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Volwne 3 Issue 2 October 1994

For Private Circulation Only

AndWe Soy So...

"As tha sktt'r1 starts filteing in, nwny are incrcnsingly questioning
full And the Plngtte has brougltt home this point zuitlt dettnstnting
tlrcre rtas an epidanic of pnewnonic plaguc?... Buttolrcther therc consequences. But sadly, tlrc response hns been nnything but traditionnl.
-rultcther 'Reassurance'can4saigns by our ttnbassies and consulates trying to stent
ns, in ntedical ta'nts nn outbreak of plague or not, tlrc euents of tlrc last
fezo zuecks lnae brought into sharp focus lrout ten'ible otLr basic the receding tide,as illustrated by thcphotograyfibelozo. WIile recognising
infrnstructure is, in oirtually aII or.Lr cities. Elententnry ciuic facilities nre tlrcse internal isntes, it is nlso ettident tlnt tluplnyers arc nllnotnccessnrily
eitlrcr badly oau- Ionded and run doutn ttr quite shnply non-existcnt for pnrt of suclr an uninfuenced system. Anotlrcr nrticlc in this issue on tht
ucry Inrgc chunks of otLr urban po1-tulatiort.... it is tlrcn easy to see zuhtl role of the foreign tncdin is nn cxnntple,
nlntost cury nnjor Indinn city hns nlntost hnlf its population liaing in
sbutn or substnndnrd lnusing. And uhy the slums continue to prolifa'ate ! Itis lrcre again thnt zLte nsscrt tlnt theplatlers fu tlrc to::'l'isnt drnmn MLIST
Unfortunntely ntuch of tlte ntiddle clnss lns cttcooned itself into belieaing bc open kt poirtts of oiau uhiclt arc nttt necessnrily pnrt of tlrc lourisnt
thnt the squalor nnd tlrcfilth of thepoorer nrens utill breed diseases thnt uill dnelopment bnnduagon
not sprend... the presmt problcnts, if ttothing clse , utill hopefully rnake us
re struchre not only our lrcnltlt scruices but alstt otlrcr ciaic scraices uhiclr

ntust bc nttailable to nlI if zue are to rcallq nnt,t'into tltc 21st century."
KT S, Lt/.
'l'lLc nLtttue
quotntion is not fronr ouc of tlutsc lcfl<tf-centcr ztn itcrs but by
tlrc Editor ttf Busincss lndin in lls ls"^urr ttf Ocl 10- 23, 1994.'I'ltis is thc
conLcxt in uhiclt toc in Indin nrc L,t'iug tnknt tttt this tltc pntlt of
tutodarttisnt itttt .

Plnguc (ttotu tttc ltcnr it uns ttot Ttlnguc nI nll) Ins untrtt,cti tltosc zolro l:r;'tl

bct'tt fntnticnl ltclincrs in tlu libcrntiort ltt ltc p'ttt,itlctl bry thc ltroccss o.l
cctltotttic rcfttntrc uitltortt lookiug rtt tlre slructtrtnl is-srcs itrrtolacd in tlrc
ltcryatrotiott oistrch ntt ccttrLoutic sct:nnrio. /l ls irornsingly ltt'cotttittg clcn r
Ilrnt sltttrt- cttts to Iltt' Gtthlen Ern nrc frntLgltt tuitlt ttntrc dnngt'rs tlLmt tt,ns
nttlicipntul. Atnl tltis r-s l/le bn.si.s o,f our nsscrtittu thaL EQUAT /ONS st,cr-
tottristtt ttttt L1s tt utcnns to Ltring Soutlnru CtuttttrLutitias into tltc Nortlrt'rtt
ntttinstranttt btLt rntlm' ns one of tlrcuntls tttzottrk ttut,nrtl n ntorc just zuorld.

T/rrs issrrc rrlf/tt ,4NLcttcr utc bring rltttL n selactittu Ltf tlLe rtcant is-suc.s in
Itrrrrisrrr ittlntlinnsutll asavrtsittzuliclttuclndoccnsicsntobcltnrtof.
itt tltc tliscttssitttt ott TL.rarisur, Enttironnrcnt nud Dcaclolntent in Naut
Dt'llri (rt'ptn'tcd clseulrcrc itt tltis issue) it a ltad ltr.rt jtrth thc nrcuncnt thnl
if tour isttr lns to ba uint,cd itt the contcxt of dcttelttlttucttt tltut tlte rntionnlt'
for its dneloltnrttrt tnust be subsartrient to tltc prttccss of intltrouing qunlittl
of ltfe for tln nnsses of our poytulntion. Instead in the plnnnin-s proce-s.s
ulmt is caidtnt is that trnnsimt objcctiues are incrensingly beconting ends
in thetnsclacs. Cltoosing to jostlc for independent sltace in an arenn utherc
essentially its ttttu'L existencc is limited to a spncc as in a continuun. In n
world wlrrc tlu nqtect of interdependmce is getting clearer
(nottuithstnrding its ount politicnl limitatiorrs), is altnostfoolish to seek tlrc
crention of mch so-cnlled indEmdail spaccs and tlris is elucidnted by the
article on thc Political Economy of Tottrisnu Tltis therefore reaffrnts tlu
need for shifts in the concerns of planning. Corr /('-{r/ : /irllrvko,( i'trs/ l /ii /(, .',
The islands cannot support the population with locally available
resources. Almost everything has to be brought from the mainlarrd
and sold at a subsidised rate. All consumer items and basic
commodities are imported from the mainland.

Tourism in the Historically, the islanders (aboriginals of Negrito and other origins),
have been exploited by successive waves of colonisers and invaders.

Andamanand The islands were used as a penal settlement by the former English
colonial government, and have since become integrated with the
Indian mainstream, the dominant cornmunities today being
Nicobar Islands 'outsiders'- whether in adrninistration, commerce or social

BASAVARAJ HEBBALLI AND PAUL GONSALVES A major activity everr today continues to be anthropological
expeditions organised by government and mainland-based
academic institutions, plofessing 'resealclr' ar.rd othcr intetests ir.r
the aboriginal islanders, who are objectified and rnarginalised in the
'developmen t' p rocess.
he Andaman & Nicobar archipelago in the Bay of Bengal
forms an arched string of about 300 islands and islets that Much data is available on the situation of the aboriginal people of
are in fact the summit of a submarine mountain range the islands, and it is not the purpose of this article to echo work that
connecting Arrakan Yoma of Burma (in the North) and Pegungan is available elsewhere. However, the follorving discussion on
Barr'issan of Sumatra (in the South). This group of islands is largely tourism in the islands, implicitly recognises the exploited reality of
divided into North Andamans, Middle Andamans, South the islanders, and the concerns about such development are^
Andamans, Car Nicobar, Little Nicobar arrd Great Nicobar. expressed within this context.

The archipelago lies between the mouth of the lrrawady river in Land Based Development
Burma and the tip of Sumatra, facing the lndian ocean, and stretches
for 800 kms from north to south. The southern tip of Great Nicobar, Development in the Andamans also tends to be onc tlrat is land
called Indira point lies 90 kms fronr Sumatra. The deep Andaman based rather than sea basecl. The large fish poter.rtial of the 4lakh
sea is enclosed in between the archipelago and the Malayan square krns of the EEZ is virtually untapped by our fishermcn,
pen insu la. while a lot of it poached by people from Burma, Malaysia and even
The Andaman islands, stretching from 6'45" N to 13'41" North
latitude, and 92'12" E to93'57" East longitude, ate a belt of tropical Developmerrt of coastal tourisrr leads to conflicts with the
rain forests. The islands also support coral reefs, and mangt'oves. traditional fishing industry. These ploblems manifest mainly areas
of high density tourism developmerrt and are mainly land use
Geographically these islarrds can be distinguished as two groups i.e. conflicts where traditional fishc'rmen do not lrave an adequate beach
the Andaman group and the Nicobar group, separated by the deep space for drawing of beach seines, drying their nets, beaching of
10 degree North channel with a width of about 150 kms. The boats, and so on.
Andaman group covels a gross length of about 4& kms and the
Nicobar group about 293 kms. The maximum width of these islands Other socio-cconomic factors that coastal communities experience
is about 57 kms. are change of economic level, dropping out of low incorne
generating traditional activities such as fishirrg to take up hieh
These are made up of and enclose an Exclusive Economic Zone income generating tourism related employrnent, increasing value
(EEZ) of over 6 lakh sq kms and nurtures about 179 species of corals, of fish and shellfish and changing land values.
700 species of fish along with hundreds of species of marine algae
and planktorr. A minimunr catch size for fish can be fonnulated. However
enforcemerrt of such laws can prove to be tricky due to the excessive
The islands are exposed to both the southwest and the northeast ol exotic demands (for a certain size, or fol eggs) of the tourisrn
monsoons, the folmer occurrinS; from May toOctober, and the latter industry.
from November to Decetnber.

Mean annual rainfall is in the vicinity of 3143 mm, the average Unique Ecology of the Islands
rrumber of rainy days are 150 in a year, mean annual temperature
is 26.3"C, thc' rnaximr,rm temperature being around 29.9oC and the The A & N lslands possess a rare bio-diversity, wlrose existencc' is
minimum 23.2"C, tl.re variation in temperature is small and tlre alrear,ly under threat from the rapid exparrsion of tlre rnodeln,
rela tive humicli ty is 79"/". industrialeconomy from the Indian rnainlancl. Mass tourisrr, of thc
kind that is planued by the Indian government (and is obviously
supported by profit-hungry busirressmen) is likely to be the
Mainland Economy death-knell for this biosphere.

Many of the problems of development in the Andamans stem from The following sections provide a brief descriptiorr of the main
the efforts of transtorming an island economy into an economy elements of the islands' r'emarkable ecological preserves,
which is part of a larger mainland. particularly those likely to face the brunt of the tourism onslaught.
Mangroves It also has natural sheltered bays and lagoons that make ideal turf
for water sports, and extensive coral reefs. The variety of
The five major types of ve5;etation in the Andamans are mangrove vegetation. coastal, fish and shellfish resources are major factors in
forests, beach forests, evergreen, semi-evergreen and alluvial the Andaman and Nicobar islands to make tourism here a chiefly
forests. Of these, the mangroves are highly significant. Out of a coastal based ind ustry.
totaf of 6,87,976 hectares of mangroves in India, A & N islands
possess over 1,15,000 hectares. Practically the entire archipelago is a protected military zone, except
afew islands that are open to Indians, and even less to foreigners.
Mangroves are selFgenerating and self-maintaining littoral plant Duration of stay for foreigners is limited. Howerrer; the
formations of tropical and subtropical sheltered coastlines. These Government has negotiated with the Navy as well as with tlre
amazing plants can grow in highly stressed conditions of protected Ministry of Home Affairs to allow callers to additional islands for
shorelines. day as well as over night visits.

The i rnportance of mangroves cannot be underscored. They protect At present the only way to travel from mainland lrrdia to Port Blair,
the islands from the effects of cyclonic depressions. They supply the entrance to the archipelago, is by slrip from Madras and
rich organic ntrtritive material to its environment, thus improving Calcutta, or by air from these two metropolises. Both air and ship
the productivity of the surrounding waters and forming excellent schedules are highly erratic and least conducive to a planned
breeding grounds for fishes. As the interface in between the ocean tourism package.
and the land, they lrelp in creating new land.
Open Invitation to Private Capital
Mangr:ove plants arebeing used in various ways by the localpeopte.
Somc of these arc food, ropes, cordage, utensils, wrapping food,
Little is known about the type and extent of tourism that is likely to
thatching material, timbet fuel, bows, fish poison, art, craft, in these islands. What is clear is that there are plans
be developed
decorations and medicine.
to lease out entire beaches, and rrraybe even islands, to private
investors, for the construction of beach lesorts.
Mangrove forests irr the Andamans are being rapidly and
extensively modified by human activities, which in turn are
Some time back the Tourism Ministry in New Delhi invited tenders
charrging the population-environment relationship.
from foreign investors for the developmen t of such beacl.r resolts in
the Andaman as well as the Nicobar islands. lf resorts arc set uo
here on a 'build, operate and transfer' (BOT) policy, the authoritics
Coral Reefs will find it difficult to control the negative impacts such resolts are
bourrd to have on the local way of life and to the culttrre and
Coral reefs are extremely productive. ecosystems supporting, highly environment of the people.
diverse faunal and floral population and in acldition provide a
defense against the elosive potential of waves.
Free Port, Casinos and Open Skies?
Coral is a source of lime and is used in the constrr-rctiou industry as An extensive effort has been initiated by the Governmerrt to
mortar plaster and as whitewash. lt is also krrown to be an promote tourism. Funds rvcre allocatecl to lengthen thc existirrg
imporfant chernical in serreral industrial processes such as the runway at Port Blair to e nable lalgel planes to land, anr-l to r-rpgrarlc
rnanufacture of sugar; ceramics, fertilizer and steel. It is also used ancl open the Andarnan port to ioreigr vessels carryirrg totrrists.
as an ameliorate to reduce acidity in soils.
Also included in this prograntnle was the construction of hotels, ar.r
As a lesr.rlt, both inland as well as reef coral are extensively mined off-shore banking centre, moderrr facilities for w,atel sports trnd
in thc islarrds. Earlier orrly inland coral was allowed to be nrined. otl-rer recleational selvices, arrcl the bear,rtification oI the tor,rrist
spots in the capital.
Whcn coral is broken drrring rnining, small pieces fall off and are
carric.d ashore bv lvavcs. Thesc are also collected for lirne. This is The Government is also considering scttirlg trp of a irec port in tlre
not alr,r,t-rys clorre'in tl-rc rnost efficierrt lranner, and the effect can be lslandscornplete with casinos. Investors irorn Hong Kong arebeine
lalge-scalc ancl rvasteful clegraclation of the coral reef ecology. For encouraged to come hele as an altc-rtrativc' investment, sirrcc that
exarnple, in Sri Lanka (botrveen Ambalangoda and Dickwella) country is going to be cecled to China in 1997.
rcccntly 5377 tons of coral was collected frorn the shorc, whilc'only
2140 was rnirretll These hotels and resolts will most clcfinitcly target thc' uprnrrrket
holidaymaker. International standard tourism prodr-rcts such as
water sports, skin and scuba divir-rg, iive star Iuxurv hotcls, ancl tlre
Tourisrn provides a ready malket for omamental coral arrd she'lls,
like will be offeled. Tlris cau in no way servc the ir.rterests of the
r,vhilc tourists the.r-nsc.lvcs oftc'n clarnage the coral forrnations u,hile
local people who u,ill only be further rnarginalisecl.
cliving or swirnrning Care nec'ds to be exercised that tlris does rrot
lead to furthel exploitation and clegradatior.r of tlre coral leefs.
Thcle are suggestions to introcluce direct flights fi'orn New Dc'lhi
and Trivandrum. A proposalwith more far reaching consequcnces
is that of adoptirrg an open sky prolicy in the islands, whereby foreign
The'Scope' for Coastal Tourism planes can land here.

The Andaman & Nicobar archipelago witlr its coastlineof more than To further this idea there are strggestions to include Port Blair in the
2000 kms has large expanses of bright silvery beaches ancl clear Calcutta-Bangkok ancl Madras-Singapore air traffic lines and to
warm aquamarine waters with narrow temperatllre gradients. allow planes from Burma to also land here.

ridges were the main dreams of the people of Vypeen, a The chief minister of Kerala stated that only 360 acres is marked for
small island lying close to the modern mehopolis of reclamalion but now plans are made for 1000 acres. This seems to
Kochi-Ernakulam, in Kerala, India, during the last 47 be like the proverbial arrow of Arjuna - authorities say 360 acres,
years. Vypeen is home for 2.65lakh people and is 88 sq.km in size plans contain reclamation of 1000 acres, when it will be completed
(Density of population: 3011/sq km). it may become 5000 acres.
We are happy to place the official plans for development of Vypeen
After half cenhrry of waiting for bridges the people of Vypeen are
in front of the wider public for debate and evaluation. This should
now awestruck because bridges will be built very soon. The have been done by the authori ties who prepared it. But the so-called
government of Kerala and their 'development experts' are busy to
democratic authorities are guided by the principle,"there is no need
Vypeen' as a delayed 'compensation' for the overt neglect of
he backyard of the Kochi metropolis during the last half a century
of asking the frogs while reclaiming the pond". Therefore, the
development plans prepared by a few 'expert bureaucrats' without
of 'progress of Kerala'.
consulting the people of Vlpeen are now hailed by the politicians.
This is mockery of democrary conducted by the'representa tives of
The plan for 'development'of the 88 sq km is ready after much people'.
deliberations by the 'experts'. During all these deliberations and
through the media the 'experts' promised that the dreams of the Is it not necessary that people should be prepared in advance to
people of Vypeen will become a reality soon. But now the 'Vypeen swallow the 'milk and honey' which will flow through the proposed
Development Plan', in black and white, gives a 'lot more than development? Development falling like a cloud-burst may not be
bridgesr! a great thing to wait for.

Those who repeat rhetorics like " peoples participation in all

"Vypeen willbecome a better metropolis than Kochi" says the political process" should have cared to place the development plan
'experts' and those who made them into experts. Yes, the report also in front of the people who will or will not benefit by it, It didn't
contain what will become of Vypeen in the near future. But the happen in the case of Vypeen development plan. Therefore, we, the
report is not clear about what future awaits the people of Vypeen, people of Vypeen decided to place the plans before the general
especially the poor majority. Along with bridges, the Vypeen public for debate and evaluation.
'development' plan contains a number of tourism enclaves,
There maybe good and bad in the development plan. Let all the
business centres for multinational companies, housing colonies for
people read and evaluate it. We can accept those good things if all
high income groups, golf courses, star hotels and all the
the people think that it is good. We can reject those things which
paraphernalia appended to such development. Where they are
are identified as bad. We can demand additions if there are
_ going to build all these? Apart from the 88 sq kms on which 2.65
deficiencies. For a full copy of the official Vypeen Development
Iakh people are living, they are looking towards the vast and
Report and all communications should be addressed to: famb
"wasteful" expanse of the Kochi Lake. The'experts'even declared
Vailakkanchei, Genetal Conzteflet, Self-Reliant Vypeen,
the lake as a 'public nuisance' to be cleared to the extent of more
Malipputam682517 Emakulam Distict, Kerala. I
than 1000 acres to 'develop'Vypeen.

. Continuedfrompagel2 The National Action Plan for Tourism (NAPI) violates the
constihrtional postulates concerning division of powers and
decision making. God's own country rhetoric and NAPT should be
God's Own Country and Political exclusion which serves the
seen as part of a hegemonic homogenising process
pleasure and profit needs of the global and domestic elites. The new
"God's Own Country" carry a clear political exclusion. The "no
tourism policies are only one aspect of the new variety of profit
people" idea (terra nullis) inherent in this slogan is sufficient to
ashwamedha conducted by global cow-boys (MNC's) and their local
make me and the millions of Kerala into "stateless" people-a new
variety of refugees within their own environs. The people of Kerala
will become the periphery which serves the pleasure needs of the
center-the domestic rich and the foreign tourists-if the present Should we become the new "sepoys, cooks, gate-keepers" serving
tourism policies are implemented in total. the needs ofthenew generation ofthe old colonialists? I
At this point of time, we have no answers, but we would certainly open the floodgates for mass tourism's inevitable entry?
like to share our questions and concerns, which we ft.ope will raise
the level of public debate in and regarding the islands. Instead of providing incentives for the development of mass
tourism, open sky policy, free ports and the like, should not the
Is the relaxation of restrictions on foreigners visiting most of the authorities pay greater attention to the needs of the island dwellers?
islands a good idea? Should the limited duration of stay applicable
for foreigners also apply to Indians? It is well known that hotel and resort builders want the 500 metres
(from the high tide line) ban on construction tobe scrapped. In this
What will be the effect of throwing open islands currently under context, can building on beaches be properly monitored? Or will
military control to Indian (and possibly foreign) visitors? rules regarding construction on beaches be relaxed in favour of
What are the effects of the navy on the islands it is occupying? In
what way does loggrng go on - planned or random? There is little evidence that the Indian government has succeeded
in enforcing legal standards in this regard elsewhere in the country,
Should nature and adventure tourism be encouraged against mass why should the experience of the islands be any different?
tourism? Can there be a process of active selection of tourists, so that
the most destructive varieties can be prevented access? Ultimately, is mass tourism (along with free ports, golf courses,
gambling, charter flights, airport expansion and so on) the most
Will a combination of different kinds of tourism help limit the appropriate development strategy for the Andaman and Nicobar
number of tourists or monitor the quality of tourism? Or will it just islands?

depicted riding a large rat'. McGirk then goes on to a description

-Plague as Example of the earthquake, the unleashing of swarms of wild rats and
concludes that at the end 'of the elephant god festival,'Kundan Lal

of Orientalism came back to Surat severely infected by pneumonic plague. Why,

after all, should the'festival of the elephant god'have anything to
do with the outbreak of a disease probably caused by an
SAGARIKA GHOSE earthquake? The reason is that it makes eminent sense to the
orientalist to create this concept of a strangely pious and pagan
In his well-known work, Orientalism, Edward W.Said wrote the country, swaying to the chants of age- old mautras and
manner in which the West has, throughout history, in literature as superstitions, falling prey to a fatal curse from the teeming pan theorr
well as in colonial administrative documents 'created' an entity of bizarre gods.
known as 'the Orient' as an alternative opposite to itself. The East
was the'other,'an irrational, amoral and abnormal opposite to the Steamy Mess
rational, virtuous and normal Wesb. 'Orientalism,' says Said. is
ultima tely a political vision of reality whose structure promoted the Nor does TheTinres, London, resist the temptation to use the plague
difference between the familiar (Europe, the West, 'us') and the as an essay on the clash of centuries in the steamy mess that is Inclia.
strange (the Orient, the East, 'them'). The editorial reads : '...poor and rich alike have converged irr fcarful
flight from the city... raising spectre of an afflicted cliaspot'a in such
Incleed as far as the Western print media is concerned, the recent metropolitan cauldrons as Bombay, the lines strike more terror tlrau
outbreak of plague in this country has provided an opportunity for the disease did at least to the residents of Bornbay who olsanisctl
ringing Orientalist prose. The image of India as a mysterious far cleanliness drives and remained remarkably utrfttssecl .rbor-rt the
away land of tropical forests and scented bazaats where thousands spread of the so-ca'lled epidernic fear: feat tl-rat was sltmtttoltccl u1'r,
of people lie dying of unnamed diseases is reinforced in some of the the editorial would have us believe, from the dark ages, flotn a
reports and editorials in the Western press. The fact that the disease dimly lit corner of history when death was random antl a prrocluct
is curable, that it has taken less lives than cholera epidemics and that of traditional backwardness. No doubt, several million Irrclians do
it has occurrecl in the Western hemisphere in countries like the USA not have access to basic sanitation and lrealth care' anLl the sprcad
as well as Brazil is glossed over in the portrait of an ancient land of of the disease is indeed a comment on the lack of civic arnenities.
obscure spirituality where epidemics are a Part of a deadly But why this harking back to bygone centutics, to paracloxc's of
unfolding saga of life and death. So Tim N4cGirk of the ltdepatdent, modern India, even to the plague as a literarl, clcvice in novcls, just
London, the leader-u'riters of Tlrt' Tintes, London, and the
in order to report on the out break of tl.re diseascl
corresponden ts of Tinta nngnzine are really not all that differen t ir.r
their perceptions of the 'mystical East' than 18th and 19th century So in the eyes of the Occidental colrespouclents, g,lobrrlising lndia
Orientalists like William Jones and Chateatrbriand, nor latter-day has given way to medieval lndia. ('A rnedicval horror show'
or'ientalists like Henry Kissinger. according to Tirrrc). Edn'ard Saicl u'rote: "'I'lre ot icntalist sees a
one-way exchange...as f/lty behavcrl, itr: ob-ct-nctl ". 'fhlrs the
Medieval Scourge orientalist consensus is really to p-r'oject tlrc- l.ricnt inluriority of the
Eastby giving it images that cotrlrl ttcre'r bt-. ap;-rlieLi kr the West.
Take the example of a report in Tltc lndEetrrlt'rrl vvhich traces the Af ter all, howet'er many plague cases sttri;cecl in thc U.S., the la tter
progress of a'medieval scourge': 'The carrior's trame is a would never be described as an inl-rcrently abnormal,
mystery...let uscall him The Unknolt'u Carricr Kuntlan l-aI... he took disease-ridden fantasia. T
leave from his job in (Surat) weaving cheal'r saris in one of the
powerlooms...and returned to his village in Beed to attend the two
week Iong festival of Ganesh, tl.rt' tileplran t-headed god who is often Source: Tinrcs ol'Inrlia, 7 Oct 1994
was so great that the citizens of Mysore felt that influx of tourists
Plague ancl the Festiuitios would increase the probability of spread of the disease.
There was a public demand for cancellation of the Dassera celebra-
CHANDRASHEKARA B ELEGERE tions. Intellechrals, men of letters and other concerned citizens
approached the Minister of Kannada and Culture and urged him to
cancel the celebration in public interest. The city wibnessed
ndia needed no more proof to demonstrate the vulnerability of demonstrations and picketing. But the Government was stubborn.
its projected tourist traffic. The sudden outbreak of plague has Obviously so because the allocated money had already been spent.
shown how fragile are our estimates of touristeamings. But the Men who mattered in the Dassera "moolah" did not know how to
stoly of political economy of tourism will not be complete without give account for the expenditure in the event of the celebrations
case studies like the Mvsore Dassera. being cancelled. Hence, there was this outright refusal to cancel the
programme; hence the token procession; and hence the lack- lustre
The Dassera celebration at Mysore is characterised by pomp and show at Mysore.
glory. It has been a crowd puller because of the festivities which
include the grand procession, the cultural extravaganza and the It was a pathetic show at Mysore during the Navara thri. Most of the
exhibitions. Over the years, tourists from abroad have been eagerly cultural events were chaired by Mr. R. N. Naik, Minister for
flocking around Mysore to witness the grand affair. This year, the Kannada and Culture and conducted by Mr. Venkataraju, the
scene was quite different with the Tourism Department contending Mayor. The Deputy Mayor had the privilege of donning the Chief
itself with only a token procession. And thereby hangs a tale. Guest's appearance at certain functions. The so-called festival of
films was inaugurated to a motley crowd of a hundred. The function
Due to bad monsoons, it was decided by the Government of Karna to honour the men of letters attracted only five participants.
taka that the Dassera will be celebrated with restraint. A'meagre' Jayadevaraja Urs, in charge of Dassera exhibitions, was adamant at
sum of Rs. 65 lakhs was sanctioned for the festival and the holding the celebrations come what may. But he could not help the
authorities were instructed to manage the occasion economically. empty pandals, shops visited by none and the resultant losses. Ir
However, the concerned personalities showed no considerable short, Dassera proved to be a low profile exercise in futility.
restraint in spending the sanctioned amount.
None the less, Mysore Dassera proved to be a big money making
And then plague broke out. There were thirty contirmed plague exercise for the powers that be. This very nexus explains the reasons
victims a t Mysore itself, bringing the fear of yet another mass- killer why the Government insisted on a token celebration. In addition to
to the city that had the memory of cholera deaths. There was a the amount of Rs. 65 lakhs which was reportedly spent for the
sudden drop in the tourist traffic from abroad and the local tourists "token" celebrations, losses due to non-arrival of tourists remain
were busy cancelling their tour plans. Fear of pneumonic plague unaccounted.

Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) offers a Industry and State and Central Government Tourist
Certificate Programme in Tourism Studies (CTS). The University Organisations.
follows "credit system" for its Programmes. You can complete
thecourse in a minimum of 6 months and a mafmum of 2 years.
) intend to make a career in Tourism Industry
This pro gramme has been developed keeping in rnind all sorts I are providing tourism related services through their own
of people involved in tourism related areas. It wiil be of use to enterprises or planning to become such entreprentrre
people who intend to make their career in some branch of are associated with tourism awaleness programmes and
tourism. Theprogrammehas been deviced and developedbythe research
History faculty in collaboration with experts and professionals would like to update their knowledge and skills in the field
from different branches of the tourism activities. of tourism

Programme Objectives Programme Structure

The Certificate Programme in Tourism Studies has two Courses

The main objcctives of the programme are :

) to familiarise the leamers with various aspects of tourism

) imparting basic knowledge required for organising tourism 1. TS-1, Foundation Course in Tourism 8 Credits
servrces. 2. TS-2, Tourism Development: Products,
I opening career opportunities in tourism related areas Operations and Case Studies 8 Credits

I creating an awareness about tourism

A new concept of tourism phenomenon has been introduced in
the Fouldation Course in Tourism Studies.
The programme will be of use to those who

) are already employed, directly or indirectly in the Tourism For further details, contact the nearest IGNOU Reeional Centre.
the needs of the economy whose sub-strata has been formed by
skewed distribution of income and wealth.

Pof itical €c.on.,n^y of Secondly, the lag-models as envisaged by the Planning Commission
fall short of the task. Development is a discontinuous process with
jolts and starts at irregular intervals. The process unleashes certain
Tc.uAsn^ economic parameters which are proved effective after a lag. These
parameters should be interpreted within the social and political
context. Hence the failure of the lag models.

Thirdly, the confusion in the demand vector is a reflection of the

confusion abbut the objectives of planned development itself. The
he national perspective on tourism is determined within demand for intermediate goods gets itself transformed into the
the context of its political economy. In India, given the demand for consumption goods. Tourism can be studied as a
existing politico-economic framework, it becomes
specific case in this regard. To elaborate, tourism has been
imperative that the perspective of tourism be examined through the envisaged by our planners as a foreign exchange earner. It is the
looking glasses of planned economic development. Since the onseb smokeless industry which would ensure maximum value added to
of the First Five Year PIan, the Planning Commission have been the given amount of investment. Thus the ultimate demand for
attempting at modifying and perfecting the techniques of building tourism infrastructure and facilities is to create an envrronmenr
up consistent and sound plan models. The simple two-sector model conducive to increase the inflow of foreign tourists into India. This
has now been expanded to include all the major sectors of the would increase our foreign exchange earnings, our value- added
economy. The final demand vector has been so envisaged as to and our net foreign exchange reseryes. Thus, the "demand for
include four types of demand, namely, demand for consumption, tourism", (if we may label it so), is a derived demand. Theincreased
^ demand for exports, demand for investment and demand for earnings are to be utilised for further investments in our quest for
intermediate goods. The investment scheme is then designed to the greatest good for the greatest number.
provide for the production of goods and services necessary to meet
the basket of final demand- However, in the final analysis, tourism demand is confused for an
ultimate demand. Our plan documents labour on how to increase
Developmerrt dialogue, in its enthusiasm to formulate a critique of the inflow of foreign travelers into India and how to increase their
the dominant development models, often tends to oversimplify. The average days of stay from29 days or so. Thus, modes of investment
prevalent assumpfion that the Government is homogeneous and all are trained to suit the needs of these travelers. New centres of
its policies are formula ted to benefit only a section of the popula tion cultural heritage are found out and investment flows targeted to
illustrates such an attitude. In reality, the political economy is being make them "tourable". New marketing ideas are developed to lure
governed by an amorphous Leviathan, which also comprises of the foreign travelers. Tribals and aborigines are thror,r'n out of their
personalities and attitudes which are trying to be sensitive to the natural habitat and these places developed as national parks.
needs of a growing society. Policy changes initiated by such forces Foreign collaborators are invited to design the centres of tourism
normally do not get the publicity they deserve. The inherent after their ideals : because ultimately they are the ones who pay
aclaptability of our plan models to changing socio-economic them. ln a way, enough investment is deployed so as to create
realities is one such initiative, which is in-built in our approach to conditions for the Developed West to regress into the cool confines
planned economic development. of the Savage East.

Thus, implicitly, the consistency models developed by our planners This entire process, throws the ideal of Pareto optimality to the
take care of institutional, structural and demogt'aphic variables that winds. The inter-generational parity is sacrificed through regular
are at play, In addition, the models are also updated and fine-tuned degradation of environment. The stratifiecl output pattern
so as to meet changing needs of a growing society. However, we discriminates against the poor and the weaker sections. On the
should not loose sight of an aPParent contradiction within the whole, final demand of the foreigners is confused for the final
dominant model of planned economic growth. This relates to the demand of the nation. This strategic confusion is at the root of the
eventual confusion and inter-meshing of the various types of political economy of tourism. Colonialism provided the basic
demand that form part of the final demand vector. We need to archetype of the Centre-periphery relationships. Neo- colonialism
discuss this aspect in more detail. perpetuates the tendency of the Centralised sub- systems growing
at the expense of the peripheries. This is exemplified not only at the
The ultimate goal of our plarrned approach to economic international level, whercin the advanced courrtries thrust
developnrent is to raise the standard of living of our entire demeaning treaties and sanctions like the GATT and Super 301, but
population. ln tlre process, all transient objectives become also at tlre national and local levels. Thr-rs the tour operaters at New
subsidiary to the Lrltimate goal. It implies that planning should aim Delhi define the fate of "cultural" tourist suots all over lndia. The
at (1) satisfying the consumption needs of the nation and (2) National Network beams the extent to which our flora and fauna is
providing the delively mechanism so that greatest good of the still virgin at selected places. The rich and the famous in the Centre
greatest number is achieved. ur-rdertake their glorious retreats at these places of tourist interest,
enslaving the periphery in the process.
In a stratified society like lnclia, the structure of demand is not only
diversified but also stratified. This has resulted in simultaneous As a departure, the concems of planning should shift to the output
demand for wage goods on the one hand and luxury goods on the of wage goods and smoothening the effects of fiscal management.
other. The final demand vector refuses to take notice of the stratified Tourism demand should be formulated as to involve the needs and
structure of our demand. As a result, the demand for consumption aspirations of domestic tourists. Nevertheless, care should be taken
goods, as projected by the Planning Commission, fails to cater for to see that inter-generational parity is not sacrificed. I
panacea for unemployment and underdevelopment. The
arnpai ns govemment is trying to silence the dissenting voices using all the
propaganda machineries in their hands. This created an
impression that the entire people of Kasaragod district are
wholeheartedly welcoming the Bakel Tourism project.

The team interviewed about a hundred people during the period.

Among them there were fishermen, fishmongers, religious lreads,
students, social workers, journalists, advocates, teachers, political
party members, farmers, govemment employees and business
men of all sorts.

When the team met the fishermen on the Bakel beach, they were
busy in repairing their fishing nets. As the sea was rough since last

Bakel: couple of days, they could not catch any fish. But they said this
is the only area in the entire coast from Payyanur to Kurnbla, where

People Begin to Question the they could fish during the rough monsoon days. Fisherfolk from
all these places reach Bakel bay with their country fishing
Wisdom of Deuelopers vessels.There will be hundreds of such country vessels from
different parts of the Malabar coast. Each vessel employs more
than ten people.

This means thousands of fisherfolk are finding their livelihood in ^

tenm representing peoples' action groups of Kerala, conryrising Bakel bay during the rough days. As soon as the catch arrives
of A Mohan Kunnr - CISEC, Rony loseplr - INFACT, P M thousands of other people including women and children gather in
Bnlakrislmnn -NAUAYANAM uisited Bakel, the proltosed Rs the beach who are living by other fishing related employments. A
1-000 crore tourisnt p ro jact nren, in Kasargod District of Kerala betuem roughestimate show that aboutsix thousand people are surviving
lily 12 -'14, 1.994. Thcteanrnut across-sectionof pcople from anrious on a narrow two kilometer stretch of sea coast.
pnrts of Knsnrgod district to understand the issues raised by peoples'
groulls .ot1
tlrc nuclt tnlkcd-abottt nrega-tourism project. The fisherfolks said that they have no objection against tourism or
whatever activity coming inside the Bakel Fort. People are free to
Bakel came on to the map of the tourism industry, because of the visitanyplace they wish tosee. Butwhen the question of themega
old laterite stone fort constructed by the 17th century ruler project comes, they said, if somebody tries to take away their
Sivappa Naikkan o[ Badanoor, of the Ikkery dynasty. This 39 acre traditional fishing land, they will fight to protect their rights. We
hillock is a projection of the mainland into the Arabian sea. The mayhavetofight against the local police or themorepowerful
bay, south of the Fort, seems to be calm, even during the Monsoon.
military, but we are prepared to do it if necessary.
The narrow beach, west of the Shornur-Mangalore railway line, is
They say if the authorities are going to acquire our fishing land they
busy with fishing activities.
could build resortsorstarhotels ouly over our deadbodies. Let
the authorities make their plans of any crores of rupees, but they
Hundreds of fishing boats are lined up on the beach. Fishermen could not give us an altemative employment , simply because we
are busy repairing their huge fishnets. Many trucks are waiting know only fishing. Fishing is a respectful way of life for the sons
with ice blocks on the shore. Since the sea is rough for the last and daughters of the seacoast and we do not want to become
couple of days, all other fishing related works are on a stand still beggars, plate-washers, drug-peddlers and sex workers. -
except the repairing of fishing equipments. Only a week ago the
people of Pallikkara Panchayat experienced the might of the rough
Sulaiman is a businessman engaged in fish sale. He was standing
sea, when three fisherfolk drowned while they were returning to
the shore.
near the trucks waiting with ice blocks. His father, a well
travelled person, was also there. Sulaiman, his father and the
group of fifteen people assembled there expressed their objection to
A few people from N. M. Salim & Associates of Calicut, the the mega project. Sulaiman said "Bakel Fort is a historical
architect who won the contract to make the Bakel Tourism plan monument and it should be protected from any destructions. Any
for Rs.67lakhs, are busy in the rain soaked morning. The people of one wants to visit this place should be free to visit the fort and its
the small township of Pallikkara are like any other north Malabar surroundings but they should not infringe the life of the people
town. Most of the young men are trying their fortunes in the living here for centuries".
Arabian Gulf countries. Some arehereon their annual leave. The
younger boys are waiting to get visas to go to Gulf countries. Sulaiman's fathet who is in his seventies, said "the plan to make
Bakel a commercial tourists centre is a mad idea. Thousands of
The euphoria built through the media in Kerala around Bakel people including fisherfolks, farmers and agricultural labourers
Tourism, created an impression that commercial tourism will solve of Pallikkara andAjanoor Panchayatsare depending on Bakel bay
the problems of underdevelopment in the backward northern and the coastal farm lands for their survival. They catch fish,
districts of Kerala. The tourism department and the government cultivate rice and tobacco. Fisherfolk from far away places like
claim that the tourism' project will bring all-round prosperity to Marthandam and Nagercoil of Tamilnadu, Thiruvananthapuram,
this backward' region. The political leadership of all colours, also Kollam, Alapuzha etc. are coming here after the monsoon. We,
hold the view that the proposed international tourism project is a both Hindus and Muslims are faithful believers. We have our own
cultural practices- We have temples and mosques and during the
festivities we all co-operate. Butwe do not want to see the scarcely
clothed bodies of 'madams' and 'sayips' (white women and men)
lyinginbikinisonourshores. It isnotpossible tokeep ourpeople
away from the beach which is their common property to be used
for fishing, res t and pl ay. The presence of large number of'clotheless
people' on the beach will create a lot of problems. Now we are
happy and are proud of our community. We do not want to
disfigure it".

Another man in his mid forties who was standing there said : "We
have no other work, except fishing and the related. Each country
craft will be carrying an average of ten people. Hundreds of crafts
are here. Our women folks and even children find a livelihood Prime Minister of India. But none of them responded till date. He
through selling fish to the local people in and around Bakel". said "I am not going to sit idle. I will continue my work, especially
among the youths of the community to create awareness about the
We met a group of boys who came there in search of fish. Th"y issues connected to the proposed mega tourism project of the
said "we don't know anything about the tourism project. We are government".
happy to play on the crystal clear sand here. This is our beach. Our
parents also grew up on this beach. Our grand parents and great We met a lot of youngsters like Sali, of Haddad Nagar, who took
grand parents also played and worked here. The sea, sand and the us to Shukkoor, Vinod and many young men. All of them are eager
fort arehere foryearsand years anditisours". They don't know to know much about the proposed project. But what they got from
what is going on behind the scene, far away at New Delhi, the District Tourism Promotion Council (DTPC) is some vague
Washington or Tiivandrum, to deprive them their natural right to statements.
learn from uature, by feeling the breeze and roar of the sea, by
feeling the fresh smell of sprinkling sea water, the shades of the
So we decided to meet B.K.Abdullah Master who is the president of
coconut groves, the meeting of rivulet and the bay, the quench
Pallikkara Panchayat and one of the active members of the
shells, the movements of vigilant, colourful row of crabs, the flying
Kasaragode District Tourism Promotion Council. We waited for
seagulls .... their foocl, their beach and their future and sel f respect.
There were rnany people engaged in fishing without wetting their
him in his petrol bunk in Pallikara Bazaar. Meanwhile we
happened to meet Ratheesh Kumar who is in the travel and
feet, by using hooks. Some fishermen are catching fish with their
tourism business during the last five years. He said, he supports
small fishnets, throwing the net with the receding waves and
the Bakel Tourism project whole-heartedly because it will help the
catching the few fish from the return waves.
all-round development of Kasaragode District. There will be
wider highways, an aerodrome, a golf course, swimming pool and
A lone young man who was standing on the steps at the northern star hotels. Naturally these developmental activities will increase
side of the fort showed us the spot where a bride drowned last the employment opportunities of local youths. But he had no
year, while the videographer was engaged in directing the action answers regarding the issues related with the displacement of
scenes for the newly married couple. He said the sea here is very fisher folks and farming community.
dangerous. If one falls nobody could save them as the under
cul'rents are very strong. B.K.Abdullah Master is one of the known supporters of the Tourism
Project. He belong to the Muslim League (lUMlJndian Union
C.H.Abdullah Musliar is the Khazi of Pallikkara who heads the Muslim League), a parfner in the coalition ministry lead by
seventeen Juma-Aths of nearby areas. He took the initiative to Congress (l), now governing the state of Kerala. He said: "Look,
form an association of Moulavis called "Pallikkara Juma-Ath Bakel is not different from any otherbeach of Kerala except the Fort.
Ulaima". He said: "We are not against the people's right to travel. Nobody was interested in thisbeach except the local people and
In fact throughout history you can see the records of travel by the occasional visitors. Some foreign traveler mentioned about
great Islamic teachers. We love to visit various places as part of Bakel in one of his articles. During the time of Madhav Rao
learning. Pilgrims are travelers in search of spiritual fulfilment. ftindia astheUnionTourism ministel he showedinterest in this
But what we learned about Bakel project is not of this kind. It is project because of his relationship with K. Karunakaran, the
nothing but commercialisation and exploitation of the age old present Chief Minister of Kerala". Abdullah Master believe that
travelers quests for new experiences and search for knowledge. the project will bring some kind of prosperitl, to the backward
district, but he is not aware about the iiu'tails of the mega project.
"This so- called 'Thousand Crores Project' is not development of But he is sure that the project will not affect the fisherfolk. He said
our district; it is an attempt to destroy what is remaining here. If "though the promoters think that they can develop swimming
this project comes, it will not only affect the fisherfolk and the facilities in Bakel beach, as far as I know Bakel Bay is a dangerous
farming community, but also the entire population. We have lots place to swim. The under current is so powerful to draw objects
of evidence with us, that, wherever there is commercial tourism away from the shore. Even experienced fisherfolk face difficulty to
projects, whether it is in Goa, Kovalam or in Thailand, instead of swim to the shore when their boats capsize". He mentioned about
raising the standard of living of the local people, i t grabs everything the death of some sea-bathers in the past. It was difficult to get even
from them and returns all the filth to them. The youngsters will the dead body of the victims because of the unpredictable nature
become drug addicts and traffickers. Drug abuse and flesh trade of the sea currents.
will increase the threat of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS".
He told us that infact he had informed his community's protests will of course affect the tobacco cultivators
He beleives the project
against the project by sending letters to the local MLA and to the and the workers involved in it. There are about 6000 people
Look beyond rhe Consrnl
Shirlqr Susan

EQUATIONS an active member of the East Coast Road(ECR)

campaign Committee (East Coast Road Action Committee -
ECRAC) has been keenly following the progress of the
engaged in tobacco cultivation in the beach sands". But he suggests campaign against the East Coast Road. The project faced
an alternative employment scheme for them. When the tourism severe opposition from NGO's and individuals from the very
project takes foothold, there will be a splendid opportunity for beginning. People involved in the campaign demanded
handicrafts. The labourers involved in tobacco cultivation and rationalisation of the project orr the basis of common sense,
paddy culfivation can be trained in to craftsmen; women could be economic viability and environmental impacts.
trained to make handicrafts.
In the latest development, the Asian Development Bank has
He admitted that cultural pollution, drug menace and related decided to review the whole ECR project including the
issues will increase as the side effects of the tourism project. He environmental issues. The Tamil Nadu Government has
said: " Even without tourism our youngsters are involved in drug finally relented to accept all the conditions laid down by the
abuse and crimes and their number is increasing dayby day". Ministry of Environment and Forests(MEF). MEF was
broughtinto picture after protests from NGOs. Outof 160kms
(from Madras to Cuddalore) roughly 80 kms (from Madras to
In Kanhangad, the nearest major town to Bakel, there are many
Mahabalipuram and Marakanam to Cuddalore) is already
people who are suspicious about the project. Adv Jayarajan,
having 7 metres width and it is not going to be widened
Aravindan Manikoth (Editor of a local daily), Santhosh Panayal
further but only strengthened.
and many more share the fears expressed by most people.
For the second phase from Cuddalore to Kanyakumari, the
So far, protest against the Bekal mega-tourism project was Tamil Nadu Government hopes to get the Environmental
individual centred and fragmented though spread over the Impact Assessment done by an expert under the guidance of
Kasargod district. All those involved in these sporadic protests over the Ministry of Environment and Forests and thereafte'r will
the last two years now realised the limitations of their fragmented seek the clearance.
struggle. Many people of Bakel, Pallikkara villages and
Kanhangad town suggested that it is time for a collective and EQUATIONS will be conducting a feasibility study on beh.rlf
united action by all people who are willing to participate in the of the E( i<AC in early I995. Prececling this stucly, a
struggle against the menace which will descend on Bekal through sun'ey at Cherrgal pe t, Pondicherry and Madras
prel i minar'y'
the mega tourism project. A joint action plan to fight the mega- wats undertakcrr
tourism menace at local, state, national and international level
should be formulated and implemented by using various possible The sun ey included identification and definirrg the kind of
strategies. tourism projects likely to come up and iderrtification of
contact groups/collaborators at the different places for tlreir
Our assessment is that the majority of the people, except a few input in the final study. Spot studies in areas between Maclras
political party leaders, are against the Bakel Tourism Development and Pondicl.rerry was undertaken. \A'c noticed a lot of
Plan. I hoardings and boards advertising upcorning resorts. On
visiting a few of these, we noticed that tlre proposed locations
are on the shoreline and actual building of these resolts had
not vet started. The dcvcloper's advertiser-l facilities like
water sports, private cottages/hotels, golf courses etc.
Stretches of the roati has bt'en laic-i. Very often the constructiorr
Cnr ncAL, lsslres rN lNDtAl .\ SoctEt y of the roacl has been stoppecl abruutly rvhcn it crosses a
settlement, waterbody, temple etc. Culverts are constructed
includes Rajni Kothari on Politics, Jaya ti Ghosh on the Economy, but slopes have not been checked. Consequently most of them
D L Seth & Harsh Sethi on Human Rights, G P Deshpande on don't work!
Culture and Lawrence Sulendra on Natural Resources
Discussions and meetings were held with I'arious
Published by Earthworm Books, 17 Kutchery Road, Madras 4 groups,/people, out of which a lot of suggestions emerged.
EQUATIONS is now considering the formation of a literature
Pre-publication orders will receive discounts. base and also a network builclup with other groups/
Release date Dec 6 organisations.
D> F>cd,4,Y Peate -
Hiooy, Clil4 -
lilelestet and
Ccx l4nri,ac? Dessiet
Nstt fryellafte

Peats vs.The People: Limits of the Law?


April 1991, marked the arrest of Dr Freddy Peats on charges of child tourism), three years after his first arrest, Peats was once again
molestation and sex abuse. \A/hat shocked the Goans was the fact arrested on demand by Jagrut Goenkaranchi Fauz, a local activist
that Peats had masqueraded as a conscientious citizen whose chief group along with a few other protesting groups and us the team
of EQUATIONS, who attended the filing of charge sheet - against
concern was for the orphans he housed in his "orphanag,e". For 17
Peats at the Margoa District & Sessions Court. Peats is at large on
years Peats lured street children - mainly boys in the ages of 6-16,
bail during the last three years.
to his shelter by offering them food and clothing.

Freddy Peats, an Anglo tndian whose origins were from the On his way out of the court premises , the protesters were holding
metropolis of Calcutta came to Goa in the 70's. Some newspapers banners, screaming for his re-arrest and cancellation of bail. The
termed himas a'hippie'of the 1960s. ToGoa's close knitcommunity protesters, mainly women. surrounded him and questioned Peats.
the 60 year old Peats represented an upright man with a conscience. Peats arrogantly made jokes at the protestors even though he was
Ilis aim to provide children of broken homes, delinquent youth and encircled by a large number of women shouting for his re-arrest.
orphans with a home was vastly appreciated. Fron1974 to 1991 Several of the women were visibly moved to tears and angry
Peats ran his "orphanage" with funds received from organisations retributions followed. He started abusing the protestors and tried
abroad. to escape by pushing the women aside. They clawed at his clothes
and dragged him back to the circle formed by women which in the
As the case unravelled, new ugly facts were thrown to light.
process reached the center of the road (National Highway-47)
Thousands of pornographic photographs of Peats along'with his
blocking all traffic. The villainous Peats was unfazed. He faced the
young wards in various acts of sex were found in the apartment.
Also found were huge quantities of French drugs and plastic mob with an air of non- chalance, which further infuriated them.
syringes bringing a new twist to the sordid tale. It was later Police intervention was what saved Peats' skin from a public united
confirmed that Peats used to inject his boys with these drugs to get in their efforts to get justice for the children who became victims ol
them to be more sexually active. He used to click photographs of this evil man's heinous sex crimes.
the chiidren, close ups of their sex organs including pictures of
himself in various homosexual acts and majl them to foreign As a witness to the entire protest march, at that instant I could feel
magazlnes. the depth of his carnal misdemeanor. How many children had he
Whatgavestrength to his activities was the fact thatnoneof theboys scarred for life? How many more children would fall prey to his
he looked after had anyone or anywhere to go to when confronted wicked ways? Where was justice? An arrest three years ago, an
with his sexual orgies. So the children had no other choice but to unending series of hearings and a long delayed verdict were only
go along with his scheme. Visits by an unusual number of stalling time. Peats, in the three years that had passed, had
foreigrrers raised suspicion. Eye witnesses claim that at any time exploited more children, destroyed their innocence and devastated
about 2540 boys used to stay with him before being replaced by a their lives forever.
new set of boys. Evidence revealed that these children were sold to
sex tourists from countries in the West.
What next? How many more protests would it take to end this
sordid tale of sex and sleaze? How many more children would have
The Present: Peats in the Court of People to be sacrificed on the bloody rock of sex tourism? Could any
suffering if ever inflicted on Peats be any measure of compensation
On 27 Septemb et 1994 (Wcrld Tourism Day, observed as World Tour to his victims or their families? How long will it take for the balance
ism Protest Dav bv activists who demand a humane form of to tilt in favour of justice???
Whose God? is terra nullis-no man's (humans) land. No humans'land belong to
the self-declared gods-the powerful, the elites, the rulers,the rich,

Who is God? the old rajas and the new rajas. ls the 38,863 sq.km lying at the
southern tip of the Indian sub-continent is terra nullis? Those who

Whose Country?
govern this stretch of earth's surface are in fact declaring through
"God's own country" advertisement that it is 'terra-nullis'. The
government of Kerala is violating my rights as a person belonging
to this part of earth by declaring it as a no humans land.
Terra nullis is a politico-legal principle introduced by the white
Eor, in their heart of hearts, Malayalis knozn that if there is one invaders, 500 years ago, to annex alien territories. Those lands in
thing surely lacking in God's Own Country, it is goodness. which they failed to see people or reluctant to recognise native
people as people, they declared it as 6;od's own country. Terra nullis
"Basheer And God's Ozpn Country" states that such god's own country belong to the crown who first
Paul Zachaia,in Indian Reaieut of Books Vol.3 No.77 took hold of it.

Yes. Goodness is clearly lacking in Kerala. It can be witnessed in It is interesting to note that such an annexation which took place in
every aspect of life i.n the so-called "God's Own Country." Australia 300 years ago was recently challenged by the Torres Shait
Goodness means a lot of things, including clear headedness. This Islanders. The Australian High Court (the highest court in
is one quality which is totally absent in those who govem the God's Australia) in its strongly worded judgment reinstated Torres Strait
own country. I wonder whether the'high priests'of the God's own Islanders' right to decision making over their land whjch was
country are trained to be unreasonable in everything they do. annexed on the basis of terra nullis by the British crown in late 18th
Westoxifixation has become an epidemic in Kerala, spread by the century. This decision of 1992, in fact, is sufficient to establish
government and the mainstream media. It is curious that the fully aboriginal nationality.
literate has become mere 'clogs', allowing themselves to undergo Acquisition of land for tourism developmen t by the government of
the inhuman 'manufacturing of consent' to all the unreasonable Kerala with the help of thearchaic Land AcquisitionActraisesmany
rituals invented by the high priests and spread by the mainstream questions in the context of the "god's own country" rhetoric
articulated by the goVemment. Tl"ris should be examined in the light
of the much-trumpeted decentralisation of decision making. The
Selling'demonic' dreams decision to make Bakel an 'exclusive' tourism area was not made by
people of Bakel nor by the Bakel Panchayat, nor by the State
"God's own country." The government of Kerala declares in governmentbutby theCentral govemment. This is another method
multiple colours. Yes or no is not the issue. The'priests of progress' of the applica tion of 'terra nullis' in the name of the dubious 'public
are busy selling demonic dreams to the people of Kerala in the name
purpose.' Acquiring land in the name of public purpose and
of progress. Tl.rey are assisted by those demons who mastered the handing over it to MNC'S and local profiteers can't be justified,
artof sucking people's blood and resources tobecome the new gods. especially when the 'republic of individual choice' was imposed Lry
lf the presen t policies of tourism developrnent are implemented in privatisation, liberalisation and globalisation. Tlre 'republic of
total, Kerala rvill wihress a real metamorphosis-God's own country choice'is not an exclusive right of the MNCs, elites and those who
will becorle dog's and devil's own country within ten years. Those nest at New Delhi and waste taxpayers corrtributions by chulning
who have doubts about this can go to Kovalam, a few kilometers out plans to displace and destroy people. The people of Bakel
away from the place where these 'priests of progress' regularly do should rrot be displaced to satisfy the profit-gleed and
their rituals. Those who need more telling examples can enquire pleasure-greed of a few domestic and foreign elites an d MNC's. The
about Thailand, Bali or Canarese tsland. Thailand was the god's people of Bakel should be given tlre opportunity to have a 'studied
own country ten years ago. Now it is the AIDS-own country. choice' about the variety and extent of tourism to be prornoted in
Recentlli the government of Kerala started inviting 'women of Bakel.They have the right for such a choice in the'republic of
substance' to god's own country. The advertisement speaks anti- choice'now promoted through privatisation, liberalisation and
etl r-ra ity i n volumes. The backside of a "well proportioned" woman
in saffron saree, a low necked saffron blouse and an umbrel.la in a
typical Kerala scenary is tlre visual. The facelessness of the woman "God's Own Country" and the Indian Constitution
irr thc' visual (remember, the Choli Ke Peeche Kyu FIai
aclvcrtisements) clearly communicates thatwomen are merely their The Constitution of India does not allow god as a syrnbol for
well-;rroportioned bodies. This is an outright violation of the governrrental activity. Violation of this principle abound in our
consti tu tiona I dicta te concerniug gender equality. polity' today. "God'sown country" adsby the governmentof Kerala
is one among thcrn. It may not be taken note of in a country whele
believer's oitcrings to gods are flowing to state coffers!
Post-modern reading of "God's Own Country"
Is the government of Kelala empowered to reirrforce god through
Advertisement slogans and" development journalism" act as the authoritative statements? " No" is the answer, i.e. the government
new weapons to manufacture consent. This is a post-modern war of Kerala is outrightly violating the constitution because 'god' is
fare; people are subjugated by words instead oI swords. Therefore, somebody's god in the presen t era; there is no seculal god in sigh t.
this new warfare should be analysed with the same tools which are Therefore, God's own country definitely refers to somebody's god.
used for the warfare-language and symbols. Who is that somebody? The government of Kerala should make it
God's country is anybody's country. Anybody's country is no
body's country. Nobody's country is god's country. God's country 7 Cotttinrrt'd on ltngc'13


ridges were the main dreams of the people of Vypeen, a The chief minister of Kerala stated that only 360 acres is marked for
small island lying close to the modern metropolis of reclamation but now plans are made for 1000 acres. This seems to
Kochi-Ernakulam, in Kerala, India, during the last 47 be like the proverbial arrow of Arjuna - authorities say 360 acres,
years. Vypeen is home for 2.65 lakh people and is 88 sq.km in size plans contain reclamation of 1000 acres, when it will be completed
(Density of population: 3011 /sq km). it may become 5000 acres.
We are happy to place the official plans for development of Vypeen
After half century of waiting for bridges the people of Vypeen are
in front of the wider public for debate and evaluation. This should
now awestruck because bridges will be built very soon. The
have been done by the authori ties who prepared it. But the so<alled
goverunent of Kerala and their 'development experts' are busy to
democratic authorities are guided by the principle,"there is no need
_'save Vypeen' as a delayed 'compensation' for the overt neglect of of asking the frogs while reclaiming the pond". Therefore, the
\e backyard of the Kochi metropolis during the last half a century
development plans prepared by a few 'expert bureaucrats' without
of 'progress of Kerala'.
consulting the people of Vypeen are now hailed by the politicians.
This is mockery of democracy conducted by the 'representatives of
The plan for 'development' of the 88 sq km is ready after much people'.
deliberations by the 'experts'. During all these deliberations and
through the media the 'experts' promised that the dreams of the Is it not necessary that people should be prepared in advance to
people of Vypeen will become a reality soon. But now the 'Vypeen swallow the 'milk and honey' which will flow through the proposed
Development Plan', in black and white, gives a 'lot more than development? Development falling like a cloud-burst may not be
bridges'! a great thing to wait for.

Those who repeat rhetorics like " peoples participation in all

"Vypeen willbecome a better metropolis than Kochi" says the political process" should have cared to place the development plan
'experts' and those who made them in to experts. Yes, the report also in front of the people who will or will not benefit by it. It didn't
contain what will become of Vypeen in the near future. But the happen in the case of Vypeen development plan. Therefore, we, the
report is not clear about what future awaits the people of Vypeen, people of Vypeen decided to place the plans before the general
especially the poor majority. Along with bridges, the Vypeen public for debate and evaluation.
'development' plan contains a number of tourism enclaves,
There maybe good and bad in the development plan. Let all the
business centres for multinational companies, housing colonies for
people read and evaluate it. We can accept those good things if all
high income groups, golf courses, star hotels and all the
the people think that it is good. We can reject those things which
paraphernalia appended to such development. Where they are
are identified as bad. We can demand additions if there arb
- going to build all these? Apart from the 88 sq kms on which 2.65
deficiencies. For a full copy of the official Vypeen Development
lakh people are living, they are looking towards the vast and
"wasteful" expans€ of the Kochi Lake. The 'experts'even declared Report and all communications should be addressed to facob
Vadakkancheri, General Conomer, Self-Reliant Vypean,
the lake as a 'public nuisance' to be cleared to the extent of more
than 1000 acres to 'develop'Vypeen.
Malippuram 682517 Emakulam Distict,Kerala. I

rl i.iiiiiiri tit I rl,l.rrrliiiiiiiir

iii .;,ilrlifilil;ilill ti

The National Action Plan for Tourism (NAPT) violates the

constitutional postulates concerning division of powers and
decision making. God's own country rhetoric and NAPT should be
God's Own Country and Political exclusion
seen as part of a hegemonic homogenising process which serves the
pleasure and profit needs of the global and domestic elites. The new
"God's Own Country" cafiy a clear political exclusion. The "no
tourism policies are only one aspect of the new variety of profit
people" idea (terra nullis) inherent in this slogan is sufficient to
ashwamedha conducted by global cow-boys (MNC's) and their local
make me and the millions of Kerala into "stateless" people-a new
variety of ref ugees wi thin their own environs. The people of Kerala
will become the periphery which serves the pleasure needs of the
center-the domestic rich and the foreign tourists-if the present Should we become the new //sepoys, cooks, gate-keepers" serving
tourism policies are implemenied in total. the needs of the new generation of the old colonialists? I
Rs.604.5 crore in 7992-93 and an estimated RS. 1,000 crore in the
current year, thus sharply cutting into the market of the country's
I infernational carrier, Air India.
{ 1\ The seat capacity in the four airlines have seen a substantial iump
.i\ over the past few years, after they had signed bilateral agreement
/ with the Indian carriers. Seats available in all the airlines including
Air India, both outbound and inbound, were estimated to be 18
? /\^ million of which 11 million were operational.

Of this market share, while Air India had 2.6 million seats, the
remaining outbound and inbound traffic was shared by these four
foreign airliners.

Tourism officials and experts put the number of tourist arnvals in

the country between 1.2 and 1.3 million a yea\ with the traffic
dwindling or showing upswing according to political and security
environment in the country-

Partially as a result of such powerful lobbying and partly tempted

by illusions of higher tourism earnings, the government decided to
bringinamoreliberalregimein the aviation sector. Though India
still does not have a completely open sky policy, major airlines
Forex were allowed to increase tireir operations in and ort of ih" .n.tntr. -
"It was however made out that the guiding principle behind this
move was the objective of increasing tourism," says a former senior
official of the civil aviation ministry who was closely involved in
the policy formulations leading to these changes. He adds: "Even
at that time many people did not buy this argument".

This has caused much consternation all round and has lent
credence to the argument that despite generous increases in airline
capacity, international airline maiors have either eaten into the
hile national carriers, Indian Airlines (IA) and Air India expatriate Indian traffic or cornered traffic from a third country
(Al), witnessed a bad financial year during 7993-94, without any relative rise in actual tourists frorn their country.
foreign airlines made a killing in the Indian sector.
But as the retired official points: "This is a natural consequence
Four top foreign airlines have generated and repatriated over of liberalisationandcompetition. h'r a situation of openness some
Rs.2,000 crore from operations in lndia during the last tl.rree years, airlines are going to dominate over others and these airlines will
taking advantage of the liberalisation policy. obviously earn more. And it can nevel be the job of airlines to
promote tourism. Atbest they can ensure that seat capacity does
The repatriation of such huge sums of foreign exchange does not not act as a constraint on the growth of tourism."
in any way match the growth of foreign tourists into the country,
according to aviation sources, thus putting a big question mark Civil aviation officials who had carried out a randorn survey of
over these foreign exchange dealings.
embarkation cards/ disembarkation cards said 80 per cent of the
travellers into and out of India were mainly ethnic Indians with
The repatriation amount represented more than 55 per cent of the foreign passports, non-resident Indians and few foreign tourists. I
total revenue earned by foreign airlines last year.
El{Hb wc$,,oE'eongrcrs uns di*i
Four top foreign airlines, British Airways, Lufthansa, 1991-92 7992-93 1993-94
Singapore Airlines & the Dutch Airlines KLM, Figures in Rs Crore Reverttre Strrplus Revenue Strrplus Revenue Strrplr-rs
generated a combined revenue of over Rs. 776.26
crore in the year 1991-92, Rs.1,036 ctores in 1992-93
British Airways 249.89 87.75 318.72 33.86 356 166

and an estimated revenue of Rs.7,220 crore during Ltrfthansa 293.36 204.43 372.78 261.70 355 236
the current year. SIA 153.36 95.15 230.18 46.20 275 179
KLM 78.65 43.38 114.76 62.29 240 i38
In fact, Reserve Bank of India statistics further
reveafed that the 1993-94 revenue earnings of these 776.26 430.77 1,036.44 604.05 1,220 719

four foreign airlines registered about 8 per cent All foreign Carries 3,524 1,940
increase in revenue as compared to the previous
Sources : PTI, 8 August 1994
After meeting their expenses within the country, the Rakesh Khat EconomicTimes, 8 August L994
four airlines repatriated Rs.431.71 crore in 1997-92, Kingshuk Nag-The
fi Kalyan Kar Times of lndia, 74 Augtrst L994
A Report of the Panel Discussion on

Tourism, Environment and Development

organised by the India International Centre, September 5, 1994,

Nina Rao

Pnrticipnnts: B D Goswanri (ex D G Tourisnr), Allen Stein (architect), -reflecting policy ii) Development- implementation of projects. He
Ribcrio (Director School of Plnnnhtg Arclitcchn'e), Ms Kanmla Chaudhry felt that inbound tourism was overplanned and given too much
(llC Enaironnrcnt groul-t), K T Suresh nnd Veernraglnann (cx-Culture policy emphasis and domestic tourism was underestimated and not
Sccretary ) catered for. He advocated a holistic plan in the use of land, space
and structure, to establish a framework which would resolve the
Kamala Chaudhry chaired the discussior.r. She contextualised conflicts between tourism, the environment and the developmental
Tourism by asking if it was worthwhile in terms of money, culture, needs which were not only economic.
values and the destruction of a way of life-
Kamala Chaudhry felt that there were too many agencies involved
Goswami identified Tourism as the generator of jobs and foreign in tourism projects, therefore we cant have a holistic plan.
exchange. "One of the three largest industries after armaments and
oil". He claimed that India was a "late starter" in realising the value The EQUATIONS'position reiterated by Suresh was largely drawn
of a "global village" and was appreciative of the open skies policy for the Editorial of this issue.
--qnd liberalisation of the economy, because Tourism had a high
2otential to generate employment. However he cautioned against In the lively discussion that followed the presentations Narayani
those Asian countries that had plunged into Tourism promotion Gupta wanted Tourist literature to include a code of conduct for the
wi th disastrous consequences. He was alsocritical of "the obsession tourist and wanted a stop to monuments being used as a "back
with numbers" and felt thatwe were settingimpossible targets. He drop" for tourism. Sudhir Sahi (Mountain Foundation) wanted
postulated an approach based on selective destinations and high greater interaction between NGO's and policy makers so that we
spenders, because "low spenders are a liability". He pleaded for a could all speak the "same language'.
resistance against tlre temptation to develop all places - "let the
wilderness remain wild". Beach and mountain tourism should not Priya Prakash was critical of the Department of Tourism's emphasis
violate norms of efivironmentalists. He quoted the US example of on funding hotels and wanted specific plans for specific areas, and
Adventure work ol Special Interest with experts where 9 million wanted the local events and habits, customs and crafts to be the
tourists went as volunteers, under a "pay as you enjoy" scheme. focus of regional planning. M C Verma (ICRIER) talked of
Goswami, who had played a role in shifting the emphasis of the incentives/disincentives in the context of liberalisation. He wanted
Tourism policy, now wanted Indian tourism to model itself on the "polluter to pay". All assets could be valued and control and
Bhutan rather than Nepal and demanded a code of ethics for tour command instruments could be used to ensure conservation. He
operators. He was appreciative of the "rugged traveller" for being saw the Eco tourist as a "watch dog". He felt that a "different" type
eco friendly and was against "indiscriminate" promotion. of tourism could be "clean".

Veeraraghavan posed the question: can we have benefits without Kaul (author of 900 page Tourism text) blamed the domestic tourist
negative factors? He felt that the orientation of Tourism policy for pollution. Madhu Bajpai (Conservation Society of India) asked
should be to minimise ihe negative impacts. To avoid pressure on for the system of the West to save the environment make the
monuments, to avoid "modelnisation" of tribals and tourist work.
"trivialization" of arts and artefacts, the solution was careful
planning. Tourism should cross subsidise "unpopular" art. He Prof. Menon asked if the benefits of tourism weren't too
wanted lndia to be representated in "serious"'journalism, like the exaggerated. He wanted to know if there were any reliable studies
National Geographic. Since there was no alternative to on Net Foreign Exchange earned and the income that flows to the
globalisation of the economy he wanted an approach that would local pmple. Does tourism really look out for National interest?
clarify our objectives, research them and define the price we were Goswami was at pains to defend the mainstream view, but
willing to pay. He was opposed to an imitation of Pattaya or Chang EQUATIONS pointed out that every vital piece of infornration was
Mai, and wanted India to determine the carrying capacity of its secret and no two agencies agreed on what was true e.g. Bekal. I
destina tions.

Stein was of the opinion that Switzerland, a much smaller area,

could carry many more tourists without a negative impact, on the
people or the environment than the Himalayas. Therefore he was
concerned with the direction of development or how economic
gror,r,th takes into account the "intrinsic" value of a society. As an
exarnple of such values, he cited the Ba'hai temple in Delhi as a
perfect and high quality tourist site.

Riberio felt that Tourism, Environment and Development were in

con fl ict. He saw Tourism being organised in two ways: i) Promotion

Imbroqlio ouer luxury hotels and Rs. 125 crore for the creation of infrastructure.
A sum of Rs. 564 was also earmarked for redeeming
environmental loss due to diversion of forest land.
Ofissd resort According to official sources, the project would have fetched the

continues... state over Rs 2,000 crore per annum. The state government now
claims that the modified plan would be executed with a total
infrastructural development cost of Rs 88 crore which would
ensure annual return of Rs 47 crore to the state exchequer. The
he Orissa government plans to go ahead with a revised revised beach project has been prepared in consultation with A S

Konark beach resort project. This plan has been mooted Ferguson Company Ltd.
even as a move by the Janata Dal [D) government to get Facilities like gol.f course. green land, garden, housing artisan
a resolution passed in the state assembly to dereserve the villages, school, hospital, bus terminus and market complex are
Balukhand-Konark wildlife sanctuary backfired when the Forest proposed to be created. These categories of hotels with a total of
minister, Mr A P Singh, was forced to withdraw the resolution 1,100 rooms are planned.
due to opposition by some ruling party members of Legislative
'Assembly (MLAs). What worries the officials is opposition to the denotification of the
sanctuary, which is spread over 72 square miles. "Though it has
Mr Singh did not move the resolution on the last day of the been notified as a wildlife sanctuary, it hardly has the features of
monsoon session saying that he would bring the resolution in a a sanctuary. This is a small project carved out from within the
modified manner in thenextsession. TheJD MLA, Mr RP Swain, special tourism area to be developed in phases spanning 10 years,"
said as the matter was still sub-judice, lhe government could not a senior official said.
move such a resolution
The latest information from Orissa says that the plans to denotify
the Balukhand sanctuary between Puri-Konark stretch has faller^
An ambitious beach resort project was planned on the Konark-Puri
through as the infighting amoungst the legislators prevented the
marine drive over 2,227 acres of forest land. Faced with stiff proposal from being tabled for discussion at this session of the
opposition from the greens, the union environment ministry and Assembly. As reported earlier, the dereservafion proposal was
even some forest department officials here, the state government
sought to be implemented by passing a resolution during this the
has now decided to dereserve 576.'1,2 acres for the development of
current assembly election.
what is called 'Phase-I of a Special Tourism Area'.

The tourism department had projected total investment to the tune Complied from Tlre Economic llmes 31 July, lndian Expres 29 September, Times of hdia,29

of Rs.862 crore, including Rs. 165 crore on the construction of 50 September 1994

0 Your Newsletter makes interesting reading. I see that you Here, we have a small farm, crafts training and production
present opinions of local people in tourism-intensive areas. The center. We have a guest room that we occasionally rent out, we
problems are clear. \A/hy don't you also discuss possible provide meals of the same kind that we eat to our visitors, for a
solutions with the same people? moderate fee. I think many villagers who'd like to be part the
'Hospitality Industry' could use this pattern. Let the five star
As I see it, the problem is not simply the presence of tourists, with hotels and their clientele, stick to the metropolitan cities. Big
their different values in culture, but that they are wooed with businesses should not be allowed into small places, but small
such lack of reservations for the sake of money. The first question businesses should ioin hands, network to maintain standards
to be asked of locals in tourist-intensive areas may be and get enough publicity and mobilise resources.
the tourists keep coming? If the answer is a plain "no", the
matter is simple enough, tourism should not be allowed there at Padma Rajagopal
all, that wouldbe thepurposeof acampaign. Butif theperceived 35, Maid anahalli, Mysore
problem is that tourists are getting the larger part of the "pie" -
water resources, space etc, yet are valuable sources of income,
0 I thank you very much for your ANletter (EQUATIONS
perhaps the answer would be to make the tourists understand Vol 3 - lssue 1)uIy 7994.1
quarterly on Third World Tourism)
that they should be careful with available resources that are -
have found the contents very meaningful and useful from
limited, and local people to provide modest services - boarding Environment view aspec ts.
and lodging at their homes, guides, tender coconut crafts for sale,
and let the government/tourism agencies merely regulate these
P V Doshi
services. Ultra modern and extra luxurious facilities should not Social Welfare Forum
be made available to tourists except in the big cities, so that Bombay
tourists "superiority" is not'bolstered.
Published by Equitable Tourism Options (EQUAilONS), 168, 8th Main Road, Behind Lrdiraragar Club, Bilgalore INDIA Phone: 080-5582313, Fax: 080-5582527 (Attn 020).
Telex: 08448500 CSCI IN (Attn 007), Cable: EQUAilONS BANGALORE, Design & Layout by Dhamraj Keezhara and Typesetting by Verba Network Service, 139, 8th Mair 12th Crcs,
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