Grcup (PEP), Thai Network on Tourism
governments, often including the police and tNT) and the Ecumenicat Coalilion on Thnd World
Touilsm (ECTWT)
even the judiciary. When local people have
Conference Reports

Philippines National Forum


(Ererpts fian tlu StAement of tlu Naianal Peoplcs Forum onTburism, Manil4 May 1992)

Jn the se\renti€s a phenomenon called And thus nrass tourism would include "development" projects. One striking
I mass tourism emerged. It was hundredsof thousands of military mery exanrple is thc "aid" faciliaterl try JICA
.trvigonrusly promoted as a source of mainly Americans, who prolice the ocean (JaPan IntcrnationaI Co-opreration Agcncy)
hard currency, asurewayof getting foreign lanes and land in porLs like Olongapo and to convert hundreds of hectares of prerious
exchange to pay the rising external debt of Pattaya to restand recreateat theexpenseof agricultural land into unproductive golf
Third World Countries. It is no secret how local women and girls. cours€s for theenjoymentof tlrefore'ign few.
the World Bank and the IMF used this lhis is an cxperience comnlon to the'l hais,
strategy in the Philippines and Thailand.
Sex tourism is a phenomenon blatantly
Filipinos and Goans.
underscoring the North and South
In the eighties the Philippines hit the problems of iniquities on one Displacenrent, dislocatiory shifLs fr<lnt
millionth mark of tourist arrivals, mostly -domination
hand and subservience on the other. After traditional c,conomic activities kt plovide
/ :s and during the Aquino reaping a windfall fronr cheap labour in tlre tlrc hurrtanpxrwer ftrr the tourisnl
auministntion the very sane Third World, the people of the North come infrastructures have disrupted lives. 'l'he
'development" plars of the Marcns era back for a second round of exploitation incursion of consumerism lus wnlughl
- lravcr. Cultural valucrs have been cnrdcd.
And we could go on enumerating an
endless list of socio-crconclnric and
etologiorl costs. All these out-weiglr
whatever positivevalues mass tourisnr nray
bring.

For furlher lnformation, contact: CST,4/U


Guadalupe Bllss, Makatl, Metro Manlla,
Philipptnes.

(Continued from page 3)

Destlnations ldentified for lntenslve


promoting tourism were curreritly being sex tourism. The problenrs of the North are Development
implemented in the nineties. exported to the South gender
-unresolved 1. Lakshadweep lslands
conflictt stress fronr lhe rat race of business,
It is unfortunate that this kind of
alienation and loneliness; all these are
2. Andaman lslands
'dcvelopment' fails to address the basic 3. Manali (Solang - Nalah)
supposed to be eased by sex tourisln and the 4. Bekal Beach
nceds of our people for iobs, food, housing
narriage nrarket. 5. Muttukadu Beach
and a clean environment. The poor and the
powerless get nrore and morc marginalised With money as tl'le powerful factor, virtue 6, Kangra (Pong Dam)
being nroved and pushed in both urban and becomes meaningless for poverty-stricken ln addition to these destinations. 9 travel
rural areas, losing the sea and land, sourc€s people of the S<luth. Innate dignity is sold circuits have been identilied lor
of livelihood, to give way to industrial for a pittance. Persons are degraded and concentrated developnent.
conrplexes, gol f courses and infrastructures culture bastardiz.ed.
that serve big business, the foreign investors Speclat Tourlsm Areas (STA)
More culpatrle than tlre local partners in
and their clientele. Special Tourism Areas (STA) will be notified
business and govcrnnrent are the tyculns
for integrated developnrent ol tourism
They are the main beneficiaries of Third behind the tourisnr industry a vertical
- facilities. A scheme {or giving Assistance for
World "development". Together with the integration of airlines, lrotels, travel agents, Specified Tourism Areas (ASTA) will be
lcral elite who can buy their way to power tour guides that siphon out the dollars from started to provide financial assistance lor
in Government, the rich and mighty in the a Third World Country. equity and other tourism related activities in
tran-snational conglomerates have many such areas.
pawns to protect and promote their Also culpable are the founders, the
interests. One such pawn is the military. providers of loans for socalled
Understandlng Tourism

AFAILEDQUEST
EQUATIONS organisql a two4ay sasion (August 29-30, 1992) tofamiliarise participants with
perspaclives that uplain tourism as a modern phenomenon. C.K. MEEryA, who also attendd,
summarises the discussions, led by Alito Siqueira of Goa Uhiversity.
I

T tt First World family packs its casual cottons, its suntan The two conventional types aqe the organised mass tourist, who is
I lotions and its anti-diarrhoea pills, and gets ready for a two- least exposed to strangeneqs (thooe in group tours), and the
week Third World vacation. individual mass tourist, vtrtro tavels on his own and is slighdy more
in contact wilh the host surroundings, The explorer and the drifter
It may remain ensconced in a five-star enclave. swimming, golfing (the latter corresponds to Boorstin's "baveller') are non+onventional
and surfing. Or it may decide to be more intrepid and brave the traffic, types. Cohen later elaborated on this idea, using MacCannell's
the natives and the dubious food. concept of 'authenticitt'

lf a beach is a beach is a beach, what drives the tourist to reach out MacCannell drew a far kinder picture of the modern tourist l,
-
for one half way across the globe? Boorstin dkt wih his negative caricatlre. He talked of he tourist's
quest for authenticity rather than his search for contrived illusions.

Adequate answers cannot be found in simplistic categorisations such


Social life constantly reorganises itself in ever-increasing complexity.
as lhose of lhe World Tourism Organisation. According to it, a tourist
is "anyone visiting a country other than his place of residence lor The earlier simple division of society into two classes and two sexes
more than 24 hours but less than one year". He travels for four is no longer valid. Modernity is thus marked by shuctural
reasons: for business or pleasure, to go on pilgrimages or to visit differentiation which in turn leads to lragmentation, conflict,
friends and relatives. contradiction, alienation.

ln an attempt to transcend the anxiety caused by fragmentation,


Such facile definitions leave several aspects of touristic behaviour
modern man searches for a unified experience,
unexplained. For instiance, if people wish to relax on a holiday, why
do they tire themselves out sight-seeing? lf ihey want to experience
This search for totality lies at the heart of the tourist's wanderlust.
a different culture, why do they seek laniliar conrforts? Why are
holiday resorts popular lor business conferences as well?
lf the present, whatqver is modern, seems false, then the past, the
pre-modern, must be real. ll "hereu (wfrichever societythe tourist lives
Sociologists have explored the 2oth century phenomenon of mass in) is lragmented: inauthentic, then "there" (the tourist destination)
tourism and corne up with lascinating theories. The three main must be whole, authentic.
research traditions in the qualitative sociology of tourism were started
by historian D. J. Boorstin, sociologist Dean MacCannell and Hence the urge to visit.backward' (pre-modern) nations, and the lure
anthropologist Victor Turner. of historic ruins, museums (the past) or, on the other hand, science
parks (the future).
Boorstin's is an ironic, one-sided critique of the modern mass tourist.
He argues that contemporary tourists thrive on "contrived Getting away lrom it all is thus viewed as an imperative rather than
attractions"' and do not experience "reality', only "pseudo events'. indulgence.
One can find exanples here, of the tourism departnent staging
"lairs" and "lestivals' for international visitors, or five-star hotels But are all tourists so anxiety+idden? Cohen's later classification is
recreating a village scene. based on lhe tourisfs level of alienation from his own culture.

Boorstin makes a distinction between the 'traveller" of yore


The recreationary tourist (the only non-alienated type) is
-
learning and searching for the real, and lhe "tourisf'- a passive
strongly-centred, merely wants to relax, and is least interested in
broadening his understanding of a foreign culture.
on-looker seeking escape and entertiainment, and observing a
strange environment from the security ol his immediate surroundings The experiential tourist wants to lind meaning elsewhere and is
(such as luxury hotels, for instance, which replicate atmosphere that
curious to see, to know about, the host surroundings, though not to
he is used to).
merge with it.

Sociologist Erik Cohen used Boorstin's insight to construct a typology The experimental tourist is like a hippie, looking for an alternative
of tourist roles. He identified four types, categorised according to the centre. He lives and dresses like a native, eats ordinaryfood, travels
extent to which they tend to lravel within their faniliar "environnental by local transport, and obviously, stays on longer than the previous
bubble". hrvo types.
Understanding Tourism
The exislential tourist is not Reintegration -- a relurn lo
only alienated from his own tlre communily, oflen with a
culture but has conpletely higher social slatus,
shifted his centre. He is accompanied by greater
transplanted on loreign soil (a social responsibility (more
missionary a Hare Krishna respect is given to a haji or a
devotee). The diversionary swamy).
lourist is tolally alienated ard
has no centre. He is The theory suits tourists in an
constantly shifting, restless, amazingly apt manner. There
unable to strike root are rites of inlensificalion
anywhere. (weekend holiday, annual
vacation) and passage (a
They are striving, in various honeymoon trip, a break
degrees, lor authenticity. belore taking up a new job).
MacCannell draws a
;<tinction between "front" The vacationer doffs his
.r "back". Just as people formal attire and dons
put on false fronts in social Bermudas, keeps odd hours,
life and hide what is allows his children lo choose
unpleasanl (visitors to a where-the family should go
home see the living room but and what lhey should eat
not lhe kitchen), the tourist is (role reversa ls,
only shown lhe front. anli-st ruclure), mingles easily
with fellow-tourists who are
Not only is the back hidden, perfect strangers (com-
but a f alse brck is often put Thc clichc image of ururists. Thcre is hanlly a catcg(ny of pcoplc nrorc laughcd at tn munilas). On re-enlering his
up. Authenticity is staged ridiculcd. And Truriss are nevcr oursclvcs. communily, his social esleem
(like pre{aded jeans, ethnic is increased (narrating
fashion, or the politician's man-of-the-masses image). A reslauranl experiences abroad to an admiring audience). And instead of
in a five-slar holel may slage a kitchen, with kababs being grilled in prasadam, he brings back sowenirs, gifts, pholographs.
lront of you, but the actual cleaning of the meat, lhe dirty work, is
done in the real kitchen lhe back. Br.rt the tourist never experiences the deep salisf aclion that a pilgrim
- does.
The lourist is not fooled. He sees through the staging. Let's say he
'"'ldes to wander through the town or village ard enter houses. He keeps travelling, keeps yearning for his elusive dream of
authenticity and tolalily.
'r,,ere loo, people will ar.lomalicitty put up a lronl. Even if he
manages to batter down so rne of their defenses, I here will always be He lries lo penetrate lhe front (go where there are no olher tourists,
areas he cannot access. The back will be pushed further and lurther bask on an unlouchEd beach) bul he never knows if he has reached
back. the bact.

Thus the tourist is on a never-ending journey to authenticity, as it Tourism, lherelore, becomes a failed quest. T
were. The process may be likened to a secular pilgrimage, if one
Deccan Herald,6 November 1992
uses Turner's work on pilgrims in lhis context.

A religious prccess usually conprides periodic rites of intensification


(weekly last, Sunday church seruice) and rites of passage which "Hey Pal,
mark lile cycles (thread ceremony, entering priest- hmd). Can I take your picture ftrr the people back home?
Could you ask your kid to smile please?
In the rites of passage, the individual goes though three slages. Sorry what exactly do you mean?
Can you say it in English?
Separation
- both spalial and social - lrom his ordinary social group
(change in dress, food habits, even name). 'Cause we're the.
Jet Set - get out ofour way.
Liminalily the threshold, of his laniliar vrprld, into a state We got a lot of things to see..."
-crossing
of "anti-structure" in which his norm,al role and status are suspended
(rich and poor, old and young, are ncrt differeiliated during a Joe Jrckson, "Jet set", reprodtrced
pilgrimage). He experiences "oqrmunitas", which is a feeling of by kind pumission of Warner Chqpll music.
oneness with lhe rest ol the group ilrdeqoing the ritual.
From Our Networks

Update onGoa
Goa ls rarely out oJ news when lt comes to tourism. The pastJew months haue seen a serlesoJ deuelopments
ranglngrt'onropposition lo casinos. lllegal hotel constructlors, Japanese holldag ulllages, golf courses and more.

September 1991 : up too many hotel projects, State Tourism uHugh!


and Colleen Gantzer, the veteran
Goa to be'Speclal Tourlsm Area' Minister Pandurang Raut told a recent Delhi duo, hhve unleashed a campaign in the local
conference. press,i with Lutheran fervour, to convert
"Goa is a very beautiful place and shall
Croans to their point of view. The High Tide
delinitely figure in the list (of Special Tourism
Peat Claims He's a vlctim.... Une, they say, is a fraud and it must be
Areas to be notilied by New Delhi)", Union
ignored, and they have been generous in
Tourism Minister Madhavrao Scindia is Freddy A. Peat, a suspected loreigner who
their pampering of the locals. They also offer
quoted as saying by students of the Dempo claims to be an Anglo-lndian trapped in a
free advice, bythe barrel, all tothe effectthat
College Planning Forum. who spoke to him. strange case involving the sexual abuse of
touris4, the Gantzers'specialised lield and
Deccan Herald September 18, l99l orphan and other children, writes to the local
media saying he was falsely blamed and
their bread and butter for the last few
decades, is such a good thing there could he
October 1991 : beaten by police oflicers. He had in lact
nothing befter."
Feud ltl the Cablnet over Caslnos "cone lo the rescue of suffering kids", he
claimed. Goa Post January lO-16.
Goa Deputy Chief Minister Dr. Wilfred de Japs Choose Arambol tor Hollday
Souza has favoured the setting up of casinos Vlllage
Luxury Hotels Battle lor Tourlsts
in Goa "exclusively for foreigners and non-
Writes Mario Cabral E Sa in 'Blitz' Japan has selected Arambol (Pernem
resident Indians to
augment foreign
Bombay taluka, northern most Croa) as a site lor its
exchange reserves" (UNl news agency 'holiday village' project, Chief Minister Ravi
October 25,1 991). But Goa Tourism Minister "The hotels, the starred ones, began the
Naik was otficially quoted as saying. They
Pandurang Raut said he was opposed to any season on a jittery and ugly note with the
such proposal. Raut opined that Goan lile, -
by now famous North-South divide. The
did so after surveying diflerent places in
Maharashta, Rajasthan and Coa, he said.
which was already westernised " in a wrong North Goa luxury properties decried in
direction" due to tourism would be lurther lavishly paid and gigantic ads in the national
Ban on Beach Partles, Say Cops
worsened with casinos. Gomantak Times, media the shortconfngs (which indeed are
October 31, 1991. many) of the South Goa upstarts. Predictably North Goa police have decided to ban night
the South Goa hoteliers gave a fullthroated beach parties conducted along the north
December 1991 : response with the redoubtable retired army Goa coast, especially at Anjuna, by tourists
Cidade De Goa Faces Suit captain Nair, of the Leela Lace legend, with immediate effect, reports The Navhind
leading from the front on behatf of his own Times (Jan 19). Police said the number of
Environmentalist group Goa Foundalion
venture in South Goa and his neighbours house breaking and theft cases shoot up
announces plans to file a writ petition in court
Rannda and Majorda. There was more when such parties are organised, while the
against Hotel Cidade de Goa for illegally
conshucting an eight foot high rubble wall
arsenic than lace in the battle lor the beds peddling ol drugs is also evident. Parti-..
(to sell them, that is) but the truce was cause a public nuisance and disturb pe
around its property, and thereby blocking all
access to the beach permanently.
sornewhat restored when they all realised and tranquillity, according to Dy.
that there were going to be, this )rear, rnore Superintendent of Police l.D. Shukla.
tourists than all the hotels in Goa put
January 1992 :
together and multiplied by three could Call to'Curtall' Low Budget Tourism
Problem of too many Hotel Protects
fiossibly shelter."
Goa is facing no dearth of hotel proiects, and Tourismauthorities appear at a loss on how
on the contrary the problem is to "somewhat dantzers'Campalgn ln Local Press to handle the hordes (sic) ol low-budget
curb iheir (hoteliers') enthusiasm" in setting From Blitz again tourists entering the State and are making

10
From Our Nelworks
attempts lo limit srjcfi anivals, Goa Tourism
Developnnnt Corporalion then chief V.A.P.
Mahaian was quoiled as saying, by Herald Elephant Size Mockery
(Jaruary 2.) Mr. Mahajan has since begun
working for a luxury hotel in South Goa.
In a frce market scricty everything is up
for salc. Orrly moncy matters. Evcrr if thc
February 1992:
country is going thnruglr a carnagg it
Iourlsfs bmplaln of l^ackot Facllltle.s
desn't matter to the powers that tre in
European toufists visiting Goa have business. lf it is government servants it is
conplained of a lack of beach-side lacilities, the desire to be in the limclight antl the
and the 'harassment' by over-persistent incremcnt that mattcrs.
hawkers and corrupt policemen, says a The ever incrcasing financial lt*scs of tlre
newspaper repofl qrcling a prwramme Great Elcphant March'celebrated by the
aired by lhe official All India Radio. Deccan tourism departmcnt of Kcrala has not
Henld, Hubll, F&ruary 15, 1992. deterred the govcmment from
conducting it this year tm. Addc<l to this
Konkani poet Manohar Rai Sardessai also
was the thc governmcnt's need to show
lermed as'repugnant' the idea of welcoming
e foreigner only for the sake ol his foreign the people abroad that all is wcll in the
country and bring in the tourists. At that
hange, in the same programme.
time Bombay was in the grip of violcnce
'South Europe-. Much Less
a sccond timc. Gujarat was erupting
again. ln Kerala, an uncasy calm hid
Expenslve'
concealed tcnsions in thc pmplc's minds. rlistrit.rutet.l panrphlcts toLxrth lrrals as well
Goa has been described in the Swedish This cultural mcrckcry has bcrn grring on for as tourists. Rcgistering their protcst dircrtly
media thus: "This is not India," explains (sic) the last 7 years. This ycar the governmcnt with thc foreign tourists thc gJoups sought
a retired Finnish missionary, who has 13 expectcd 5(f,1 foreigncrs but lcss than '15() tlreir hclp to inform thc people atxrut the
years of experience in the East, "this is Sorlh furned up. The 4<lay ct'lcbrations has c<xt way the tourism industry works.
Europe, but warmer, friendlier, far more the govcrnment Rs 14 lakh frtm which it Tlre activists conducted group intcractirxrs
exolic and much, much less reccivcd Rs 4 lakh by way of returns. Even with thc local population to cliscuss thc
expensive. Wee k en de r 23. 2 tourists wondcred at tlrc cxtravagance thrcat facetl by the nrassivc tourism
when the country was strappcd for cash. promotion in Kcrala statc. The gtroups are
March 1992 : now trying to work out a round the ycar
Protets over Hotel ly'e,arTemple Raising their warnings against thc cvils of campaign.
five star tourism and cultural scll<ruts likc I
Reddents from Taleigao (Tiswadi taluka)
the'elcphant marchcs', environmcntal
slaged a large prctest march against a hotel K C Santlrosh Kurnar
construction coning up near a village
groups in Kcrala protested under the (Acliaist in Keraln working t'or ALCOM,
temple. lt was felt the hotel-cum-bar would
banner of k{,roups, kralam near the
venue. They cxhibiterC pmters describing Stnlfurch Kumnr :aoas also part of lhe Equations
"destroy the sarctily of lhe temple premises" meating organixd in Kernla)
the evils of the krurism industry and
"trhind Times March 9, 1992.
ineaders may note the significance of sr.ph Extracts from an open lctter
developments, which efiectively put pajd lo
lhe tourism lobby's claims that protests on
DearTourist fricnd,
tourism are solely a catholic, middle-class
phenornena.) Kerala was once rich in natural resources. Cradually due to our short lerm uLsion, the*
resourcesdwindlerl. Notothestnleisshortof ebclricity,shortofwater,shortofgrains,short
of uegetnbles, short of all necessities. Our agriculture is stunted. Industial grouth is
April1992: stagnant. Only the terliary sector is expnnding.
lntlux of Kashmlrls
The statc instead of trying lo sokse the social and econonic issues thot haunt the people , nake
Newspaper reports quote unnarned Crime the people more luls anil ask then to sing and dnnce to untimely culturnl calls. This is in the
Branch officials from the Goa Police saying name of culture, in the name of touism ! The stnte lies to hide the renl state of the people lty
there was a possibility of terrorists being staging Great Elephant Marches.lt is a ltetraynl of lhe. people and peopb's c.ulture.
arTpng Kashniri youth who have "been' The tourism inilustry, as you knuu, has an adwrse impact on our society. lt pollutes not only
flocking to Goa under the pretext of selling ourculturebutalsoourenaironment.Fulher,canyouimaginethecrueltie.sinllicte.don dumlt
carpets, American stones, and some similar creatureslike the elephants? In the nnme ol touriw, lhey nre forccd to pnrade under unhealthy
items." conditicms. Pnhnps, if they had the intelligence to ranlt , lhey utouLln't haoe sparei thc
s<alled promotzrs of tourism
May 1992: DearTituistfriend,ue re4uest you lo note the real moliaefuhind lhe GreatElephnntMnrches.
11,32,4(n fi.m tor Golf Cour*g Pleas takc pains to explore the real state of our people ond culture. Only thn ,nay rn
transcend racial and nalional lnundaries and enter inlo a nan dawn of cioili*tion.
Governrnent of Goa invites otfers, ii;t varlous
K Arouindhaskhan
cenlres including Bangalore, from pronnters
for ECOGROUPS KERALA, clo Keka Nalure Presenntion Society, Kunnalh Mnna
Buildings, Shornur Rd , Thissur - 680 00'l ,Koala .
(Contirad on pqe l9)

11
From our Networks

Tourism and Human Rights inNagaland


The Indian State "opens up" the North-East to tourism
NAND]TAHAIGAR

have not bcen a tourisnr activist. One an area is disturbed the security forces not controlled the influx of outsiders into
I lowever, I havc becn in the North t4ke over civil administration and theyhave the North East and in many parts the
Iiast for the past fcrur yearu as a lawyer powers to search, seize, raid, destroy indigeneous people have become
rcpresenting a Naga hrrman rights property and even murder, In the name of minoritiep.
organization in a case against the arnred counter-insuryency nranoeuvres the Indian
forcex; ftrr cronrnritting atnrcilics in Naga Stateallowed its amrc'd forces toburnNaga And now the Indian State is trying to
inhabited areas in Marripur. It was during villages and even to bomb Aizwal. This is pronrote tourism. Every part of Naga,
lhese years that wc noticcd the Indian not a part of past history but the present. Meitei or Mizo culture is being marketed as
State's efforts trl "opcn up" lhe Norlh liast, I.arge parts of the i{orth East are even today a comnrodity. The Governments are
spccially Nagaland and Manipur. promoting "festivalsn in which the
'l'hc first step was to relax lhe Inner indigeneous people are told
Linc Ilcgrrlations. Indian citizens perform inImphal and Kohima and
reqrrire Inner Line ltermits to visit these festivals are inauguratcd by
alnxlsl all tlre. Nolth East States. the Chief Ministers and patlrnized
Thoe pernrils were to clreck the by the Governors. A poster brought
inflow of non lribals lo thcse areias out by Nagaland Department of
and .
to protca-t the indigenctrus Tourism states "Conre to Nagaland
pmplcs frrm econonric exploitation where life ts one long festival".
and cultural donrination.'fhere are
-The Tourism Departments are
spccial laws which prohibit the concentrating on attracting potential
trarufer of land lo non tribals and Japanese tourists, and panrphlets are
constitutional safeguards to prolect being specially designed to attract
thc socicty and culture. them.

The' px-'o1'rlc's 1rf Nortl'r F.rst have bcen Japanese businessmen ar€ not
able to protect tl'reir natural waiting for invitations. They have
resourcr.ls frrxn exploilation and alrmdy opened a Naga-Japanese
sonrc of thc thickcst fore;ts are to be l'rotel in Kohima. They are also
firund in the North llast. This has lobbying hard for pernrission-'".
lxu pxrssible partly due to tlu lcgal construct a war memorial
and ctln-stitutional safeguards but memory of the ]apanese who died in
mostly due to politically powerfull under army rule.'flrc Indian State l'ns not the North Ea-st during the Second World
nrovenrcnls for nat ional self- deternrination. allowed any real econonric developnrent to War. It is not only theJapanese. Foreign and
'the Indian State has trierl to crush thr:;e take place in the North East as a part of their Indian nedia people are busy producirg
movenlenls by brutal military reprcssion deliberate policy of keeping the area glossy books on "tribal culture" with photos
and relentless prsychological warfare. The econonrically backward. This policy has of shawls, jewellery, baskets and monoliths
history of the crrrelty and pain inflicled on resulted in the increase in poverty and the from their context or meaning.
bcginning of landlessness among peoples -divorced
the' pcoplc of North liast try lhc Indian
arntetl forcts has slill t<l lre writlen. Naga wl'ro have never known hunger. Most peoples of North East believe that
inlnbitcd areas have bee'n undcr virlual tourism will promote development by
arnry rrrlc (rrr three decades. Alnxxt every 'flre new generation has grown up without genemting jobs and money. They do not
penple living in the Nortl't liast have lived knowing their hiskrryor their language. The connect the tourlsm industry with
trndcr nrartial law. Indian State deliberately promoted unscrupulous businessmen dreanring of
slereotyped negalive inrages of the North fivestar hotels and contractors ca,qting their
The finst Parliament of Independent India East peoples as head hunters, savages and evil eyeon the tinrberand natural resources.
1:asscd the Arnrcd lrorccs (Special ltowers)
primilive peoples. The youth in the North The people of North East do not know
Act in 19511.I'his Actallows lheGovernnrent East have often bccome victinr of this tourism can mean the death of their culture
lo dcclarc any part of the North Lrasl as psychological warfare. It is in this and civilization.
distrrrhd ft'rr inde'finite periods of lime background that we must see the latest
withotrt a provision of revicw or even a attenlpt of the Indian State to nopen upn the
statuk)ry duty to inform thc Parlianrent. North East to tourism. The Indian State has
't2
From our Networks

ENDANGEREDSPITI
SpiE, uhi&lrcrettminalrcldioely inlded ofu',being m inna'lir mya, is nmulrcing tlnrnun opatfa'tourisn. Shubendu
Kaushik zrzifes nlnt his impra"{ons ani cur;":nr t'u auillry tlat is raaly t'a' mnssanrlsunqtiot

his sunmer I went on a long and sentimental or contrived about it. Maybe I another 'newly discovered land' has begun.
extensive journey in the gathered more of it because I was alone and Spiti is ready for mass- consumption. The
Himalayas. And different. This was ill-equipped, but it was reassuring lines I wrote in reaction to my lirst Zanskar
as close to the ideal of bavel as I have got in
nonetheless. visit nny well be apt {or Spiti soon enough:
'fhought uc zoould m*lding
my decade or so of Himalayan visits so far. go far ltom thc
Spiti is a valley bracketed between Kinnaur
Which is one of the reasons why I want to tell a'cnod,
on one end and the Kunzam pass and
you about it. Tlnught
Lahaul on the other. A road runs right s<t the mudding ct'Lnud tott.
through the valley, coning from Kinnaur (and Thought Zmsknr toas tt'trctu ,lix.,twa'cd'
I was out for two months, moving on foot Simla) and going over the seasonal Kunzam land,
most ol the time, tucking and bussing sonre la to Lahaul and then over the Rohtang la to
' e time, or simply looking around in sone Manali and beyond. The population ol just Tlwught s: the mad,ling a'rxurl, too.
iiiic'6 meadow or village. The annual festival under 1O,OOO is essentially Buddhist, except
was on at the gompa in Lamayuru. Saw the for the government employees in and around While I was in Spiti, I net the SDM at Kaza
lanas dancing, with the tourists doing their lGza. Five major gompas, twelve gram and expressed my fears to him. I told him that
own kind of dance with still and video sabhas each representing a cluster of Spiti oughtto prepare itself for tourism be{ore
caneras; the lamas vrr:re literally bipping villages -and a surrealistic mountain desert things got out of hand. The people of Spiti
over them in the confusion
- no, I am not
exaggerating! Got disgusted wilh the tourists
terrain, not very different lrom neighbouring should make sure that il tourism is inevitable
as it seenrs to be, its ill-eflects should be
Ladakh and Zanskar.
and the commercialisation there, so I hurried minimised, and its good etfects (money, that
on. I intended to cross over into Parbati And $iti is nowhere near being sdf+eliant. is) should not be siphoned off by outside
valley via the Bara Shigri glacier and the It relies on an annual government subddy of agencies. Above all, the people of Spiti
Sara Umga pass. Changed my plans Fh 1 crore @ross), beddes what isspent on should be involved in lhe evolution and
because of bad monsoon weather and made date government projcts like roads and the implernentation ol any such 'strategy lor
a last ninute decision to go to Spiti instead. ultra-modern hydro-power project (2rnw; tourism'. And so on. The SDM shared my
So I walked over the Kunzam la into Spiti. 0.5mw pre*ntly operational) that s.rpplies concern and said that if I had any concrete
Stayed in Spiti for close to a week. Four of year-round dectricity to all villages in the solutions to offer, his administration would
those days I spent with some lamas at Ki valley. The Cenkal government has a lend all possible support. So I decided to get
gompa, the biggest of five gompas in Spiti. seemi ngl y acti ve desert-devel op ment proj ect in touch with EQUATIONS to work out
A lestival was on there too, and was it on in the valley with an expenditure of Fb.'l 'something concrete'.
dilferent! No tourists, except lor a package crore annually. The pea crop, which $iti is
J^'- that swooped in on a rehearsal, created famous for, is not enough to make the people I want to get going on this right away. The
: -lc for a while. then drove off in a cloud of seltreliant and the subsidence cultivation is intention is to study the tourism potential of
dust because they had a schedule to keep. inadequate. Hardly any handicraftsare made the valley and its possible impact on
for sale. Very little wood, and little gass for resources, on lifestyles, on the economy and
Around this time | finally ran out of money, so
livedock. the ecology. And then to act as a catalyst,
I had to return. During these two months of among the people and the administration, in
tanping around, I had not carried a tent or Unlike Ladakh and Zanskar, Spiti has evolving and implementing a sound strategy
a stove, only a leaky bivouac sack to cover remained relatively isolated so lar because for handling tourism in the valley. In addition,
my sleeping bag. I stayed with villagers of being an 'innerline area'. This past I want to also examine how Spiti can move
wheretherewas a village, orwith shepherds, surmer, Spiti has been thrown wide open to towards self-reliance. and of how it can
or else out in the open. Food was with outsiders and to tourism - it is no longer an attempt to step directly into the matured
villagers or shepherds wherever possible, or inrirerline area. So the mad rush lor yet sophistication of the 'solar era' with a
else the meagre dry rations that I was minimum ol messing around in the crude and
carrying.
/=-a\.. simplistic insensitivity of mainstream

<Y-Y\\
ry
industrial civilisation.
Harmonising with the villagers cane quite
easily after the {irst few days of getting used V ^----\ In short, ari open-ended association of sorts
to down-to-earth, happygoJucky kavel, I with this valley. I intend to collaborate
soon developed the confidence to bb able to extensively with individuals and
knock on a door and say, "Hil I'm hungry give organisations that have the in{ormation
me some {ood", and come out bf there knowledge or expertise that I might need as
burping in satisfaction and waving goodbye I go along, but I want to work essentially
to newly made friends. lt was an easy going, alone and in my own way, which is
matter-ol-fact hospitality that I expgrienced characterised by down-to-earth informality,
out there, hospitality with a small 'h'i nothing by freedom from strict schedules and quite

13
Action Alerts
importanlly, a lreedom from arcountability to
ary organisation or individual. In tho
process, I intend to visit the valley in all
On a wayward highw€l/......
seasons, walk up and down its trade and THE EASTCOASTROAD
trekking routes, interacl variously wilh lhe
people there, possibly learn the language - A major highway, callcti thc East Ccnst C)r.rr appcal is:
all this in a disorganised ('nonorganised Rrud (ECR), is bcing built along thc East * to suspend tree cuttingand corctruction
reads better) way, going essentially by feel Coast from Madras to thc southcrn tip of work on the ECR hetween Madros and
and making, breaking or changing plans al India at Kanniyakumari, a distancc of about Cuddalore until an Enaironmental
will. 700 km. Impact Assasment is prepared.
* to drop ECR behueen Madras and
The lunding forthis wort should ideally come
Although callcd a road, thc ECR is Cuddalore as it is a duplication of NH
in some way from the people of Spiti
lhemselves, or otherwise f rom an inleresled
practically a new major highway cutting 45.
individual (or individuals), but not from any through fragile ccesystcms, villagcs, * to imprwe and widen the existing
organisalion or institution. And again, the sometimcs houscs, and disturbing wildlifc
coastal road with minilnal tree cutting
lunding source orsources will have to rely on habitats. ln many places it is within 5fi) m and dlsruption of uillages.
my integrity, for I do not intend lo have of thc high-tidc linc and only 2-3 m above * to explore the feasihility of an inlo-a .
anything lo do with accounls. All this might mcan scil ltvcl. Rt'sidcs t ncouraging
sound quite strange, even unreasonable, but
highway at a distance of '10-40 lo, l', . ) -
industrics with high water dcmands and
that is how it is. the coast.
polluting potcntial, a busy hig,hway along
an ecologically dcvasta tcri routc is not likclv
Now let me make nry motives lransparenl. Petitions may be senl to:
to cncouragc tourism, which is onc of thc
Firsl the selfish ones. These include the
opportunity for extensive travel in Spiti and
statctl reas<lns for thc nud. I lonourable Chief Minister, Dr Selai l
the opportunity to make some sustenance
kcrelariat, Fort St. Ceorge,
Jayahlitha,
money out of work that I will ouile obviously Thc cntirc strctch is likcly t<l cost morc than Madras 6m 009. His Exccllcncy, Lt
enjoy. Secondly, I hope to use this exercise US $ 2m million. Thc Asian flevt'lopmcnt Covcrnor of Pondichcrry, Sri Harswarup
lo sort out, evolve and if possible test out my Rank is lcnding (t07o <tf thc moncy. Thc rcst Singh, Raj Nivas, Pondichcrry 505 fi)l
ideas on wholesome developnrent. And is from public firnds. llul is this rmi renlly
thirdly, a deeplelt love f or the mountains and necessnry? Atxlut 10-30 km inland, an I ol Enuironment awl
lonourable Minister
their people, a deepfell empalhy with what almost p,rralltl national highway (NH 45) Forests, Si
Kamal Nath, Paryaoaran Bhaoan,
their way of living stands for, and deeplelt CCO Complex, Ldi Rmrl, Nau Delhi 110 00i.
alrc.rdy r.xists. This is bcing tviticnccl and
pain al what is happening to them all over.
upgratlc.l with World &rnk funds.
All lhree sets ol molives are clean and Mr K Taru Mizu, Prestlent, Asian
heahhy and perhaps even necessary for f)eoelopment Bank, P O Box789,'l(D9 Manila,
something worthwhile to emerge out of such Thc plans for thc ICII havc not tncn Philippines.
work. r prrblicly cliscusscrl. Nor has it bt'en clcaricl
Ity tllr officials of thc Ministry of For more information, write to: lndirt .

Note to our Readers Fnvironment and Forcsts, n'ho havc bntn National Trusl for Art and Cultuial llei\ l

told that an cxisting ro.rtl is jrrst bcirrg (INTACI D,14,Church Street, Pondicherry 6b5
Ifor those who would like to linnncially or improvcrl anrl widcnctl from 10 to 12 m! 0'12, lndia FAX: C[.].914'13 86-2116 I TEL
otherwise assist with this project, please w914't3-86-2258.
write to Shrlbhendu directlv. Thc only rcason to prrt this roacl ckxc to thc According to latest reports, the Madras
coast sct'ms to t'rc th,rt cconomically ahd High Court has issued a stay order on the
Shubendu Kaushik, C-404, Somvihar srxially u'n.rkt'r scctions of srrir.ty will bc
Apartments, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110022 felling of trees, follouring a utnt petition
Phone-676957
affc.ctt'd. Tht'y arc not infrlrmcd or filed by INTACH, the Aurmsille
organiscd cnorrg,h to protcst and land Dettelopment Croup and Consumer Action
ac<lrrisition will thcrc[<rrt tr chcnpcr. Group (CAG), Madras.
Action Alerts

I.ATE PRESS
SAVE
According to latcst rcp()rts, thei
'lhnzanian governnrcnt lras g(ntc
OUR ahcarl arrcl allrrak'd thc sports fitlcl to
lvl/s Tantruss Ltd (thc l<rirl Partrrt'rs
-llotrgh
SPORTS o[ Shcratr>n I krtcl). tlrc
rnattcr is still pcndirrg irr court under
an intcrirn in junctir>n, Danish
FIELD contract<x, M/s. C J Jcnscn has
alroatly tregun construction work.

Rtprrts say that thc Worlcl Bank has


also joinecl the' project throrrgh thc
This is an urgent appcal to international protection. Tixlay, it is the Shcraton, I'refcrcntial Tlade Agreement Ilank
tomorrow it will be five othcr hotcls
-cnvironmcntal and othcr pressurc groups.
'govcrnmcnt of Tanzania has allcratcd wanting another patch of grecrrerv.
set trp for East and Sotrthern African
a sports-field<um-greencry to Shcraton countrics. Othcr partncrs arc
Hotels to build a luxtrrious five-star hotel in
Mormvcr, thcre'arc varit)l-ls plots clrxe
opr: n Thntruss Ltd of Thnzania, Ovcrseas
thc city of Dar-Es-Salaam. to thc controvcrsial sitc which arc also I)rivate Invcstment Corporation
owncd by the govcrnmcnt anc'l can bc (Shcraton), USA, C C Jcnscn of
With thc rapitlly expanding population, a allrratcd for thc hote.l-
Dt'nrnark, lrrdustrializa tion Fund for
number of ope'n spaccs earmarked as
recrcation spots havc bcen g<ibblcd up by
All c<lnccrncd groups arc renue'stctl to Dcvt.l<ping Countrics (lFU),
respond and hclp save our sports field. f)enrnark, ancl J'cchnrxxport, Iirssia
propcrty devclopcrs. The last rcmaining
sports ground is not trcing spared cithcr. Petitions may be sent [o: Pres. Ali Ilnssn (converting USSR nrilitary rlclrt
Mutinyi, Clo The Stntu I bu*, P. O. llox 9120, untlcr IMF conditionalities).
The govcrnmcnt of Tanzania, n'ith a vicu'to
Dnr -ES -Salaam, TANZ AN I A.
rcvamp its cconomy has tx'cn inviting
foreign invcstmcnt without having a Appeal received from: Nizar I]. Fazal, P. O.
clcar-cut policy on environmcntal Box 5-l 65, Dnr -Es- Salnnm, TANTANI A.

Niki tauda, the airline oh'ncr was qtrol.cd as saving that thc
Do €r 'f'l -f
HE Stc,AlS prxtcarcl was thc work of a farnous Austrian cart<xrrrist irr a vcry
^t
gS 'f HL c-lttL-D "Boycott l,auda Air" stylc which thc Austrian people wcrc usctl to. It is
spreci.rl
howcvcrclcarthat thcchild isbcingyiqwctl asa svmkrl of Thai
tourism. Whilc thc ac'l ust cl kangarcxrs for Ar.rstralia, for Thailanrl
Thus ran somc of thc placards it trscd a picturc of a young girl nakccl from thc waist trp.
carrid by dcmonstrators protesti ng
Thc Tlr.ri govcrnmcnt is to blame too for not putting in cnough
against a controversial advcrtise-
cfforts to curb tlrc gorvth of chilcl prrxtitutiorr ancl allowing this
mcnt that apporrcd in thc airlinc's inflight UP magazinc. Thc ad
to btromc part of thc natiotral irnage. According to a survey
showed four mcrk postcards. Onc said, "From Thailantl with
c(nducted this year by the Foundation t'or Children, therc are
Love." with a picturc of a young girl in thc nudc. The rcverse of
roughly two million prostitutes in Thailand,600,(X)0 of which arcr
thc card had four Ccrman tourists boast of Thailand as the land
undcr 1 8.
of sin and womcn, referring in particular to a place callctl thc
Baby Club. This is not the first timc that the tourism industry has promoterc'l
child scxploitation in Asia. There are many similar cases in
Reacting to thc ad, the TECST (TaskForce to End Child Sexploitation Europe, according to TECST. In Switzerland alonc, l0 airtickct
in Thailand\, an umbrella organization of 24 non- governmcnt agencies promoting chilcl scx tours has trecn lcr-atcd folkrwing
and scrial groups working for the rights of women and chilciren, which all 10 agencics cl<xcd down.
has demandcd an apology to thc Thai peoplc, the withcirawal of Mc.anwhile, the TECST has callccl for a boycott on tlrc airlinc and
thc Junc cditions of UP and thp publishing of Thai anti-chilcl clcmandcd that lcgal action bc takcn up.
sexploitation laws in thc magazinc. So far, Lauda Air has
withdrawn all June/July crlitions. The f<rur people responsible It is impcrative that the Thai governmcnt tnake it clear kr the
for the ad have also bcen bannccl from entering Thailand. But world that it is not thc country's policy to use scx tours to attract
despitc a month of protests, thc Austrian-based chartcr airline tourists. Otherwise Thailand will continue to trc vicwecl as thc
has failcd to takc responsibility for the picture.
world's brothcl.
The Economic effects of Tourism in Goa
(with a Micro-Study on Emfloyment In the hotel sector)
by Harm Zebregs,
Catholic University of Tilburg, Holland.
September 1991. PhD Thesis 54 pD + dppendices
By G Martn

I.ocal politicians like Churchill Ale'nrao For in-stance, he reveals that Goa has the Note, for instanc€, the way the Tata study
have stated, for the record, that tourisnr highcst foreign cxchange earnings per works out employment created. For every
provide; jotx to may[x-'a few lakh people in capita of all Indian States. But these earnings Rs. 1O000 of gross earnirgs per year in
Coa. Orrr pcnrly-educatcd youtlt lcxrk to acrnte not to the Slate treasury, but are restaurahts and bars fields, one job is
thissectorwith lxrpc. YOt, even todayIuxury rcdistributed to all States after being estimatd tohcreatd.
lxrlels ad vertise frrr conl ractcd c'nrployeeri lran-sferrcd to the Centre.
who will carn L'rarcly lts. 3tt0 per nronth for Then, the total (estimated) expenditure of
thret yrrrs on'apprenticesltips'. Residcs, its 'snull
ecnnonric base' makes tourists on food and drinks is taken. This
Goa bring in substantial of ils tourism sector figure itself is not an actual, please n-'r.
Jolrti have beren a major bait while justifying inputs fiom other States. Thus, an important later this estin'tate is multiplied by .. t
the irrational growth of tourism and luxury part of tourism generated income will not above estimated ratio. And, this is the
l'urtels in Goa. Still, few worry to look at the accrue to Goa, but to other states or even number of jobe we are supposed to have.
type of john or the salaries lr>urisnr offers, or foleign countries.
torrlisnt's negative inrpnql on existing Pro-tourism lobbylsts, above all official
occupali()n-s. Zcbrcgs, a young Dutch Zcbregs reports that caste and social ones, have hardly bothered to check the
rcscalcher, laker on sonrc srrch issucs even background (or class) strongly influence actual number of jobs existing, and the
if not qrrite getting l<l tlte bcrne of the issue. onc's career possibilities. Even in the terms offered. We prefer to bluff ourselves
srrpposed ly nrodern tourism sector. Despite with estimated estimates.
Reing an acadcmig his work is naturally a reluctance try sonre respondents to talk of
entanglcrl in nruclt economics-relaled lheir casle, he notes that a 'low' caste birth It is also significant that the foreign
tccllnicalitie's. Ilut even if clcar<ut answers nrakes entry into a hotel executives ranks exchange earnings of tourism in Goa are
are nol openly visilrlc', his wrlrk gives sonle not possible. only estimates again. Does this foreign
r.rscful malcrial and clues to unravclling exchange really reach government coffers?
Coa's lourisnr enignra. Of late, this 'glass<eiling' seems to be In fact, the Govemnrent admit.s it has no
increasingly taking ory unfortunately, a figures to accr)unt for this.
Zcbrcgs work nrainly z.eroes inon the'large' regiornl sl'rape too. In large hotels quite.a
versus 'surall' hotels issrre. For sonleone large proportion (40%)of people fronr States Costs for promoting tourism are also
crrnring flonr tlrc leisurc-oriented societies other than Goa occupy managerial nowhere taken into account. For exaq ' \
o[ liur'ope, this issue ruay lrc crucial. [:or, if pt'rsitions. expenses made for the tourists but pait ,.1
lrolidays ale an unquestionable nced for a by the local population in terms of
large scction of tlte [npulace, lhen one Unskillcd workers in large hotels earn an environmental pollutiory maintenance
sinrply must work out tl'rc bcst tourism average of Rs. 645 per month, and just Rs. costs for tourist attractions and
option. 436 in small hotels on average, Zebrqs infrastructure.
snall hotels studies had
cirlculates. Many
But for Goa, or any post<olonial Third owners previously employed in the Gulf, Zebrrys study, even if it enrphasises is-sues
Wodd srciety, the more vital question may who saved enough to start a small business. which may really be not so important in the
indeed [re: slrould tourism at all be givenso Goa context, reopens nany an important
nurch priorily vis a vis other sectors? One useful contribution of Zebregs to tl're subject linked to the whole tourisn debate
Coa debate is on tourism's econonic herc. I
Wc rnrrst raise ntorc fundanrental issues. Is bcnefits to Goa. Considered a highly
earning foreign exchange going to fill 'tecl'rnical'sutrjert, few dare to touch it. Weekenda', Goa.
hrrngry slonlachs? Is it ntoral for the
Covcrnmenl lo sulnidise the rich ntan's Ilut tl'ris work makes tlre point that two
lullidays, undcr whalever cxcuse? What earlier Governnlent- spronsored studies, by
nceris of thc pcoplc should be given first the IIPO (lndian In-stitule of Public Opiniory
priority? New Delhi 1987) and the Tata '1975-76
reporls ovenimplify, and exaggerate, the
Dcspite this, I'larrrr's study brings out some plus sides of klurism.
rrscful facts.

76
Beyond the Maek, Toward a transdieciplinary Approach of Intended f<rr the upper primary level, the primary kit, "Our l,acific
Selected Social Probleme related to the Evolution and Context of Neighbours" which focusses on thc Pacific island c<runtries, acts as
International tourism in Thailand. Waltcr Mryer, Seial Scbnce an intr<xlucti<rn to tourisrn. The secondary kit, "Misgufuleil Tours"
Studbs on International Problems, Band 134, Verlag'breitenbach examines the impact of tourism on developing countrics with a
Publkhers, Memeler Strass 50, 600 Saarbruecl<en, Germany, frrus on srrial, culttrral and cnvironmental issues. An adult kit,
1988,533 pp. titlcd, "Goirg lhe Extra Mila" has alsobern pr<xluccc.
A study of international totrrism sct within its larger context in
Asian Consultalion on Tourism and Aboriginal Peoples,
Thailand, this brnk aims at broadening the view on tourism- related
Comnrunity Control, Cultural Dignity & Economic Value erl,
problems in order to show the interrelations that exist between
Yaonne Lin Mei- jung,lluadong Community Deuelopnwnt Cenlre, #7,
various elements of the tourist system and general developments
I Isiang 87,Tie llua Street,Taidong95008 Taiwan, (089) 327-754,1-134
within host and guest countries.
Rccording the prcrecrlings of the consultation hcld in Taiwan in
Selg Money and Morali$r: Prostitution and Tourism in Soutlreast November 1989, this collection includes articlcs on alternativcs to
Asia, Thanh -DamTruon g, ZED Bools LttI ., 57 Caledon ian Razd, London, commcrcializcd tourism and a statement on tcnrrism fr<lm the 19t19
1990,227 pp Darwin International Indigenous Peoplcs Seminar. Wth Country
Contributing to thc on6oing debate on prostitution, this b<xrk rcports from Taiwan, Fiji, I-Iawaii,Japan, I'hilippincs and Tlrailand,
focuses on thc factors underlying thc phenomenon, its thc thcme ccnters around what an ab<rrig,inal community can clo to
'rlsformation and convergence with one maior industry, thc managc the tourist industry in order to lcssen the destrrrctive
international tourist indushy. Breaking away from thc common influencc tourism brings kr thcir scx'iety ancl culture as wcll as to
conccption of prostitution as promiscuity and crimc, thc study cnsure that thc cconomic lxrncfits accrue to thcm.
formulates thc problematic of prostitution froln the anglc of thc
E-pty nreeting grounds, The tourist papers Dean Mnc Cannell,
political economy of women's labour and scxuality.
Routledge,ll Lane,London EC 4P 4EE,'1992,'l-346.
Ne:lu Fetter
The Tourist Gaze, Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Socielies, This trxrk e'xa mincs sornc of thc ncw ctrltural fornrs and c<lrnnrunity
lohn Urry, Sage Publications Ltd.,28 Banner Street, Lonilon ECIY 8QE, arrangeincnts that accompany thc dcvelopmcnt of global tourisnr.
1990,'176 pp. In particular, it examines the new stagings of 'primitivism' for
Outlining thc dcvelopment of, and historical transformation in, the tourists antl the totemism of the pmtmoderrrite. The thcsis of thc
tourist gaze, thc author elaborates on the prrcesres by which the b<nk is that human kind has alrcacly arrived at thc historical
gaze is constructed and reinforced, who or what authoriscs it, and momcnt of thc invcntion of a new kind of commurrity, but we are
what its conscquences are for the placcs which are its object, and not capatrlc <lf facing the implications of our collective invention.
how it interrclatcs vr'ith a varicty of other scrial practices. Written in the spirit of thcoretical activisrn, theauthor lras takcn carc
to grouncl his theoretical cliscussion in practical examplcs.
Sustainable Tourism Newsletter Eco lnstituk of Cosla Rica, Aylo
8080 11 0N, San lo*, Costa Rica, triannual, 4pp Children in Prostitution, Victinrs of Tourism in Asia ed., Ron
Launchcd in May 7992, the Sustainable. lourism newsletter scts out to O' G rrul y, ECP T, P.O. Box 1 7 8, Klong{han, Ilangkok 1 0240, Thai ln n d,
shape a new tourism order that fits with world concern about the
't992,'t-62.

-r'.:rzi1enrnon, and cultural rights. WorkinB towards thc crcation of a This report of the International Confcrence organisctl try ECI'AT
,tainablc Ttrurism Profile for Central America, thc Ncwslettcr contains some of the majtr spcechcs krgether with the confercnce
covers all ma jor rcgional developments besides promoting the work statcment and a summary of the ECPAT activities in sorne Asian
of the Sustainablc Tourism Initiatives (STI) at the Eco Institute ccruntries. Examining some of thc challcnges and stratc.gics for
action in rclation to the t<rurism industry and child prostitutitn, this
Beyond the Green Horizon - Principles for Sustainable tourism,
c<ilection uncovers the cxtcnt to which childrcn havc been s<id,
ed, Shirley Ebrs, WWF UK, Panila lloux, Weyside Park, Ctf,alming,
ab<luctecl, cnslaved and sexually abused all over Asia.
Surry CLIT IXR,'1992,'I -54
Beyond thc Crecn Horizon aims to provide a tool f<rr discussion The Itepercussions of Luxury tourism in Goa, India /. Lobo,
about tourism, the environment and development. Thc first section, Mi rii th u P ubl ish in g I I o use, Ban gnlore, I n d in, 1 99 "1, 1 -7 3 .
aimed primarily at the tourism industry, scts out principles for sus- Intendcd to compliment an earlier study byMcnezes and Lotxr trn
tainablc tourism development while the case studics which follow " Luxury llench-ResortTburism in Cm: The Dark sfule ol Darclopme,nt and

highlights various attempts to put such principlcs into practice. Crowth", this report evaluatcs the dccper structural dimen- sions of
thegoan tourism indush/s 'development orientation'and it's links
TDE-DOC Spcial issue, ECTWT,':P.O. Box 24 Choral<hebua, Bangkok
with 'world capitalist development'. The author clcarly illustrates
10230, Thailnnd, N ooember 1992, 1 -53
the irregularities within the hotel and travel trade and its
This special issue on Resort anil Golf Cour* Deoelopmmt includes
statements on the environmental, srrioetonomic and political -
envircm mental, srrio-;xrli tical repcrctrssions. I
implications of the golfing busincss by both golf promoters and
critics as well as a selection of materials on Japan, Hawaii and
Southeast Asian Countries.

One World Teaching Kits 1992 Australian Catholic RelieflAustralian


Co un c i I o f Ch u rches, 37 9 Ken I S treet, Sydney 2(N0.
About Equatlons

Meetings organised by 30-31 )anuary 1993 Tourism Activist training programme in


Equations March 1991.
Ameeting was hcld at EQUATIONS to look
at the design, metlndolcgy and scope of the C-atherine Schumperli, a member of the
29 -30 August 1992 Natiorual liaining Programnte, resulting in French section of the BerneDeclaration,
plans for a Working Conference in May Switzerland, visited us to dlscuss their
A two-day ses-sit)n examining the 193, and the Main Event scheduled for plans to do a programme on Tllird World
on tourisnr was
theclretical perspcrtives December this year. Morc information tourism during 1993.
held for a small group corsisting of else'where in this issue.
EQUAI-IONS staff and troard, and a few The BBC World Service is featuring
fi'iends from Karnataka. Led by Alito EQUATIONS in a half-hour programmeon
Siqrreira of Goa University, the discussions 16 February 1993 tourism and technology in India. K T
offe'r'ed insights on lhe tourisnt industry, Suresh and Paul Gonsalves were
will.r scrio- antlrolmlogical inputs. C K A half-day mceting .was organised to interviewed by Dr Stephen Hedges, senior
Mccrra's arlicle based on this nrecting disctrss lhe issue of Child Prostitution and producer.
appears elsewhere in this issue of ANLetter. its links with the tourism industry.
Participants from backgrounds such as Jueqgen Hammelehle, Information Offi -:'{
psychia tr y, state social welfare institutions, Bread for the World, Stuttgart, gave J.
26 - 27 September 1992 the legal profcssiory social work and brief visit, together with Christine Pluess of
journalism nret wilh EQUATIONS staff and the Swiss group, Arbeitskreis Tourismus
A trvo-day cunfcrcnce on "lourism network partners to review the und Entwicklung (AkTE). Juergen was
in Kerala. Its Implications
Develclpnrent psycho-social and legal dimension-s of Child formerly on the staff of ZEB, our network
was oryanised in lrichur by Plostituticln. partner in Germany, and both ZEB and
IIQUATIONS togetlrcr with Praihikarana AkTE are active members of TEN the Third
Sangl'ranr, Sahyadri, Prathikarana Vcdhi World Tourism European Network. Apart
and INFACI'(all actiongroups in Kerala). Visits of Network / Funding fnom general discussions on the wolk of
Partners EQUATIONS, Christine also updated us on
llestrlting fnrm the merlin& a coordination the Swiss campaign against , Child
conrurittcr: has bcen set up with the Kerala llon O'Grady fiom ECPAT @nd Child Prostitution. She expressed a keen interest
Nature Prcservalion Clrrlr steering the Prostitition in Asian Tourisnr, New in the Tourism and Child Prostitution study
district lcvel cornmittee at Ti'ichur. Tealand), visited EQUATIONS to explore conducted by EQUATIONS.
l)re'senlalittrts were made by Prof avenues of setting up an ECPATlndia
Cangadharan, Srrjatha Devi, Mohankuntar, group. ECPAT has committees in 15 Hilary Blume, fron Charities Advisory
Paul Consalves, K K Vijayan, Roland counlries. Trust, discussed the proposal to establish a
Martin-s and othes. "Green Hotels" project in India. Set on the
Raincr Kruse from Bread for the World, lines of an alternative tourisnr-rele '
A set of posters produced by Dhanaraj Cernrany, met withstaff and menrbersof the facility, the project would
Keczhara, especially comnrissioned ftrr the Roard to discuss IQUATIONS prsrent incomegenerating. She was acconrpanied
Kcrala meeting, wcre displ2ys6 at the activities and future strategicrs. by H Ranjeet of KOLAM, an alternative tour
workshop venue, and later nrade available operator based in Madras.
for a state-wide travelling exhitrition. Judith Lim from YMCA, Solq Indonesia, a
nrc'nrber of the ANTENNA Southeast Asia
branch, visited EQUAflONS to discuss the Research students
10, 16 October 1992 possibility of organising a training
progmmme for Indonesian tourism Wendelin Kuepers, from the University of
NGOs, churchr:s, acadenrics and nass activists, in collaboration with Wtten-Herdicke in Germany, spent about
media were represented at two meetings EQUAIONS and the Thai Network on two n'ronths at EQUAflONS consulting our
especially organiserJ to discuss current Tirurisnr. library and for discussion-s on his research
sro-ial issues in India, in an historical on tourism in India and perceptions of it.s
c()nlcxl, as a background lo llle prcpamtion Dr Ulrich Dorntreqg, fTom MISEREOR, the implications . He took part in the faculty
of an "lnditr I'rofile" for the Catholiclnstitr.rte Gernran Calholic Church's centre for meeting held at the end of January, and
for lnlt:r'nirlional l{elations (CIIR), lrascd in development cooperation, visited vlsited Kerala together witl'r Suresh and
London. I'.rul Corualv(s was invited lo IIQUAION$ for discussions on the Dhanaral during tlre Theyyam festivities at
tlraft tlrc 'prrrfile' by the Scottish Gtholic proposed national training prqyanrme. Kannur District.
International Aid Frrnd (SCIAF), on trehalf Ulrich, in his earlier capacity at the Asian
of CllR. Cul tural Forum on Development (ACFOD), Christian Stock, a student from the Social
llangkok, was a resource pemonat the Asian Geography department of Freiborg
t8
From our Networks

University, is doing research on ffird (continued from page ll) displaed du€ to recenl tourism expaflsion
World Tourism as part of his graduate plans at Cotva beact, South Goa. He gare
studies. He visitcd EQUATIONS on several for "devebping and running" golf clurses at lhe name of the owners of lhe six hr.rts ard
occasions to refer to our dcrumentation, Verna (Salcete) and Amnhane (Bicholim) for one stall thus uprooted. (Starred qn. no.
and to discuss thc scope of a pcsible future which lartd of 6,40,000 Sq.m. and 4,92,400 1027 dated July 31, 1992).
field study in South India. Sq.m. respectively has been acquired.
MLA Fladharao Gracias called on the
T.A.D.A lmposed In Goa: Government to provide ahernate space, as
Other Visitors Row over lts lmpacl on Tourlsm the fishermen needed lo work on the shore
lor their livelihmd.
A group of Sri Lankans representing a The ultra-slringent'Terrorist and Disruptive
variety of NGOs in their country were in Activities (Prevention) Aci of 1987 was But Mr. Raut only answered that 'no
India as part of an expoeure visit. A introduced in Goa. lt provides for detenlion objections' had been brought forward when
discussion on EQUATIONS was lcd by Paul withor.i lrial. lhe acquisition of land was nolified through
and Suresh, at thc invitation of the Indian the Press, and said the Government "will
Social Institutc, Bangalore. (14 September Goa Depdy Chief Minister Dr.Wilfred de look inlo the issue".
1e92\ Souza was quoted as warning that such
sleps urould scare away lourists from Goa, During past months, other related issues
by projecting the place as a violence-ridden
Two groups of students of Friends World have also come up here. The Indian Travel
place. Congress, the annual convention of TAAI
Programme, an international proglamme,
visited EQUATIONS for learning scssions (the Travel Agents'Association of lrdia) was
tsut Goa Tourism Minisler Pandurang Raut
on the issnc of tourism in India. Surcsh and organised in Goa in September 1991. More
Michacl Isaac lcd tlre discussions hcld in reportedly argued lhat TADA would in fact serious developments came in the form of
put fear into the guilty, and make the place the controversy over the Konkan Railway
Novcmbcr 1992 and May 1993.
safe lor lourists. roule in Goa, and opposition from diverse
IIAM Assaiation, ltaly, which organises quarters to the proposal to site India's first
joumeys to mect scrial and cultural BToups
July 1992 :
'Free Port' in this State. These lwo
Flshermen Displaced at Colva Beach
workin$ on human rights in thc Third proposals, it is believed, if implemented
World, mct with Paul Gonsalvcs in could have a very strong impac{ on Goa's
State Tourism Minister Pandurang Rzut
Decembcr. Thcy were lcd by Renzo
adnitted in the Goa Assembly that
environment ard her people
- making
Garrone.
fishermen had been dishoused ard
tourism seem as a very tiny issue indeed. I
A group of students of Saial Gcography
from Fricborg University, Ccrmany were
introduced to EQUATIONS and tourism Tourism Alternativea Exchartge, Occassional document Issue No 3, Equations,
.;"-r1,nqin India at a meeting with Paul
B angal o re, M arch 7 993, 7 -7 I P r ic e : Rs.25.0 0 I $ 5.0 0.

\ -n3'-{vo, in March 1993.


The latcstissueof TAE fr>nrsscson thcstrugglcof theadivasisof Tlroovaipathy,
Global Villagc, a group from Japan, visitcd threatencrl with tlrc planncd take-over of their tribal forcst lands by a private
EQUATIONS in March 7993 for a brief
zoological park. Includcd are also a discussion paper on Tourism and the Ncw
discussion on Asian tourism and Japanese
Economic Policy, and a response to thc dcbate otr coastal constmctiotr
interests, espccially the proliferation of golf
regulations.
I Wrile to Equations for a cory.
courscs.

*{1
19
w
Ecotorrrisrn Developing an Action Strategy November4-6, 1992 and managing such parks and reserves, including the Maya
The BanffCentre which is hcrt toa seminaron Ecotourism each Fall Biosphere Reerve in Guatemala and adjoining res€rves in Bclize,
organised a thrc.e day seminar on thc planning and management of Mexico etc. Contact: F elip Mata, Coorilinatar, Natural Resourca Area,
ecotourism operations. Through involvement in concentrated Uniuersity t'or Peace, P.O. hx 138, Cindail Colon, Cwta Rica.
planning exercises, case study analysis and group discussions,
participants worked through a structurcd prcress enabling them to Children in Prostitution: Victims of Tourism in Asia, Bangkok,
develop an ecotourism product and operations plan. Faculty were March 3l-April3,1992
representative of North American and International ccotourism
More than 150 represcntatives comprising of educatcrs, NCO
organizations.
representatives, law enforcement officials, ecumenical
Banff Festival of Mountain Films, November G8,l%t2 rcpresentatives from twenty-six countries in Asia, North America.
and Europe attended the conference,.organised by ECPAT f' '1.

Now in its 17th year, thc festival showcases the world's bcst moving Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism). The conference was desigrarl
pictures on mountain subjects, featurirrg continuous film and vidcrr to formulate active measures for children's rights and welfare.
screenings, exhibitions and fairs. "Best of thc Fcstival" tour begins Contac t : EC I"{f , P.O.h x 1 7 8, Klongthan, kn gkok'l 0240, Thaihn d-

Novembcr 15. For furtlrer information, contact: Carole Stark, The


Banff Cenlre for Managerunt, Ilox 1020, Statkm 45, knff Aherta, Tourism Education:f ob Opportunities and Training needsin Goa,
Goa University, April 15,1Y)2
Canaila TOL OCO; Phone: (403) 762- 7327 , Fax: (403) 762-422

95th International Conference of theAIl March 20-25,1993,Delhi Thc Tourism Rcsearch Group of Goa University, organised a
workshop attended by participants representing indushy, academic
The 95th International Confcrcncc of thc Alliance International de instifutions and thc govemment of Gm for chalking out a ccmrsc of
Tirurism (AIT), will inclucle post-confcrcnce tours to3 dcstinations, action for meeting the diverse manpower needs of the tourism
including Ccn. Thc Ceneva-b:rscd AIT promotes international industry in Coa. Contact: Cu Unioersity, Taleigaum Plateau, P.O.
tourisrn ancl traffic managemcnt and has constrltative status with Banrbolim, Gm 40i202.
the UN. Thc confcrencc will attract dclegatcs from over 100 membcr
Sustainable use and the conservation of Wetlands, Rainforests
counlricrs.
and Biodiversity, between December 1,1993 - February 1994USA
"Golf Courses are not Earth-Friendly", April 29lh,l992,Tokyo
Thc Association of State Wctland Managers has called for
The Clobal Netrvork for Anti4olf Ct>ttrsc Action (CNACA) was submission of papers for the 4th International Sympcriumo- ' '
-'
,,
launchccl on this day rvith thc ol.rjcctivc of opposing golf coursc Ecotourism and Rcsource Conservation Proicrt. The symposirr,..
construction rrndcrtakcn by fapancsc companies. CNAGA has will cxplore spccific assessment, planning and management
already bc5'un to network internationally cspccially for golf-course tmhniques for both protecting wctlands, rainforests and
rclatcxl surveys and sitc inspection tottrs, information exchange and bi<xiivcrsity, while providing sustainablc economic uses including
putrlication, mutual support trctwccn citizcns g<lups and thc possible rolcs of forcstry, agriculfure, mining, nature-based
crnrdinatcd actions, and initiativcs for systematic rcform. Sez tourism and othcr economic activitics. W?ite to: Association of
elsewlrcre in this issue t'or World No Co$ Day, April29,1992. Contact: Welland Managers, Box 2463, krne, NY 12023-9746; 5'1,8-872-1804 or
CNACA, Internntionnl liason: Cen Morita478 Katnikohra fax to 5'l 8 -872 -2'17'l .
Knnrogautn-shi, Chiln l'ryan 296-0"1, TeI. 0170-97-'/0'/,1, Fax. 04V0-
97-'tzt5.
COADESC
Regional Meet ing on Border Parks and Resewes, Costa Rica, 1992
An activist initiative in Dncumentation, Education and Solidarity
Over 30 incliviclrrals inclucling park and reserve managcrs, non- on issues of dcvelopmcnt and democracy has been set up to
governmcntal conservation grorrp activists, Indian leaders, and dissem i na teformatioh, empower through trai ni n g program mes,
i n

planning ministry and donor agency representatives, met in the first workshops etc. and support shuggles for justice through
regional workshop on the thcme of transformation parks ancl networking, campaigns and lobbying. Address: GOA DESC,No.11,
rcserves. Participants reviewcrl progrcss in establishing, protecting Librty Aprhnents, Feira AItn, Mapusa, Gm403507,India. I

I\rblishc<l by: Iiquitablc Tourism Options (EQUATIONS),168,8th Main Road, Near Indiranagar Club, Eangalore-560 0S. INDIA
I'hone: 812-5tt2313, l;ax: 812-582527 (Attrr. (20), Telex: 084t8$0 CSCI in (Attn (D7), Cable: EQUATIONS BANCALORE
Illustrations by Dhanarai Kcezhara and Ty;resetling by: Verba Network Services, 139, 5th Main, l2th Cross, Malleswryam, Bangalore 560 03, Phone: 3465!2.

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